Psychometric Evaluation of the Short Form Inventory of Drinking Situations (IDS-42) in a Community-Recruited Sample of Substance-Abusing Women

ArticleinJournal of Substance Abuse 11(3):305-321 · February 2000with 281 Reads
Abstract
Purpose: We investigated the psychometric properties (factor structure, internal consistency reliability, concurrent validity) of the Short Form Inventory of Drinking Situations (IDS-42) in women substance abusers. Methods: A sample of 297 substance-abusing women was recruited from the community. The women completed the IDS-42 and the three-factor Drinking Motives Questionnaire (DMQ). Results: Confirmatory factor analyses of IDS-42 items suggested a hierarchical structure for the scale. Eight factors (corresponding to Marlatt and Gordon's eight heavy drinking situations) provided the best model fit at the lower-order level, and three factors (i.e., Negatively Reinforcing vs. Positively Reinforcing vs. Temptation Situations) provided the best model fit at the higher-order level. Lower- and higher-order IDS-42 subscales were shown to possess adequate-to-high levels of internal consistency. The eight lower-order IDS-42 factors demonstrated excellent concurrent validity with conceptually similar DMQ subscale scores. Across the entire sample of female substance abusers, a higher frequency of heavy drinking was reported in Positively Reinforcing Situations and Unpleasant Emotions Situations, as compared to other heavy drinking situations. Implications: Results support the IDS-42's good psychometric properties and demonstrate its utility as a tool in identifying situation-specific antecedents to heavy drinking among women substance abusers.

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  • Article
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  • ... Participants rated their frequency of heavy drinking in each situation (1 = never to 4 = always). Scales were computed per Stewart et al. (2000): Positively Reinforcing, Negatively Reinforcing, and Temptation. Only Study 3 participants (n = 93) completed the IDS42 (α's: Positively Reinforcing = .91, ...
    Article
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  • ... All the women also completed the 42-item Inventory of Drinking Situations, which was used as the measure of typical heavy drinking situations. This inventory also quantified each woman's degree of heavy drinking in several different categories of situations: those where drinking might serve a " relief " function (e.g., relief from conflict with others), those where it might serve more of a " reward " function (e.g., enjoying pleasant times with others) and those where heavy drinking might be triggered by sudden " temptations " (Annis et al., 1987; Carrigan et al., 1998; Stewart et al., 2000). The final measure used was the Inventory of Binge Eating Situations (Baker, 1998), which is a modified version of the 42-item Inventory of Drinking Situations. ...
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  • ... Factor analyses do support a hierarchical structure for the IDS with eight lower-order factors combining to form a smaller number of core higher-order factors. However, factor analyses suggest the presence of three (rather than two) higher-order high-risk drinking situations: negative (e.g., unpleasant emotions), positive (e.g., pleasant emotions), and temptation (e.g., urges and temptations; e.g., Stewart, Samoluk, Conrod, Pihl, and Dongier, 1999). The IDS possesses good psychometric properties in both clinical (Annis et aL, 1987; Cannon, Leeka, Patterson, and Baker, 1990; Isenhart, 1991; Stewart et aL, 1999) and nonclinical (Carrigan, Samoluk, and Stewart, 1998 ) samples. ...
    ... However, factor analyses suggest the presence of three (rather than two) higher-order high-risk drinking situations: negative (e.g., unpleasant emotions), positive (e.g., pleasant emotions), and temptation (e.g., urges and temptations; e.g., Stewart, Samoluk, Conrod, Pihl, and Dongier, 1999). The IDS possesses good psychometric properties in both clinical (Annis et aL, 1987; Cannon, Leeka, Patterson, and Baker, 1990; Isenhart, 1991; Stewart et aL, 1999) and nonclinical (Carrigan, Samoluk, and Stewart, 1998 ) samples. They include adequate internal consistency of the eight subscales and three higher-order scales (e.g., Stewart et aL, 1999) and good construct, concurrent, and predictive validity (Annis et aL, 1987 ). ...
    ... The IDS possesses good psychometric properties in both clinical (Annis et aL, 1987; Cannon, Leeka, Patterson, and Baker, 1990; Isenhart, 1991; Stewart et aL, 1999) and nonclinical (Carrigan, Samoluk, and Stewart, 1998 ) samples. They include adequate internal consistency of the eight subscales and three higher-order scales (e.g., Stewart et aL, 1999) and good construct, concurrent, and predictive validity (Annis et aL, 1987 ). For example, there is good concordance between the IDS subscale scores and the types of situations that clients identify as most problematic in their therapy homework (Sobell and Sobell, 1993). ...
