Article

Port safety and the container revolution: A statistical study on human factor and occupational accidents over the long period

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  • Università degli Studi di Genova - Polytechnic Scool
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Abstract

Several factors can affect occupational accident frequency, namely economical factors, technologies used (low automation, discontinuous operating) job design, organization of work/environmental conditions and human factors. In particular, technological advances in industrial activities can give rise to improvement in productivity and in occupational health and safety, but not necessarily simultaneously. The beginning of the container transport dates back to 50 years ago, but while containerization changed everything, from ships and ports to patterns of global trade, its impact on work injuries was not explored at all. The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between work organization, job experience, productivity and occupational accidents, from the starting of the container expansion to nowadays, considering Genoa port (Italy), one of the largest of the Mediterranean Sea. In order to minimize possible reporting biases, such as underreporting or reclassification to a lower level of severity, injury statistics are elaborated starting from data collected directly on-site, from internal accident or medical-aid reports. An in-depth statistical analysis on occupational injuries in the years 1980–2006 is carried out, with reference to frequency indexes, mechanism of injury and material causes. The increase of container-ships traffic and, consequently, the sharp change in port infrastructure involved a rapid modification also in the work organization, with particular reference to the number and characteristics of workforce (decrease from 5783 to nearly 1000 employees and increase of low experience workers from 28% to 74%). The striking high percentage increase of young or low experienced workers in handling container (and performing correlated new tasks) caused a remarkable increase of the risk for occupational injuries. In the studied port, we recorded an increase of the frequency index (injuries per hundred thousand hours worked) from 13.0 to 29.7. It results that the increased expansion of shipping container utilization is not connected to a correspondent human factor safety implementation. Main risk factors are pointed out, revealing an increase of accidents due to transport vehicle (+8.3%) and a reduction of accidents caused by substance or materials (−4.5%). These factors show a statistical significant correlation with the new job tasks. Consideration of these findings may enable managerial solutions and workplace organization interventions for the prevention of injuries and safety performance improvement in port activities.

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... The impact of such disruptive events has been felt across the supply chain, down through to the end consumers and society at large (Lam & Lassa 2017;Loh & Thai 2015). This has resulted in increased research focusing on port safety and risk assessment and/or management (Fabiano et al. 2010;Liu, Zhou & Sun 2019;Pak et al. 2015;Yang 2011;Yang et al. 2016). In pursuance of such port safety research interests, this study focused on establishing the determinants of effective dangerous cargo (DC) logistics, focusing on Namibian seaports. ...
... Rothblum (2004) supports this view and has classified human error into incorrect decision-making, improper performance of tasks, and inaction. In view of these facts, Fabiano et al. (2010) rather attributed recognition of several human elements to port safety; elements such as situational awareness, proper communication and instruction interpretations, good health, effective management of work, and personal pressure (stress) issues. In addition, John et al. (2014) argued that the totality of an assessment of seaport operational risks is only complete with the inclusion of human elements -a view further expanded by Molero et al. (2017) in their 'total safety by design' contributions in increasing the safety and operability of DC terminals. ...
... nd personal pressure (stress) issues. In addition, John et al. (2014) argued that the totality of an assessment of seaport operational risks is only complete with the inclusion of human elements -a view further expanded by Molero et al. (2017) in their 'total safety by design' contributions in increasing the safety and operability of DC terminals. Fabiano et al's. (2010) study concluded that the container revolution has not improved safety conditions in seaports as the human factors have not been impacted by the revolution. More recently, Molero et al. (2017), in support of Pak et al. (2015), resonated the same view, adding the captain's perspective that human elements do indeed impact port safety. All ...
Article
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Background: In recent decades, accidents involving hazardous goods at seaports have become a major concern worldwide resulting in international conventions and interventions to minimise the impact of such accidents. Despite the improvements in safety measures and the enhancement of cargo handlers’ knowledge over the years, port accidents involving dangerous substances still continue to occur. Objectives: The study explores the determinants of effective high-risk cargo (HRC) handling at seaports, focusing on Namibian seaports. The study was aimed at establishing the elements of HRC logistics processes and to determine factors influencing the effectiveness of HRC handling procedures followed by the seaports. Method: An integrated research strategy was adopted, backed by the employment of mixed research methods, through seven key informant interviews and a quantitative survey involving 81 port employees. Results: The results of the study confirmed the totality of HRC logistics activities at Namibian seaports. It emerged from the study that there were factors that facilitated and that hindered the effectiveness of HRC logistics activities at Namibian seaports. The study confirmed the association between HRC training and the level of knowledge of risk mitigation and emergency procedures, documentation understanding and regulations adherence. This guided in proposing a new theory for the determinants of HRC logistics in developing economies. Conclusion: The study’s findings provided sufficient evidence to suggest that HRC logistics safety processes at seaports can be improved through the proposed framework. The study’s findings have important repercussions for re-shaping public policy, especially as coastal economies worldwide compete towards becoming preferred logistics hubs.
... Complex and varied activities are performed in port terminals such as passenger transport, cargo transport, oil and chemicals storage, vehicle storage and transport, ship, lorry and train circulation, etc. which all create more risks and hazards. Incidents such as traffic accidents, oil spills, ship collisions, explosions and injuries [5] are among the accidents that occur in ports. Multiple complex activities create many risk exposures which then lead to accidents. ...
... These risks and hazards affect people, including crews, passengers, port users and port workers, the environment and property such as ships and port facilities [4]. If not managed and controlled, this will create unsafe acts and conditions [5] and may eventually lead to major accidents, including fatalities. These activities each have risks that need to be assessed and evaluated to place appropriate control measures to prevent accidents. ...
... These activities each have risks that need to be assessed and evaluated to place appropriate control measures to prevent accidents. Previous studies have developed and highlighted different risk assessment models by utilizing many risk assessment techniques to solve specific problems pertaining to the risk of handling cargo at terminal operations [5,[9][10][11][12][13][14][15]. However, no common risk assessment framework can be implemented for all types of risks. ...
Article
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Risk management provides an effective method for ensuring safety and preventing accidents towards achieving port sustainability. This article describes a study of the implementation of a risk management framework for handling of cargo at ports. To achieve the study’s objectives, data was collected using a questionnaire and disseminated to port experts at three major ports in Malaysia. The collected data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software and calculated using risk matrix calculations. Based on the calculations, for port A and port B, 42% of risk falls under risk category II and 58% under risk category III. Meanwhile, for Port C, 31% under risk category II and 69% under risk category III. Risk reduction measures should be implemented within a defined period of time (12 months). Additional risk control measures were proposed accordingly. The novelty of the study was an improvement of risk management framework. The risk management framework was proposed with an introduction of risk frequency into risk rating calculation, risk criteria parameter for risk likelihood and risk severity, new risk matrix dimension and instruments to evaluate the existing control measure factor and new risk categories with five levels which provide more details and sustainable risk assessment method.
... Literature review has disclosed that some studies in port operation safety focus on port risk assessment analysis [2][3][4][5], port traffic risk identification [6], and port safety management [7]. Some researchers are interested in port safety and human factors and occupational accidents [8]. ...
... It is reported that more than 80% accidents are caused by human errors, either directly or indirectly [19]. The human errors in the port operation are mainly caused by lower safety awareness [16], insufficient skill and experience, and physical and psychological states based on the experience and knowledge of experts working in ports for more Processes 2020, 8,1235 4 of 17 than 15 years. The staff in port operation could not follow the safety operation rules and regulations, equipped with proper protective devices and neglect the safety culture in the port reflect the lower safety awareness. ...
... Processes 2020,8, 1235 ...
Article
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Safety is the premise of efficiency and effectiveness in the port operation. Safety investment is becoming a vital part of port operation in current era in order to overcome different types of hazards the port operation exposed to. This paper aims to improve the safety level of port operation through analyzing its influencing factors and exploring the interactions between the safety investment and system risk level. By analyzing the key factors affecting the port operation and their mutual relationship within a man–machine–environment–management system, a decision-making model of safety investment in port enterprise was established by system dynamics (SD). An illustration example and a sensitivity analysis were carried out to justify and validate the proposed model. The results show that increasing the total safety investment of port enterprises, improving the safety management investment on personnel, and strengthening the implementation effect of investment can improve the degree of port security to a certain extent. The strength of the proposed work is its practical application in current scenarios using real time data and the ability to provide a baseline approach for port enterprises to formulate safety investment strategy.
