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Commercial extract of the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum enhances phenolic antioxidant content of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) which protects Caenorhabditis elegans against oxidative and thermal stress

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Commercial extract of the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum enhances phenolic antioxidant content of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) which protects Caenorhabditis elegans against oxidative and thermal stress

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... Recently several studies have used seaweed extracts as biostimulants to enhance plant growth and development (Khan et al. 2009;Borlongan et al. 2011;Di Stasio et al. 2017). The beneficial effects of seaweed extracts on cultured plants are well documented (Rayirath et al. 2008;Fan et al. 2011;Mansori et al. 2016;Ali et al. 2019Ali et al. , 2021. The extracts of seaweeds are highly organic; therefore, they are ideal for organic farming and the production of environmentally sensitive crops (Ali et al. 2021). ...
... The extracts of seaweeds are highly organic; therefore, they are ideal for organic farming and the production of environmentally sensitive crops (Ali et al. 2021). Seaweed extracts have been noted to enhance vegetative propagation and root vigor, increase leaf chlorophyll content and the number of leaves, improve fruit yield, and enhance the flavonoid content of treated plants (van Staden et al. 1995;Blunden et al. 1996;Rayirath et al. 2008;Fan et al. 2011;Mansori et al. 2016). The seaweed liquid extract of Ulva rigida has been used to enhance the antioxidant potential and drought tolerance of a medicinal plant, Salvia officinalis (Mansori et al. 2016). ...
... Seaweed extracts have been reported to have positive effects on plant growth, yield and quality, pest and disease resistance, and environmental stress tolerance (Khan et al. 2009;Fan et al. 2011;Danesh et al. 2012;Lakshmi and Sheeja 2021). In the present study, the use of the Ascophyllum seaweed extract resulted in significant decreases in the percent coverage of the epiphytes in G. fisheri. ...
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Gracilaria fisheri is an important red seaweed on the sea coast of Thailand. Cultivation of this seaweed has brought economic benefits to the farmers in this country. However, its low growth and quality are problematic due to high contamination and epiphyte outbreaks. This study was performed to examine the growth and epiphytic responses of G. fisheri to Ascophyllum seaweed extract (SE). The algal samples were treated with SE at different concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1 g SE L–1). Three sets of experiments were conducted in the laboratory under controlled culture conditions of salinity of 30‰, temperature of 25–26°C, and light intensity of 200 μmol photons m–2 s–1. The algal samples were soaked for 30 min in SE alone (Experiment 1), in Provasoli Enriched Seawater (PES)+SE (Experiment 2), and in PES+SE with a 5% CO2 supplement (Experiment 3). The results showed a significant reduction in epiphytes (>90%) in the sample after one week of treatment with 1 g SE L-1. The use of SE significantly stimulated the branching of G. fisheri (p < 0.05). In comparison to the control plant (PES), the growth rate of the samples treated with PES+0.1 g SE L-1 was 3.40 ± 0.51% day-1 in the first week of culture, and this was increased to 3.84 ± 0.63% day-1 in the samples treated with PES+1 g SE L–1. The growth rate was significantly increased to 5.46 ± 1.05% day-1 in the samples treated with PES+1 g SE L-1 with a 5% CO2 supplement. This study suggested that the use of the Ascophyllum seaweed extract could inhibit epiphytic attachment and that supplementation with 5% CO2 resulted in enhanced growth of G. fisheri under controlled culture conditions.
... When A. nodosumbased extracts were applied to grapevine under water-deficit conditions, treated plants exhibited increased accumulation of proline, abscisic acid (ABA), total phenolics as well as enhanced activity of antioxidant system that may play a role in improved tolerance to drought stress (Irani et al., 2021). Application of A. nodosum extracts in root medium could also be beneficial for soilinhabiting animals, as root treatment of Spinacia oleracea plants with A. nodosum extracts considerably increased the survival rate of nematodes by 50% and stimulated flavonoid synthesis to improve nutritional quality under oxidative stress conditions (Fan et al., 2011). Extracts from A. nodosum applied to broccoli plants elevated the uptake of nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn), which were associated with improved nutritional quality and general protective effect under drought stress (Kałuzėwicz et al., 2018). ...
... The results suggested that K-sapmediated increased expression of N metabolismrelated transcripts may lead to higher N content in all plant parts, including grains under limited soil moisture conditions. Further studies showed that the plants treated with seaweed extracts exhibited high concentration of bioactive molecules such as antioxidant enzymes as well as mineral nutrients (Aziz et al., 2011;Fan et al., 2011). ...
Chapter
Plant biostimulants (BS), also termed bioeffectors, are viable microorganisms or active natural compounds applied to stimulate growth, nutrients uptake and stress tolerance in crop plants. The agricultural use of BS is discussed as a sustainable and resource-efficient approach to make optimal use of the biological potential that supports soil fertility, plant health and stress resilience of crops, contributing to profitable and sustained yield level. The use of BS-containing products (e.g. plant-beneficial microbes, seaweed, plant and compost extracts, protein hydrolysates, peptides, chitosan, and humic acids) as commercial formulations to enhance stress tolerance in plants provides a continuously increasing market potential with current annual growth rates of 12%. However, although the principal effectiveness of BS products is well documented, limited reproducibility of the expected effects, particularly under field conditions, still remains a major challenge. Therefore, it is essential to understand the physiological and functional basis of BS and their interactions in complex environments to get maximum benefit from these biological agents. This chapter provides a broad overview of the bio-protective effects of BS with the aim to make agriculture more sustainable and resilient to water limitations and salt stress. The positive effects of BS on physiological and metabolic events such as photosynthetic activity, phytohormonal balances, acquisition of nutrients and scavenging of reactive oxygen species to strengthen the defense mechanisms in water and salt-stressed plants are reviewed and discussed.
... Figures 1 and 2 show a positive correlation of A. nodosum with the doses of PAL. Fan et al. (2011), observed higher phenolic content associated with the higher doses of A. nodosum extract in spinach, which was assigned to higher antioxidant capacity due to increased activity of antioxidant enzymes. Sogvar et al. (2016) observed that anthocyanin content increased in strawberries submitted to AV application during storage. ...
... The positive effects of biostimulants on ecophysiology and their performance in secondary metabolism, demonstrated in some studies (Khan et al., 2009;Fan et al., 2011Fan et al., , 2014, are explained by the presence of bioactive compounds, such as peptides and phenolics. However, the mode of action of the biostimulating molecules present in algae extracts remains largely unknown. ...
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In viticulture, various techniques can be used to improve productivity, tolerance to biotic or abiotic stress, the quality of grapes and wines such as the use of plant regulators and biostimulants. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of application of abscisic acid (S-ABA), Ascophyllum nodosum (A. nodosum) seaweed extract and Aloe vera (A. vera) gel on phenolic composition and chromatic characteristics of grapes from the 'Cabernet Sauvignon' variety. The experiment was conducted in a commercial vineyard in Campo Largo - Paraná, in two consecutive seasons, 2017/18 and 2018/19, involving the following treatments: 1) control; 2) (S-ABA) 400 mg/L; 3) S- ABA 600 mg/L; 4) A. vera gel 200 mL/L; 5) A. vera gel 400 mL/L; 6) seaweed extract 0.2 mL/L; 7) seaweed extract 0.4 mL/L. Two applications were performed with the seaweed extract and A. gel when the bunches were at veraison stage (50 and 75% of grape berries with coloration). Total anthocyanins content, total polyphenols content and activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase enzymes were assessed in the berries skin. Total anthocyanins, individual anthocyanins and total polyphenol contents as well as lightness, chroma and hue angle were analyzed in the corresponding wines. S-ABA increased the content of anthocyanins and total polyphenols, as well as the activity of PAL in the first season. A. nodosum (AN) seaweed extract increased the total polyphenol content, total anthocyanins content and PAL in the berry skin of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' variety. S-ABA increased the total polyphenol content and anthocyanins in wine, as well as the A. nodosum , in at least one of the evaluated seasons.
... These compounds can also be induced by treatment with various biotic and abiotic stresses, such as chilling, salt, and drought [21][22][23][24]. Moreover, some plant extract treatments can increase the levels of secondary metabolites, such as total phenol and flavonoid contents, which increased significantly after the spinach leaves were treated with an Ascophyllum nodosum extract (1.0 g/L) [25]. Similar previous studies have not measured the degree to which primary or secondary substances might be increased in cucumber plants that receive extract applications, so in our study we measured changes to primary and secondary substances to determine whether or not these applications might also increase the overall nutritional quality of crops. ...
... On the other hand, other extracts, such as onion and tomato extract-treated Peucedanum japonicum leaves, did not produce significantly different total phenol contents [31]. In another study, commercial Ascophyllum nodosum extracts improved the storage quality and flavonoid synthesis, and nutritional quality of the spinach leaf [25,37]. ...
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This study examined the effects of changes to application methods, application time, and combinations of different extracts on the growth and yield of cucumbers. Chlorophyll and photosynthetic efficiency levels in cucumber plants were also measured after receiving treatments of selected liquid fertilizers. Mineral nutrition levels in both extracts themselves and the test plants were measured. Crude protein, crude fat, ash, total phenol and flavonoid contents, and DPPH radical scavenging activity in cucumber were determined. Cucumber plant height and shoot fresh weight at 7 and 14 days after treatments generally increased significantly regardless of the extraction methods or extract materials. On the other hand, cucumber leaf number was similar regardless of the extracts used. The application frequency effects differed according to the extraction methods, extracts, and parameters investigated. In addition, the combinations of extracts did not produce significant increases in cucumber plant growth. Cucumber fruit weight was 17–81%, 10–61%, and 10–45% higher than the control or oil cake when the plants were treated with fermentation, boiled water, and water extracts, respectively. The chlorophyll content and photosynthetic efficiency of cucumber plants treated with various extracts did not vary significantly. Extracts with the highest mineral nutrients were not effective growth promotors of cucumber plants. This means that growth promotion may not be caused by high levels of one specific macro or micro element but by some specific combinations of various elements. Compared to the control, most elements in the cucumber leaves decreased significantly when treated with most of the extracts. Generally, crude protein, crude fat, and ash contents were not negatively affected by the extract treatments. Moreover, most of the extracts did not adversely affect total phenol and flavonoid contents and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Thus, these extracts may be used for growth promotion without negative effects to primary and secondary substances in organically cultivated crop fields.
