Article

Introduction of a waste incineration tax: Effects on the Swedish waste flows

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Abstract

A tax on waste-to-energy incineration of fossil carbon in municipal solid waste from households was introduced in Sweden on July 1, 2006. The tax has led to higher incineration gate fees. One of the main purposes with the tax is to increase the incentive for recycling of materials, including biological treatment. We investigate whether and to what extent this effect can be expected. A spreadsheet model is developed in order to estimate the net marginal cost of alternative waste treatment methods, i.e., the marginal cost of alternative treatment minus avoided cost of incineration. The value of the households’ time needed for source separation is discussed and included. The model includes the nine largest fractions, totalling 85% (weight), of the household waste currently being sent to waste incineration: food waste, newsprint, paper packaging, soft and hard plastic packaging, diapers, yard waste, other paper waste, and non-combustible waste. Our results indicate that the incineration tax will have the largest effect on biological treatment of kitchen and garden waste, which may increase by 9%. The consequences of an incineration tax depend on: (a) the level of the tax, (b) whether the tax is based on an assumed average Swedish fossil carbon content or on the measured carbon content in each incineration plant, (c) institutional factors such as the cooperation between waste incinerators, and (d) technological factors such as the availability of central sorting of waste or techniques for measurement of fossil carbon in exhaust gases, etc. Information turns out to be a key factor in transferring the governing force of the tax to the households as well improving the households’ attitudes towards material recycling.

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... In addition to the results from these three models, we have also relied on other modeling approaches in the evaluation of the proposed policy instruments. These include different economically optimizing models (e.g., [40]) as well as life cycle assessment models that are further described below. A number of econometric analyses have also been conducted to investigate the behavior of recycling markets, e.g., to estimate how the supply of recycled materials is affected by price changes (e.g., [41]). ...
... In addition, NatWaste includes only two average costs for recycling of plastics (from households and industries respectively). Sahlin et al. [40] evaluated the climate tax with a spread-sheet model that included estimated marginal-cost curves for increased rates of recycling of plastic waste from households. This was an attempt to take into account local variations and also variations in the reluctance of households to increase source separation. ...
... Björklund and Finnveden [66] studied the environmental impacts using an LCA model of a tax of 400 SEK/ton on incineration of household waste without tax reduction for CHP. Sahlin et al. [40] studied the incineration tax that was implemented in Sweden from the year 2007 to 2010 and compared it to the net marginal costs of waste treatment alternatives. This tax was slightly higher than 400 SEK/ton for household waste in DHO, but much lower for CHP. ...
Article
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The aim of this paper is to suggest and discuss policy instruments that could lead towards a more sustainable waste management. The paper is based on evaluations from a large scale multi-disciplinary Swedish research program. The evaluations focus on environmental and economic impacts as well as social acceptance. The focus is on the Swedish waste management system but the results should be relevant also for other countries. Through the assessments and lessons learned during the research program we conclude that several policy instruments can be effective and possible to implement. Particularly, we put forward the following policy instruments: "Information"; "Compulsory recycling of recyclable materials"; "Weight-based waste fee in combination OPEN ACCESS Sustainability 2013, 5 842 with information and developed recycling systems"; "Mandatory labeling of products containing hazardous chemicals", "Advertisements on request only and other waste minimization measures"; and "Differentiated VAT and subsidies for some services". Compulsory recycling of recyclable materials is the policy instrument that has the largest potential for decreasing the environmental impacts with the configurations studied here. The effects of the other policy instruments studied may be more limited and they typically need to be implemented in combination in order to have more significant impacts. Furthermore, policy makers need to take into account market and international aspects when implementing new instruments. In the more long term perspective, the above set of policy instruments may also need to be complemented with more transformational policy instruments that can significantly decrease the generation of waste.
... Vlaanderen zet inmiddels enkele decennia in op selectieve inzameling en dat vanuit een voortschrijdende visie van duurzaam afvalbeheer, over duurzaam materialenbeheer naar een visie op een circulaire economie. (Sahlin et al., 2007). Wanneer we, in lijn met deze Zweedse studie, de opportuniteitskost van deze tijd omzetten in euro's, berekend aan het gemiddelde uurloon, komen we voor 2019 aan een totale kost van 31,5 euro per Vlaming 14 . ...
... Voor de inzameling van papier en karton, voor plastics en verpakkingen, en voor glas werden geen significante effecten gevonden (Salem & Gautier, 2020). Ook deze vaststelling ligt in lijn met eerder internationaal onderzoek (Bel & Gradus, 2016;Sahlin et al., 2007). De omvang van deze kruiselingse elasticiteiten heeft echter ook te maken met de mate waarin alternatieven reeds toegepast zijn en nog verder benut kunnen worden. ...
... Ton 0 V T1 A1 A2 P * Pc Pp T2 empirisch vastgesteld in Zweden (Sahlin et al., 2007) en staat niet eens haaks op de beleidsdoelstellingen. De mate waarin deze afwenteling (of doorrekening) gebeurt, hangt af van de prijsinelasticiteiten van vraag en aanbod. ...
Research
Vlaanderen kent al enkele decennia een heffing op het storten en verbranden van restafval. Deze heffing wordt betaald door uitbaters van stortplaatsen en verbrandingsinstallaties en is een economisch beleidsinstrument dat als doel heeft om er mee voor te zorgen om afvalproductie- en verwerking in een meer milieuvriendelijke richting te begeleiden en om loutere energievalorisatie duurder te maken dan recyclage, en dus om meer afvalfracties selectief in te zamelen en te recycleren, en om afval te voorkomen. Er loopt al jaren een discussie over (te) goedkope tarieven voor afvalverbranding die meer selectieve inzameling zouden verhinderen. Het verhogen van de verbrandingsheffing is daarom een mogelijkheid om vanuit het beleid de balans meer in het voordeel van selectieve inzameling (en recyclage) bij te sturen en een driver te creëren voor investeringen in bijkomende recyclage-activiteiten. Hoe een eventuele verhoging van de verbrandingsheffing bijdraagt aan meer selectieve inzameling van afvalstoffen die nu nog in het restafval terechtkomen, is dan ook de onderzoeksvraag die voorligt. De doelstelling van de voorliggende opdracht is enerzijds een zicht krijgen op de kostenstructuur van verschillende alternatieven voor afvalverwerking en anderzijds onderzoeken welke impacts een verhoging van de verbrandingsheffing met zich zal meebrengen. Daarbij vergelijken we ook de voor- en nadelen van een éénmalige versus een stapsgewijze verhoging van de verbrandingsheffing. De scope van het onderzoek heeft betrekking op het restafval dat in Vlaanderen wordt aangeboden voor verbranding, dus zowel bedrijfsrestafval als huishoudelijk restafval, en op de selectieve inzameling van de fracties Groenten- Fruit- en Tuinafval (GFT) (of Organisch Biologisch Afval, OBA), kunststof verpakkingen en luiers. We onderzochten de impact van een verhoogde verbrandingsheffing vanuit verschillende perspectieven, namelijk de afvalproducenten (gezinnen en bedrijven) en de afvalophalers en -verwerkers (afvalintercommunales en spelers op de private markt). Telkens kwamen daarbij belemmerende en versterkende factoren aan het licht die de impact van een (verhoogde) verbrandingsheffing mee bepalen.
... Hence, they concluded that some institutional dimensions should supplement the rational-choice assumption. Sahlin et al. (2007) have estimated the impact of the incineration tax on recycling for Sweden's municipal solid waste. They found heterogeneous results across different sectors. ...
... Hence, other factors will also affect this equation. Our generalised conclusion supports the empirical findings of having the different impacts of the tax on waste reduction across various sectors (Sahlin et al., 2007;Zacho et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Waste management is an essential tool for policymakers. We derive an efficient production function using a dual cost approach related to waste from the output. Since producers do not bear the cost of waste disposal, the demand for virgin material increases in the production process. Therefore, preserving exhaustible resources by imposing a tax on virgin materials and waste disposals is essential. This study compares the effect of tax on waste and the demand for virgin material. Our results suggest that (a) taxing waste or virgin material will induce recycling only for the polluting firms; (b) a tax on virgin material is highly effective for the polluting firms; however, the output will reduce; (c) a higher tax may lead cross-border trade of waste generated. We also focus on different markets, such as perfectly competitive markets and imperfectly competitive markets. We conclude as the number of firms increases under Cournot’s oligopolistic setup, the effect on the profitability becomes negligible. The findings of this study have greater implications for the environment and climate policies.
... In recent years, technological improvements, societal changes, institutional amendments, and eliminating single-use plastics are viewed as positive changes toward reducing the impact of plastic products. However, the inadequacies and inefficiency of current plastic waste management will create another environmental crisis [8]. Furthermore, COVID-19 outbreaks take the complexities of plastic waste management to a challenging level. ...
... Different authors support this storyline. The study conducted by the authors of [8] implies that the tax on plastic products is a key factor in transferring the household's attitudes towards material recycling. Furthermore, the study conducted in [10] suggests that the overall beneficial impact of environmental taxes on items such as plastic bags results in reduced use, as well as a corresponding low cost of implementation. ...
Article
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Plastic products are used for a variety of services and are then dumped into the earth after use. These dumped plastics affect our health, socioeconomic conditions, coastal and marine environments , as well as our climate. The purpose of this study is to systematically review the potential opportunities and challenges of plastic products under the umbrella of banning and taxing. The discourse analysis approach was used in this study to critically analyze and summarize 42 relevant studies. The study developed two different storylines. The first storyline (S1) used taxing plastic products as an alternative strategy. The second storyline (S2) used banning plastic products as an opposing alternative strategy. The findings of the study show that taxing plastic products is frequently observed in developed countries, whereas banning plastic products is frequently observed in developing countries. Benefits in regards to revenue generation, creating public awareness, employment opportunities, industrial processes, construction processes, and recycling growth are highlighted under the taxing policy. On the other hand, a cleaner environment, tourism attraction, eco-friendly shopping, and a reduced ecological footprint are highlighted under the banning policy. Governments and policymakers play a critical role in developing and implementing the necessary legislative framework for dealing with plastic products.
... Pokud se podíváme blíže na zahraniční studie, ex post analýzy dopadů ekologických daní zkoumají převážně dopad jednotlivých typů daní na kvalitu životního prostředí a jeho charakteristiky, zejména sledují změny ve znečištění odpovídajících složek životního prostředí (Vehmas et al., 1999;Baranzini et al., 2000;Bosquet, 2000;Sahlin et al., 2007;Rogan et al., 2011), dále se ex post analýzy zaměřují na dopad daní na indikátory produkce a spotřeby (Vehmas et al., 1999;Baranzini et al., 2000;Bosquet, 2000;European Commission Directorate, 2004;Bardazzi et al., 2004), distribuční dopady daní (Rajah, Smith, 1993;Roberts et al., 1999;Vehmas et al., 1999;Baranzini et al., 2000;Wier et al., 2005;Bork, 2006) a dopady daní na konkurenceschopnost (Andersen, 2007;Ekins, 2007;Speck, 2007). Někteří ekonomové zkoumají celou škálu možných dopadů ekologických daní, například Bach (Bach et al., 2002). ...