... Human factors [4] are recognised as root factors in 80-90% of incidents [5][6][7]. Dangerous human factors include fatigue, carelessness, stress, health, situation awareness, mistakes, inadequate training, and safety culture [8][9][10]. ...
... For example, in the Fukushima disaster, swift communication by workers from the German Hapag Lloyd company with strong unions greatly emphasising employee protection were found to improve safety [25]. In contrast, temporary employment conditions, less experience amongst the workers, and downsizing, have been argued to place greater strain on workers and adversely affected port safety [4]. Thus many studies show the importance and relevance of a huge range of human factors. ...
... Changes in port governance policies can have an impact on safety (cf. [4]) through creating uncertainty and a lack of clarity about responsibility for decisions. Furthermore, working conditions can impact on the ability of the port to maintain safety. ...
Article
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Maintaining port safety in full conformity with IMO standards is a requisite for every port and country. To do this, understanding the challenges and human factors involved is key. To date, much research has shed valuable light on these factors and considered how to address them. One aspect that is often noted is that both maintaining port safety and researching port safety presents numerous challenges. This paper considers both these aspects in the context of a case study of port safety in Kaohsiung port, Taiwan.
... (Gun and Ryan, 1994) • Gender: (Lin et al., 2008;Nielsen et al., 2015;Stergiou-kita et al., 2015) (Chatterjee, 1986) (Julià et al., 2013;Smith and Dejoy, 2012) (Baker, 1987) (Murphy et al., 1986)(Barlas and Izci, 2018) (Cordeiro et al., 2005) Economic Problems (Mullen, 2004) (Haslam et al., 2005) (Choudhry, 2008) (Sawacha et al., 1999) • Experience (Khanzode et al., 2012;Laflamme and Menckel, 1995) (Chi et al., 2009) (Butani, 1988;Castillo-rosa et al., 2017;Chang et al., 2016;Keyserling, 1983) (Chau et al., 2007;Salminen, 2004). (Choudhry et al., 2007), (Koustellis et al., 2013) (Huang and Hinze, 2003) (Fabiano et al., 2010;Sawacha et al., 1999) (Man et al., 2017;Unsar and Sut, 2009) (Bax et al., 1998;Frade et al., 2004) (Anyfantis and Boustras, 2020) (Gimeno et al., 2004) (Barlas and Izci, 2018) (Benavides et al., 2006) (Lindroos and Burström, 2010) (Choudhry, 2008). (Kim et al., 2017). ...
... (Kim et al., 2017). • Stress: (Murphy et al., 1986;Petruni et al., 2017) (Petridou and Moustaki, 2000) (Fabiano et al., 2010) (Hetherington et al., 2006) (Kim et al., 2017) (Kim et al., 2017;Paul and Maiti, 2005;Zwetsloot et al., 2007) • Self Esteem: (Choudhry, 2008) (Guo et al., 2019) (Liu and Luo, 2012) (Mullen, 2004) (Petridou and Moustaki, 2000) • Risk Taking: (Choudhry et al., 2009;Fang and Wu, 2013;Feng et al., 2015;Frazier et al., 2013;O'Toole, 2002;Wu et al., 2015b) (Petridou and Moustaki, 2000;Verhaegen et al., 1976) • Safety Motivation: (Chen and Chen, 2014;Neal and Griffin, 2006;Vinodkumar and Bhasi, 2010b) (Bakker and Demerouti, 2017). (Christian et al., 2009;Griffin and Neal, 2000) Griffin and Hu, 2013;Hedlund et al., 2010;Kvorning et al., 2015;Neal et al., 2000;Neal and Griffin, 2006) • Safety Knowledge: (Smith-Crowe et al., 2003) (Melemez, 2015) (Hsu et al., 2015) (Hald, 2018) (Kang and Guo, 2016) (Bevilacqua and Emanuele Ciarapica, 2017) (Haslam et al., 2005) (Bust et al., 2008;Arboleda and Abraham, 2004;Dong et al., 2009;Saurin et al., 2008;Trajkovski and Loosemore, 2006) (Bentley et al., 2002) Vinodkumar and Bhasi, 2010b) • Safety Training: (Shin et al., 2014) (Hung et al., 2011) (Tam and Fung, 2012) (Burke et al., 2011). ...
... (Kim et al., 2017). • Stress: (Murphy et al., 1986;Petruni et al., 2017) (Petridou and Moustaki, 2000) (Fabiano et al., 2010) (Hetherington et al., 2006) (Kim et al., 2017) (Kim et al., 2017;Paul and Maiti, 2005;Zwetsloot et al., 2007) • Self Esteem: (Choudhry, 2008) (Guo et al., 2019) (Liu and Luo, 2012) (Mullen, 2004) (Petridou and Moustaki, 2000) • Risk Taking: (Choudhry et al., 2009;Fang and Wu, 2013;Feng et al., 2015;Frazier et al., 2013;O'Toole, 2002;Wu et al., 2015b) (Petridou and Moustaki, 2000;Verhaegen et al., 1976) • Safety Motivation: (Chen and Chen, 2014;Neal and Griffin, 2006;Vinodkumar and Bhasi, 2010b) (Bakker and Demerouti, 2017). (Christian et al., 2009;Griffin and Neal, 2000) Griffin and Hu, 2013;Hedlund et al., 2010;Kvorning et al., 2015;Neal et al., 2000;Neal and Griffin, 2006) • Safety Knowledge: (Smith-Crowe et al., 2003) (Melemez, 2015) (Hsu et al., 2015) (Hald, 2018) (Kang and Guo, 2016) (Bevilacqua and Emanuele Ciarapica, 2017) (Haslam et al., 2005) (Bust et al., 2008;Arboleda and Abraham, 2004;Dong et al., 2009;Saurin et al., 2008;Trajkovski and Loosemore, 2006) (Bentley et al., 2002) Vinodkumar and Bhasi, 2010b) • Safety Training: (Shin et al., 2014) (Hung et al., 2011) (Tam and Fung, 2012) (Burke et al., 2011). ...
Article
A research survey is conducted in the large public sector electrical utility in the Kerala state of India. The measurement scale for personal factors like self-esteem, job stress, personal stress, social supports, and fatigue are developed as per the targeted population. Personal safety climate factors of the utility are accessed using existing safety climate scales. 3017 electrical employee's responses from all districts of Kerala state are collected by one to one interaction using the developed instrument. This data is analysed using statistical methods like reliability analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, ANOVA, and explanatory factor analysis. The measurement model shows a good model fit indices, convergent validity, and discriminate validity. Six research hypotheses are validated by statistical analysis. The study found that personal factors, safety climate factors, and health conditions of the workers were significantly correlated to occupational accidents. Personal Attributes-age, job role, education, and experience are significantly effecting the safety behaviour of the electrical workers. All the personal factors significantly correlated with safety climate factors. The results of the study highlighted the need for safety participation, safety knowledge, safety training, and interventions to reduce personal issues in the workplace. These findings provide valuable insights to future researchers to implement novel methods to ensure workplace safety.
... Nor is there much information concerning the presence and extent of new forms of occupational ill-health in such terminals. However, one detailed study of trends in accident data in an Italian port (Fabiano et al., 2010) suggests that changes accompanying containerisation may have resulted in increased risk of injury and ill-health associated with changed patterns of work organisation. Support for anticipating this is found in work on other sectors, which shows that a reduced and casualised workforce, along with agency, contractor and directly employed workers in the same worksites, are associated with poor OSH outcomes (e.g. ...
... Yet a large proportion also indicated that they experienced stress because of their work. This evidence of risks to health not addressed by OSH management systems echoed the findings of Fabiano et al. (2010) on the OSH consequences of changes in the organisation of work following containerisation in an Italian port, and suggested they may apply more widely. ...