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  • ... It was used as the measure of typical heavy drinking situations. On this questionnaire there are three types of situations as determined through factor analysis with a previously tested sample of substance-abusing women ( Stewart, Samoluk, Conrod, Pihl, & Dongier, 2000c): (1) those where heavy drinking may serve a 'relief' function: conflict with others, unpleasant emotions and physical discomfort; (2) those where heavy drinking may serve more of a 'reward' function: pleasant times with others, pleasant emotions and social cues to drink; and (3) those where heavy drinking may be triggered by sudden 'temptations': situations involving testing personal control over drinking, and those involving sudden urges and temptations to drink. These scales have been shown to possess good internal consistency ( Stewart et al., 2000c). ...
    ... On this questionnaire there are three types of situations as determined through factor analysis with a previously tested sample of substance-abusing women ( Stewart, Samoluk, Conrod, Pihl, & Dongier, 2000c): (1) those where heavy drinking may serve a 'relief' function: conflict with others, unpleasant emotions and physical discomfort; (2) those where heavy drinking may serve more of a 'reward' function: pleasant times with others, pleasant emotions and social cues to drink; and (3) those where heavy drinking may be triggered by sudden 'temptations': situations involving testing personal control over drinking, and those involving sudden urges and temptations to drink. These scales have been shown to possess good internal consistency ( Stewart et al., 2000c). Stewart, Samoluk and MacDonald (1999) have argued that it is a useful measure for looking at the underlying motivations for heavy drinking since motivations can be inferred from the situations in which the behaviour is occurring (e.g. ...
    ... underlying motivation of emotional relief can be inferred when heavy drinking occurs in situations involving unpleasant emotions, conflict with others or physical discomfort) and since it does not require the respondent to have an awareness of the motivations underlying their drinking behaviour. Consistent with the suggestion that drinking motives can be inferred from scores on this measure, Stewart et al. (2000c) showed that scores in the Inventory of Drinking Situations correlated in theoretically expected ways with scores on a measure specifically designed to tap motivations for drinking, in a large sample of substance-abusing women. In the present study, women completed this questionnaire in terms of heavy drinking occasions over the last year immediately prior to their entry into treatment. ...
  • Article
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    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorders are frequently comorbid conditions (Stewart, 1996). Alcohol use may serve a “negatively-reinforcing” function among traumatized individuals with PTSD (Stewart, 1996; Stewart, Conrod, Pihl, & Dongier, 1999a; Stewart, Pihl, Conrod, & Dongier, 1998). As such, the heavy drinking behavior of those with PTSD should be relatively situation-specific (i.e., more frequent in “negative” discriminative contexts than in other types of contexts). To test this “situational-specificity” hypothesis, a lifetime measure of trauma exposure (Everstine & Everstine, 1993), the PTSD Symptom Self-Report Scale (Foa, Riggs, Dancu, & Rothbaum, 1993), and the 42-item Inventory of Drinking Situations (Annis, Graham, & Davis, 1987) were administered to a community-recruited sample of 294 adult women substance abusers. PTSD symptoms were significantly positively correlated with frequency of heavy drinking in negative situations, but unrelated to frequency of heavy drinking in positive and temptation situations. At the level of specific drinking situations, PTSD symptoms were significantly positively correlated with frequency of heavy drinking in the negative situations of Unpleasant Emotions, Physical Discomfort, and Conflict with Others. PTSD symptoms were unrelated to frequency of heavy drinking in the positive situations of Pleasant Times with Others and Social Pressure to Drink, or in the temptation situations of Testing Personal Control and Urges and Temptations. Additionally, PTSD symptoms were significantly negatively correlated with frequency of heavy drinking in positive situations involving Pleasant Emotions. Anxiety sensitivity (fear of anxiety-related sensations; Peterson & Reiss, 1992), but not Neuroticism (tendency to experience negative affect; Costa & McCrae, 1992), mediated the observed associations between PTSD symptoms and situation-specific heavy drinking in negative contexts in general, and Conflict with Others and Physical Discomfort situations in particular. Implications for designing potentially more effective interventions for women with comorbid PTSD-alcohol use disorders are discussed.