... Ve zmíněných ex post analýzách se můžeme nejčastěji setkat s metodou vyhledávání a sběru reálných dat z ofi ciálních ministerských nebo národních statistik a jejich analýzou a porovnáním s dopady očekávanými či predikovanými národní autoritou před zavedením příslušného ekonomického nástroje (Vehmas et al., 1999;Baranzini et al., 2000;Bosquet, 2000;European Commission Directorate, 2004;Jílková et al., 2006;Pavel, Vítek, 2010;Rogan et al., 2011;Zimmermannová, 2012). Dále jsou hojně využívanou metodou dotazníková šetření a interview (Roberts et al., 1999;Šauer, Vojáček, 2009;Pavel, Vítek, 2010;Šauer et al., 4 Směrnice 2011), regresní analýzy, mikrosimulační modely (Bach et al., 2002;Bardazzi et al., 2004;Bork, 2006), input-output modely (Bach et al., 2002;Wier et al., 2005;Sahlin et al., 2007) či modely všeobecné rovnováhy a ostatní makroekonomické modely 7 (Rajah, Smith, 1993;Bach et al., 2002;Andersen, 2007;Ekins, 2007;Speck, 2007). Pokud se budeme řídit praktickým pohledem OECD (2006), před každou analýzou je potřeba si uvědomit, že ekologické daně jsou zřídka zaváděny samostatně, v kompletní izolaci, což platí i v případě České republiky. ...
... Pokud se podíváme blíže na zahraniční studie, ex post analýzy dopadů ekologických daní zkoumají převážně dopad jednotlivých typů daní na kvalitu životního prostředí a jeho charakteristiky, zejména sledují změny ve znečištění odpovídajících složek životního prostředí (Vehmas et al., 1999;Baranzini et al., 2000;Bosquet, 2000;Sahlin et al., 2007;Rogan et al., 2011), dále se ex post analýzy zaměřují na dopad daní na indikátory produkce a spotřeby (Vehmas et al., 1999;Baranzini et al., 2000;Bosquet, 2000;European Commission Directorate, 2004;Bardazzi et al., 2004), distribuční dopady daní (Rajah, Smith, 1993;Roberts et al., 1999;Vehmas et al., 1999;Baranzini et al., 2000;Wier et al., 2005;Bork, 2006) a dopady daní na konkurenceschopnost (Andersen, 2007;Ekins, 2007;Speck, 2007). Někteří ekonomové zkoumají celou škálu možných dopadů ekologických daní, například Bach (Bach et al., 2002). ...
... Ve zmíněných ex post analýzách se můžeme nejčastěji setkat s metodou vyhledávání a sběru reálných dat z ofi ciálních ministerských nebo národních statistik a jejich analýzou a porovnáním s dopady očekávanými či predikovanými národní autoritou před zavedením příslušného ekonomického nástroje (Vehmas et al., 1999;Baranzini et al., 2000;Bosquet, 2000;European Commission Directorate, 2004;Jílková et al., 2006;Pavel, Vítek, 2010;Rogan et al., 2011;Zimmermannová, 2012). Dále jsou hojně využívanou metodou dotazníková šetření a interview (Roberts et al., 1999;Šauer, Vojáček, 2009;Pavel, Vítek, 2010;Šauer et al., 4 Směrnice 2011), regresní analýzy, mikrosimulační modely (Bach et al., 2002;Bardazzi et al., 2004;Bork, 2006), input-output modely (Bach et al., 2002;Wier et al., 2005;Sahlin et al., 2007) či modely všeobecné rovnováhy a ostatní makroekonomické modely 7 (Rajah, Smith, 1993;Bach et al., 2002;Andersen, 2007;Ekins, 2007;Speck, 2007). Pokud se budeme řídit praktickým pohledem OECD (2006), před každou analýzou je potřeba si uvědomit, že ekologické daně jsou zřídka zaváděny samostatně, v kompletní izolaci, což platí i v případě České republiky. ...
Article
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In January 2008 the Czech Republic introduced the environmental taxation based on the directive 2003/96/EC, restructuring the Community framework for the taxation of energy products and electricity. Environmental taxes are imposed on electricity, solid fuels and natural gas. This paper discusses impacts of environmental taxation in the Czech Republic in the period after its implementation, particularly impacts on price indexes of energy intensive sectors, structure of energy products consumption in the economy and production of CO2 emissions by sectors ranking among EU ETS. The paper is divided into six parts. The fi rst part is the introduction where both the main target of the paper and four hypotheses for testing are formulated. The theoretical problems which are connected with the impact of taxation and tax incidence are discussed in the second part. The third part describes the ideas and expectations of lawmakers regarding environmental taxation implementation, precisely European Commission, Ministry of Finance and Ministry of the Environment of the Czech Republic. In the fourth part authors describe the methodology and data, provide results of ex-post analysis based on both linear and non-linear correlation analyses. The next part deals with the discussion of the results and the hypotheses testing. The last part, conclusion, focuses on the main ex-post analysis fi ndings and formulates the recommendations.
... The concept of the incineration is the same to that of landfill tax. In particular, the objective of a tax imposed on the waste being incinerated, is to give incentives for recycling and moving further up the waste hierarchy [106]. They are complementary to landfill taxes, aiming to control a potential mass shift of waste from landfills to incineration [17]. ...
... An extreme outcome of international waste flows was marked in the case of Norway and Sweden, which both had established incineration taxes. In particular, mass waste flows from Norway to Sweden, have led Norway to abolish its incineration tax and, as a response, Sweden did the same immediately after [106,109,113]. To avoid this effect, Flanders imposes incineration taxes to waste exported for incineration as well [109]. ...
Article
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Waste management is increasingly considered one of the most critical environmental challenges on a worldwide basis. Municipal solid waste and packaging waste in specific is an important and growing waste stream. It has been widely recognized that recycling practices and in specific separation at source schemes should be adopted in order to achieve sustainable management of municipal solid waste and efficient resource use. Separation at source provides a promising option with environmental and economic benefits, as it contributes to the recovery of high quality materials with, eventually, cost savings for the waste management authorities. This paper provides a review and evaluation of all instruments, as well as strategies employed in operating waste management schemes at international level. More specifically, nineteen case studies are presented and assessed. Special emphasis was given in those best practice schemes that follow the waste hierarchical approach, namely prevention, preparing for re‐use, recycling, other recovery (e.g. energy recovery), disposal. Additionally, local policies that encourage separate collection at source of at least four waste streams (paper, metal, plastic, glass) were taken under consideration. The factors found to influence recycling performance were the implementation of kerbside waste collection schemes, the provision of economic incentives as well as the use of legal instruments. Furthermore, the level of public awareness and engagement achieved, the population size as well as the duration of the implementation of the scheme were also found to influence the effectiveness of the applied schemes.
... Another economic incentive enforced is landfill tax and incineration tax imposed by several countries such as the UK (24), Sweden (25), and other European countries (26). This landfill tax is a major motivator for reducing food waste disposal in landfills (27,28). ...
Article
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Introduction: Food waste (FW) is a serious problem and significantly impacts the environment, economy, and social. Globally, the average FW reaches 121 kg/ capita/year, and households are the main contributors to FW. Several countries have implemented various strategies to prevent household FW. This review aims to explore the household FW prevention policies and their potential to be implemented in Indonesia. Discussion: Three strategies have been widely applied worldwide, including economic incentives, regulations, as well as FW awareness and behavior campaigns. In this case, the economic incentives include landfill tax, incineration tax, and Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT). Many laws and regulations have been implemented related to waste management, food, economics, and those regulations are either directly or indirectly related to FW. The awareness and behavior change campaign is the most widely applied strategy to prevent household FW globally. Conclusion: Well-designed policies and regulations supported by education and awareness campaigns are the potential strategies for household food waste reduction and prevention in Indonesia.
... Inom projektet undersöks också bland annat attityder till materialåtervinning samt psykologiska aspekter av avfallshantering. Tidigt undersöktes effekter av införandet av förbränningsskatten [4]. ...
Technical Report
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There are several recently introduced and future possible policy instruments that are of great interest to study in order to understand the future for the Swedish waste treatment market. In the energy sector, the use of system analysis models has proven to be effective in order to understand the effects and consequences of policy instruments. In the waste sector, however, such analyses have only been conducted sporadically. This in spite of the introduction of highly influential policy instruments such as producer responsibility, landfill tax and landfill ban, which together have contributed to land filling of Swedish household waste practically has ceased. The goal of this project was, by using system analysis model, to study and evaluate the newly introduced and future possible policy instruments which affect Swedish waste treatment. The assessment was made in terms of how policy instruments affect: - the distribution of treatment technologies, - waste amounts, - greenhouse gas emissions and - the economics of waste treatment. The project was performed during 2011 and2012 as a part of the research project "Perspectives on sustainable waste treatment(PFA)”. During the project, discussions have taken place within the working group and the reference group on which instruments are most interesting and relevant to study. Furthermore, opinions have been gathered from the association Swedish Waste Management’s policy instrument group and from various players in the industry at conferences, presentations and workshops. This has resulted in the following instruments that have been studied: 1. Including Swedish waste incineration with power and heat production in the EU Emissions Trading System for CO2 2. Electricity certificates to Norwegian waste incineration with power and heat production 3. Goal of increased biological treatment (mainly biogas production) of food waste 4. Climate bonus to renewable vehicle fuels 5. Financial support for methane reduction through biogas production from manure 6. Investment support for biogas production from food waste 7. Goal of food waste and textile waste prevention The main conclusions from this project are: - Policy instruments 3, 4 and 7 are expected to have a significant impact on the amount and type of waste for biological treatment and for waste incineration with power and heat production up to the year2020. These instruments also show the largest potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. - Policy instruments 3 means reduced costs from a system perspective. But to ensure goal achievement, it is advantageous to combine this instrument with an economic instrument that favours the production of biogas from food waste, e.g. policy instrument 4. - Prevention of food waste and textile waste shows the largest reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the study (1.2 and 9.5 CO2 ekv. per tonne waste prevented respectively). Today many activities are underway to develop, evaluate and implement measures and policy instruments that promote waste prevention. - Policy instruments 1, 2 and 6 will likely have a limited effect on the distribution of biological treatment and incineration of Swedish waste up to the year 2020. - Policy instruments 1 and 2 mean that Swedish waste incineration loses competitiveness in comparison to waste incineration in other countries up to theyear2020, but the impact is expected to be relatively limited. Instrument 6 promotes biogas production from food waste in relation to waste incineration with power and heat production. The investment support, however, is relatively small both in relation to other factors that affect the financial result and in relation to the other two instruments that favour production of biogas from food waste (policy instruments 3 and 4). - Policy instrument 5 is favourable for biogas production from manure that otherwise would have been handled without treatment. According to the project's calculations the support is not large enough to make biogas production profitable, given the conditions in2020. There may be, however, local and regional differences in the conditions by which the support can be crucial for an investment to be made. Keywords: policy instruments, biological treatment, biogas production, waste incineration, climate change [Full report in Swedish only]
... Řada zahraničních autorů se rovněž zabývá dopadem a environmentální účinností již existujících uhlíkových daní. Jedná se zejména o studie a ex post analýzy dopadů uhlíkových daní v severských zemích EU, jednotlivé studie zkoumají dopady zdanění CO 2 na vývoj emisí CO 2 v Norsku, Dánsku, Nizozemsku, Švédsku, Finsku, Německu, Itálii a Velké Británii (Vehmas et al, 1999;Baranzini et al., 2000;Bosquet, 2000), na recyklaci a alternativní zpracování odpadů ve Švédsku (Sahlin et al., 2007), na poptávku po nízkoemisních vozidlech a změnu podílu nově registrovaných vozidel na trhu v závislosti na emisích CO 2 v Irsku (Rogan et al., 2011) či na změnu chování domácností a podniků v Dánsku (Wier et al., 2005). ...