Article
This article presents an account of corporate strategies for occupational safety and health (OSH) management in container terminals operated by large global companies in four countries, and their delivery in the operation of terminal work activities. It indicates a substantial gap between these aims and approaches, their orientation at corporate and terminal management levels and the workers’ experiences in the terminals. While this gap is evident everywhere, it is considerably more pronounced in the terminals of the low-income country included in the study. The article indicates that in day-to-day practice, OSH is principally addressed through behaviour control strategies that fail to reach many aspects of occupational health and safety that workers perceive as important. It further indicates that contractor workers are hardest hit by such practice and suggests a radical rethinking of corporate approaches to safety and health is required to justify the claim that they represent ‘corporate core values’.
... All these were commonly found in previous generations of dock-work, but the extent to which work in container terminals has contributed to reducing their incidence is not clear, nor is the extent of new forms of occupational ill-health that might arise from this work. However, the detailed study of trends in accident data in an Italian port by Fabiano et al (2010), suggests that the employment and organisational changes that accompany containerisation may have given rise to new or increased risks of injury and illhealth for at least some of the current forms of work undertaken in these terminals. Support for such conclusions is also found in the large body of evidence on the OSH consequences of these changes in other sectors, which links work intensification created by a much reduced workforce, its casualisation and the use of agency and contractor employment alongside workers who were directly employed, with poorer OSH outcomes (Quinlan et al, 2001;Quinlan and Bohle, 2008;Weil, 2014). ...
... These studies in other sectors further show that these developments challenge OSH management by undermining organisational supports for good practice such as the operation of communication arrangements; co-ordination and control; and worker participation (Weil, 2014). But, with the exception of Fabiano et al (2010), there has been little empirical study of the impact of these issues on the health and safety of terminal workers. ...
Article
Container terminals are purpose built or substantially adapted ports virtually exclusively involved with the transport of containerised goods. They now exist everywhere and have redesigned dock-work to increase productivity and efficiencies in the handling of goods, making physical handling by dock-workers increasingly redundant. Conventional wisdom suggests that arrangements for the safety and health of those who remain in employment are generally improved in comparison with past conditions. Yet, reliable evidence of the effects of work on the occupational safety and health (OSH) of these workers is scarce. This paper is based on research which examined the OSH experiences of workers involved with operational tasks in terminals operated by global network terminal (GNT) companies in four countries situated in Asia-Pacific and Europe. It explored these experiences along with the respondents’ perceptions concerning the effectiveness of arrangements made to manage their OSH risks, and compared findings between countries. The research demonstrated a significant gap between managers’ understandings of the operation of arrangements for OSH and the perceptions and experiences of workers, both in relation to OSH outcomes and the effectiveness of the OSH arrangements. This was especially evident for work-related ill-health, workers’ representation and consultation on OSH, and in the differences in the experience of all these between directly employed workers and those employed by contractors. The paper discusses the implications for improved OSH arrangements and outcomes.
... From the another perspective, Fabiano et al. (2010) carried out a study on the port operational safety which is affected by human factor and occupational accidents. The changing port infrastructure with the impact of containerization has involved a modification within the work organization which reduced the human-intensive operations hence the number of employee. ...
... The changing port infrastructure with the impact of containerization has involved a modification within the work organization which reduced the human-intensive operations hence the number of employee. However, Fabiano et al. (2010) notes that low experienced workers cause a significant increase of the occupational injuries risk. Herein, it can be clearly seen that the evolution of operational safety will be provide competitiveness for port with smooth functioning of ports depending scotfree operations and the increase of port performance thanks to experienced workers with safety awareness. ...
Thesis
Container ports are indispensable parts of the container transport operations. In terms of container transport operations even better port services are desired to provide viability of reliable liner shipping service. Therefore, port competition to supply better port services is one of the natural consequences of the container transport evolution in the globalisation era. This thesis offers a port competition analysis as total transportation time and cost based between the container ports which serve to collided hinterlands with the integration of offshore container port system (OCPS) and ultra large container vessels (ULCV). An OCPS adaptation is assumed to create offshore container port related an inter-port container competition with other conventional container ports which can handle ULCVs. This OCPS is going to complicate competition game and conditions even much more between ports. The methodological approach of this study aims to develop a hybrid port competition analysis model to analyse port competition in terms of commercial and operational aspects. The model is divided to two different methodological stages. First proposed method is to apply total transportation time and cost based door-to-door container network analysis in order to determine the competitiveness of the given port alternatives. In this approach, according to total time and cost values, the weights of each competitive port are determined to define the position of ports in the competition in order to attract interest of the industrial customers. Operating costs, voyage costs, cargo handling costs and hinterland transportation cost, and also port construction costs are considered as main criteria to clarify the ports’ position in the competition. Second method is to develop a game theoretical strategy concept to apply on the port competition regarding to lucrativeness and investment opportunity expectations of the port authorities. Integration and comparison of the both methodological approaches is going to provide valuable findings to analyse competitiveness level of container ports more accurately. Outcomes of this research may help for future business development strategies of port authorities, port operators, shipping liners and private and public port investors. This study is expected to provide a clear holistic comprehending about the underlying dynamics of the port competition for all counterparties involved in container transport operations.
... On study of the port throughput, the results indicate the predictive accuracy of programming genetic model has 40-45% of better results than smooth integrated moving model in all levels. In literature (Fabiano et al. 2010), the artificial models' disadvantages are listed. In general, the ANN suffers because of local minimum and over fitted because of data. ...
... In general, the ANN suffers because of local minimum and over fitted because of data. The general approaches like ANN and genetic algorithm are very sensitive in nature while selecting parameter (Fabiano et al. 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
In the sequence of port throughput analysis, many nonlinear and fluctuation signals are included in order to find the accuracy of port. Besides the socioeconomic factors, the virtually decision making and execution are considered as some kind of forecast. The seasonality and volatility are the critical issues in predicting the efficiency. The forecasting is a useful tool to cross these issues. The forecasting uses many qualitative and casual models and performs time series analysis to find the information about events, pattern changes, relationship between the system elements. It assumes two different kinds of phenomena share the same model of behavior. One is to promote new issues and another is to predict the outcome of the analysis. The judgmental forecasting technique is based on present situation and past situation in order to predict the issues in port. To deal with these issues, this paper addresses a method of hyperchaotic model for optimizing the throughput based on PCA. We review the latest models to provide the theoretical basis and propose novel ideas; the proposed methodology is simulated compared with the other state-of-the-art approaches. The experimental analysis proves the robustness of the model. In the future, more scenarios will be tested.
... В целях продвижения принципа управления профессиональными рисками [9,10] институтом государственной службы и управления Российской академии народного хозяйства и государственной службы при Президенте Российской Федерации разработаны Концепция формирования системы управления рисками и рекомендации по применению риск- ориентированного подхода [11]. Концепция и Рекомендации утверждены протоколом ...
... Среди всех возможных критериев риска выделяются критерии риска по тяжести потенциальных негативных последствий (риск ущерба) и критерии риска вероятности несоблюдения обязательных требований [9]. Часть критериев влечет за собой повышение балльной оценки рисков, другая часть -снижение. ...
... Meanwhile, during economic upturns, an outflow of experienced workers is also more likely to occur, as these workers seek jobs with higher compensation or are recruited to better jobs (Boeri, 1996;Montgomery, 1999;Saks and Wozniak, 2011). Workers' experience is a crucial part of human capital that is reported in several studies to be correlated with injury incidence ( Chi et al., 2005;Fabiano et al., 2010;Leung et al., 2014;Oh and Shin, 2003). Thus the outflow of experienced workers and turnover of staff also contribute to the association between business cycle and workplace injury. ...
... However, a variation in the number of inexperienced workers (LC1) is not found to occur prior to the change of occupational injury payments (Y1) in the manufacturing, construction, wholesale and retail sectors. A variation in the explanatory variables should precede workplace injury, and increasing the number of young or inexperienced workers causes a remarkable increase in the risk for occupational injuries (Fabiano et al., 2010). The reasons for this reverse sequence between inexperienced workers and injury incidence are proposed as follows. ...