... For the above reasons, C. elegans has been used as a research model for understanding the metabolic, pathological, and molecular mechanisms associated with the aging process, development of diseases, function, antioxidant capacity, and toxicity of foods, bioactive compounds, and plant extracts [5,6]. Thus, several researchers have established that its lifespan and/or resistance against oxidative stress increased after the exposure to multiple antioxidants, such as vitamin C [6,7], spinach extracts [8], and phenolic compounds, such as quercetin [9] and resveratrol [4]. Furthermore, the short lifespan of C. elegans and its capacity to produce multiple descendants allows to evaluate the effect of bioactive compounds across multiple generations [10]. ...
... Nevertheless, these results revealed the antioxidant potentials of mamey and carrot carotenoids on living organisms through their capacity for singlet oxygen quenching and deactivation of free radicals [1,6,14]. Some researchers point out that the resistance against oxidative stress is enhanced when natural sources of antioxidants, such as orange juice [6], spinach polyphenol extracts [8], or phenolic extracts from marigold flowers (Tagetes erecta) [41] are used instead of pure compounds. This may be attributed to the complex mixture of compounds in the extracts or the food matrix, either enhancing their activity through synergistic interactions or affecting their bioavailability [6,21]. ...
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Carotenoids are natural pigments and antioxidants found in fruits and vegetables such as carrot, tomato, orange, mango, yellow corn, pumpkin, and mamey. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant potential of mamey (Pouteria sapota) carotenoids and compared them to carrot (Daucus carota) carotenoids. The carotenoids were extracted from mamey and carrot, and their antioxidant capacity were determined via in vitro (ABTS method) and in vivo assays (resistance against oxidative stress in Caenorhabditis elegans). The carotenoid contents in mamey and carrot were 4.42 ± 0.12 and 5.47 ± 0.04 mg β-carotene/100 g, respectively. Despite the differences between the carotenoid contents in both products (p < 0.05), the in vitro antioxidant capacity results showed no significant differences between the extracts (p > 0.05). The mamey and carrot carotenoid extracts decreased the oxidative damage in C. elegans by 20-30% and 30-40%, respectively. Both extracts increased the resistance and enhanced the survival of the nematodes, and showed better effects than pure β-carotene, probably owing to the complex mixture in the carotenoid extracts. These results suggest that mamey is a good alternative source of carotenoids and that it protects against oxidative stress in C. elegans. The protective effect of mamey carotenoids was similar to the effect of carrot carotenoids.
... The total cheese and cyclohexane extract conditions were compared to the control condition with amphotericin B and food (CC2) whereas the other conditions were compared to the control condition with food only (CC1). This assay was performed as four independent experiments with three wells per condition and conducted side by side with the control conditions [38,39]. ...
... In some case, solvents such as Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), were added to the medium to dissolve the plant extract. However, their possible toxic effects on the nematode are a concern, as reported by Wang et al. [38,39] supplemented the NGM agar plates directly before incubating the worms. We adapted this second supplementation method to supply the worms with the cheese extracts in a homogeneous way. ...
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With the ever-increasing human lifespan, age-related affections have become a public health issue. The health sector is looking for new bioactive compounds to respond to this demand. The unexplored microbial biodiversity and its metabolites represent a major source of innovative bioactive molecules with health potential. Fermented foods, such as raw-milk cheese, have already been investigated for their rich microbial environment, especially for their organoleptic qualities. But studies remain limited regarding their effects on health and few metabolites of microbial origin have been identified. An efficient methodology was developed in this study to investigate the biological effect of raw-milk cheese, combining a chemical fractionation, to isolate the most metabolites from the cheese matrix, and an in vivo biological test using Caenorhabditis elegans . C . elegans was brought into contact with cheese extracts, obtained by means of chemical fractionation, and with freeze-dried whole cheese by supplementing the nematode growth medium. A longevity assay was performed to evaluate the effects of the extracts on the worms. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of the method developed to bring the worms into contact of the cheese extracts. The evaluation of the effects of the extracts on the longevity was possible. Some extracts showed a beneficial effect as extract W70 for example, obtained with water, which increases the mean lifespan by 16% and extends the longevity by 73% ( p < 0.0001).
... The extraction of total soluble protein was conducted as described (Fan et al., 2011). Leaf tissues were extracted in 0.1 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 8.0), containing 5.0 mM β-mercaptoethanol and 2% (w/v) PVP, and centrifuged at 10,000 × g for 20 min at 4°C. ...
... The results were expressed in mg Trolox equivalents (TE, mg Trolox)/100 g DW through comparison against a Trolox standard curve (25-800 μM), which was conducted in parallel. Total phenolic compounds were analyzed as described by Fan et al. (2011), with slight modifications. Fresh maize leaves (0.5 g) were frozen in liquid N 2 and extracted twice with 70% MeOH, after which the supernatant was mixed with 2 N Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. ...
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Soil salinity negatively modulates plant growth and development, contributing to severe decreases in the growth and production of crops. Mucilaginibacter sp. K is a root endophytic bacterium that was previously reported by our laboratory to stimulate growth and confer salt tolerance in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The main purpose of the present study is to elucidate the physiological and molecular machinery responsible for the prospective salt tolerance as imparted by Mucilaginibacter sp. K. We first report that auxin, gibberellin, and MPK6 signalings were required for strain K-induced growth promotion and salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. Then, this strain was assessed as a remediation strategy to improve maize performance under salinity stress. Under normal growth conditions, the seed vigor index, nitrogen content, and plant growth were significantly improved in maize. After NaCl exposure, strain K significantly promoted the growth of maize seedlings, ameliorated decline in chlorophyll content and reduced accretion of MDA and ROS compared with the control. The possible mechanisms involved in salt resistance in maize could be the improved activities of SOD and POD (antioxidative system) and SPS (sucrose biosynthesis), upregulated content of total soluble sugar and ABA, and reduced Na+ accumulation. These physiological changes were then confirmed by induced gene expression for ion transportation, photosynthesis, ABA biosynthesis, and carbon metabolism. In summary, these results suggest that strain K promotes plant growth through increases in photosynthesis and auxin- and MPK6-dependent pathways; it also bestows salt resistance on plants through protection against oxidative toxicity, Na+ imbalance, and osmotic stress, along with the activation of auxin-, gibberellin-, and MPK6-dependent signaling pathways. This is the first detailed report of maize growth promotion by a Mucilaginibacter sp. strain from wild plant. This strain could be used as a favorable biofertilizer and a salinity stress alleviator for maize, with further ascertainment as to its reliability of performance under field conditions and in the presence of salt stress.
... After the addition of these extracts via different techniques, the plants become more resistant to biotic and abiotic stress [134,136]. It was also recognised that the production of specific compounds in plants under study increased, such as the antioxidants produced by spinach after treatment with seaweed extract [137]. ...
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More than 50% of the UK coastline is situated in Scotland under legislative jurisdiction; therefore, there is a great opportunity for regionally focused economic development by the rational use of sustainable marine bio-sources. We review the importance of seaweeds in general, and more specifically, wrack brown seaweeds which are washed from the sea and accumulated in the wrack zone and their economic impact. Rules and regulations governing the harvesting of seaweed, potential sites for harvesting, along with the status of industrial application are discussed. We describe extraction and separation methods of natural products from these seaweeds along with their phytochemical profiles. Many potential applications for these derivatives exist in agriculture, energy, nutrition, biomaterials, waste treatment (composting), pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and other applications. The chemical diversity of the natural compounds present in these seaweeds is an opportunity to further investigate a range of chemical scaffolds, evaluate their biological activities, and develop them for better pharmaceutical or biotechnological applications. The key message is the significant opportunity for the development of high value products from a seaweed processing industry in Scotland, based on a sustainable resource, and locally regulated.
... Layek et al. (2018) reported that 15% K sap application maximized the number of panicles per hill, grain per panicle, and grain and straw yield of rice, being statistically at par with 10% K sap application. The results obtained in the present study are in line with those of other investigators (Fan et al. 2011;Lola-Luz et al. 2014;Kasim et al. 2016) who assumed that the foliar application of seaweed extract could enhance the phytochemical compounds and antioxidant activities and thus enhances the nutritional status of treated plants. Application of K sap improves the root architecture resulting in greater forage area (Vernieri et al. 2005) which indeed helps in better nutrient uptake (Panda et al. 2012). ...
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Field experiments were carried out during winter 2015–2016 and 2016–2017 at research farm of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, West Bengal, India to study the growth, productivity, quality, and profitability of potato (cv. Kufri Jyoti) cultivation as influenced by foliar application of different seaweed extracts, i.e., Kappaphycus alvarezii sap (K sap) and Gracilaria edulis sap (G sap). The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design comprised of two different concentrations (5% and 10%) of each K sap, G sap, and GA3-free K sap, and a control plot (water spray), with three replications. Foliar feeding with 10% K sap along with recommended dose of fertilizer (200 kg N, 150 kg P, and 150 kg K ha⁻¹) brought about significant enhancement in plant height, being statistically similar with 10% G sap. Similar treatment resulted in maximum tuber bulking rate (17.62 and 18.93 g m⁻² day⁻¹ at 50–70 DAP in year 1 and year 2, respectively) and tuber yield (26.37 and 29.77 t ha⁻¹ in year 1 and year 2, respectively), accounting 32.11% and 24.87% yield enhancement over control. Maximum nutrient (N, P, and K) uptake as well as best values of quality traits in terms of ascorbic acid, reducing sugar content, and specific weight of potato tuber was recorded with economically viable treatment having 10% K sap spray. Results suggested that the application of seaweed sap at higher concentration along with the recommended dose of fertilizer was the potential alternative way for better potato production without harming the ecological sustainability.
... Furthermore, the secondary metabolism stimulation could be linked to the modification of the plant nutritional status (indirect effect) [7]. Likewise, as reported by Fan et al. [46], SE of A. nodosum application improved flavonoid concentration in spinachtreated plants compared to the control. Our results also displayed that ascorbic acid and polyphenol concentrations increased as Mo dosage increased. ...