... Competition for cheap waste handling was also mentioned in a number of studies. [26] This is especially true for the handling of food wastes and other municipal solid wastes. Sorted food wastes destined for biogas production accounts for only 40% of the total, with most going to composting due to less costs compared to biogas production. ...
Article
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Many studies are available on the potential for increased biogas development and production in Sweden. The studies have varied assumptions on availability and potential for different substrates in addition to the demand for biogas in the transportation sector. Despite the potentials outlined, a dramatic increase has not been met in the biogas sector in Sweden and the constraints faced by biogas producers are rarely outlined. The aim of the article is to highlight this gap between potential studies and biogas producer perspectives in order to understand which factors affect the expansion of biogas in Sweden. Through a review of the these factors and using SWOT analysis, the research provided has identified that important factors for Sweden include e.g. the availability and competition for substrate, digestate handling, regulations, and market incentives and support for biogas production.
... The Roadmap to a Resource Efficient Europe states that by 2020 only non-recyclable waste should be incinerated (EC, 2013b)indicating that waste incineration will still have an important role to play in the European waste management system, especially when it comes to the disposal of hazardous waste (O'Donovan and Collins, 2011). This paper aims to support a discussion about how much waste incineration might be necessary and at the same time to consider how these capacities might even be a barrier to further recycling (Sahlin et al., 2007). ...
Article
While secondary plastics arising at the manufacturing and processing phases are recycled to the production process in large measure due to its high purity, the market share of sec‐ ondary plastics remains low and recycling is often dominated by thermal recovery. Ener‐ getic recovery of plastics in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has been dominating for a long time. At the same time reuse of WEEE is not well developed at EU level; with few exceptions at Member State level. Against this background we want to discuss in this book chapter several policy instru‐ ments that aim to increase the reuse of WEEE as well as the use of secondary plastics in electrical and electronic equipment. Taking the case study of Germany we evaluate in‐ struments theoretical quantity effects and their feasibility. In reality, instruments are of‐ ten weak and scattered implemented. To identify a policy mix without the risk of creating expensive policies with the potential for inefficient outcomes, we make two complemen‐ tary conceptual proposes, which first open up perspectives for possible synergies of in‐ struments and second allow an integrated understanding of the regional context in which instruments are implemented. The discussion of the case study of promoting reuse within this framework makes clear, that such an integrated understanding is the basis for any appropriate, targeted and efficient stimulation and bridges the gap between theoretical policy formulation and practically implementation.
... It can be seen that landfill presents the major value and incineration presents the least value of CO 2 emissions in absolute terms (t/y) if compared to the hybrid cycles; however, when considered specific emissions (the yearly emission by the yearly electric production, in t/MWh), hybrid cycles reveals to be environmentally more attractive, and the more electricity is produced, the lower will be the specific emission. Waste tax was proposed as an incentive to the reduction of waste production considering that, from an economic perspective, it increases the incentive for recycling of materials, including biological treatment [37]. A value of 65 US$/t of waste based on the Danish waste tax [38], which imposes a tax of 50 V/t of waste incinerated, is considered in this analysis. ...
Article
Urban centers have a huge demand for electricity and the growing problem of the solid waste management generated by their population, a relevant social and administrative problem. The correct disposal of the municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in cities is one of the most complex engineering problems that involves logistics, safety, environmental and energetic aspects for its adequate management. Due to a national policy of solid wastes recently promulgated, Brazilian cities are evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of incinerating the non-recyclable waste. São José dos Campos, a São Paulo State industrialized city, is considering the composting of organic waste for biogas production and mass incineration of non-recyclable waste. This paper presents a waste-to-energy system based on the integration of gas turbines to a MSW incinerator for producing thermal and electric energy as an alternative solution for the solid waste disposal in São José dos Campos, SP. A technical and economic feasibility study for the hybrid combined cycle plant is presented and revealed to be attractive when carbon credit and waste tax are included in the project income.
... Some studies also investigate impacts of issues such as tax, collection method and regional difference on waste recycling. Sahlin et al. (2007) conducted a case study in Sweden and investigated the effect of a tax on waste-to-energy incineration (which led to higher incineration gate fees) on the waste flow. The results indicated that the incineration gate fees as taxation instrument will have the largest effect on the biological treatment of kitchen and garden waste. ...
Article
Post-consumer plastic packaging waste (PPW) can be collected for recycling via source separation or post-separation. In source separation, households separate plastics from other waste before collection, whereas in post-separation waste is separated at a treatment centre after collection. There are also two collection schemes, either curb side or via drop-off locations. These different schemes have impact on total costs of collection at the municipal level. It can also influence the facility choices and network design. Therefore, a method which can compare costs of various collection schemes is needed. A comprehensive cost model was developed to compare costs of municipal collection schemes of PPW. The ‘municipal waste collection cost model’ is based on variables including fixed and variable costs per vehicle, personnel cost, container or bag costs as well as on emission costs (using imaginary carbon taxes). The model can be used for decision support when strategic changes to the collection scheme of municipalities are considered. The model takes into account the characteristics of municipalities, including urbanization degree and taxation schemes for household waste management. The model was applied to the Dutch case of post-consumer plastic packaging waste. Results showed that that in general post-separation collection has the lowest costs and curb side collection in urban municipalities without residual waste collection taxing schemes the highest. These results were supported by the conducted sensitivity analysis, which showed that higher source separation responses are negatively related to curb side collection costs. Greenhouse gas emission costs are a significant part of the total costs when collecting post-consumer plastic packaging waste due to the low density to weight ratio of the materials collect. These costs can amount to 15% of the total collection costs.
... Ex-post analyses related to environmental taxation focus on impacts of particular taxes on environmental characteristics, mainly changes in corresponding pollution (Baranzini et al., 2000;Bosquet, 2000;Rogan et al., 2011;Sahlin et al., 2007;Vehmas et al., 1999), impacts of taxes on production and consumption indicators (Baranzini et al., 2000;Bardazzi et al., 2004;Bosquet, 2000;European Commission Directorate, 2004;Vehmas et al., 1999), impacts of taxes on distributional characteristics (Baranzini et al., 2000;Bork, 2006;Rajah and Smith, 1993;Roberts et al., 1999;Vehmas et al., 1999;Wier et al., 2005) and impacts of taxes on competitiveness (Andersen, 2007;Ekins, 2007;Speck, 2007). Some economists focus on analyzing all possible impacts of environmental taxes, for example Bach (Bach et al., 2002). ...
Article
Currently, the influence of transportation and its impact on environmental indicators throughout the world are increasing; however, governments of particular countries try to implement new economic instruments with the expectations of changing people’s behaviour or at least environmental parameters of the motor vehicle fleet. The Government of the Czech Republic introduced a new economic instrument, which came into force on 1 January 2009 and was inspired by similar environmental taxes in Member States of the European Union – the car registration fee, which is based on emission parameters of cars. The main target of this fee has been to change the structure of the passenger car fleet in the Czech Republic, particularly to support new registrations of new passenger cars with better environmental characteristics and to decrease the share of new registrations of used passenger cars. This article focuses on an ex-post analysis of impacts of the car registration fee on the structure of the passenger car fleet in the Czech Republic and its environmental characteristics in the first 3 years after the legal mandate of the fee. The case study is based on a correlation analysis and an analysis of statistical data from official sources in the Czech Republic. The impacts of the car registration fee on both the structure of the passenger car fleet in the Czech Republic and the environmental characteristics of new registrations are significant. For the first time since 2004, the number of new registrations of new cars was higher in the period 2009–2011 than the number of new registrations of used cars. Moreover, the share of alternative fuel cars in the passenger car market is increasing and the emissions from private car transport are decreasing.
... The economic value of energy recovery from waste in relation to other energy conversion options has been addressed by combining systems engineering models [35]. The few assessments of specific policy instruments include a tax on waste incineration [36][37][38], combinations of policy instruments for landfill diversion and material recycling [39][40][41] and a scrap-tire recycling policy [42]. ...
Article
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The need for new policy instruments supporting the on-going transition from end-of-pipe waste treatment to resource management has been recognized in European policy. Instruments need to be carefully assessed before implementation to promote the desired changes and avoid problem shifting. Mathematical models may assist policy makers in such assessments. This paper presents a set of soft-linked models for assessing the economic and environmental impacts of policy instruments for both the prevention and management of waste and discusses its strengths and limitations. Consisting of (1) a macro-economic model, (2) a systems engineering model for waste management and (3) a life cycle assessment model for waste management, the set is primarily suited to assessing market-based instruments and environmental regulations. Considerable resources were needed for developing and using the set, and there are clear limits as to what can be addressed. However, if only one of the models had been used, neither the range of instruments nor the scope of impacts would have been possible to cover. Furthermore, soft-linked models allow many disciplines to contribute within one harmonized framework. Such integrated assessments may become increasingly useful for continuing the implementation of policy for sustainable governance of society’s material resources.
... It is certainly easier, for example, to measure quantities of waste in landfills or MW h placed on the network rather than to do a balance of net energy or greenhouse gas emissions. This approach is also spread to other European countries (Sahlin, 2007). Once introduced into the system, incentives and penalties are reduced to mere items of cost or profit. ...
Article
This paper focuses on the dynamics the formation of operational costs of waste management in Italy and the effect of economic measures. Currently incentives and penalties have been internalized by the system no differently from other cost items and revenues. This has greatly influenced the system directing it towards solutions that are often distant from the real environmental objectives. Based on an analysis of disaggregated costs of collection treatment and recovery, we provide the basic elements to compose a picture of economic management in various technical-organizational scenarios. In the light of the considerations contained in the paper it is proposed, e.g. for controlled landfills, that the ecotax, currently based on weight, could be replaced by one based on the volume consumption. Likewise, for tax reduction on disposal system, instead a pre-treatment might ask an environmental balance of the overall system. The article presents a reflection on the last hidden costs associated with the consumption of goods and packaging, and how to reduce waste production is the necessary path to be followed in ecological and economic perspectives.