... Commonly discussed port-centric operational problems are port accidents (Darbra and Casal, 2004;Pinto and Talley, 2006), port-equipment failures (Mennis et al., 2008;Gurning, 2011), mishandling of dangerous goods (Ellis, 2011), port congestion (Paul and Maloni, 2010), inadequacy of labor skills (Fabiano et al., 2010), hinterland inaccessibility (Gurning and Cahoon, 2009), breach of security (Pinto and Talley, 2006;World Port Source, 2011) and labor strikes (Blackhurst et al., 2005;Berle, et al., 2011b). Port risks associated with human factors also deserve attention as port employees are the ones involved in the operations. ...
... The effective operations of new technologies, advanced systems and processes, rely on appropriate training of port workers with new sets of competencies (Lun, et al., 2010;Heaver, 2011;Thai, 2012). Similarly, Fabiano et al. (2010) suggested that a lack of work experience and inadaptability to new skills and technologies give rise to port risks as well. Differences among individuals increase the challenges of effective workplace communication (Horck, 2008), thus giving rise to conflicts between personnel in the communication process (Berle et al., 2011a), which is also a source of port risks. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a risk assessment of port-centric threats that may have adverse effects on supply chain continuity from the perspectives of port operators and port users, thereby determining the significance of these threats to supply chain disruptions. Design/methodology/approach Drawing on literature review and reported cases, 19 port-centric disruptive events were identified. Subsequently, surveys were conducted to collect data from 102 port operators and 123 port users worldwide on the frequencies and consequences of the identified port-centric disruptive events. Risk matrices were then generated to compare the perspectives of port operators and port users. Findings The results show that threats related to the planning of port resources require the highest level of attention. This highlights important areas for port managers seeking to improve port resilience and supply chain continuity through a more prudent management of risks. Research limitations/implications The results help port managers understand where they should establish strategic capability to increase port resilience and enhance sustainability to benefit port users. However, the study could be further enhanced by evaluating the threats based on different regions of ports and port users and making recommendations for port operators to undertake. Originality/value The findings of this paper are significant as they provide an analysis of data gathered from international port operators and port users. Risk matrices have been widely applied in many industries, yet no studies have been conducted to develop a portfolio of port-centric risks at a scale as large as this paper.
... Security enhancements need to be implemented both on land and in water because they can pose significant challenges to security operations and personnel (Antão et al., 2016;Kang & Kim, 2019;Peckham, 2012). Added, Fabiano et al. (2010) an increase in accidents caused by transport vehicles and a reduction in accidents caused by materials, allows workplace organization interventions for the prevention of possible injuries and to improve safety performance in port activities. Based on the theoretical description, job security is an effort made by an organization or company to protect employees, as well as give them confidence in the continuity of their work and a safe working environment. ...
... Safety and security are needed by the workforce when carrying out loading and unloading activities, where workers are advised to wear all personal protective equipment. The results of this study are by the results of previous studies by Fabiano et al. (2010) that, in particular, technological advances in industrial activities can increase productivity and occupational health and safety, but not necessarily at the same time. Research by Ramli (2010) concludes that workers guaranteed with OSH will work more productively and will support company development. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study is aimed at analyzing the effect of port service performance, occupational safety, and health, and work safety on loading and unloading productivity and its impact on service user satisfaction at Yos Sudarso Tual Port, Maluku province, in Eastern Indonesia in 2020. What was found was the limited-service performance delivered to service users, resulting in dissatisfaction. This could have implications for the less-than-optimal loading and unloading performance at Yos Sudarso Tual Port. The study uses a quantitative method, with a path analysis model, with a total of 40 samples. Research respondents are users of loading and unloading services. The findings, in general, indicate that there is an effect of port service performance, occupational safety, and health and work security on loading and unloading productivity which in turn has an impact on increasing user satisfaction of Yos Sudarso Tual Port services. The key finding is that new investments are needed which will require the ongoing capacity building and development of several port authorities who are civil servants who will oversee port planning and operations and regulate access to key port services and facilities.
... (2017) also mentioned hazard sources such as bad weather, unclear regulations, corroded floors and unfit working conditions. Fabiano et al. (2010) as well as Rao and Raghavan (1996) elaborated the different types of hazards related to chemical handling at ports. Among these, the authors included accidents during ship-to-shore transfer of chemicals and during berthing; disasters at cargo shed leading to explosions and toxic gas discharges; misfortune events during transportation and lifting of hazardous cargo. ...
... ,Fabiano et al. (2010) andRonza, Lázaro-Touza, Carol, Casal (2009) suggested that the transportation or storage of dangerous goods is one of the major hazard sources in port areas. These activities could cause several accidents and have economic and environmental impacts. ...
Research
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Seaports are centers of trade which contribute significantly to sustaining growth and development of the economy. They generate business activity through their operations and are critical interfaces between sea and land supply infrastructures. Due to their complex operations, the heterogeneity of stakeholders and critical location, seaports are exposed to a wide range of developing and changing risks. Unforeseen or underestimated hazards can lead to complications that will most likely result in human, environmental, material or economic damages. This research work aims to identify suitable risk assessment methods that can be applied in seaports. The methodology for the literature review involves the consultation of two databases in an evaluation period from 1980 to 2017. The exploration is based on a set of keywords and phrases to extract significant data. After the data screening, refinement process and evaluation of the information, 58 research articles are acquired for the analysis. This study helps to summarize the hazard sources which are classified into: natural and man-made; factors of risk which are enlisted in different categories: climate, operational, safety, technical, organizational, environmental, socio-economic and political. Moreover, a review of the different qualitative, semi-quantitative and quantitative approaches to assess risks in port areas is presented in order to suggest a particular set of suitable methods that could be used by the different stakeholders at seaports. In addition, based on the results of the analysis, future research areas are recommended with a focus on an empirical study.
... Seaports risk management is playing an increasingly important role in ensuring port service resilience in the context of supply chain systems. As a result, it is attracting much attention from different operational, organizational and economic perspectives (Legato and Monaco, 2004;Garrick et al., 2004;Fabiano et al., 2010;Mokhtari et al., 2011;Madni and Jackson, 2009). However, compared to shipping risk analysis (Hänninen, 2014;Banda et al., 2015;Wu et al., 2015), studies on seaport risk and safety management are scarce in the literature. ...
... Importante achado no estudo comprova associação do trabalho realizado durante embarque/desembarque de contentores e adoecimento, por exemplo, a associação estaticamente significativa de lombalgia com a função de motorista de trailer (²=8,12; p=0,04). Outro estudo no porto de Genova-Itália, de Fabiano et al. (2010), desenvolvido entre 1980 e 2006, descreve que o impressionante aumento da porcentagem de trabalhadores jovens e inexperientes no manuseio dos contentores (e performance em novas tarefas relacionadas) causou um aumento notável de risco de acidentes de trabalho. No porto estudado os autores registraram um aumento da frequência do índice de acidente de trabalho de 13.0 para 29.7 e concluíram que isso resulta que o aumento da expansão de navios conteineiros não corresponde à implementação de fatores de segurança no trabalho. ...
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The objective is to understand the work of dockworker, and detect the conditions under which the work is developed, in the lashing of containers, in the port of Santos / Brazil. The method was developed with a qualitative approach that aimed at the knowledge of the work from the observation of the real work-an approach developed based on the ergonomic analysis of the work in two studies-and from the workshops with the workers. Four workshops were developed with four dockers and two teachers. When analyzing the work on container lashing and the conditions under which it is carried out, it was observed that the modernization process, which resulted in a greater speed of container movement through the planning of storage and shipping operations, associated to technological innovations and of the equipment, left aside the work of lashing the container. It is noticeable that container lashing employs the human being, throughout its execution phase, contrary to the ideation of automation. Transformations indicate the need for standardization of vessels and means of work, the recognition by capital of the necessary qualification and appreciation of the work of dockworkers. Resumo: O objetivo é compreender o trabalho de estiva e detectar as condições em que o trabalho é desenvolvido, na peação de contentores, no porto de Santos/Brasil. O método foi desenvolvido com abordagem qualitativa que visou o conhecimento do trabalho a partir de observação da realização do trabalho real-abordagem desenvolvida com base nas análises ergonômicas do trabalho em duas pesquisas-e a partir da realização de oficinas com os trabalhadores. Foram desenvolvidas quatro oficinas com quatro estivadores e dois docentes. Ao analisar o trabalho na peação de contentores e as condições em que é realizado observou-se que o processo de modernização, que resultou em maior velocidade da movimentação dos contentores através do conjunto de planejamento das operações de armazenamento e embarque, associado às inovações tecnológicas e digitais dos equipamentos, deixou à margem o trabalho de peação do container. É perceptível que a peação de contentores emprega o ser humano, em todo a sua fase de execução, contrariando o ideário da automação. Transformações indicam a necessidade de padronização dos navios e meios de trabalho, o reconhecimento pelo capital da necessária qualificação e valorização do trabalho dos estivadores. Palavras-chave: Condições de trabalho, Estivador, Organização do trabalho.
