Sex differences in sleep and sleep-dependent learning in abstinent cocaine users
Department of Psychiatry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior
(Impact Factor: 2.78).
07/2009; 93(1):54-58. DOI: 10.1016/j.pbb.2009.04.006
Sleep and sleep-dependent learning are impaired in male cocaine users during abstinence, but for female users little is known. Cocaine dependent men (n = 12) and women (n = 14), and control participants (n = 19) participated in this study of sleep and sleep-dependent learning. Cocaine users were assessed at 3, 10 and 20 days of abstinence and controls were studied over one night. Total sleep time, sleep efficiency and overnight motor learning were the main outcome measures. Cocaine dependent men compared to women exhibited deteriorations in sleep time, sleep efficiency, and overnight learning as abstinence progressed from 3 to 20 days. At abstinence day 3, cocaine dependent men and women were no different than control participants in the main outcomes. However, there were significant differences between cocaine men at abstinence day 20 and controls in sleep time and sleep-dependent learning, but no differences between controls and cocaine dependent women. There is growing evidence that sleep disturbances are associated with cocaine abuse and abstinence and have functional consequences that may be relevant to the development of effective treatments. The absence of sleep disturbances in women suggests a need to understand the mechanisms underlying these differences, as such knowledge could lead to novel therapies in cocaine dependence.
Available from: David Matuskey
- "Despite having only five females in this sample, gender related differences were found with females having longer total sleep time and REM sleep time compared to their male counterparts. This is the first polysomnographic evidence of a gender difference in sleep in cocaine dependence and is consistent with non-polysomnographic findings (Morgan et al., 2009). While this finding should be confirmed in a larger sample, such differences, if real, could be significant in determining future sleep-related treatment options. "
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ABSTRACT: To describe the sleep patterns of early cocaine abstinence in chronic users by polysomnographic and subjective measures.
28 cocaine-dependent participants (ages 24-55) underwent polysomnographic sleep (PSG) recording on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd weeks of abstinence on a research dedicated inpatient facility. Objective measures of total sleep time, total REM time, slow wave sleep, sleep efficiency and a subjective measure (sleep quality) along with demographic data were collected from three different long term research studies over a five year period. Data were reanalysed to allow greater statistical power for comparisons.
Progressive weeks of abstinence had main effects on all assessed PSG sleep measures showing decreased total sleep time, REM sleep, stages 1 and 2 sleep, and sleep efficiency; increases in sleep onset and REM latencies and a slight increase in slow-wave sleep time were also present. Total sleep time and slow wave sleep were negatively associated with years of cocaine use. Total sleep time was positively associated with the amount of current ethanol use. Sex differences were found with females having more total REM time and an increase at a near significance level in slow wave sleep. Subjective measures were reported as improving with increasing abstinence over the same time period.
Chronic cocaine users show a general deterioration in objective sleep measures over a three-week period despite an increase in subjective overall sleep quality providing further evidence for "occult insomnia" during early cocaine abstinence.
Available from: Peter Cistulli
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed to explore the effect of mandibular advancement splints (MAS) on upper airway anatomy during wakefulness in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Patients commencing treatment for OSA with MAS were recruited. Response to treatment was defined by a >or=50% reduction in the apnoea/hypopnoea index. Nasopharyngoscopy was performed in the supine position. Nasopharyngoscopy was performed in 18 responders and 17 nonresponders. Mandibular advancement caused an increase in the calibre of the velopharynx (mean+/- sem +40+/-10%), with relatively minor changes occurring in the oropharynx and hypopharynx. An increase in cross-sectional area of the velopharynx with mandibular advancement occurred to a greater extent in responders than nonresponders (+56+/-16% versus +22+/-13%; p<0.05). Upper airway collapse during the Müller manoeuvre, relative to the baseline cross-sectional area, was greater in nonresponders than responders in the velopharynx (-94+/-4% versus -69+/-9%; p<0.01) and oropharynx (-37+/-6% versus -16+/-3%; p<0.01). When the Müller manoeuvre was performed with mandibular advancement, airway collapse was greater in nonresponders than responders in the velopharynx (-80+/-11% versus +9+/-37%; p<0.001), oropharynx (-36+/-6% versus -20+/-5%; p<0.05) and hypopharynx (-64+/-6% versus -42+/-6%; p<0.05). These results indicate that velopharyngeal calibre is modified by MAS treatment and this may be useful for predicting treatment response.
Available from: Luca Tomaello
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ABSTRACT: Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are increasingly employed in patients affected by congestive heart failure (CHF) and sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is frequent in this population.
To investigate SDB prevalence and influence on appropriate ICD discharges in CHF patients.
A total of 22 consecutive ICD patients with systolic CHF (left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF]< 45%) were studied by polysomnography.
A total of 17 (77.2%) showed SDB (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI]_ 10 events/hour). After controlling for LVEF and New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, AHI and severity of hypoxia during sleep results correlated to appropriate ICD discharges (r = 0.718; P < .001, r = - 0.619; P = .003, respectively).
Sleep disordered breathing is frequent in ICD recipients due to left systolic ventricular dysfunction and may increase the risk of ventricular arrhythmia and appropriate ICD discharges.
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