... Less common are bottom-up studies explicitly analysing a specific policy instrument. However, the effect of the Swedish tax on waste incineration was analysed by Holmgren and Gebremedhin (2004), Sahlin et al. (2007) and Björklund and Finnveden (2007). The combination of the landfill tax, the producer responsibility of packaging and the, at that time, proposed ban on landfilling of organic and combustible waste in Sweden was analysed by Ljunggren (2000). ...
Article
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Parallel to the efforts of the EU to achieve a significant and overall reduction of waste quantities within the EU, the Swedish parliament enacted an environmental quality objective stating that ‘the total quantity of waste must not increase …’ i.e. an eventual absolute decoupling of waste generation from GDP. The decoupling issue is ad-dressed, in the present paper, by assessing future waste quantities, for a number of economic scenarios of the Swedish economy to 2030 with alternative assumptions about key factors affecting waste generation and waste management costs. We use an integrated top-down/bottom-up approach by linking a CGE-model of the Swedish economy with a systems engineering model of the Swedish waste management system. In this way, we can in more detail consider the interaction between waste generation and waste management costs (waste disposal prices) when assessing future waste quantities. A relative decoupling of waste generation takes place in all scenarios, i.e. total waste quantities increase at a lower rate than GDP. Absolute decoupling, which re-quire total waste quantities to stabilize or to reduce, does not take place in any of the scenarios. This means that the present Swedish Environmental quality objective of stabilizing waste quantities is not met in any of the scenarios with total waste genera-tion levels of 110 per cent up to nearly 200 per cent of that in 2006. The overall impression from our analysis is that costs are high for reducing waste generation irrespective of the type of waste reduced. In other words, the waste treat-ment costs are low compared to the costs for reducing waste. This situation also means that the use of policy instruments, which induce substitution by increasing the price of waste disposal services, will have very small reducing effects on the generation of all types of waste unless the price increase brings about an introduction of waste preventing techniques and affect households in the direction of a less waste intensive behaviour. For example, the policy instruments used must affect the pattern of household consumption pattern more directly, as a differentiation of the value added tax, rather than to be directed towards the waste management sector. Economic policy instruments introduced in the waste management sector are more likely to affect the choice of waste management solutions than prevent waste generation. Linking a macroeconomic and a systems engineering model for waste manage-ment, gives us a tool useful also for capturing the macroeconomic effects, such as GDP growth and structural changes, when designing policy instruments intended to prevent waste generation or take waste management in a more sustainable direction.
... There is alsoTable 2 Technical and environmental performance of the studied heat-only boilers (HOB), heat pumps (HP) and combined heat and power plants (CHP) – either based on steam cycle (SC) or combined cycle (CC) technology (Fahlé n and Ahlgren, 2009; GE, 2008 GE, , 2009 IPCC, 2007; Klimont et al., 2002; SERI, 2001 an incineration tax on the fossil carbon content in MSW but it is assumed that this tax is transferred to the customers by an increased gate fee and hence, does not affect the operator's economy. The effects of introduction of the waste incineration tax have been discussed by e.g. Sahlin et al. (2007). In Sweden, there is a refunded emission payment system for NO x emissions, which consists of a fee for emitted NO x emissions and of repayments to the emitters in relation to their amounts of produced heat and electricity and works so that producers that emit more NO x emissions per energy output than the average in Sweden are net payers and the producers that emit less get a net revenue. ...
Article
Sweden has historically had strict emission control by implementation of economic policy instruments with the aim of internalising the external costs of air pollution. This study aims to evaluate how well current Swedish policy instruments reflect the environmental costs associated with heat generation in several district-heating (DH) plants in the DH system of Göteborg. Furthermore, it aims to simulate and evaluate the operation of the DH system based on its social cost-effectiveness which takes into account the DH system’s private and external costs (non-internalised environmental costs). The study shows that the economic policy instruments do not fully internalise all external costs whereas for certain technologies, the costs in terms of taxes, emission permits, environmental fees, etc. are higher than the environmental costs caused by the pollutants, given the environmental cost estimates used in the study. The simulation results show that the deviating internalisation of external costs affects the economic ranking of the different plants within the studied DH system. The estimated loss in social-cost effectiveness of the operation of the DH system of Göteborg is noticable but relatively small if compared to the variable heat generation costs for most of the studied DH plants.
... Rootsi omavalitsusüksustel on nõue koostada jäätmekava, mis sisaldaks andmeid olemasoleva olukorra ja jäätmekäitluse kohta ning käsitleks strateegiaid vähendamaks jäätmete koguseid ja ohtlikkust (Björklund et al., 1999)Sahlin et al., 2007). Uppsala, suuruselt neljas linn Rootsis (128 409 elanikuga), koostas oma esimese jäätmekava 1990. ...
... There is much literature analyzing policy instruments for recycling and material efficiency, and their potential effects. Such studies focus, for example, on extended producer responsibility [17], raw materials taxes [18], landfill taxes [19], and incineration taxes [20]. Söderholm and Tilton [21] argue that policy for material efficiency should focus on addressing the environmental impacts and the information failures, rather than specific technologies, since material efficiency is important mainly because of the environmental impacts associated with materials production, and not because of looming material scarcity. ...
Article
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Increasing material use efficiency is important to mitigate future supply risks and minimize environmental impacts associated with the production of the materials. The policy mix presented in this paper aims to contribute to reducing the use of virgin metals in the EU by 80% by 2050 without significant shifting of burdens to other material resources, environmental impacts, or parts of the world. We used a heuristic framework and a systems perspective for designing the policy mix that combines primary instruments designed to increase material efficiency, recycling and substitution of materials (a materials tax, the extended producer responsibility, technical regulations, and environmental taxes) and supportive instruments aimed to reduce barriers to implementing the primary instruments and to contribute towards the policy objectives (e.g., research and development support, and advanced recycling centers). Furthermore, instruments were designed so as to increase political feasibility: e.g., taxes were gradually increased as part of a green fiscal reform, and border-tax adjustments were introduced to reduce impacts on competitiveness. However, even in such a policy mix design ongoing ex-ante assessments indicate that the policy mix will be politically difficult to implement—and also fall short of achieving the 80% reduction target. Nonetheless, we suggest combining primary and supportive instruments into coherent and dynamic policy mixes as a promising step towards system reconfigurations for sustainability.
... While many WtE facilities in Europe are subject to taxation, e.g. CO 2 , NO x and SO 2 taxes, these taxes were excluded from the assessment to avoid very country-specific conclusions (for decision-support in a concrete case taxes could be included, see Martinez-Sanchez et al. (2015) and Sahlin et al. (2007)). ...
Article
This investigation aims at providing an improved basis for assessing economic consequences of alternative Solid Waste Management (SWM) strategies for existing waste facilities. A bottom-up methodology was developed to determine marginal costs in existing facilities due to changes in the SWM system, based on the determination of average costs in such waste facilities as function of key facility and waste compositional parameters. The applicability of the method was demonstrated through a case study including two existing Waste-to-Energy (WtE) facilities, one with co-generation of heat and power (CHP) and another with only power generation (Power), affected by diversion strategies of five waste fractions (fibres, plastic, metals, organics and glass), named "target fractions". The study assumed three possible responses to waste diversion in the WtE facilities: (i) biomass was added to maintain a constant thermal load, (ii) Refused-Derived-Fuel (RDF) was included to maintain a constant thermal load, or (iii) no reaction occurred resulting in a reduced waste throughput without full utilization of the facility capacity. Results demonstrated that marginal costs of diversion from WtE were up to eleven times larger than average costs and dependent on the response in the WtE plant. Marginal cost of diversion were between 39 and 287€Mg(-1) target fraction when biomass was added in a CHP (from 34 to 303€Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case), between -2 and 300€Mg(-1) target fraction when RDF was added in a CHP (from -2 to 294€Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case) and between 40 and 303€Mg(-1) target fraction when no reaction happened in a CHP (from 35 to 296€Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case). Although average costs at WtE facilities were highly influenced by energy selling prices, marginal costs were not (provided a response was initiated at the WtE to keep constant the utilized thermal capacity). Failing to systematically address and include costs in existing waste facilities in decision-making may unintendedly lead to higher overall costs at societal level. To avoid misleading conclusions, economic assessment of alternative SWM solutions should not only consider potential costs associated with alternative treatment but also include marginal costs associated with existing facilities.
... They also identified the urgent need in an integrated MSWM, mentioning that source-separated collection should be a key priority considering the current status of MSWM and is necessary for a wider range of cities should participate in this program instead of merely the eight pilot cities and also addressed problematic issues like improvement in legislation, coordination mechanisms and public education to encourage recyclable separation at the source. (Sahlin et al., 2007). Most research does not consider utilizing the fact that WTE plants are also production decision making units (DMUs) providing the services of waste treatment and electricity, emitting undesirable pollutants like ash and dioxins, in addition to being waste treatment facilities. ...
Article
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In our day-to-day living, a simple underlying principle is to consume resources in one form or another. This consumption generates waste, which needs to be dealt with in a responsible, efficient and effective manner. Waste is mostly collected and disposed by municipalities. This presents a challenge for these municipalities in dealing with ever increasing amounts of waste to be managed. This is particularly critical in cities, where the demand for these services is increasing. Management of municipal solid waste (MSW) continues to be one of the top priorities for human communities in the 21st century. The model of integrated solid waste management, reduction of waste right at the source points before it enters the chain of waste stream, reuse of generated wastes for recovery by recycling, and disposal through environmentally sound combustion facilities and landfills that meet policy standards are being used by communities as they evolve. Solid waste management is known to be an important contributor to various environmental problems, for example climate change (e.g. greenhouse gas emissions from landfills), disturbing multiple ecosystems (e.g. heavy metal emissions into air, soil and surface water), and improper use of resources leading to depletion (e.g. inexistent or inefficient recycling processing methods for a few particular key minerals or metals) among others. The formidable rise in solid waste generation require suitable management systems, which methodically handle these environmental issues and eventually contribute to move towards a more environmentally sustainable society. This paper presents a method based on Data Envelopment Analysis to analyse the efficiency of Waste to Energy systems, looking not only at maximising the positive outputs (e.g. Energy), but also minimising the negative ones (e.g. emissions). The results provide a benchmark for municipalities to aim in the operation of their Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM).
... Research on incineration addresses various issues such as how to improve energy recovery performance and control pollution (Pai et al. 2008), how to select most appropriate location for incineration plants (Alçada-Almeida et al. 2009;Eiselt and Marianov 2015) and derive compensation package for effected people (Chang et al. 2002), and what extent the recycling volume would change following the introduction of an incineration tax (Sahlin et al. 2007). These facilitate analysing feasibility of incineration plants. ...