... Passengers' understanding of safety knowledge and information during a voyage can reduce the possibilities of injuries and death in an accident. Passengers' lack of safety knowledge and inadequate safety behaviours can negatively affect the likelihood of survival and lead to serious injuries or even death (Telley et al., 2006;Fabiano et al., 2010). ...
Article
Purpose This study aims to propose a safety marketing stimuli-response model to explain passengers’ safety behavior in the ferry services context. Design/methodology/approach Structural equation modeling was conducted to examine the impact of safety marketing stimuli on passengers’ safety awareness and behavior by using data obtained from a survey of 316 ferry passengers in Hong Kong. Findings The authors found that passengers’ perceptions of ferry safety marketing stimuli positively affected their safety awareness and safety awareness positively affected passengers’ safety behaviors. Specifically, they found that safety awareness played a mediating role in the relationship between ferry safety marketing stimuli and passengers’ safety behaviors. Practical/implications The empirically validated scales can be adapted to practices of safety marketing, while providing helpful information for ferry operators to evaluate their efforts of safety marketing and implications for improvement. Originality/value According to the authors' knowledge, this study is one of the first attempts to fill this research gap by empirically validating and theoretically conceptualizing measures of safety marketing stimuli based on the marketing stimulus-response model.
... Ports are vulnerable to several safety and security issues, which can potentially cause a loss in terms of benefits, port reputation, and the efficiency of operations (Fabiano et al., 2010). Direct attacks by terrorists, utilization of ports as a conduit for the movement of weapons (Altiok, 2011), natural hazards, and inherent risks in the port activities associated with safety and security are the prominent issues in this area. ...
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Ports and harbors are facing stiff competition for market share and delivering more effective and secure flow of goods worldwide. High performing ports are implementing smart technologies to better manage operations meeting new challenges in maintaining safe, secure, and energy efficient facilities that mitigate environmental impacts. In this context, a new concept has emerged which is called smart port. However, a unified definition of a smart port has not been well documented. This paper attempts to develop a framework for a smart port and a quantitative metric, Smart Port Index (SPI), that ports can use to improve their resiliency and sustainability. Our proposed SPI is based on Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) gathered from the literature. These KPIs are organized around four key activity domains of a smart port: operations, environment, energy, and safety & security. Case studies are conducted to show how one can use SPI and to assess the performance of some of the busiest ports in the world. Our methodology provides a quantitative tool for port authorities to develop their smart port strategies, assess their smartness, and identify strengths and weaknesses of their current operations for continuous improvement. Our study reveals that smart port initiatives around the world have different levels of comprehensiveness. The results of this study also suggest that government policies and region-specific variables can impact SPI value.
... Consequently, fewer incidents and accidents lower non-productive time and increase service quality and reliability. Accordingly, legislation on working conditions in the port domain is subject to ongoing changes (Fabiano et al. 2010). ...
Article
Despite the progressive shift towards the capital-intensive paradigm, the human factor is still considered as one of most valuable assets in the port domain. Port labour from ship-to-shore and yard crane drivers to harbour pilots may lead to the success in port competition, affecting the quality, reliability and flexibility of port service. Several scholars started to address the major drivers shaping the causal relation between port labour and competitiveness. While some individual determinants have been already discussed, including port governance settings, innovation and technology, shifts in the demand needs, etc., extant literature fails to provide a multidimensional conceptual framework. The article addresses this literature gap by proposing an ad hoc theoretical model that identifies valuable drivers of change, which shape the relationship between port labour and competitiveness in the Mediterranean port systems. Grounded on two case studies in the Mediterranean Sea, i.e. the Port of Genoa and the Port of Marseille, the conceptual framework is tested and empirically validated. Managerial and organizational implications for port competitiveness are discussed, providing useful insights for both academics and practitioners.
... The case study of ports in north Portugal found that the communication mode varies with working pressure and functional division. On the basis of statistics of occupational injuries in Italian ports from 1980 [8] discussed the relationship of work organization, working experience, productivity, and occupational accidents. They found that the growth of inexperienced workers can significantly increase risks of occupational injury. ...
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Frequently port safety accidents have resulted in port safety problems becoming the focus of increasing attention. Port safety assessment is an important basis in preventing port safety accidents. Owing to complicated influencing factors of port safety, assessing port safety effectively has been a key research topic in the industry and academe. To determine port safety assessment indexes reasonably and acquire practical assessment results, the port safety assessment index system based on 5M (man, machine, material, management, and milieu) was established first. Then, weights of all assessment indexes were determined by the entropy weight method, and the port safety assessment model was constructed by matterelement theory. Finally, the assessment model was verified by ports in Zhejiang Province of China. Results demonstrate that the material factor presents the highest average weight among all evaluation indexes. The accident rate of goods and qualified rate of pollution control are two indexes with the highest weights. The port safety assessment results based on the entropy weight matter-element model conform to practical situations. Thus, the port safety assessment model based on entropy weight matter-element theory can measure port safety level effectively and evaluate its feasibility in practical cases. The model offsets shortcomings of single theory assessment and provides a new idea and decision-making method for port safety assessment.
... Many studies in related literature are mainly based on summary statistics such as accident frequency, accident types and reasons of accidents (Fabiano et al., 2010;Romer et al., 1995;Wang et al., 2005). In addition to these topics, in this study, spatial analysis of a total of 115 major and minor marine accidents involving 11 ship types and 11 accident types provided by Turkish Main Search and Rescue Coordination Center (TMSRCC) database and occurred in the Antalya Region between 2001 and 2016 has been investigated to reveal the risk level of the marine regions. ...
Conference Paper
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The main objective of the study was to determine the risk level of the marine areas considering maritime accidents in the region of Antalya using Geographic Information System (GIS) instruments. Within this scope, the data including a total of 115 ship accidents between 2001 and 2016 was provided by Turkish Main Search and Rescue Coordination Center (TMSRCC) database. The spatial analysis of marine accident was performed by MapInfo 8.0 software which is based on Geographic Information System (GIS). A total of 115 major and minor ship accidents involving 11 ship types and 11 accident types around region of Antalya used in this study. As a result, the ship accidents were mostly occurred near the shore and also inner areas of the port. Yachts (n=39;34%) and recreational vessels (n=26, 23%) were the ship types mostly involved in ship accidents. 69% (n=79) of the vessel involved in the accidents were Turkish flagged. Capsizing was the most frequent risks (25%) in the region. In this study, the region of Antalya was divided into 30-minute polygons and four risk levels were defined to determine risky areas according to the ship accident frequency. With respect to this classification, marine areas were classified as low risk (0 <x <3), medium risk (3 <x <6), high risk (6 < x <9), very high risk (9<x) regions. Finally, Port of Akdeniz, Kaleiçi Marina and Kemer Marina have been identified as very high risk (VHR) zones depending on the number of ship accidents. Suggestions were made to minimize the risks in the identified regions, to improve the legislation and standards for the safety of life and marine environment at sea thereby preventing the repetition of similar accidents and reducing the adverse effects and consequences of ship accidents.
... On the other hand, the 74.9 % of internal workers showed a clear conflict between pressure and productive behavior in terms of worker safety. This item is widely reported in the international literature (Fabiano et al., 2010) and is empirically confirmed by this study, being production pressure the main perceived cause of injury, with a percentage of 25.9 %. Alongside the behavioral attitude, there was also a significant tendency to by-pass relevant procedures (66.3 %). ...