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Seaweed extract (SE) application is a contemporary and sustainable agricultural practice used to improve yield and quality of vegetable crops. Plant biofortification with trace element is recognized as a major tool to prevent mineral malnourishment in humans. Mo deficiency causes numerous dysfunctions, mostly connected to central nervous system and esophageal cancer. The current research was accomplished to appraise the combined effect of Ecklonia maxima brown seaweed extract (SE) and Mo dose (0, 0.5, 2, 4 or 8 µmol L−1) on yield, biometric traits, minerals, nutritional and functional parameters, as well as nitrogen indices of spinach plants grown in a protected environment (tunnel). Head fresh weight (FW), ascorbic acid, polyphenols, N, P, K, Mg and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) were positively associated with SE treatment. Moreover, head FW, head height (H), stem diameter (SD), ascorbic acid, polyphenols, carotenoids as well as NUE indices were enhanced by Mo-biofortification. A noticeable improvement in number of leaves (N. leaves), head dry matter (DM) and Mo concentration in leaf tissues was observed when SE application was combined with a Mo dosage of 4 or 8 µmol L−1. Overall, our study highlighted that E. maxima SE treatment and Mo supply can improve both spinach production and quality via the key enzyme activity involved in the phytochemical homeostasis of SE and the plant nutritional status modification resulting in an enhanced spinach Mo tolerance.
... Consistence with the present findings, PDBs as the foliar application were enhanced the total phenolic contents, antioxidant activity, and nutrient contents of tomato plants compared to the control (Chiaiese et al., 2018). Furthermore, these findings, generally, agreed with those previously reported on spinach and broccoli (Fan et al., 2011;Kałuzewicz et al., 2017), where they concluded that the use of biostimulants enhanced the phenolic content. Foliar application of Si has biostimulation effects, and also, it can be used by plants to augment their defenses against the entrance of toxic ions via the root apoplast (Verma et al., 2021b). ...
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There are many technological innovations in the field of agriculture to improve the sustainability of farmed products by reducing the chemicals used. Uses of biostimulants such as plant extracts or microorganisms are a promising process that increases plant growth and the efficient use of available soil resources. To determine the effects of some biostimulants' treatments on the photosynthetic pigments and biochemicals composition of zucchini plants, two experiments were conducted in 2019 and 2020 under greenhouse conditions. In this work, the effects of beneficial microbes (Trichoderma viride and Pseudomonas fluorescens), as well as three extracts from Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaf extract (LE), Citrus sinensis LE, and Ficus benghalensis fruit extract (FE) with potassium silicate (K2SiO3) on productivity and biochemical composition of zucchini fruits, were assessed as biostimulants. The results showed that E. camaldulensis LE (4,000 mg/L) + K2SiO3 (500 mg/L) and T. viride (106 spore/ml) + K2SiO3 (500 mg/L) gave the highest significance yield of zucchini fruits. Furthermore, the total reading response of chlorophylls and carotenoids was significantly affected by biostimulants' treatments. The combination of K2SiO3 with E. camaldulensis LE increased the DPPH scavenging activity and the total phenolic content of zucchini fruits, in both experiments. However, the spraying with K2SiO3 did not observe any effects on the total flavonoid content of zucchini fruits. Several phenolic compounds were identified via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) from the methanol extracts of zucchini fruits such as syringic acid, eugenol, caffeic acid, pyrogallol, gallic acid, ascorbic acid, ferulic acid, α-tocopherol, and ellagic acid. The main elemental content (C and O) analyzed via energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) of leaves was affected by the application of biostimulants. The success of this work could lead to the development of cheap and easily available safe biostimulants for enhancing the productivity and biochemical of zucchini plants.
... A negative correlation was observed between visual quality and lipid peroxidation. Pre-harvest Ascophyllum nodosum application through root drench, especially at 1.0 g/L, enhanced post-harvest storage quality of spinach leaves [16]. Respiration processes lead to temperature increases, which affect metabolism. ...
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Agriculture could be a solution for climate change by the widespread adoption of mitigation and adaptation actions. This happens with the help of best management practices such as organic fertilizer. The types of organic fertilizer will affect beans’ production and their quality characteristics, both physically and their nutrient content. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of brown algae extracts as organic fertilizer applied to bush beans’ quality. The study was conducted in October 2017, on IVEGRI’s experimental field, Lembang, Indonesia about 1200 m above sea level. The experiment used 10 treatments and 3 replications), which were a variation dose of NPK and Liquid Organic Fertilizer (LOF). The physical and chemical characteristics of testing consisted of length, diameter, texture, water content, TSS, fibre, and vitamin C. The quantitative and qualitative analyses were used to determine the beans’ shelf life. Freshness test parameters were consisting of colour, texture, and appearance. Panelists provided a score of 1 (strongly like) to 5 (strongly dislike). Data were statistically analysed, followed by Tukey’s test (5%). The results showed that LOF with standard NPK dosage can increase vitamin C and fiber content of bush beans. Higher LOF dose usage can reduce the change rate of bush beans’ quality on shelf life. LOF from brown algae can reduce the chemical fertilizers used in the soil, so it will slowly create environmentally friendly vegetable production.
... Similar trends were noted in our study for lettuce plants supplemented with SWE foliar application at 3 g L −1 . The achieved results were in accordance with Mancuso, et al. [60], Shehata, et al. [61], Fan, et al. [62], and Kulkarni, et al. [63]. They confirmed that the application of SWE led to an increase in the leaf total chlorophyll content of treated plants, consequently reflected in the capacity and efficiency of the photosynthetic process. ...
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Beneficial plant–microbe interaction for enhancing crop yield and quality is a sustainable way to achieve eco-friendly, desirable agricultural productions. The main objective of this experiment was to evaluate the individual and combined effects of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) strain (Funneliformis mosseae) and a seaweed extract (SWE) derived from Ascophyllum nodosum, on the growth and physiological responses of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Lettuce plants were inoculated with commercial AMF inoculum (5 g kg−1 soil), and SWE foliar application was done at three levels (0.5, 1.5, and 3 g L−1). The findings revealed that AMF along with SWE generated the greatest impact. In fact, co-application of AMF inoculation and 3 g L−1 SWE considerably enhanced root colonization, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoids, and mineral content in the shoots and roots (N, P, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, and Mn content) of lettuce plants. This combination improved initial fluorescence (F0), photochemical efficiency of PSII (FV/Fm) and Y(NO) and total antioxidant activity (TAA), whereas the maximum fluorescence, (Fm) and Y(II), showed the highest increase in lettuce plants treated with AMF and 1.5 g L−1 SWE. Furthermore, AMF inoculation along with SWE, at concentrations 1.5 and 3 g L−1, considerably enhanced variable fluorescence (FV) and the activity of water decomposition in electron donor photosystem II (FV/F0). As a result of these findings, it can be stated that the co-application of AMF and SWE positively improves the growth and development of lettuce plants.
... Unprocessed A. nodosum and its alkaline extracts have been widely used as a biostimulant in terrestrial agricultural production for a wide variety of crop species (MacKinnon et al., 2010;Craigie, 2011;Spann and Little, 2011). Other authors have reported on the direct benefits from applications of various extracts of seaweeds on crop performance such as (a) enhanced root vigor (Crouch and Van Staden, 1992), (b) increased leaf chlorophyll content (Blunden et al., 1996), (c) increased number of leaves (Rayirath et al., 2008), (d) improved fruit yield (Arthur et al., 2003;Kumar and Sahoo, 2011;Kumari et al., 2011), (e) heightened flavonoid content (Fan et al., 2011), and (f) enhanced vegetative propagation (Leclerc et al., 2006). However, more substantial and significant improvements associated with the applications of extracts of seaweeds include improved tolerances toward abiotic stresses, including drought (Shukla et al., 2018;Zhang and Ervin, 2004;Spann and Little, 2011), salinity (Shukla et al., 2019), ion toxicity (Mancuso et al., 2006), freezing stress , and high temperature (Zhang and Ervin, 2008). ...
Chapter
Biostimulants, in general, and seaweed extracts, in particular, have been progressively accepted into agronomic programs over the past 25 years. Products that were once considered “snake oil” or ineffective elixirs have steadily secured increasingly larger portions of the agricultural products market. This progression only occurred through collective and concerted efforts to analyze and fully investigate the efficacies of these products by academic, government, and industrial groups alike. This has resulted in an abundance of irrefutable, peer-reviewed science leading to market legitimacy. Not only has research demonstrated multiple benefits to crop management but also has taken further steps to identify synergistic products which when applied together in formulations or tank mixtures, elicit reliable positive responses on crop growth, health, yield, and/or quality.
... Although total phenol and flavonoid contents in Chinese chives were higher than in soybean leaves and stems (Table 1), these increased levels may not be related to an increase in their contents in lettuce plants after treatment with Chinese chive and soybean leaf and stem extracts. Unlike in the present study, application of 1.0 g/L extract of Ascophyllum nodosum increased the total phenol and flavonoid contents of treated spinach leaves [24]. ...
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Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is not only easy to grow, but it is also common in diets around the world. This study was conducted to determine the impact of Chinese chive (Allium tuberosum Rottler), soybean (Glycine max L.) leaf, and soybean stem extracts on lettuce plants’ secondary substances, minerals, amino acids, and free sugars. This study was carried out in order to better understand which types of plant extract applications are most effective in increasing lettuce plants’ nutritional value. While not all applications produced an increased nutritional value in the lettuce plants, we found that soybean leaf extract treatments increased the Mg and Ca contents and Chinese chive treatments increased the Fe contents in the lettuce plants. Additionally, glucose and maltose contents in lettuce plants were higher after treatments of Chinese chive and soybean leaf extracts. Finally, all selected extracts increased the total and free amino acid levels in our test plants.
... Seaweeds constitute an important source of nutrients for the seeds and retain water in its external environment, which reduces the rate of dehydration [24]. Seaweed extracts have the ability to increase the concentration of antioxidants in stressed plants [25]. Zhu et al. [26] mentioned that salinity negatively affects the length of the coleoptile and the development of plant roots. ...
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Cystoseira mediterranea (Sauv.) extract was tested for its ability to restore barley (Hordeum vulgare) growth under salt stress (350 mM NaCl), shoot growth; membrane integrity; lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide determination were performed. In normal conditions, the obtained data revealed the ability of the extract to stimulate most of barley growth parameters. However, it showed significant effect on most of barley growth parameters (plant height, fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots) and chlorophyll content, under salt stress. The measurement of stress parameters (membrane integrity, lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide) revealed significant effect of C. mediterranea extract on reducing the deleterious impact of salt stress on barley seedlings.
... Total phenol and flavonoids values of spinach leaves varied between 29 and 915 mg GAE/100g and 838 and 1696 mg RTE/g depending on genotypes at three maturity stages (Pandjaitan et al., 2005). While certain researchers (Fan et al., 2011;Galani et al., 2017) published data for phenols and flavonoids in spinach leaves that are comparable to ours, there is a found of an average of 500 mg GAE/100g polyphenols in field-grown orache leaves and an average of 200 mg GAE/100g in greenhouse-grown (Uslu et al., 2020). While flavonoids were 2.52-4.35 ...