Article
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Incineration plants produce heat and power from waste, reduce waste disposal to landfills, and discharge harmful emissions and bottom ash. The objective of the incineration plant is to maximize desirable outputs (heat and power) and minimize undesirable outputs (emissions and bottom ash). Therefore, studying the overall impact of incineration plants in a region so as to maximize the benefits and minimize the environmental impact is significant. Majority of prior works focus on plant specific decision making issues including performance analysis. This study proposes a hybrid data envelopment analysis (DEA), goal programming (GP) and mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model to assess the performance of incineration plants, in a specific region, to enhance overall power production, consumption of waste and reduction of emissions. This model not only helps the plant operators to evaluate the effectiveness of incineration but also facilitates the policy makers to plan for overall waste management of the region through decision-making on adding and closing plants on the basis of their efficiency. Majority of prior studies on incineration plants emphasize on how to improve their performance on heat and power production and neglect the waste management aspects. Additionally, optimizing benefits and minimizing negative outputs through fixing targets in order to make decision on shutting down the suboptimal plants has not been modeled in prior research. This research combines both the aspects and addresses the overall performance enhancement of incineration plants within a region from both policy makers and plant operators’ perspectives. The proposed combined DEA, GP and MILP model enables to optimize incineration plants performance within a region by deriving efficiency of each plant and identifying plants to close down on the basis of their performance. The proposed model has been applied to a group of 22 incineration plants in the UK using secondary data in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the model.
... c Avoiding MSW disposal and incineration by implementing strict financial and procedural regulations. The introduction of such financial instrument in countries like Sweden has forced the waste-management system that works rationally from an economic perspective to apply alternative methods for waste treatment when the net costs for these are lower to ensure the competitiveness of further MSW treatment (Sahlin et al., 2007). The growth in taxation on incineration proved to have a strong negative effect on the growth of industrial plastic waste generation (Cimpan et al., 2015). ...
Article
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This article presents a new approach to analysing municipal waste (MSW) composition, which makes it possible to envisage sorting process efficiency and predict valuable secondary raw material (SRM) losses during sorting. The study also enables to foresee financial losses related to the quality recyclables that are reclaimed from MSW. In this article, samples from MSW delivered to Bee'ah site in Sharjah in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) were analysed to define their composition. The novelty in this research was the mechanical and physical property analysis for the MSW components and the prediction mechanism used to foresee the possible recovery rate of a potential mechanical sorting process. The results were compared with those that would be obtained from traditional composition analysis to end up with shocking results. It was concluded that any mechanical sorting process, designed based on traditional analysis data, is mostly to face tremendous operational and financial challenges in the UAE. This is due to the input material shape, size, moisture content and other factors that change the way SRM components respond to sorting mechanisms. The study was able not only to explain the challenges faced by all the UAE sorting facilities, but also to show how to prevent such unsatisfactory performance in the future. The study concluded the reasons behind the MSW component deterioration and provided additional recommendations to extract more benefits from the new waste morphology approach.
... Hence, the recycled product can be used to produce high added value products. Despite the potential of post-industrial waste to be recirculated, it is frequently sent to incineration for electricity and heat production due to its high calorific value (Zevenhoven et al., 1997;Sahlin et al., 2007). ...
Article
In this work, the environmental impacts caused by an innovative upcycling process of printed plastic scrap have been assessed through Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) methodology for the first time. The process consists of removing the inks from the plastic surface before extrusion, so that clear high quality pellets are obtained, suitable to be used in high added value applications (such as packaging). The upcycling technology is compared with two traditional waste treatments: conventional recycling (or downcycling) and incineration with energy recovery. Upcycling is considered to be better aligned with Circular Economy principles and its implementation in the industry requires a comprehensive analysis of environmental impacts. Despite the importance of this topic, only a few studies can be found in the literature. Furthermore, the lack of uniformity and consensus in LCA modelling can lead to the conclusion that upcycling causes the biggest environmental burdens. Therefore, downcycling or incineration are shown as preferable options, regardless of the irreversible loss of the plastics’ potential to be recirculated. To avoid this error, we have emphasised the importance of including the market share for recycled products in the LCA modelling and establishing the virgin plastic substitution ratio correctly. Also, we have suggested that in the perspective of the Circular Economy, the energy produced during incineration cannot substitute the energy from fossil fuels.
... Different approaches, in which Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) models [24,25] assume more and more significant relevance, were proposed for environmental impact evaluation. The introduction of a tax on incineration processes in Sweden in 2006 was discussed to encourage material recycling [26]. More recently, new changes in legislation on waste management were reviewed in the different EU Member States in the context of the circular economy by considering incineration taxes and sanitary landfills [27]. ...
Article
-->Anyone clicking on this link before May 14, 2020 will be taken directly to the final version of your article on ScienceDirect, which they are welcome to read or download: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1ao5l4r6KuzqzG The rising of municipal solid waste generation is a serious current problem, whose incorrect disposal leads to major impacts to human health and the environment. Waste-to-Energy systems have been some of the adopted solutions but they carry the burden of the emission of pollutant gases. To control such emissions, international agreements have introduced the concept of the carbon tax, i.e. a levy on carbon dioxide emissions imposed on energy systems. Considering the specificity of municipal solid wastes for their inclusion in the energy mix of the countries, this study aims to apply a carbon tax model in Waste-to-Energy plants to encourage the utilization of this particular waste. The proposed carbon tax utilizes the concept of exergy destruction from the second law of thermodynamics and is based on the cycle’s efficiency and the type of fuel to be burned. Hybrid-cycles associating gas turbines burning natural gas and an incinerator burning municipal solid wastes were compared to the conventional incineration steam cycle. One finding of this study is that the incineration cycle is less penalized in terms of CO2 emissions compared to the rates applied to hybrid-cycles in the same exergetic base, considering its attribution to the environmental liability destruction represented by the municipal solid waste. The sensitivity revealed that the municipal solid waste price significantly affects the incineration cycle and hybrid-cycles with the lowest gas turbine capacities and natural gas price variations influence large capacity hybrid-cycles.
... When modelling the macroeconomic impacts, it is necessary to distinguish the time horizon of the model. When modelling the short-term consequences, it cannot be expected that the adjustment mechanisms in the economy began to take effect (Sahlin et al. 2007). If the aim is to evaluate the short-term impacts, it is possible to ignore the medium-term adjustment mechanisms of the primary state variables (stock capital, the external position of the economy, government debt). ...
Chapter
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This chapter focuses on microeconomic and macroeconomic issues. Regarding microeconomics, the key microeconomic topics, as supply, demand, product markets and factor markets, will be presented. The main microeconomic variables connected with consumer and producer behaviour will be described, including the marginal variables. Decision-making of producer and the possibilities of market equilibrium will be discussed, depending on different types of competition. Specifics of factor markets will be explained, precisely the labour market, land market, and capital market. The macroeconomic part focuses on key macroeconomic issues connected with spatial aspects. Firstly, the key macroeconomic indicators and their features will be described. Then the spatial view will be included, a comparison of selected macroeconomic indicators in EU28 and NUTS2 regions will be presented. The question of economic growth will be discussed. The last part of the chapter deals with economic modelling, both in microeconomic and macroeconomic areas. The short overview of possibilities of modelling strategic behaviour of particular economic subjects and agent-based modelling, as well as options of macroeconomic modelling in a short period (I-O analysis), medium period (CGE models) and long-term models will be presented. The spatial view in the whole chapter is underlined.
... A popular policy tool for reducing waste generation is, among others, waste treatment taxation. From all over the world, many studies exist on waste treatment taxation, mostly, but not all, focusing on household waste ( Sahlin et al., 2007;Fullerton and Kinnaman, 1996;Sasao, 2014). An interesting study on household waste management in Flanders, a region of the federal State of Belgium, is De Jaeger and Eyckmans (2015). ...
Article
We conduct different types of econometrical panel analyzes and provide statistical evidence that firms show lagged behavior, which means that the previous year's waste generation partly determines the current year's. The dynamic panel estimations show robust results, indicating that a growth of incineration taxes exert significant negative effects on the growth of industrial plastic waste generation. This result offers no argument to iteratively raise incineration taxes. We conclude that incineration taxation is meaningful if tax rates are set according to the prevailing market conditions, i.e. taking into account the marginal costs of alternatives for incineration. In the short run, the effectiveness of taxation will quickly diminish due to the rapidly rising marginal costs of waste reduction. In the long run, extra recycling capacity is needed to recycle the minimized waste fraction. The role of taxation in the long run is to maintain an equilibrium in which recycling is preferred by the market.
... The stabilization rate indicator refers to the sum of the percentage of the mineralized and immobilized biological source carbon (BSC), which is calculated by (1-the leakage mass of BSC into the ecosphere/ the mass of BSC in raw MSW) × 100%. Depending on the origin, the carbon contented of the MSW can be divided into FSC and BSC (Sahlin et al., 2007). During the waste management, the BSC is the most active and degradable components and also the precursor of many kinds of gaseous and liquid contaminants. ...
Article
Currently, the overwhelming majority of municipal solid waste (MSW) has been treated in sanitary landfills and incineration plants in China. In future, with the popularization of separate waste collection, it is logical to treat the biodegradable components using biological treatment technologies. To determine the advantages and disadvantages of each waste management strategy, both life-cycle inventory analysis and impact assessment are applied. The advantages and disadvantages of each waste management strategy is evaluated using environmental performances of these management methods on multi-dimensions as waste reduction, stabilization, material recovery, energy recovery, and greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions. These results showed that the scenarios of raw MSW landfilling would result in minimal waste reduction (34.8%) and stabilization (87.8%) rate as well as significant amounts of GHG emissions (116.7–192.2 kg-CO2Eq/t). On the other hand, the incineration scenario exhibited significant superiorities on these dimensions with a 79.2% reduction rate, 100% stabilization rate, and 124.3 kg-CO2Eq/t GHG reduction. Moreover, 1163.1 MJ/t of electricity could be recovered from the incineration process. The unique advantage of these scenarios with separated biodegradable components treated by biological methods was the land application of the biological treated residue. A maximum of 89.3 kg/t or 122.0 kg/t material could be recovered when composting or anaerobic digestion (AD) of the biodegradable fractions with incineration of the high calorific value components (HCVCs), followed by residue landfilling. However, when the waste-generated bio-fertilizer could not be applied by field, these waste management scenarios with classified treatment would yield less competitive benefits in each evaluation dimension.
... There is much literature analyzing policy instruments for recycling and material efficiency, and their potential effects. Such studies focus, for example, on extended producer responsibility [17], raw materials taxes [18], landfill taxes [19], and incineration taxes [20]. Söderholm and Tilton [21] argue that policy for material efficiency should focus on addressing the environmental impacts and the information failures, rather than specific technologies, since material efficiency is important mainly because of the environmental impacts associated with materials production, and not because of looming material scarcity. ...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing material use efficiency is important to mitigate future supply risks and minimize environmental impacts associated with the production of the materials. The policy mix presented in this paper aims to reduce the use of virgin metals in the EU by 80% by 2050. We used a heuristic framework and a systems perspective for designing the policy mix that combines primary instruments (aimed to achieve the 80% reduction target – e.g. a materials tax, technical regulations and removal of environmentally harmful subsidies) and supportive instruments (aimed to reduce barriers to implementing the primary instruments and to contribute towards the policy objectives – e.g. research & development support, and advanced recycling centers). Furthermore, instruments were designed so as to increase political feasibility: e.g. taxes were gradually increased as part of a green fiscal reform, and border-tax adjustments were introduced to reduce impacts on competitiveness. However, even in such a policy mix design ongoing ex-ante assessments indicate that the policy mix will be politically difficult to implement – and also fall short of achieving the 80% reduction target. Nonetheless, we suggest combining primary and supportive instruments into coherent and dynamic policy mixes as a promising step towards system reconfigurations for sustainability.