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As widely reported in the scientific literature, audits, benchmarking, safety performance indicators and accident data help the management to understand the current safety performance status and to individuate strong and weak areas of the safety management system. Additionally, being process safety incidents relatively rare, as evidenced in the Baker report on BP Texas City accident, safety performance cannot be measured effectively alone on the basis of such high profile incidents. In the first phase of the research program, process and occupational injuries were studied, collecting field data in a large process industry, over five-year observation. Technical and management improvements seem no longer sufficient to promote safety as at-risk behaviour and unsafe attitudes are still present in spite of all training, supervision and guidance. A thorough analysis on underlying causes connected with human failure was subsequently performed by designing a structured questionnaire, for both in-house and outsourced frontline workers. Data statistical analysis allowed quantifying four conceptual key dimensions within the firm, namely: individual behaviour, organizational climate, human resource management and plants/technology. Significant results were utilized to evidence individual and corporate elements affecting accident frequency for the two workforce types. Conclusions were focused on identifying technical and managerial options to reduce the likelihood of errors and increase risk resilience.
... Each system has problems and limitations as well as port systems in general, port-centric in particular. The problems faced are port congestion [28], inadequate worker skills [29], port equipment failure [28,30], delays in service, force majeure [28] and so on. Those obstacles influence how to process in that system run. ...
... Port operations are also influenced by human factors 33 such as work experience, age, staff training, and the adaptability to new skills and technologies (Fabiano et al., 34 2010). Fabiano et al. (2010) reported that port accidents tend to occur during the summer months and suggested 35 that accidents are related to workload and productivity increase borne by the port workers. Similarly, Horck 36 (2008) discussed the importance of communication among the workers at the port, maritime education and staff 37 motivation among other soft attributes of individuals in a port. ...
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A port with reliable operations and management plays a pivotal role in ensuring supply chain continuity, given the integral role of ports in supply chains nowadays. As supply chain parties are closely linked to each other in today's globalised trade, any disruption at ports will have negative impacts on other supply chain players. This paper evaluates the likelihood and severity of these port-centric supply chain disruption (PSCD) threats using data collected from port operators worldwide through a survey questionnaire. The PSCD threats were first identified from existing literature and interviews and subsequently structured into the questionnaire for the respondents to rate these threats' likelihood and consequence. The data were analysed using fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. Each threat was ranked according to the relative risk value assigned to it. The results show that the combined risk level rated by port operators is between low and medium, with threats pertaining to planning and infrastructure having the greatest contribution to the disruptions, and those related to security the lowest. Congestion within terminals, congestion at hinterland transfer, shortage of facilities or equipment, port equipment breakdown and inadequate port cargo-handling equipment are the key factors in causing disruptions. Indicators are then presented to act as early-detection of these threats to manage supply chain disruptions.
... The use of media brings psychological and behavioral demands to people. There is a causal chain of "social factors + psychological factors-media expectations-media contact-demand satisfaction" [27]. As a newly developed network medium, the internet is becoming increasingly mature. ...
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Youth subjective well-being is enhanced not only from physical exercise but also from internet use. Based on the 2017 China General Social Survey (CGSS) data, the Bootstrap method was used to examine the mechanisms of the effects of physical exercise and internet use on youth subjective well-being. In this study, the questionnaire data of 619 Chinese young people (18–35 years old) were selected as the sample source. It was found that physical exercise (2.881 ± 1.352) and internet use (4.544 ± 0.756) had positive effects on youth subjective well-being (88.762 ± 11.793). Life satisfaction (2.253 ± 0.826) partially mediated the development of physical exercise and internet use on subjective well-being, with indirect effects of 34.1% and 30.4%, respectively. A social mindset (10.181 ± 1.966) played a moderating role in the relationship between physical exercise and youth subjective well-being and internet use and youth subjective well-being in both groups. The positive effects of physical exercise and internet use on youth subjective well-being gradually increased with the improvement in social mindset. This study revealed the mechanisms of physical activity and internet use on subjective well-being and that life satisfaction and the social mindset of youth are essential factors influencing subjective well-being.
... The cooperation of carriers also helps in case of possible problems. The most frequently discussed operational risks of the port are port accidents [12,13], port equipment failures [13], improper handling of dangerous goods [14], port congestion [15], low qualification of personnel [16], safety violations [13], and strikes. In addition, human factors that impede communication (cultural differences, political problems, and conflicts between staff) may increase the scope of problems [17]. ...
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In a modern economy, international trade is an important factor in the development of various regions. Shipping is one of the most important elements of the global supply chain. However, after the economic crisis of 2008, global shipping revenues plummeted. One way to restore profitability is the consolidation of shipping routes and the globalization of shipping lines. As container transport lines move to larger ships, the structure of the delivery route becomes a structure with intermediate points. This trend put forward higher demands on the port infrastructure, which aggravated the competition between regional ports, as well as ports that could degrade into a large cargo consolidation port. The economic advantage is enhanced by cooperation between shipping lines and ports. Thus, ports and shipping lines in the same supply chain can be mutually beneficial partners. The study analyses the effectiveness of horizontal and vertical cooperation between ports and carriers. As a source of information, a review of the literature on this issue, expert opinions, and statistical data is taken. Next, a mathematical model is built on the basis of cooperative game theory, and numerical analysis is carried out. The results show that the strategy of cooperation of shipping lines strongly depends on the situation with the supply and demand of vessels. A port that interacts with shipping lines will significantly reduce port charges, which creates the advantage of receiving more port requests. However, cooperation may lead to losses for the port, so a redistribution of profits is necessary to maintain the coalition.
... Low experienced operators in container terminals cause a remarkable increase in the risk of occupational injuries [12]. The introduction of new technologies was not followed by sufficient training. ...
Article
Our study generates a review of serious games in the container terminal logistics field. Serious games deliver certain knowledge to the user and improve the user’s understanding of the problem. We analyse 68 games in published research papers and gaming websites and classify them based on the types of container terminal logistics problems, G/P/S (gameplay, purpose, and scope) concept, and the gaming platform. We enrich the existing classification of container terminal logistics problems by adding new fields considered by the listed games. Moreover, further analysis related to user experiences of the games is also conducted. The classification results provide insights regarding the existing studies related to gamification in the container port logistics field. It gives ideas for future developments to support the effectiveness of the learning process in the related area. Our main suggestions are increasing learning stages for game users, a list of required topics for new games, and gaming quality improvements in the existing games. Developing games with a good user interface is as important as considering the complexity of real problems in the games to allow an effective training process for the game users. Keywords: container terminal logistics; gamification; serious game; review; game user experience
... Although the potential of this technique has emerged in several scientific fields, its application within the topics of safety and risk analysis is largely unexplored. In this regard, few studies are available in the international literature, starting from its first adoption in the safety domain for the statistical analysis and prediction of occupational accidents in industrial contexts (Fabiano et al., 2010;Fabiano et al., 2008). RSM was then utilized as an evaluation tool of the leader-team perceptual distance in relation tosafety leadership and employee safety self-efficacy (Tafvelin et al., 2019), while Van Weyenberge et al. (2017) adopted the technique for quantitative risk analysis addressing life safety in case of building fires. ...
Article
Safety culture and awareness by workers are pivotal tools for the implementation of systematic procedures aiming to risk mitigation in the process industry. The evaluation of human factors on safety performance can reveal unsafe attitudes and failures in training, supervision and management, whose correction greatly contribute to the enhancement of safety program. In this work, the role of human factors in an oil industry was studied by the collection of field data through a structured questionnaire filled by shift, daily and outsourced workers. A deep investigation on the variables involved in the process was carried out, firstly quantifying three conceptual key dimensions (individual, human resource management, equipment and technology) and then analyzing data by means of Response Surface Methodology (RSM), to identify the statistical significant factors and the overall level of safety awareness, behaviour and risk perception of the respondents.
... However, a large number of activities usually carried out in these areas (e.g. transport of passengers, transport of cargo, storage of oil and chemicals, storage and transport of vehicles, circulation of vessels and ships, lorries and trains) also imply high risks for human beings (Ronza et al., 2009;Fabiano et al., 2010;Cho et al., 2018). The consequences of accidents in port areas may be not only economic losses (e.g. for emergency actions and cleaning up the areas) but also human losses (Ronza et al., 2009). ...