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Amaranthaceae Juss. family encompasses many edible plants with prominent biological activity. This investigation tested the bioactive properties of ethanolic and methanolic extract of three well-known species: spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), chard (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris), and orache (Atriplex hortensis L.) through the determination of total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity, and antibacterial properties. The particular goal was to evaluate the antibiofilm potential of extracts and to demarcate concentration-depending changes in the biofilm-forming category of included bacterial strains. The mass of the chard and orache methanolic extracts gained by maceration are lower in comparison to the mass of ethanolic extracts obtained by the Soxhlet method. In the case of spinach, the results are the opposite. All extracts have an antiradical activity that can be attributed to the established amounts of phenols and flavonoids. Total phenolics in dry leaves ranged from 0.09 to 0.44 mg GAE/g dw, and total flavonoids from 0.42 to 1.9 mg RTE/g dw. All investigated extracts performed inhibitory potential in terms of bacterial growth, while there was no bactericidal effect observed. Values of the minimum inhibitory concentration ranged from 125 µg/ml to 500 µg/ml. Overall results suggested orache extracts as the strongest inhibitory agents. Antibiofilm assays showed that examined extracts of spinach, chard, and orache caused changes in the biofilm-forming capacity of investigated bacterial pathogens. Fluctuations in observed biofilm-forming categories after application of extracts were concentration-dependent.
... Thus, in the current study, the noticed increment in carbohydrates could be attributed to the enhancement of photosynthetic efficiency following seaweed treatment and phytohormones as well as macro-and micro-nutrients (Perveen and Nazir 2018). Fan et al. (2011) documented significant enhancement in antioxidant activity (total phenolics and flavonoid) in spinach plants treated with A. nodosum extracts. Guiacol peroxidase is a key enzyme in the regulation of the intracellular H 2 O 2 equilibrium by transforming H 2 O 2 into H 2 O along with the regeneration of NADP + . ...
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The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the impact of seed priming with seaweed liquid extracts (SLEs) prepared from three Egyptian seaweeds (Ulva fasciata, Cystoseira compressa, and Laurencia obtusa) in a concentration of 20 g L-1 on seed germination and seedling growth of Vigna sinensis and Zea mays as well as the effectiveness of these extracts in ameliorating salinity stress. Laurancia extract (LLE) induced the maximum positive response in germination as well as producing the maximum increases in all seedling morphological parameters with percent of response 87.14% for hypocotyl growth of V. sinensis and 85.71% coleoptile elongation of Z. mays. The maximum amylase and protease activities were recorded with LLE priming. Ulva, Cystoseira, Laurencia liquid extract consortium (UCLLE) induced the highest promotion effect for both V. sinensis and Z. mays giving significant increments for all growth criteria, dry biomass 0.301 and 0.438 g seedling-1, Chl a 18.98 and 13.79 mg g-1 FW, total carbohydrates 460.88 and 518.14 g seedling-1, protein 219.72 and 207.49 g seedling-1 respectively. Seeds primed with UCLLE consortium exhibited remarkable tolerance for salinity stress, meanwhile the highest ameliorating effect was pronounced with 10% SW supplementation. Priming with SLEs enhances the growth of either V. sinensis or Z. mays under salinity stress, whereas UCLLE consortium induced significant increases in biomass 0.231 and 0.379 g seedling-1, respectively. Seed priming with SLEs enhanced guaiacol peroxidase activity giving the highest value with UCLLE consortium conjugated with 25% SW (12.47 and 13.05 μmol min-1 g-1 FW), respectively. Application of Canonical Corresponding analysis (bi-plot) demonstrates a significant correlation between variables of SLEs components and germination indices of the two plants concluding total nitrogen, total phosphorous, potassium, ascorbic acid, and amino acids besides carbohydrate content. Therefore, results maintain the concept of SLEs as agricultural biocatalyst which could be practiced as prospective biostimulants for being feasible, sustainable, eco-friendly, and effective in improving salinity tolerance for some plants.
... ving consumer health, reducing the effects of harmful diseases and other broader aspects of immune system function (Shahidi, 2009). Seaweed cells have antioxidative compounds as well as protective antioxidative mechanisms so, they are used as food, feed, fertilizer, a soil conditioning agent, animal feed supplement and human nutritional supplement (Fan et. al., 2011). Seaweeds are readily available food source that has been consumed habitually by coastal communities in South-East Asia. However, it is not considered a habitual component of the Western diet (Jiménez -Escrig et al., 2001). Seaweeds reduce high blood pressure, cholesterol, and prevent strokes. They can also be used as remedy for rheumat ...
... IκB goes through proteasomal modification, permitting NF-κB to the nucleus by dimerization and translocation where NF-κB initiates the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, eicosanoids, and free radicals (Lomnitski 2000b). The aromatic phenolics including para-coumaric acid in spinach extracts provide notable anti-inflammatory properties (Fan et al. 2011). Fischer rats were supplemented with 0.02% (w/w) dry spinach for 6 weeks and it was observed that the expression of NF-κB mark genes, TNF-α and TNF-β, reduced in the cerebellum region. ...
Chapter
Recent insights about food and nutrition signify that the consumption of fresh produce is defensive to general acute and chronic disorders. Dark green leafy vegetables are acknowledged to ameliorate these symptoms as they possess abundant nutrients and biological properties. Spinacia oleracea (spinach) is widely available and accepted traditional green, leafy vegetables in the world: it is an excellent choice for micronutrients and phytonutrients. Thus, the consumption of this vegetable is recommended on a regular dietary regimen. The phytochemicals and bioactives that are derived from spinach (raw and cooked) are capable of a) scavenging singlet oxygen species and inhibit oxidative stress, b) alter gene expressions that are associated with metabolic activities, tumors, acute and chronic inflammation, and antioxidant system, and c) diminish diet intake by altering hormones involved in obesity. These biological activities are associated with various metabolic disorders. Hence, regular consumption of spinach would provide a qualitative well-being against cancer, obesity, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia. This chapter provides insights about the functional and biological properties of spinach involved in different investigations. The mechanistic process of spinach and spinach-derived phytochemicals imparting health benefits is explored.
... There are researched on the use of seaweed in abiotic stress. There are studies on seaweed applications against abiotic stress factors such as drought (Santaniello et al., 2017;Shukla et al., 2018;Bat et al., 2020), water stress (Neily et al., 2010;Kaoaua et al., 2013), salinity (Jithesh et al., 2012), heavy metal (Wu et al., 2009), and other abiotic stresses (Rayirath et al., 2009;Sangha et al., 2010;Fan et al., 2011;Bischof & Rautenberger, 2012). ...
Book
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New generation agricultural models are needed to meet the rapidly increasing needs of the consumption society. In a sense, the economically sustainable development and development of countries at local, regional and global scale can be achieved by revealing, developing, producing and implementing new inventions and innovative differences. The preparation of plans and programs in the agricultural sector generally focuses on the resources needed for agriculture such as soil and water, as well as socio-economic factors such as investment potential, food chain economy and level of knowledge. Within this period, it is vital to deliver the information to the target audience faster and efficiently to create society of knowledge and allow these Technologies to be applied and become wide spread. In increasing agricultural production, the selection and use of inputs such as water, fertilizer, seed, plant protection and mechanization is important, the more important it is to use the work and machine power that will ensure the application of these inputs in an appropriate and economical way. As in every field and every stage of crop production, developments in terms of mechanization in animal production have reached a promising level in using our country's agricultural potential more effectively. In this book section, studies on new approaches and applications in agriculture are included. The studies presented in this book, will benefit the agriculture sector development and sustainability practitioners also will make a very important contribution to Turkey’s agriculture.
... Após as análises o tratamentos com o extrato de algas e o bioestimulante nasdoses de 2 mL kg -1 e 10 mL kg -1 de sementes respectivamente, apresentaram os melhores resultados (Tabela 1), para peso de massa seca de raiz, de modo que o resultado do extrato de algas na dose de 2 mL kg -1 , condiz com os resultados obtidos porFan et al., (2011), demonstrando que o extrato e algas pode proporcionar maior enraizamento, da mesma forma que o resultado obtido com o bioestimulante, corrobora com o apresentado por Stoler (2017) para incremento no enraizamento. Para comprimento de raízes os tratamentos com bioestimulante nas doses testadas, foram os que proporcionaram melhores resultados e diferiram dos tratamentos com o extrato de algas que foram prejudiciais ao comprimento de raiz e não diferiu da testemunha.Na segunda semeadura, utilizando os mesmos substratos, também foi possível concluir que houve efeito residual dos bioestimulantes onde todos os tratamentos apresentaram aumentos de comprimento de raiz em relação à primeira semeadura (Tabela 2). ...
... Após as análises o tratamentos com o extrato de algas e o bioestimulante nasdoses de 2 mL kg -1 e 10 mL kg -1 de sementes respectivamente, apresentaram os melhores resultados (Tabela 1), para peso de massa seca de raiz, de modo que o resultado do extrato de algas na dose de 2 mL kg -1 , condiz com os resultados obtidos porFan et al., (2011), demonstrando que o extrato e algas pode proporcionar maior enraizamento, da mesma forma que o resultado obtido com o bioestimulante, corrobora com o apresentado por Stoler (2017) para incremento no enraizamento. Para comprimento de raízes os tratamentos com bioestimulante nas doses testadas, foram os que proporcionaram melhores resultados e diferiram dos tratamentos com o extrato de algas que foram prejudiciais ao comprimento de raiz e não diferiu da testemunha.Na segunda semeadura, utilizando os mesmos substratos, também foi possível concluir que houve efeito residual dos bioestimulantes onde todos os tratamentos apresentaram aumentos de comprimento de raiz em relação à primeira semeadura (Tabela 2). ...
... The highest content of flavonoids in seeds of Glycine max was found after a single application of a biostimulant [62]. According to Fan et al. [70], commercial extracts of A. nodosum at 1.0 g/L significantly enhanced the total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity in spinach leaves. Plants treated with extracts from Ecklonia maxima had an increase in flavonoid content of bean seeds compared to the control treatment [59]. ...