Article
Incinerators reduce urban waste volumes and recover energy by combustion, but produce important quantities of solid wastes: bottom ashes and fly ashes. The presence of toxic heavy metals and persistent organic compounds, both in bottom and in fly ash, require attention for their disposal and for proposed use in cement production or as filling material in road construction. Recent ecotoxicological studies on leachates obtained from ashes produced by urban waste incinerators suggest an urgent proposal of common more stringent regulations in all Union European countries for ashes disposal and use.
Article
This study examines energy recovery, specifically electricity generation, from waste in incineration plants. This study decomposes the incinerator system into waste treatment process and energy generation process via a two-stage network structure. We build a Russell multi-activity network data envelopment analysis (RMNDEA) model considering the weak disposability technology, and measure productivity changes over time and assess the plants’ returns-to-scale. We validate the model with an empirical study of 23 incinerators operating between 2011 and 2020 in Taiwan. Our finding that the waste treatment process itself is the major cause of inefficiency indicates that incinerator operators should reallocate input resources. Throughout the study period, there are minor productivity changes and most plants maintain constant returns-to-scale. However, some incinerators in Southern Taiwan having inefficient scale sizes should be rescaled for productivity improvement. The results validate the need to conduct routine eco-efficiency evaluations of solid waste management (SWM) in incinerators.
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Kyoto University (京都大学) 0048 新制・課程博士 博士(工学) 甲第14148号 工博第2982号 新制/工/1443 26454 UT51-2008-N465 2008-09-24 京都大学大学院工学研究科都市環境工学専攻 (主査)教授 津野 洋, 教授 森澤 眞輔, 教授 酒井 伸一 学位規則第4条第1項該当
Article
This study proposes the use of multi-activity network data envelopment analysis to appraise how incineration plants in Taiwan perform. Sample data from 2006 is used to examine the trade-offs between efficiency enhancement and pollution abatement. The respective efficiencies of the waste treatment and electricity generation are also assessed in a unified framework. The empirical results indicate that it is more important to improve the efficiency of waste treatment activity than of electricity generation activity in order to enhance the overall performance of Taiwan's incinerators. Since ownership, location and length of operations do not in general affect their performance, any improvement has to come from the careful monitoring of each process of the waste treatment operations. Furthermore, given that the policy in Taiwan has moved away from incineration to recycling, the problem of an over-supply of incinerators may become apparent in the near future. Our results indicate that the availability of capacity size may be an important factor when policy-makers consider whether to close down some existing incinerators.
Article
For better implementing extended producer responsibility (EPR), this paper proposes a new environmental management mechanism. It allows producers to shoulder the dual responsibilities of emissions abatement and waste recycling at the lowest possible cost. For this reason, we develop a dual game model that includes a Stackelberg game between a government and manufacturers and a Cournot game between manufacturers in a differentiated product market. Moreover, we draw the following critical management insights through model analysis: (1) There is a joint optimal emissions tax and solid waste tax mechanism to implement extended producer responsibility. (2) The two tax portfolio policies lead to higher pollution reduction, waste recycling, and social welfare. (3) Higher environmental taxes result in a cleaner environment but do not necessarily lead to lower profits for oligopolies. Furthermore, according to different implementation contexts, we propose the optimal adjustment path of the joint optimal emissions tax-waste tax mechanism.
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The production of household waste is characterised by externalities and market failure, where the decision to consume does not consider the environmental impact of consequent waste generated. Policy interventions in the UK have focused primarily on pricing the disposal of waste through a landfill tax. This article tests the effectiveness of landfill taxation on household waste collection and disposal. Using a ridge regression with correction for fixed effects on a panel dataset of English local authorities, we estimate the landfill tax elasticity of waste for a range of waste disposal and collection streams. Results indicate that the landfill tax is elastic at disposal and effective in shifting waste from landfills to incineration. The tax is inelastic at collection, and encourages recycling. Our results indicate that landfill taxation is an important tool to change how waste is disposed by households and local authorities.
Article
Although intra-European trade of combustible waste has grown strongly in the last decade, incineration and landfill taxes remain disparate within Europe. The paper proposes a more coherent taxation approach for Europe that is based on the principle of Pigovian taxation, i.e. the internalization of environmental damage costs. The approach aims to create a level playing field between European regions while reinforcing incentives for sustainable management of combustible waste. Three important policy recommendations emerge. First, integrating waste incineration into the European Emissions Trading System for greenhouse gases (EU ETS) reduces the risk of tax competition between regions. Second, because taxation of every single air pollutant from waste incineration is cumbersome, a differentiated waste incineration tax based on NOx emissions can serve as a second-best instrument. Finally, in order to strengthen incentives for ash treatment, a landfill tax should apply for landfilled incineration residues. An example illustrates the coherence of the policy recommendations for incineration technologies with diverse environmental effects.
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Last few years a subject that includes both the human and the nature has attracted the attention of tax theoreticians and researchers, i.e. Carbon Tax. The work on this subject has been developing in the international literature but in Turkey there is a lack of sufficient study carried out on this subject. The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of Carbon Tax as a means of fiscal policy to reduce the carbon emission. By employing data on 18 European countries over the period of 1995 – 2003, we aim to test econometrically whether Carbon Tax has achieved its aim, or not. Our paper finds out that the use of Carbon Tax has not been effective to reduce the amount of emission.
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Organic waste, which contains essential plant nutrients such as phosphorus, constitutes 30%–50% of municipal solid waste in developed countries. Unfortunately, much of this resource is buried in landfills or incinerated. Many jurisdictions have, therefore, adopted the diversion of organic waste and the recycling of nutrients as policy goals. We used data sets from Europe and Ontario, Canada, to explore the impact of socio-economic and management factors on the rates of organic waste diversion and examined the effect of this diversion on phosphorus recycling. Organic diversion rates were highly correlated with income in Europe and with infrastructure, such as source-separated organic waste collection, in Ontario. Significant correlations were also observed between diversion rates and the use of policy instruments such as economic incentives, legislative organic waste bans, and curbside bag limits. We estimated that 39%–63% of the phosphorus in diverted organics is returned to arable land. Ultimately, we fo...
Article
To quantitatively emphasize the importance of source separation practice, the difference on the MSW composition of the two areas in Bangkok, namely the community with locally source separated of MSW and the Bangkok’s waste transfer center, was comparatively studied. The possibility of material recycling was discussed based on the observed MSW’s data. Results showed that waste generation per capita at the community was significantly lower (39%) than the official reported value due to source separation practice. The portion of plastic waste at transfer station was 60 and 90% higher than that of the community (where source separation activity has been performed) for weekday and weekend, respectively, while the paper waste of NKC was 147 and 211% higher than that of the community for weekday and weekend, respectively. Potential for plastic and paper recycling was 250 and 150 g per day per capita, respectively, and their potential on economic values were 0.33 and 0.18 baht/person/day, respectively.
Article
Effects of radio frequency (RF) heating as a biomass pretreatment process to generate hydrolysates for polyhydroxybuyrate (PHB) were evaluated in all production steps from pretreatment to enzymatic hydrolysis to fermentation. Switchgrass was pretreated under alkaline conditions with RF-assisted heating (traditional water bath (WB) heating as control) and subsequently enzymatically hydrolyzed. Fermentation was conducted with recombinant Escherichia coli strain for PHB production using the hydrolysates as carbon sources with or without yeast extract (YE) supplemented. Results indicated that the hydrolysates generated through RF pretreatment performed consistently better for PHB production than WB (50% higher PHB levels without YE). YE supplementation (up to 5 g/L) enhanced fermentation under all conditions and diminished the difference among performances of fermentations. When adding 2 g/L YE, PHB production increased by 200% and 80% for WB and RF hydrolysates, respectively. Supplementation of 5 g/L YE brought the final PHB concentration to be very close to each other for all three fermentation conditions. Compared to traditional heating process, the unique heating mechanism of RF generates harsher conditions (under regular pressure) to disrupt the biomass structure more completely and generate more nutrients for bacterial fermentation. RF was therefore proved to be an efficient process for biomass pretreatment.
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Currently, large quantities of municipal solid waste (MSW) in many cities of the developing countries are being dumped in informal or formal but unregulated dumpsites that threaten the ecological environment and general public health. The situation in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania is of particular concern and is further challenged by a rapidly growing population and urbanization without adequate waste management systems. Current MSW treatment options have been selected based on the judgment and the experience of individuals with authority while underestimating the role of scientifically derived techniques. This study analyzes the most efficient waste treatment options, particularly scenarios with the lowest economic and environmental costs (EcC and EnC, respectively). It uses 12 years (2006-2017) of MSW management data and compares potential waste treatment options for the identified waste streams. A total of 108 different scenarios were designed, and a multi-criteria analysis method was applied to enable the identification of 11 scenarios with acceptable EcCs and EnCs. These formed an initial decision matrix of aggregation dominance that was then categorized into four groups, each represented by the most ideal point. Finally, the dominant scenario that formed the core for all considered options was found. It costs around $274,100 USD while saving about 1585 metric tons (MT) of CO2 emissions daily. This suggests that after all the MSW generated in the city is collected and segregated, organic waste should be composted whilst plastic, paper, glass, and ferrous metal should be recycled. After treatment, other waste will go to some form of landfill. Sustainable management of MSW in this city and others with similar conditions should consider particular local conditions and could use the methods and the findings of this study as a starting point.
Conference Paper
Under the background of developing low-carbon economy in the world, it has theoretical and reality significance to research the municipal solid waste multiple-recycle treatment system (MSWMRTS) and its benefit. Based on the defining the concept of benefit of MSWMRTS and its component, this paper has structured the inside benefit In-Out table of MSWMRTS and set up the In-Out model of inside benefit through entering the balance item in accordance with Input-Output Analysis. According to the related data of MSW treatment system in Beijing, the author tested and verified the model and obtained the results that the MSW treatment system of Beijing is a higher multiple-recycle system and it has intangible benefit when the system running.