Article
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Coastal areas and seaport areas are exposed to high wind speeds which may involve risks for the ships and people working in the area. Therefore, knowledge of the microscale wind conditions is essential for safe maneuvering and mooring of ships and optimizing harbor design. In the present study, 3D steady RANS CFD simulations with the realizable k-ε turbulence model are performed for the new configuration of the “IJmuiden sea lock” in Amsterdam, the largest sea lock in the world at the time of writing this article. The computed wind speed and turbulence intensity amplification factors and the local wind directions are validated with on-site measurements for the old configuration of the sea lock. For the wind speed amplification factor and local wind direction, a satisfactory agreement is obtained with 90% of CFD data within ±30% from the measured data. Conversely, for the turbulence intensity amplification factor, less satisfactory agreement is found with 74% of CFD data within ±30% from the measured data. Overall, the 3D steady RANS approach shows a sufficiently high reliability for predicting the wind conditions in the seaport area under neutral atmospheric conditions.
... Regarding the roundtable GREEN, the environmental domain achieved more interest (25) than the energy efficiency (13), even if both are in a secondary priority in SPMS. For each domain, LIP defined which sub-domain should be implemented in the roadmap as driver for the port development: • Safety and Security: Ports are vulnerable to several safety and security issues, which can potentially cause a loss in terms of benefits, port reputation, and the efficiency of operations (Fabiano et al., 2010). Smart port uses solutions such as regulations, standards, employee training, periodic control of facilities, risk assessment, proper designs, and monitoring systems to detect any security issue, increase port preparedness, and improve resilience. ...
Article
The modern port structure is configured as territorial system of productive aggregation (hub) of a complex nature, strongly linked to the productive fabric of a larger territory and in close relationship with the context in which the port is physically located. In the development of processes of innovation and improvement of the sustainability of the activities connected to the port, a strong connection is necessary between all the local stakeholders who, each for the functions of their own competence, can activate improvement processes with common objectives. This paper describes a framework for the activation and coordination of a Locally Integrated Partnership (LIP) towards the development of a multi-term Smart Port Management Strategy (SPMS) to support innovation processes in the sustainable and safe management of the port. The methodology was applied to the case study of the port of Ravenna (Italy) where the state-owned areas managed by Port Authority (public authority managing the port area) are limited to 50 mt-width harbour quay, while the remaining areas are owned by private companies. The result was the development and the implementation of the roadmap for the development of the SPMS of Ravenna Port with a multi-stakeholder participatory approach. This process favoured the activation of many public funds to modernize port infrastructure, as well as private investments for the development and dissemination of innovations and for the sustainable use of port area. This has shown how the development and coordination of a local LIP makes it possible to make synergies between stakeholders more effective in accessing financing funds and sharing development strategies aimed at innovation and sustainability. The framework developed and tested to the case study demonstrated the benefits of a participatory and inclusive process in decision-making processes, with a benefit for all the key aspects of sustainability. This process can be used, following step-by-step, as a guideline for other port areas.
... The ambivalent attitude toward new technologies stems from the conflict of negative and positive expected impacts and technological advances in industrial activities can give rise to improvement in productivity and in occupational health and safety, but not necessarily simultaneously [13]. ...
Article
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Industry and related work and workplaces are constantly changing as a result of the implementation of new technologies, substances and work processes, changes in the composition of the workforce and the labor market, and new forms of employment and work organization. The implementation of new technologies represents certain ambivalence. Next to the positive impact on workers’ health, new risks and challenges can arise in the area of process and occupational safety and health of people at work. On these bases, it follows the need for predicting and handling the new risks, in order to ensure safe and healthy workplaces in the future. The aim of most forecasting studies is not only to identify new emerging risks, but also to foresee changes that could affect occupational safety and health. However, a number of questions still require proper investigation, i.e., “What impact do new emerging risks have on tertiary education in the area of Safety engineering? Has tertiary education already reacted to progress in science and research and does it have these innovations in its syllabus? How are tertiary graduates prepared for the real world of new technologies?” This paper represents a first attempt in the literature to provide answers to the raised questions, by a survey approach involving academics, Health Safety and Environment (HSE) industrial experts and university students in the Czech Republic. Even if statistical evaluation is limited to a single Country and to a small sample size, the obtained results allow suggesting practical recommendations that can contribute to ensuring new challenges in the area of education by addressing relevant culture issues needed to support new workplace realities according to the newly defined Safety 4.0.
... Multiple factors contribute to occupational accidents, including technologies, job design, human error, environment and economic conditions, and organization of work (Fabiano et al., 2010). As an example, in a meta-analytic investigation, Nahrgang et al. (2011aNahrgang et al. ( , 2011b tested the relationship between job demands, resources, burnout, engagement, and safety outcomes in the workplace. ...
Article
Multiple factors contribute to occupational accidents including individual, job, environmental, organizational, and family issues. Most of them are latent factors and hard to model how and what extent they influence incidents occurrence. Although past research has included an occupational incident context, this attention has rarely provided a holistic instrument for the dynamic causal modeling of different influencing factors. Hence, the present study is aimed at developing a concrete instrument for identifying and modeling various influencing factors on occupational accident occurrence. After a comprehensive literature review and employing occupational safety and industrial psychological experts to achieve a reasonable conceptual model, the primary structure of the instrument was developed. Several systematic attempts were made to identify items (questions), define contributing factors, assess content and face validity, analyze its reliability, construct validity, criterion validity, and assess the model’s fitness using advanced statistics tests by SPSS.22 and LISREL9.3 programs. Finally, dynamic hybrid Bayesian Network (DHBN) based on the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) technique was developed to model accident occurrence and simulate the behavior of the main influencing factors over ten years under uncertainty. After standardization of the proposed instrument, a comprehensive study was conducted via the participation of 700 workers from thirty-eight manufacturing companies to illustrate its effectiveness and modeling capability. The findings revealed the effectiveness of the proposed instrument in the causation modeling of occupational incidents, dynamic modeling of contributing factors, and risk-based decision making for occupational incidents management. The proposed instrument can serve as a holistic tool for accurately identifying and dynamic modeling of different latent influencing factors, and making tailored safety decisions in different workplace context.
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Accident models are mental models that make it possible to understand the causality of adverse events. This research was conducted based on five major objectives: (i) to systematically review the relevant literature about AcciMap, STAMP, and FRAM models and synthesize the theoretical and experimental findings, as well as the main research flows; (ii) to examine the standalone and hybrid applications for modeling the leading factors of the accident and the behavior of sociotechnical systems; (iii) to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of exploring the research opportunities; (iv) to describe the safety and accident models in terms of safety-I-II-III; and finally, to investigate the impact of the systemic models’ applications in enhancing the system’s sustainability. The systematic models can identify contributory factors, functions, and relationships in different system levels which helps to increase the awareness of systems and enhance the sustainability of safety management. Furthermore, their hybrid extensions can significantly overcome the limitations of these models and provide more reliable information. Applying the safety II and III concepts and their approaches in the system can also progress their safety levels. Finally, the ethical control of sophisticated systems suggests that further research utilizing these methodologies should be conducted to enhance system analysis and safety evaluations.
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The catastrophic consequences of the recent hazardous cargo port accidents have raised serious concerns for the port safety and maritime transportation officials. Human factor is one of the prominent instigation factors in maritime accidents. However, investigating the role of the human factor in hazardous cargo accidents in a port environment is still in its infancy. This study investigates the multifaceted human factor involvement in port hazardous cargo accidents. The methodology consists of using expert judgment, literature review, and maximum likelihood estimation for the selection of variables, developing their causal relationship and its quantification, while Bayesian network (BN) for the inference based on past accident reports from 1960 to 2018. The results indicate that under normal situations, hazardous cargo port operations are susceptible to an accident probability of 21.47%, where safety issues, bad supervision, intellectual issues, and violations remain the most protuberant instigators. Setting evidence at the hazardous cargo accident, the probability of “errors and violations” is increased by 5.06%, revealed as the highest disruptor. A sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the most critical accident causation factors. This study imparts practical insights for evading and mitigating risks associated with hazardous cargo handling in a port environment, ensuring sustainable and safer port operability.