Article
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Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) sprout is a popular fresh vegetable, tasty and high in antioxidants. To increase yield and quality after the occurrence of both abiotic and biotic stresses, the application of seaweed extracts is of great importance. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the effect of Ascophyllum nodosum extract (ANE) in the presence of salt on the antioxidant potential of V. radiata sprouts. Different concentrations of ANE viz. 0.00, 0.01, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.50% and NaCl 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 mM alone and in combinations were tested for researching the antioxidant potential of V. radiata sprouts at 0, 24, and 36 h of sprouting. The DPPH free-radical-scavenging activity of sprouts of V. radiata was found to increase with time and peaked at 24 h of treatment. The A. nodosum extract (0.01%) could reverse the ill effect of the low level of salinity posed by up to 25 mM NaCl. The increasing salinity deteriorated the antioxidant activity using ABTS method of sprouts down to 20.45% of the control at 100 mM NaCl. The total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and reducing power of V. radiata sprouts was found to increase till 36 h of sprouting. A slight increase in TPC, TFC and reducing power was observed when seeds were treated with low concentrations of ANE. The elevation in TPC, TFC and reducing power upon treatment with low concentrations of ANE was also noticed in sprouts in saline combinations. Alpha amylase inhibition activity was found to reach a (67.16% ± 0.9) maximum at 24 h of sprouting at a 0.01% concentration of ANE. Tyrosinase inhibition and alpha glucosidase inhibition was 88.0% ± 2.11 and 84.92% ± 1.2 at 36 h of sprouting, respectively, at 0.01% concentration of ANE. A. nodosum extract is natural, environmentally friendly, and safe, and could be used as one of the strategies to decline stress at a low level and enhance the antioxidant activities in V. radiata sprouts, thus increasing its potential to be developed as an antioxidant-based functional food.
... Various biostimulant products have been studied in numerous research reports. Ascophyllum nodosum extracts are among the most commonly studied biostimulants with varied effects on several crops such as the yield and nutritional quality of spinach [16,[103][104][105], the nutritional status and shelf-life of lettuce [106], increased the drought tolerance in tomato plants [107], improved plant growth and yield in carrot and strawberry [108][109][110][111], or alleviated the water stress effects on common bean [15,112]. The mechanisms behind these beneficial effects of A. nodosum extracts are still under investigation, although various studies postulated hormonal effects on plant growth through the up-or down-regulation of auxin-responsive genes [113]. ...
Article
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Biostimulants, are a diverse class of compounds including substances or microorganism which have positive impacts on plant growth, yield and chemical composition as well as boosting effects to biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. The major plant biostimulants are hydrolysates of plant or animal protein and other compounds that contain nitrogen, humic substances, extracts of seaweeds, biopolymers, compounds of microbial origin, phosphite, and silicon, among others. The mechanisms involved in the protective effects of biostimulants are varied depending on the compound and/or crop and mostly related with improved physiological processes and plant morphology aspects such as the enhanced root formation and elongation, increased nutrient uptake, improvement in seed germination rates and better crop establishment, increased cation exchange, decreased leaching, detoxification of heavy metals, mechanisms involved in stomatal conductance and plant transpiration or the stimulation of plant immune systems against stressors. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the application of plant biostimulants on different crops within the framework of sustainable crop management, aiming to gather critical information regarding their positive effects on plant growth and yield, as well as on the quality of the final product. Moreover, the main limitations of such practice as well as the future prospects of biostimulants research will be presented.
... There are researched on the use of seaweed in abiotic stress. There are studies on seaweed applications against abiotic stress factors such as drought (Santaniello et al., 2017;Shukla et al., 2018;Bat et al., 2020), water stress (Neily et al., 2010;Kaoaua et al., 2013), salinity (Jithesh et al., 2012), heavy metal (Wu et al., 2009), and other abiotic stresses (Rayirath et al., 2009;Sangha et al., 2010;Fan et al., 2011;Bischof & Rautenberger, 2012). ...
... For this, C. elegans pre-treated with 1.2 mg·mL −1 stamen extract for 3 days were transferred to growth at 35°C to induce heat stress or in a medium with 200 μM paraquat to induce oxidative stress. [35] The mean lifespan and maximal lifespan were measured as described above. ...
Article
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Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb with roots; however, the flowers, specifically the stamens have not been exploited. In this study, the main active components of P. lactiflora stamens (PLS) were identified, and in vitro antioxidant, in vivo anti-aging and stress resistance properties were examined using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Our results showed that PLS contains 350 active components including flavonoids, phenolic acids, terpenoids, alkaloids, and others. PLS extracts at concentrations of 0.2–1.2 mg·mL⁻¹ had strong antioxidant activity in vitro and showed a linear increase of concentration. The value of absorbance, scavenging activity of ·OH, DPPH and ABTS was 0.84, 31.55%, 84.67%, and 99.49% at 1.2 mg·mL⁻¹, respectively. Moreover, PLS extracted at the same concentrations had no toxic effects on C. elegans, and the treatment with 1.2 mg·mL⁻¹ PLS extract significantly extended C. elegans lifespan that was not at the expense of reducing its reproduction and Escherichia coli OP50 growth. Furthermore, the same treatment extract enhanced their locomotion behavior and decreased their intestinal autofluorescence during the aging process. Additionally, the stress resistance of C. elegans under both heat and oxidative stress conditions were significantly induced by 1.2 mg·mL⁻¹ PLS extract treatment. Collectively, these results demonstrated that PLS extract exerted both in vitro antioxidant and in vivo anti-aging together with stress resistance properties, which could provide the theoretical basis for its production and popularization in China.
... The lifespan, mean lifespan and maximal lifespan were measured as described above. Paraquat was set to induce the oxidative stress in C. elegans (Fan et al., 2011). ...
Article
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Abstract Paeonia ostii is an industrial crop with broad prospects, and folks have habit of drinking its stamen tea in China, but its beneficial healthy effects remain largely unclear. Here, we identified its main active components, evaluated its antioxidant activity, and examined its safety property and its beneficial effects in the model animal Caenorhabditis elegans. The results showed that P. ostii stamen (POS) contained many active components with high antioxidant activity. Moreover, POS tea did not cause lethality, influence growth, locomotion behavior and reproduction, and induce intestinal autofluorescence in C. elegans. Furthermore, 1.2 mg·mL-1 of POS tea treatment significantly extended the lifespan and improved growth, locomotion behavior and intestinal autofluorescence of C. elegans, while its reproduction and Escherichia coli OP50 growth were not affected. In addition, POS tea treatment significantly induced stress resistance to extend the lifespan of C. elegans under heat stress and oxidative stress conditions. All these suggested that POS tea was safe and had beneficial healthy effects, which could provide a theoretical basis for its production and popularization.
... April 2022 | Volume 13 | Article 865291 the application of SWE increased antioxidant capacity as measured by TEAC-DPPH, enhanced radical scavenging activity in leaves, and contributed to increased cellular phenolic content levels, consistent with previous work (Fan et al., 2011;Spann and Little, 2011;Lola-Luz et al., 2014;Elansary et al., 2016). Therefore, exogenous application of SWE can enhance the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, and POD) and molecules (α-tocopherol, ascorbate, and β-carotene; Allen et al., 2001;Shi et al., 2018;Yildiztekin et al., 2018;Shukla et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Drought is one of the most important abiotic stresses responsible for reduced crop yields. Drought stress induces morphological and physiological changes in plants and severely impacts plant metabolism due to cellular oxidative stress, even in C4 crops, such as sugarcane. Seaweed extract-based biostimulants can mitigate negative plant responses caused by drought stress. However, the effects of foliar application of such biostimulants on sugarcane exposed to drought stress, particularly on plant metabolism, stalk and sugar yields, juice purity, and sugarcane technological quality, have received little attention. Accordingly, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of foliar application of a seaweed extract-based biostimulant on late-harvest sugarcane during the driest period of the year. Three experiments were implemented in commercial sugarcane fields in Brazil in the 2018 (site 1), 2019 (site 2), and 2020 (site 3) harvest seasons. The treatments consisted of the application and no application of seaweed extract (SWE) as a foliar biostimulant in June (sites 2 and 3) or July (site 1). The treatments were applied to the fourth ratoon of sugarcane variety RB855536 at site 1 and the fifth and third ratoons of sugarcane variety SP803290 at sites 2 and 3, respectively. SWE was applied at a dose of 500 ml a.i. ha−1 in a water volume of 100 L ha−1. SWE mitigated the negative effects of drought stress and increased stalk yield per hectare by up to 3.08 Mg ha−1. In addition, SWE increased stalk sucrose accumulation, resulting in an increase in sugar yield of 3.4 kg Mg−1 per hectare and higher industrial quality of the raw material. In SWE-treated plants, Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzyme activity increased, while malondialdehyde (MDA) levels decreased. Leaf analysis showed that SWE application efficiently improved metabolic activity, as evidenced by a decrease in carbohydrate reserve levels in leaves and an increase in total sugars. By positively stabilizing the plant’s cellular redox balance, SWE increased biomass production, resulting in an increase in energy generation. Thus, foliar SWE application can alleviate drought stress while enhancing sugarcane development, stalk yield, sugar production, and plant physiological and enzymatic processes.
... Ertani et al. [55] and Rouphael et al. [42] report that the enhanced biosynthesis of these metabolites could be connected both to the direct and/or indirect influences of the key enzyme activity included in phytochemical homeostasis and to the modification of plant nutritional status. Comparable results were accomplished by Fan et al. [56] who, by assessing the influence of A. nodosum extract application on spinach phenolic antioxidant content, detected an increase in flavonoids compared to the nonbiostimulated plants. Furthermore, as reported by Fan et al. [57], the enhancement in biosynthesis of bioactive molecules could be intermediated via the stimulation of chalcone isomerase, which is a key enzyme in the flavanone precursor biosynthesis. ...
Article
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The current research investigated the effects of endophytic fungi such as Trichoderma atroviride (Ta) or Ascophyllum nodosum seaweed extract (An) and their combination on growth, yield, nutritive and functional features, and mineral profile of ‘Birgah’ F1 eggplant either ungrafted, selfgrafted or grafted onto the Solanum torvum rootstock. Eggplant exposed to An or An+Ta had a significant increase in root collar diameter 50 days after transplanting (RCD50), total yield (TY), marketable yield (MY), ascorbic acid (AA) content, Mg, Cu, and Zn concentration, and a reduction in glycoalkaloids (GLY) compared with the control. Furthermore, grafted plants had a higher TY, MY, number of marketable fruits (NMF), RCD50, AA, Cu, and Zn and a lower SSC, GLY, and Mg than the ungrafted plants. The combination of grafting and An+Ta significantly improved mean weight of marketable fruits (MF), plant height 50 days after transplanting (PH50), number of leaves 50 days after transplanting (NL50), fruit dry matter (FDM), chlorogenic acid (ClA), proteins, and K and Fe concentration. This combination also produced fruits of high premium quality as evidenced by the higher AA and ClA concentration, the lower GLY concentration, and an overall improved mineral profile.