Conference Paper
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Az eldobható pelenkák használatának következménye, hogy csecsemőnként közel egy tonna többlet hulladék keletkezik. Ez évente Magyarországon kb. 100 000 tonna plusz kommunális hulladékot jelent – az eldobható törlőkendőket nem is számítva. A kismamák többsége nincs tudatában annak, hogy gyermekét mennyi hulladékkal indítja útjára, és hogy létezik más megoldás. A textilpelenkával kapcsolatban elavultság, sok gond, kézi mosás és vasalás jut eszükbe. Nyugat-Európában és Észak-Amerikában egyre inkább teret hódítanak a mosható pelenkanadrágok, amelyek felrakása hasonlóan egyszerűen történik, mint az eldobható pelenkáké, csakhogy nem a kukában végzik, hanem a mosógépben újra és újra megtisztulva akár több gyermeket is kiszolgálnak. A mosható pelenkák nemcsak környezetbarát megoldást jelentenek, de csökkentik is a pelenkázás költségeit. Ennek ellenére azok a szülők, akik ismerik a mosható nadrágpelenkákat, gyakran anyagi okok miatt nem döntenek mellette. Inkább választják, hogy havonta új csomagokat vásárolva 5–7000 Ft-onként törlesztgetik az eldobható pelenka sokszor 200 000 Ft fölé kúszó költségeit, minthogy egyszerre kiadjanak 80–100 000 Ft-ot, ami a gyermek teljes pelenkaszükségletét kielégíti. A pelenkák mellett érdemes mosható törlőkendőket és környezetbarát mosószereket (pl. szódabikarbóna, mosódió) használni. Nem túlzás azt mondani, hogy azok a kismamák, akik az egyébként is tiszteletreméltó gyermekvállalás és gyermeknevelés mellett a fentieket is szem előtt tartják, környezettudatos módon szolgálják a fenntartható háztartást és egy kicsit nagyobb horizontra kitekintve a zárt láncú gazdaságot. Jelen tanulmányunkban a mosható és az eldobható pelenkák környezeti hatásait azok életciklus elemzésének segítségével értékeljük. Felvázoljuk a pelenkák életciklus elemzése készítésének és értékelésének legfőbb problémáit. Végül ismertetjük javaslatainkat, amivel háztartási szinten a mosható pelenkák környezetterhelő hatásait még inkább csökkenteni lehet.
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This paper evaluates inter-fuel substitution in the Swedish district heating industry by analyzing almost all the district heating plants in Sweden in the period 1989-2003, specifically those plants incinerating waste. A multi-output plant-specific production function is estimated using panel data methods. A procedure for weighting the elasticities of factor demand to produce a single matrix for the whole industry is introduced. The price of waste is assumed to increase in response to the energy and CO2 tax on waste-to-energy incineration that was introduced in Sweden on 1 July 2006. Analysis of the plants involved in waste incineration indicates that an increase in the net price of waste by 10% is likely to reduce the demand for waste by 4.2%, and increase the demand for bio-fuels, fossil fuels, other fuels and electricity by 5.5%, 6.0%, 6.0% and 6.0%, respectively.
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This paper examines the impact of two popular solid waste programs on the percent recycled of several different materials found in the residential solid waste stream. We examine a unique, national, household-level data set containing information on the percent recycled of five different materials: glass bottles, plastic bottles, aluminum, newspaper, and yard waste. We find that access to curbside recycling has a significant and substantial positive effect on the percentage recycled of all five materials and that the level of this effect varies across different materials. The length of the recycling program’s life has a significant and positive effect on two of the five materials and a mandatory recycling requirement does not affect any materials. The level of the unit price has an insignificant effect on all five materials.
Article
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When people make donations to privately provided public goods, such as charity, there may be many factors influencing their decision other than altruism. Social pressure, guilt, sympathy, or simply a desire for a "warm glow" may all be important. This paper considers such impure altruism formally and develops a wide set of implications. In particular, this paper discusses the invariance proposition of public goods, solves for the sufficient conditions for neutrality to hold, examines the optimal tax treatment of charitable giving, and calibrates the model based on econometric studies in order to consider policy experiments. Impure altruism is shown to be more consistent with observed patterns of giving than the conventional pure altruism approach, and to have policy implications that may differ widely from those of the conventional models. Copyright 1990 by Royal Economic Society.
Article
Do households' recycling efforts represent a social cost, which should be taken into account in cost-benefit analyses of alternative waste treatment systems? Some argue that it should not, since recycling efforts are to a large extent voluntary. We demonstrate that if the government can indirectly increase voluntary recycling efforts through appeals to the public or through similar means, then the use of these means does impose a cost on households. This cost can be higher or lower than the environmental gain resulting from the increased recycling. Norwegian data indicates a willingness to pay to let others take over the individual's sorting of household waste corresponding to a cost of about USD 87 per tonne, which is significant compared to the total treatment costs.
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This research examines how each of the design variables associated with the design of residential curbside recycling programs affects the participation rate, as well as the effect of interactions between the variables. The evaluation of each design variable includes a literature review and an analysis of the results of six published surveys of curbside recycling programs. The results of this research show that there is no single ideal design for residential curbside recycling programs, but that a variety of combinations of design variables have proven to be successful. This suggests that when designing a recycling program, the costs, needs and goals of the community should be significant factors while taking into consideration the effect of some design variable options on participation. Based on these results, four residential curbside recycling programs were designed: two to maximize participation rates without significant regard to cost; and the other two with the goal of achieving a balance between participation rate and program cost.
Article
In the City of Jaslo (Poland), a separate household waste collection system was introduced in 1993. Although the system was extensively promoted, quality and quantity of recyclables remained low. The City Council looked at alternative ways of increasing residents’ participation in the City's integrated waste management services. The UK approach to public education (‘the Recycling Roadshow’ programme) has been modified and adopted by the City. The programme is based on visiting as many households as possible by home advisors-individuals selected from the local secondary schools and carefully trained in MSW management and communication principles. Home advisors inform residents about the local waste recycling system, conduct a short survey and provide people with specific educational materials. To date, advisors have visited 14% of the City's households including the tenement block estates. The survey results show that nearly 75% of respondents actively recycled at least one type of scrap material, whilst of those that did not, 50% claimed they would. The educational campaign produced not only an increase in recycled tonnage, but also in material types and recycling rates from both the tenement block estates and the private housing areas of the City. The impact varied for the different materials in the domestic waste stream, with the greatest improvement in paper recycling, and a significantly lower impact for glass. The City Council was so pleased with the campaign results that it has decided to extend the programme and the funding for another year. This paper discusses in detail the programme and the results achieved. Recommendation are made regarding those features of the campaign that need to be included in other local MSW management campaigns and programmes across Poland in order to maximise their effectiveness.
Article
In 1990 the UK Government introduced a ‘challenging target of recycling 50% of household waste by the end of the century’. However, the success of local authority recycling programmes is reliant upon the participation of residents in the services provided. Traditional approaches (including leaflet drops and newspaper adverts) to communicating local authority services to the public have generally provided long-term educational benefits without offering the necessary short-term gains required to achieve the UK recycling target. In an attempt to increase low public awareness and participation the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea decided that effective promotion, through a door-to-door communications strategy, was the only means available to increase recycling tonnage and public participation in their doorstep recycling service. The Recycling Roadshow was launched to bring the recycling service and its message of ‘reduce, re-use, recycle’ to every doorstep in the borough. This awareness campaign has increased average weekly recycling tonnage from 107 to 132 tonnes, and this success is attributed to greater participation resulting from the promotional activities of the Roadshow and more effective participation with residents recycling a greater range of their household materials. Clearly the Roadshow is a useful additional marketing tool, which conceptually marks a major rethink in the way that recycling is perceived, placing recycling at the heart of an integrated waste management strategy. The research suggests that this style of communication can form a central and cost-effective approach to raising public participation, and supportive data will be presented in this paper. The details of the programme, the Borough’s decisions prior to and during the implementation of this programme, its impact and long-term success will be analysed in more detail within this paper.
Article
This research examines how each of the design variables associated with the design of residential curbside recycling programs affects the participation rate, as well as the effect of interactions between the variables. The evaluation of each design variable includes a literature review and an analysis of the results of six published surveys of curbside recycling programs. The results of this research show that there is no single ideal design for residential curbside recycling programs, but that a variety of combinations of design variables have proven to be successful. This suggests that when designing a recycling program, the costs, needs and goals of the community should be significant factors while taking into consideration the effect of some design variable options on participation. Based on these results, four residential curbside recycling programs were designed: two to maximize participation rates without significant regard to cost; and the other two with the goal of achieving a balance between participation rate and program cost.
Article
Households’ recycling effort is often argued to be of an insignificant size. It is also frequently argued that this contribution, if significant, is not a cost to households, since it is voluntary. Thus households’ use of time and energy are frequently disregarded in cost-benefit analyses of stricter recycling targets. In this survey, based on 1162 interviews, we find that sorting at source involves significant extra use of time and energy in the households. On average, each of those asked reported that they use close to half an hour a week for cleaning, sorting and transporting recyclable waste. On average, 185 h is used per tonne of waste. Four out of ten reported that they use warm or hot water to clean the materials. When investigating the motives for sorting waste, we find that many perceive sorting as mandatory, while some in fact find it a pleasant activity in itself. Moral motives for sorting at source are also widespread. A majority would prefer that a company took over the sorting if this were possible, and on average, the respondents are willing to pay US$ 20/year for this service.
Article
Most Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) research has been preoccupied with SEA as a procedure and there are relatively few developments and tests of analytical methodologies. This paper applies and tests an analytical framework for an energy sector SEA. In a case study on a policy proposal for waste-to-energy taxation in Sweden, it studies changes in the energy system as a result of implementing the suggested tax by testing three analytical pathways: an LCA pathway, a site-dependent pathway, and a qualitative pathway. In addition, several valuation methods are applied. The assessment indicates that there are some overall environmental benefits to introducing a tax, but that benefits are modest compared to the potential. The methods are discussed in relation to characteristics for effective policy learning and knowledge uptake. The application shows that in many ways they complement each other rather than substitute for each other. The qualitative pathway is useful for raising awareness and getting a comprehensive view of environmental issues, but has limited potential for decision support. The precision increased as we went to LCA and to site-dependent analysis, and a hierarchy emerged in which the qualitative pathway filled rudimentary functions whereas the site-dependent analysis gave more advanced decision support. All methods had limited potential in supporting a choice between alternatives unless data was aggregated through a valuation exercise.
Article
In the present paper, the validity of the waste hierarchy for treatment of solid waste is tested. This is done by using the tool life cycle assessment on recycling, incineration with heat recovery and landfilling of recyclable waste for Swedish conditions. A waste hierarchy suggesting the environmental preference of recycling over incineration over landfilling is found to be valid as a rule of thumb. There are however assumptions and value choices that can be made that make landfilling more preferable. This is the case for some waste fractions and for some of the environmental impacts studied when only a limited time period is considered. When transportation of waste by passenger car from the households is assumed for the other treatment options but not for landfilling, landfilling also gains in preference in some cases. The paper concludes that assumptions made including value choices with ethical aspects are of importance when ranking waste treatment options. Uncertainties related to the assessment of toxicological impacts can also influence the conclusions.