... Gholinezhad et al. [51] also reported that fungi symbiosis improved antioxidant activity in soybeans. Fan et al. [52] observed a direct relationship between antioxidant capacity and the amount of phenolics in spinach. ...
Article
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Biofertilizers, such as arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) and seaweed extract (SWE), have been effective in environmental and agricultural ecosystems. In this study, the effects of AMF, SWE, and their co-application were assayed on the growth and antioxidant potential of lettuce plants. The experiment was conducted as a factorial based on a completely randomized design with two factors and four replications under greenhouse conditions. The first factor was AMF (Glomus mosseae) at two levels consisting of AMF application (20 g pot−1), and without using AMF; and the second factor was SWE foliar spraying (Ascophyllum nodosum) at 0.5, 1.5 and 3 g L−1 concentration. The results revealed that the highest root colonization (85%) belonged to AMF and SWE (3 g L−1) × AMF; the lowest colonization rate (65%) was observed for AMF × SWE (0.5 g L−1) treatment. The highest growth parameters (leaf number, shoot and root fresh weight, head diameter), biochemical traits (total soluble proteins, carbohydrates content) and TAA, total antioxidant activity by FRAP method and ascorbic acid, total phenolics, and flavonoids content were obtained with the co-applications. Therefore, the best results of the evaluated traits were achieved with AMF × SWE (3 g L−1). The TAA value was increased three-fold compared to the control. Total phenolics and flavonoids content were 2.24 and 6.59 times higher than the control, respectively. On the other hand, leaf dry weight was decreased with the further growth of the plants. Overall, the co-application of AMF with SWE can be recommended to producers as an alternative and environment-friendly strategy to improve the qualitative and quantitative traits of the lettuce crop.
... The co-inoculated plants had shown 21% and 16% reduction in polyphenol accumulation compared to non-inoculated plants at 75 mM and 150 mM salt stress conditions, respectively (Fig. 5b). The reduction in polyphenol accumulation can be attributed to the decline in ROS concentrations by co-inoculation as these compounds act as potential ROS scavengers (Fan et al., 2011;Arora et al., 2020). These results corroborate to a previous study where the polyphenol accumulation reduced significantly upon bacterial inoculation under environmental stress conditions (Kang et al., 2014). ...
Article
Salinity induces myriad of physiological and biochemical perturbations in plants and its amelioration can be attained by the use of potential bacterial synthetic communities. The use of microbial consortia in contrast to single bacterial inoculation can additively enhance stress tolerance and productivity of agricultural crops. In this study, co-inoculation of Pseudomonas koreensis S2CB45 and Microbacterium hydrothermale IC37-36 isolated from arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) spore and rice seed endosphere, respectively, were used to evaluate the physiological and biochemical effects on red pepper at two salt concentrations (75 mM and 150 mM). Plant growth promoting characteristics particularly 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity, indole acetic acid (IAA) and cytokinin production were higher during co-culturing compared to the individual bacterial culture. The higher ACC deaminase activity had resulted in 20% and 22% decrease in stress ethylene emission compared to the non-inoculated plants at 75 mM and 150 mM salt stress, respectively. The decline in ethylene emission had eventually reduced ROS accumulation, and the co-inoculated plants had also harbored enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities and higher sugar accumulation compared to the other treatments suggesting enhanced tolerance to salinity. Collectively, these results put forward a novel consortium of bacterial strains that can be used for sustainable agricultural practices against salinity.
... Glycine-betaine is likely the major compatible solute other than proline. Application of a seaweed-based biostimulant had the effect of glycine betaine synthesis in spinach(Fan et al. 2011). The improvement in salinity tolerance in Bonamid-pre-treated plants may be attributed to the ingredients of the Bonamid (containing amino acid (85%)), which could induced the plant's metabolism to biosynthesis of compatible solutes and these protective compounds increase the plant potential to exclude Cl − ions.5.3 Pre-treatment of biostimulants signi cantly impacted antioxidants potential in P. distans seedling under salinity stress Besides the accumulation of compatible solutes, to ght against salinity-induced oxidative stress, plants increase the biosynthesis and accumulation of non-enzymatic antioxidant compounds, particularly metabolic pathways associated with polyphenolic antioxidants biosynthesis (Cheynier et al. 2013). ...
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Background: Plants pre-treatment with various chemicals has often been used to diminish salinity stress impact on plants. In the present study, we used foliar spray of two commercially biostimulants (Algabon® and Bomamid®) before the stress, to study interactive effects of biostimulants and salinity stress in halophytic grass, Pucccinellia distans. Results: Our results showed that biomass, leaf relative water content, chlorophyll content, K⁺ content, K⁺/Na⁺ ratio, and protein and N contents were also negatively affected by 300 mM NaCl. The results obtained in the present study showed the beneficial effects of the pre-treatments of two biostimulants on P. distans seedlings under non salinity stress conditions with respect to increasing plant biomass, photosynthetic pigments, K⁺ content, the content of proteins and nitrogen percentage. The results suggested that foliar spray of Bonamid could considerably diminish NaCl-caused stress on P. distans seedlings, probably due to higher accumulation of shoot biomass, photosynthetic pigments, K⁺/Na⁺ ratio, protein and N contents, phytoremediation potential, as well as upregulation of Na⁺/H⁺ antiporters located in plasma membranes and vacuoles. Conclusions: Collectively, it could be concluded that, intensification of osmotic adjustment by the accumulation of osmotic metabolites and the compartmentalization of salts in vacuoles in pre-treated plants with amino acid-derived biostimulant (Bonamid) can diminish the NaCl-induced deleterious effects in P. distans seedlings.
... Unprocessed A. nodosum and its alkaline extracts have been widely used as a biostimulant in terrestrial agricultural production for a wide variety of crop species (MacKinnon et al., 2010;Craigie, 2011;Spann and Little, 2011). Other authors have reported on the direct benefits from applications of various extracts of seaweeds on crop performance such as (a) enhanced root vigor (Crouch and Van Staden, 1992), (b) increased leaf chlorophyll content (Blunden et al., 1996), (c) increased number of leaves (Rayirath et al., 2008), (d) improved fruit yield (Arthur et al., 2003;Kumar and Sahoo, 2011;Kumari et al., 2011), (e) heightened flavonoid content (Fan et al., 2011), and (f) enhanced vegetative propagation (Leclerc et al., 2006). However, more substantial and significant improvements associated with the applications of extracts of seaweeds include improved tolerances toward abiotic stresses, including drought (Shukla et al., 2018;Zhang and Ervin, 2004;Spann and Little, 2011), salinity (Shukla et al., 2019), ion toxicity (Mancuso et al., 2006), freezing stress , and high temperature (Zhang and Ervin, 2008). ...
Chapter
Most of the world’s seaweed-derived extracts used for their biostimulatory/bioeffector properties for plants (i.e., abiotic and biotic stress reduction) are manufactured from brown algae, generally harvested from wild populations, or collected as storm-cast (e.g., Ascophyllum, Durvillaea, Ecklonia, Laminaria/Saccharina, Sargassum, etc.). Extracts of seaweeds have been applied for their phyconomic activities, including the micropropagation and cultivation of the red seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii. These uses are increasingly important for the future success of sustainable, global, marine (blue) circular economies whereby applications of extracts have demonstrable biostimulatory/bioeffector properties for the benefits of mass cultivated, commercial seaweeds, thereby mirroring their use for land plants.
... Commonly known as Spinach, Spinacia oleraeia L. is a green leafy vegetable belonging to amaranthaceae family. Along with chlorophyll the plant also contains large quantities of bioactive compounds and nutrients such as ascorbate, carotenoids, tocopherols, phenolics, folate, and minerals [13]. The traditional wisdom of herbal science advocates that anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory [14] anti-anemic, vermifuge, hypoglycemic, expellant anti-pyretic [15], anticancer [16], and anti-inflammatory properties are associated with the leaves of Spinacia oleracea [17]. ...
Article
Aim: Synthetic lead molecules are associated with host of adverse effects while medicinal molecules isolated from natural sources are blessed with both safety as well as efficacy. The ancient doctrine of Ayurveda ardently advocates the therapeutic virtues contained in green leaves of Spinacia oleracea L. The principal constituent of the leaves is the class of metalloporphyrin chlorophyll, which is also the floral counterpart of faunal heme. Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and chlorophyll-b (Chl-b) are the cardinal members of the chlorophyll family. Study design: Herein, we have explored the anti-radical, cytoprotective, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative efficacy of Chl-a and Chl-b in reference to standard drug and crude extract of Spinacia leaves. The current study is aimed to establish, naturally mined metaloporphyrins as safe and efficacious replacement of synthetic leads that are associated with a wide range of toxicological issues. Methodology: Using a combination of Silica Gel-G column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography, the two principal green metallo-porphyrins (Chl-a and Chl-b) were sequentially extracted and isolated from crude extract of Spinacia oleracea L leaves. Antiradical efficacy, of the isolated green porphyrins was quantified by DPPH and Hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging assay. Cytoprotective efficacy was evaluated using ex-vivo hemolysis assay and anti-inflammatory potency was attested employing carrageenan induced paw edema bioassay. To enumerate on the anti-proliferative potency, MTT assay was employed, while toxicology of the isolates was evaluated employing OECD 420 acute toxicity guidelines. Findings: The study confirmed that isolated green porphyrins Chl-a and Chl-b as well as crude extract all exerts significant anti-radical, cytoprotective, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative efficacy however while potency of Chl-a was at par with that of reference standard and superior to the crude extract, Chl-b clocked in a value inferior to both. Furthermore, acute toxicity study indicated that even at p.o. dose of 2000mg/Kg b.w, no toxicity was manifested in either of the metalloporpyrin treated groups thus ascertaining the safe nature of the naturally mined metalloporphyrin entities. Also naturally mined Chl-a is not only a safer alternative to synthetic medicine but it is more potent and safe than its parent extract popularly used in herbal medicine. Conclusion: The results of the study indicates that Chl-a having a more profound structural resemblance to heme than Chl-b can be further modulated as a cost-effective and safe anti-radical alternative to synthetic leads in inhibiting inflammation and untoward cell proliferative while extending cyto-protection from pathological ROS generated in diseased states.
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Introduction Coronaviruses are important animal and human pathogens. Towards the end of 2019, the novel coronavirus identified in Wuhan, China, presented as a cluster of symptoms of pneumonia. Its quick spread resulted in a worldwide pandemic. This research was aimed to document detailed ethnopharmacological information on the medicinal plant species used by herbalists against coronavirus disease. Methods The study was conducted in Salé Prefecture, from March 1st, 2020 to May 31st, 2020. Semi-structured direct interviews were held with 30 herbalists to collect the socio-demographic features, the name of local species, and traditional remedies. The data were analyzed through the use reports (UR) and medicinal use value (MUV). Results In total, 20 plant species from 20 genera and 14 families had been most frequently used by herbalists from Salé Prefecture for the prevention and treatment of COVID 19. The most mentioned plant was Eucalyptus globulus Labill., followed by Azadirachta indica A. Juss,. and Ziziphus lotus (L.) Lam. Moreover, the most commonly used plant parts for herbal preparations were leaves (28.43%) and seeds (17.5%), whereas the majority of remedies were prepared through infusion. Conclusions The present study is the first contribution to the ethnopharmacological profile of this Prefecture. It is recommended that the constituents of indigenous species be studied to determine the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of action. However, attention must be paid to the conservation of medicinal species, comprehensively documenting traditional medicinal knowledge as well as conducting phytochemical validation of reported plants.
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Drought stress is one of the most important restricting factors for plant yield in arid and semi-arid regions. Seaweed extract, as a biofertilizer, enhances plant resistance against abiotic stresses via accelerating seed germination, root growth enhancement and uptake of plant nutrients. The present research was carried out to investigate the effects of foliar spraying of Ascophyllum nodosum seaweed extract on physiological and biochemical characteristics of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), Shahre-ray local cultivar, under drought-stress conditions, as a factorial experiment, based on completely randomized design with three replications. Experimental factors included drought stress (full irrigation (control), irrigation holding at first stage of flowering, irrigation holding at 50% of flowering) and foliar spraying of different concentrations of seaweed extract (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 g/L). Control plants were sprayed with distilled water. Results indicated that as drought-stress intensity was increased, morphological traits such as number of lateral shoots, fresh and dry weights of plant, number of leaves, leaf area, root dry weight and biochemical parameters such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid content and relative water content of leaves were reduced, while free proline content of leaves and electrolyte leakage from cell membranes were increased. Foliar spraying of 2 g/L seaweed extract significantly reduced the effects of drought stress on basil plants. In general, the results of this research indicated that exogenous application of seaweed extract enhanced basil plant growth under drought-stress conditions via increasing proline content, osmotic adjustment, inhibition of chlorophyll degradation and decreasing the electrolyte leakage.
Thesis
Depuis toujours, l’Homme a eu recours à la nature pour subvenir à ses besoins. Aujourd’hui encore, le secteur de la santé (animale et humaine) s’intéresse aux ressources naturelles pour découvrir des principes actifs originaux permettant de développer de nouveaux traitements. Ce secteur est notamment à la recherche de nouvelles molécules pouvant lutter contre les processus biologiques impliqués dans les affections liées au vieillissement, qui induisent une problématique de santé publique. Bien que la bioressource végétale ait été la plus étudiée pour ses propriétés pharmacologiques, d’autres ressources naturelles restent à explorer, telle que la bioressource microbienne. Les microorganismes non pathogènes, notamment ceux régulièrement consommés au travers des aliments et boissons fermentés, représentent une source intéressante de métabolites potentiellement actifs sur ces processus. Parmi ces aliments, le fromage au lait cru présente un fort potentiel grâce à la richesse de sa biodiversité microbienne. Une stratégie innovante a été développée au cours de cette thèse pour rechercher des métabolites bioactifs dans un caillé lactique caprin. Cette stratégie a permis l’obtention de plusieurs extraits de fromage, à l’aide d’une méthode d’extraction dont l’efficacité a été validée. Le criblage de l’effet des extraits sur le vieillissement a ensuite été réalisé à l’aide de modèles biologiques in vitro et in vivo. Leurs impacts sur la longévité du modèle Caenorhabditis elegans et sur sa survie sur un milieu oxydant ont notamment été évalués. Plusieurs des extraits (fromage lyophilisé, extrait apolaire, 3 extraits aqueux différents) ont par ailleurs montré des effets bénéfiques au cours de ces expériences. Les voies biologiques impliquées dans l’action des extraits ont également pu être identifiées (voie DAF-2/ILR et voie p38 MAPK). En parallèle, deux extraits (extrait apolaire et un des extraits aqueux) ont induit une diminution de la production de radicaux libres dans un modèle de leucocytes humains. Enfin, l’étude de la composition des extraits ayant présenté des résultats bénéfiques a débuté, avec pour objectif de cibler, parmi toutes les molécules les composant, celles pouvant être porteuses de l’activité biologique. L’ensemble des résultats obtenus est prometteur, et encourage à poursuivre les études de la composition des extraits issus du fromage ainsi que de leurs activités biologiques, notamment sur des modèles plus spécifiques du vieillissement.
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Plant–microbe interaction protects the plant from various phytopathogens. Over time, the demand for horticultural products has increased significantly across the globe. The increasing human population requires more agricultural produce. Recently, the increased usage of inorganic fertilizers has deteriorated the soil quality. The uncontrolled usage of inorganic compounds has led to various health hazards and contaminated ground water. Hence, there is a need to adopt sustainable methods to limit the excessive use chemical fertilizers use and to adopt bioinoculants such as biological nitrogen fixers (BNF), plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), phosphate-solubilizing microbes (PSM), and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM), which are time-tested and eco-friendly approaches.
Chapter
Acceptable nutrient requirements in agronomic and horticultural crops toward meeting the demands of an increasing population are of great concern worldwide. The potential benefits of biostimulants have been widely recognized, and recent developments have encouraged their applications in enhancing the nutritional efficiency of agronomic and horticultural crops. Nutrient availability is crucial to the eventual quality and quantity of these crops which are beneficial to both livestock and human health. Arable land area is currently shrinking and experiencing mineral nutrient deficiencies. The global practice of using chemical fertilizers to improve crop yield is being discouraged because of their negative environmental impacts. However, the use of biostimulants could provide an effective alternative to chemical fertilization of crops. The potential of biostimulants in enhancing nutrition efficiency, ameliorating soil nutrient deficiencies, and promoting high-quality yields in agronomic and horticultural crops will be discussed. Some current use of biostimulants coupled with methods of application and research gaps for future studies will be identified and recommended.
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Plant biostimulants offer promising opportunities to aid in addressing the challenges faced by contemporary agriculture – maintaining viable yields of high‐quality produce while reducing the environmental footprint of production. Biostimulants have been shown to enhance plant growth, boost yields, and increase crop tolerance to abiotic stress, acting via a number of mechanisms including phytostimulation, biofertilization, and biocontrol. In the European Union, frameworks and industry standards that require rigorous scientific evidence for all claims have been introduced as a requirement for product registration. However, a lack of regulation in many countries, including Australia, has led to significant variation in product quality and inconsistent results in the field, issues that remain to be addressed. As industry develops the next generation of biostimulant products, the potential for synergistic effects when applying different categories of biostimulants in combination has generated particular interest. In the realm of microbial inoculants, the formulation of microbial consortia which look to harness the beneficial action of multiple species is being investigated. The potential for biostimulants to add value to soilless production systems is another area for development in this space. As biostimulants encompass a diverse group of products, this review focuses on three categories: microbial inoculants, humic substances, and seaweed extracts. After summarising the current understanding of how these substances operate, as well as the crop responses they have been shown to elicit, we examine the challenges facing the development of more effective and reliable products and explore some of the key areas for future research.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of foliar spray of seaweed extract (SE) and amino acids (AA) on growth characteristics, antioxidant activity, and nutrient elements of yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) in the field and greenhouse conditions. The experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with six replications. Treatments included foliar spray of SE (1, 2, and 3 ml l⁻¹) and AA (1.5 and 3 ml l⁻¹) along with the control. The results showed that the application of different levels of SE and AA had positive effects on the growth indices, chlorophyll content, carotenoids, antioxidants, and nutrient content of yarrow in the field and greenhouse conditions. In the greenhouse, the highest shoot dry weight was obtained by the application of SE and AA at a concentration of 3 ml–l with 54% and 53% increase compared to the control. Foliar spray of SE and AA increased the total phenols, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of the leaf and flower of yarrow in the field and greenhouse conditions. Under field conditions, the highest antioxidant activity of flowers was obtained from 3 ml l–l AA treated plants by 17% increase compared to the control. The content of N, P, and K in the leaf was improved by foliar spray of SE and AA. In particular, the application of 2 ml l⁻¹ SE and 3 ml l⁻¹ AA had the most significant effect in improving the growth and yield of yarrow in the field and greenhouse experiments.
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The fertilizers that are derived from seaweed are known as Seaweed Liquid Fertilizers (SLF). SLF is a modern, cheap, non-toxic, and natural bioactive fertilizer. Among different studied seaweeds, Ascophyllum nodosum is significant as having bioactive ingredients that potentially regulate the molecular, physiological, and biochemical processes of crop plants. In the present study, the effects of the application of different concentrations (0.00%, 0.01%, 0.02%, 0.05%, 0.10%, 0.50%, and 1.00%) of A. nodosum Extract (ANE) to the Vigna aconitifolia through roots (Pot Root Application, PRA) and on the leaves (Pot Foliar Application, PFA) were monitored via the plant growth. The lower concentrations of ANE in both the PRA and PFA experiments showed positive growth on V. aconitifolia. The 0.10% ANE stimulated the maximum shoot growth when applied through the roots, while 0.05% ANE in both PFA and PRA experiments led to an increase in the number of pods, nodules, organic content, and moisture percentage. The 0.10% ANE also increased the leaf numbers, leaf area, and photosynthetic pigments. Hence, the application of 0.05% and 0.10% of A. nodosum extract in two ways (i.e., Pot Foliar Application, PFA, and Pot Root Application, PRA) ameliorated the growth capabilities of V. aconitifolia.
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A plant biostimulant is any substance or microorganism which can be applied to plants to enhance seed germination and plant growth development along with its nutritional efficiency. Plant biostimulants collectively influence: plant growth development, pollen tube development, flower and fruit set, plant pigments, shoot and root development, nutritional efficiency, yield and shelf-life of crops, rhizospheric and soil microorganisms, general soil health and plant-environment interactions. Biostimulants are derived from natural origins and can help reduce the use of chemical products and also mitigate the negative impacts of harmful chemicals in the environment. This chapter focuses on their mode of application and effects on crops and horticultural plants. It also emphasizes impacts on the shelf-life and efficiencies of commercial biostimulants, as compared to synthetic chemical products and highlights the opportunities and challenges of their market expansion.