Article
Recycling of waste materials has been analysed from a life cycle perspective in a number of studies over the past 10–15 years. Publications comparing the global warming impact and total energy use of recycling versus incineration and landfilling were reviewed in order to find out to what extent they agree or contradict each other, and whether there are generally applicable conclusions to be drawn when certain key factors are considered. Four key factors with a significant influence on the ranking between recycling, incineration, and landfilling were identified. Producing materials from recycled resources is often, but not always, less energy intensive and causes less global warming impact than from virgin resources. For non-renewable materials the savings are of such a magnitude, that apparently the only really crucial factor is what material is replaced. For paper products, however, the savings of recycling are much smaller. The ranking between recycling and incineration of paper is sensitive to for instance paper quality, energy source avoided by incineration, and energy source at the mill.
Article
The capacity for waste incineration in Swedish municipalities is increasing due to regulations aimed at decreasing landfill with waste. This has a large impact on the municipal energy systems, since waste is an important fuel for district heating production. The object of this study is a municipality, Skövde, which is planning to build a waste incineration plant to produce electricity and heat. The municipality is also planning to extend the district heating grid to include a large industrial heat consumer. The economic effect on the energy system of these measures is analysed as well as environmental effects in terms of carbon dioxide emissions. The consequences of two different policy instruments, green electricity certificates and a tax on waste incineration, are also studied. Economic optimisations show that the advantage of co-operation with industry is twofold: lower heat production costs and a considerable reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. It is economically feasible to invest in a waste incineration plant for heat production. An important measure to lower carbon dioxide emissions is to introduce combined heat and power production on the assumption that locally produced electricity replaces electricity produced by coal condensing power.
Article
Instruments to reduce waste can be divided into three groups: first, pecuniary incentives; second, service level; finally, measurements stimulating prevention and waste reduction. Also specific characteristics of the community determine the amount of waste generated. We evaluate whether findings in literature on effectiveness of policy measures are valid for Belgium, specifically for the Flemish region. The policy mix instituted by the Flemish authorities in the ‘implementation plan household waste 2003–2007’ and implemented by local authorities, is assessed. Multiple regression analysis identifies those measurements having the greatest impact on household solid waste.We found an income elasticity of 0.326. Also the provided service level has a significant impact. Pecuniary incentives are effective instruments in reducing waste, with a price elasticity of −0.139. Furthermore, a higher percentage of direct costs, directly attributable to waste services, borne by households, reduces waste. A consequent implementation of the ‘polluter pays’ principle proves to be effective.
Article
This paper analyzes households' perceptions of recycling activities in a municipality in northern Sweden, Piteå. The purpose of the paper is to analyze whether moral motives matter for the assessment of households' waste sorting costs. Data were gathered using a mail-out survey to 850 randomly chosen individuals in the municipality of Piteå, Sweden. We employ an economic model of moral motivation and econometric techniques. The main result that follows from the analysis is that the results support the notion that moral motives significantly lower the costs associated with household recycling efforts.
Article
In 1989 Canada established a national goal; divert 50 percent of the nation's municipal solid waste from disposal by 2000. The province of Nova Scotia was the first and only province to achieve this goal. In the early 1990s, Nova Scotia relied on substandard land-based disposal, incineration, and open burning. Pollution prevention was minimal. In 1995, Nova Scotia adopted a comprehensive, province-wide strategy based on pollution prevention to fundamentally change its historical approach and to achieve the diversion goal. The strategy has been effective, has achieved substantial environmental benefits, and program costs are comparable to other North American systems. This paper examines and analyzes the strategy and its current construct to assess whether the Nova Scotia strategy is a model program worthy of consideration at national and other sub-national levels.
Article
This paper reviews European household waste management schemes and provides an insight into their effectiveness in reducing or diverting household waste. The paper also considers the feasibility of replicating such schemes in England. Selected case studies include those implemented using variable charging schemes, direct regulation and household incentivisation (reduced disposal charges). A total of 15 case studies were selected from developed countries in the EU where some schemes have operated for more than a decade. Criteria for assessing the effectiveness and replicability of schemes were developed using scheme progress towards targets, response time, compatibility with government policy, ease of administration and operation, and public acceptance as attributes. The study demonstrates the capability of these schemes to significantly reduce household waste and suggests changes to allow their possible adoption in England. One of the main barriers to their adoption is the Environmental Protection Act, 1990 that prevents English local authorities (LAs) from implementing the variable charging method for household waste management. This barrier could be removed through a change in legislation. The need to derive consistent data and standardise the method of measuring the effectiveness of schemes is also highlighted.
Article
This paper analyzes the impact of two popular solid waste programs on the percent recycled of several different materials found in the residential solid waste stream. We examine a unique, household-level data set representing middle and upper-middle income groups in 20 metropolitan statistical areas across the country and containing information on the percent recycled of five different materials: glass bottles, plastic bottles, aluminum, newspaper, and yard waste. We find that access to curbside recycling has a significant positive effect on the percentage recycled of all five materials and that the level of this effect varies across different materials. The length of the recycling program's life also has a significant positive effect on two materials. Making recycling mandatory has an insignificant effect on all five materials. The level of the unit price is insignificant in our regressions, but the effect of unit pricing on recycling activity remains unclear.
Article
Different waste treatment options for municipal solid waste have been studied in a systems analysis. Different combinations of incineration, materials recycling of separated plastic and cardboard containers, and biological treatment (anaerobic digestion and composting) of biodegradable waste, were studied and compared to landfilling. The evaluation covered use of energy resources, environmental impact and financial and environmental costs. In the study, a calculation model (Orware) based on methodology from life cycle assessment (LCA) was used. Case studies were performed in three Swedish municipalities: Uppsala, Stockholm, and Älvdalen.The study shows that reduced landfilling in favour of increased recycling of energy and materials lead to lower environmental impact, lower consumption of energy resources, and lower economic costs. Landfilling of energy-rich waste should be avoided as far as possible, partly because of the negative environmental impacts from landfilling, but mainly because of the low recovery of resources when landfilling.Differences between materials recycling, nutrient recycling and incineration are small but in general recycling of plastic is somewhat better than incineration and biological treatment somewhat worse.When planning waste management, it is important to know that the choice of waste treatment method affects processes outside the waste management system, such as generation of district heating, electricity, vehicle fuel, plastic, cardboard, and fertiliser.
Article
A new system of waste collection and source separation is reported. Its introduction has precipitated immediate reductions of 55% of waste going to landfill (from 18.1 kg per household per week to 8.2 kg per household per week). The CROWN scheme, set up by Wealden District Council, uses a ‘green’ wheelie bin for compostable materials and a ‘black’ wheelie bin for other wastes which are collected on alternate weeks only. A kerbside recyclates box is also provided for papers and metals. This replaces a simple kerbside scheme and analysis of the waste before and after the change also shows that the amount of waste in the recyclates boxes and participation rates for its use have increased.
Article
This paper analyses whether differences in selective waste collection systems used commonly in Europe and America influence people's recycling habits and their opinions about the service they are offered. We study certain characteristics of the collection systems used in two specific areas-the Principality of Asturias (Northern Spain) and El Paso county (USA)-with very different practices. It likewise considers the extent to which such differences influence the recycling habits of the public at large, as well as their perceptions of the waste collection services. In order to carry out the research and to compare the influence of the above-mentioned factors in each case, personal interviews were held in the street in the two areas under study (1066 and 1068 interviews, respectively). Asturians needed less time to dispose of waste and separate items, being one of the reasons why this group has developed the habit of selective separation to a greater degree than El Pasoans.
Article
People choose to participate in recycling for a variety of reasons. This study analyzes the relationship between the frequency of selective separation and general refuse disposal, and the influence on the recycling habit of the walking distance to drop off the materials. The methodology employed was one of personal interviews in the street, the study population being a region in the north of Spain (Principality of Asturias). More than one thousand people participated in this survey carried out in 2002. Five hypotheses related to three variables (the frequency for depositing recycling materials and general refuse, the distance to recycling and general bins, and the recycling habit) were tested using different statistical tests. Results show that the people who frequently go to the bins to dispose of general refuse are more likely to recycle some product at home, and in most cases, as the distance to the recycling bins decreases, the number of fractions that citizens separate and collect at home increases. Most of the results obtained have been compared with other previous in literature.
Article
Composition and quantity per person of municipal solid waste (MSW) have been analyzed in six municipalities in southern Sweden with similar socio-economic conditions but with different collection systems. Samples of residual waste have been sorted, classified and weighed in 21 categories during 26 analyses that took place from 1998-2004. Collection data of the total waste flow, including source sorted recycling materials, in the same area have been compiled and compared. Multivariate data analyses have been applied. Weight-based billing reduced delivered amounts of residual household waste by 50%, but it is unknown to what extent improper material paths had developed. With curbside collection more metal, plastic and paper packaging was separated and left to recycling. When separate collection of biodegradables was included in the curbside system, the overall sorting of dry recyclables increased. The large uncertainty associated with waste composition analyses makes it difficult to draw strong conclusions regarding the effects on specific recyclables or the changes in the composition of the residual waste.
Samhällsekonomisk jämförelse av bringsystem och fastighetsnära system för insamling av glas (Comparison of the social costs of bring system and kerbside collection system for collection of glass)
  • E Eriksson
  • V Börjesson
  • E Ringström
  • M Ljunggren-Söderman
Eriksson E, Börjesson V, Ringström E, Ljunggren-Söderman M. Samhällsekonomisk jämförelse av bringsystem och fastighetsnära system för insamling av glas (Comparison of the social costs of bring system and kerbside collection system for collection of glass). Göteborg, Sweden: CIT Ekologik AB; 2001 (in Swedish).
¨ Oversiktlig samhä utvä av anvä pappersfö (Analysis of the social costs of used paper packaging). Gö, Sweden: CIT Ekologik AB
  • T Ekvall
Ekvall T, Bä P. ¨ Oversiktlig samhä utvä av anvä pappersfö (Analysis of the social costs of used paper packaging). Gö, Sweden: CIT Ekologik AB; 2001 (in Swedish).
Jättekompost gick i konkurs efter tio år (Large compost facility goes bankrupt after 10 years) (in Swedish)
  • Ny Teknik
Ny Teknik, 2003-05-14. Jättekompost gick i konkurs efter tioår (Large compost facility goes bankrupt after 10 years) (in Swedish); 2003.
On the costs of the households' recycling efforts. Discussion paper 275. Oslo, Norway: Statistics Norway ¨ Oversiktlig samhä analys av producentansvaret (Analysis of the social costs of the Producer Responsibility Ordinance)
  • A Bruvoll
  • Nyborg
  • P Bä
  • Ringströ E E Eriksson
  • K Andersson
  • Svensson
Bruvoll A, Nyborg K. On the costs of the households' recycling efforts. Discussion paper 275. Oslo, Norway: Statistics Norway; 2002. Bä P, Eriksson E, Ringströ E, Andersson K, Svensson R. ¨ Oversiktlig samhä analys av producentansvaret (Analysis of the social costs of the Producer Responsibility Ordinance). REFORSK Report 158. Malmö, Sweden: REFORSK Foundation; 2001 (in Swedish).
The costs of alternative policies for paper and plastic waste Statistics Norway; 1998. Bruvoll A, Halvorsen B, Nyborg K. Households' recycling efforts
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