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This study is focused on the recovery of polyphenols from vegetable and fruit residues and further evaluation of antioxidant features of extracts. Spinach and orange have been selected as representative matrices for a more comprehensive study since they contain significant polyphenols amount that could be used in food, pharmaceutical and/or cosmetic industries. Extraction of polyphenols from spinach and orange waste was performed using three extraction techniques: ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). Tested factors include percentage of organic solvent (ethanol 0 to 80%), acidity (0 to 0.5% HCl), extraction time (0 to 30 min) and temperature (25 to 120 oC). Optimal extraction conditions for spinach and orange waste have been stablished by design of experiments (DoE). The performance of the extraction process has been preliminarily assessed from the overall polyphenolic content given by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Folin-Ciocalteu index. In addition, reducing power and antiradical capacity of vegetable and fruit extracts have also been determined. For spinach, the best conditions corresponded to UAE with a mixture of ethanol/water/HCl in ratio 80/19.9/0.1 (v/v/v) as the solvent at 25 oC for an extraction time of 30 min, providing 0.82 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per g fresh weight (fw). For the orange matrix, PLE has been chosen using 60/39.9/0.1 ethanol/water/HCl (v/v/v) solvent at 80 oC for 15 min, providing 3 mg GAE g⁻¹ fw. However, UAE is proposed for extraction of polyphenols from spinach and orange waste at industrial scale, due to its simplicity and low cost, among other reasons.
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Marine organisms have received mounting attention in antiaging activity due to their exclusive chemicals. This review aims at revealing and discussing prospective antiaging substance from marine macroalgae, micaroalgae, invertebrate and vertebrate. The activity and mechanism of the carbohydrate, protein, pigment, flavonoids, fatty acids, phenols from marine organisms were revealed through a variety of antiaging experimental models such as rats, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. And meanwhile, the problems and prospects aspects were discussed for future research in this field. It was suggested that the antiaging functional ingredients from these marine organisms are alternative sources for synthetic ingredients that can contribute to consumer's well-being, as part of nutraceuticals, functional foods and cosmetics.
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Plants pretreatment with various chemicals has often been used to diminish salinity stress impact on plants. An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of foliar spray of two commercially available biostimulants (Algabon® [0.5 g/l] and Bonamid® [2 g/l]) on the growth and tolerance of halophytic grass, Pucccinellia distans under non-salinity condition (NSC) and salinity condition (SC). The greenhouse experiment was set up in a completely randomized design with three treatments repeated three times. Our results showed that biomass, leaf relative water content, chlorophyll content, K+ content, K+/Na+ ratio, and protein and N contents were all negatively affected by 300 mM NaCl. The results obtained in the present study showed the beneficial effects of the pretreatments of two biostimulants on P. distans seedlings under non-salinity stress conditions with respect to increasing plant biomass, photosynthetic pigments, K+ content, the content of proteins, and nitrogen percentage. The results suggested that foliar spray of Bonamid® could partly diminish NaCl-caused stress on P. distans seedlings, probably due to higher accumulation of shoot biomass, photosynthetic pigments, K+/Na+ ratio, protein and N contents, phytoremediation potential, as well as upregulation of Na+/H+ antiporters located in plasma membranes and vacuoles. The highest phytoremediation potential (PP) of shoots and total biomass was detected in the plants sprayed with Bonamid® by 50.8 and 42.7% respectively, relative to that in salinity-stressed control plants. Interestingly, foliar spray with two biostimulants decreased osmoprotectants and antioxidant compounds content of shoots under salinity stress conditions. Collectively, it could be concluded that a noticeable feature of pretreatment of P. distans seedlings with Algabon® and Bonamid® is the increase in growth under NSC, whereas under SC only pretreated plants with amino acid-derived biostimulant (Bonamid®) can (partly) diminish the NaCl-induced deleterious effects in P. distans seedlings through the compartmentalization of salts in vacuoles (by upregulation of Na+/H+ antiporters).
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This study investigated the ability of an aqueous extract of Ascophyllum nodosum to directly control the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica and induce nematode resistance in soybean. In a first experiment, soybean plants were inoculated with 2000 eggs and juveniles of M. javanica and treated with extract doses of 0 (control), 25, 50, 75, and 100 g L⁻¹ by two methods of application, soil drenching and foliar spraying. A second experiment evaluated the effect on the hatching percentage of 500 M. javanica eggs. A third experiment assessed defense enzyme activity in inoculated and uninoculated plants treated with A. nodosum extract (75 g L⁻¹) by soil drenching or foliar spraying. This experiment was performed once and analyzed in duplicate. Inoculated and uninoculated untreated plants were included as controls. High extract doses (75 and 100 g L⁻¹) promoted a 65% reduction in nematode population density in soybean. At doses of 32 g L⁻¹ or higher, extract application by soil drenching increased shoot dry weight and plant height. The minimum dose of algal extract to obtain hatching percentages close to 0% was 21.8–22.2 g L⁻¹. Peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, and glucanase activities were highest in uninoculated drench-treated plants at 12 days after treatment. A. nodosum extract was effective in reducing M. javanica population density in soybean and in vitro egg hatching. The use of the extract also offered potential to the increase in the activity of enzymes related to plant defense in relation to inoculated and untreated control and the uninoculated and untreated control.
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Boron (B) is essential for plants metabolism and most culture mediums use the same concentration, but in different quantities this nutrient may provoke growth alterations. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of B on in vitro growth of blueberry in three experiments. The first experiment of multiplication (evaluated at 90 days) used 3 concentrations of 2-isopentenyladenine-2iP with 4 concentrations of boric acid-BA (factorial scheme 3x4). The second used 4 concentrations of BA and 1 concentration of 2iP and the third (rooting) used 4 concentrations of BA and 1 concentration of indolbutyric acid-IBA both evaluated at 180 days (unifactorial scheme). All the experiments had 4 replicates with explants. 6.2 mg L-1 of B and 5.0 mg L-1 of 2iP generated the highest shoot quantity (18.4, 25.5 respectively). From the interaction of these concentrations, there was the highest activity of POD and PPO enzymes. Under B deficit was seen a larger number of shoot-tip necrosis (9), red leaves (31) and high activity of the PAL, IAAO and POD enzymes. With IBA the correlation between IAAO and the roots’ growth was positive, showing that blueberry rooting depends of both B and IAAO regulation.
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Natural or commercial substances or their consortium employed for enhancing the plant growth and quality are referred to as Biostimulants. They boost the physiology of the plant and its entire vital characteristic owing to their activity in enhancing the nutrient availability, membrane stability, root zone stability, osmoprotection, etc. Biostimulant’s mode of action has been comprehended by several modern molecular approaches which indicate what changes they bring about in the plant and its physiology at the cellular level. Various amalgamations and formulations of biostimulants are available, but it is their source and composition, based on which they are classified into three main groups, viz. humic substances, hormonal products, and amino acid products. The use of biostimulants, as opposed to fertilizers and chemical treatments, can promote plant growth, increase nutrient use efficiency, and enhance the nutritional content of the products when applied in small quantities in addition to being an ecofriendly and sustainable plant enhancement methodology.
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Extracts of the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum enhance plant tolerance against environmental stresses such as drought, salinity, and frost. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this improved stress tolerance and the nature of the bioactive compounds present in the seaweed extracts that elicits stress tolerance remain largely unknown. We investigated the effect of A. nodosum extracts and its organic sub-fractions on freezing tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana. Ascophyllum nodosum extracts and its lipophilic fraction significantly increased tolerance to freezing temperatures in in vitro and in vivo assays. Untreated plants exhibited severe chlorosis, tissue damage, and failed to recover from freezing treatments while the extract-treated plants recovered from freezing temperature of -7.5 degrees C in in vitro and -5.5 degrees C in in vivo assays. Electrolyte leakage measurements revealed that the LT(50) value was lowered by 3 degrees C while cell viability staining demonstrated a 30-40% reduction in area of damaged tissue in extract treated plants as compared to water controls. Moreover, histological observations of leaf sections revealed that extracts have a significant effect on maintaining membrane integrity during freezing stress. Treated plants exhibited 70% less chlorophyll damage during freezing recovery as compared to the controls, and this correlated with reduced expression of the chlorphyllase genes AtCHL1 and AtCHL2. Further, the A. nodosum extract treatment modulated the expression of the cold response genes, COR15A, RD29A, and CBF3, resulting in enhanced tolerance to freezing temperatures. More than 2.6-fold increase in expression of RD29A, 1.8-fold increase of CBF3 and two-fold increase in the transcript level of COR15A was observed in plants treated with lipophilic fraction of A. nodosum at -2 degrees C. Taken together, the results suggest that chemical components in A. nodosum extracts protect membrane integrity and affect the expression of stress response genes leading to freezing stress tolerance in A. thaliana.
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The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and cooking on the flavonoids and vitamin C content (ascorbic + dehydroascorbic acid; AA + DHAA) of fresh-cut spinach was evaluated. The total flavonoid content (approximately 1000 mg kg(-)(1) f.w.) remained quite constant during storage in both air and MAP atmospheres, while vitamin C (750 mg kg(-)(1)f.w.) was better preserved in MAP-stored spinach. AA was transformed to DHAA during storage, and its concentration was higher in MAP-stored tissues. The free-radical scavenging activity of the isolated flavonoids was tested, and only those flavonoids with either a dihydroxyl grouping or acylated with ferulic acid showed significant activity. A decrease in the total antioxidant activity was observed during storage, particularly important in MAP-stored spinach. The higher content of DHAA and lower content of both AA and antioxidant flavonoids in the MAP-stored samples could explain this antioxidant activity decrease. Boiling extracted 50% of total flavonoids and 60% vitamin C in the cooking water. However, flavonoid glucuronides were extracted more in the cooking water than the other glycosides. The vitamin C content of the cooked tissue was higher in those samples stored in MAP.
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Living in an oxygenated environment has required the evolution of effective cellular strategies to detect and detoxify metabolites of molecular oxygen known as reactive oxygen species. Here we review evidence that the appropriate and inappropriate production of oxidants, together with the ability of organisms to respond to oxidative stress, is intricately connected to ageing and life span.
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