Article
The maritime industry is considered to be a backbone of the global economy. It is therefore imperative to ensure that maritime operations run safely and efficiently. Assessment of maritime performance is necessary for designers and engineers to be able to pinpoint the weakest links in the system and make impactful system improvements. The current article presents a systematic quantitative literature review of research on performance assessment in the maritime industry with the goal of establishing an understanding of accuracy and consistency in the development of methods used to assess performance. The review focuses on four major segments within the industry—port logistics, ship handling, safety and environmental research—and investigates their uses in developing accurate and consistent performance assessment methods. After the completion of an exclusion process, 62 articles published in a wide range of academic journals were used in the analysis. Two important conclusions were drawn from the analysis. First, performance assessment is generally consistent throughout the maritime industry; most papers used accurate and consistent approaches to develop the methods (n = 43). A subsequent bivariate analysis revealed a call for increased attention to the development of assessment methods within the maritime segment of ship handling. The current study suggests and discusses certain directions with regard to assessment research in the maritime industry.
Article
Maritime transport is the second source of income in Kuwait. The unorganized mechanism of truck traffic flow had caused severe congestion and increased the waiting time of containers transporting trucks both inside and outside the port. Also, the insufficiency of the container storage area had contributed to the reduction in the ship traffic and the unavailability of area for the basic infrastructure needed to accommodate and store the overstocked shipments inside the port. The objective of this study was to set the cornerstone of 2035 vision of a fully automated Kuwaiti Port. An automated Smart Gate was used to reduce the time required for both the passage of cargo and customs inspection. A LEED-certified warehouse was designed that earned 75 points scoring a gold certificate. A smart gate operating system by Camco Group was used to provide a smart portal that integrates the functions of both the port and customs administration. This will make it easier for the port customers and truck drivers to facilitate entry and exit procedures. Vissim was used to simulate, analyze, and compare the current and future logistical operations in Shuwaikh Port under different scenarios. The future operation scenario had decreased the average time a truck took to finish a route to 40%.
Article
The main purpose of this article was to study the risk management of terminal on-site operations for special bulk cargos in Taiwan. This study applied the concept of Formal Safety Assessment approach as the foundation of risk management assessment. At first, a total of four risk aspects with eighteen preliminary risk factors were generated from literature and experts interviews. Three methods – namely analytical hierarchy process (AHP), risk matrix model (RMM), and costs and benefit analysis (CBA) methods – were employed to perform an empirical study in Taiwan. The empirical results showed: (1) The most severe risk factor found using the AHP method was ‘failure to perform periodic machinery maintenance and examination.’ (2) Ten risk factors placed in the highest-risk area via the RMM method. (3) All risk control strategies were evaluated for applicability by using the CBA method. This study recommended that improvement and reinforcement of the staff aspect and the related risk factors for the on-site operation of special bulk cargos. Through implementation of risk control strategies, the risks of accidents can be controlled.
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The increasing dependency in the maritime transportation platforms brings into the spot the reliability aspect in container terminals (CT). In this paper agent’s technology integrated with decision support process in CT complex system. It is used to build intelligence in the containers as to manage the risk at its different levels. In this paper we address the containers control as a system where decision making is distributed among the various components especially the containers carrying dangerous materials. The multi-agent modeling is well suited to represent the complexity as a distributed system. The proposed model based on a complex process which targeting the highly risked containers based on multi agents’ systems and intelligent environment called CTRMS: Container Terminal Risk Management System. Diversity of communities and emergence play a major role in this approach. In this paper we define the CT environment as complex adaptive system (CAS) with respect to some CAS properties and mechanisms as aggregation and tagging in CT. The originality of our approach lies in the proposed new mechanisms for reasoning and coordination of agents in which we put special emphasis on the mechanisms of decision making for dynamic and autonomous system components.
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Port enterprises resort to external resources, e.g. outsourcing of labor services during loading and unloading operations. The low safety management ability of labor service enterprises causes frequent hazards and unsafe incidents. This study sets out to identify safety system deficiencies that are likely to occur when port enterprises outsource operations, as well as the causes of system hazards and impact on safety management. A quantitative research design was implemented in this study, where the data was collected through evidence-based practice techniques with the participation of safety management experts selected by purposive sampling. The study reveals six themes that may potentially affect safety. Compared with the extensive supervision and management method, the evidence-based evaluation of the safety management mode brings about a striking optimization effect which results in classification accuracy and targeted control. This finding triggered a management requirement for establishing sustainable, direct, legal measures in association with outsourcing safety improvement.
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Port logistics plays an important role in moving physical resources across the globe. The study aims to identify and analyze barriers associated with port logistics in Industry 4.0 era for emerging economies. A total of eighteen key barriers were selected from the literature and finalized by conducting a multi-stage workshop by considering the views of stakeholders. A TISM has been used to develop a hierarchical model that reveals the inter-dependencies among the barrier. MICMAC analysis was applied to categories the barriers into clusters depending on dependence and driving power. Results highlight non-supportive policy ecosystem, poor infrastructure and lack of R&D as the major barriers. It helps in understanding the direction of driving power and dependence relationship among the barriers. Timely action to remove these barriers will not only help managers but also helps in reducing the cost and achieving effective operation of port logistics.
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This paper reports the findings from a safety research survey conducted among the employees of a large public sector electrical utility in the state of Kerala, India. Response of 3017 employees was collected by one-to-one interaction using the developed instrument. Personal factors like self-esteem, job stress, personal stress, social supports, and fatigue of the targeted population were measured. Personal safety climate factors of the utility were accessed by modifying the existing safety climate scales. Statistical analysis confirmed the reliability and validity of the factors in the study. A significant path model of personal and safety climate factors was developed. Seven research hypotheses were validated by using statistical analysis. The results of the study highlighted the need for safety participation, safety knowledge, safety training, and interventions to reduce personal issues in the workplace. These findings provide valuable insights to safety professionals for implementing novel methods to ensure workplace safety.
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A Bayesian network–based risk analysis approach is proposed to analyse the risk factors influencing maritime transport accidents. Comparing with previous studies in the relevant literature, it reveals new features including (1) new primary data directly derived from maritime accident records by two major databanks Marine Accident Investigation Branch and Transportation Safety Board of Canada from 2012 to 2017, (2) rational classification of the factors with respect to each of the major types of maritime accidents for effective prevention, and (3) quantification of the extent to which different combinations of the factors influence each accident type. The network modelling the interdependency among the risk factors is constructed by using a naïve Bayesian network and validated by sensitivity analysis. The results reveal that the common risk factors among different types of accidents are ship operation, voyage segment, ship type, gross tonnage, hull type, and information. Scenario analysis is conducted to predict the occurrence likelihood of different types of accidents under various situations. The findings provide transport authorities and ship owners with useful insights for maritime accident prevention.
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The application of Human Factors is to ensure a fit between the person and their environment, where the task, environment or equipment must be adapted to fit the capabilities and limitations of people rather than the other way around. Failure to do this can result in the risk of forcing people to operate in unsuitable conditions and use poorly designed equipment. A better designed workplace, task and environment has benefits for individuals (improved well-being and safety) and employers (improved work performance and efficiency).
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Based on the analysis of the storage, safety risks and risk factors of the dangerous cargo container yard in the port, the accident hazards and the scope of impact were evaluated through simulation calculations. The results show that the main risk factors are inherent dangerous characteristics of dangerous goods, improper storage modes, substandard packaging, and the failure to implement the main responsibility of the port operator, the weak safety awareness of employees, the inadequate safety supervision and the improper emergency response. The influence range extends as far as the surrounding regions. It is necessary to take countermeasures such as limiting the stockpile, equipping with safety facilities, and strict management to prevent and control risks and accidents.
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The modernization process of Brazilian ports aims to inserting the country in a globalized economy, but port work still happens in a dangerous environment which increases workers' illness risk factors. The objective of this article is to analyse and understand stowage work in boarding and disembarking light vehicles in Roll-on/Roll-of ships. It uses a qualitative approach supported by ergonomic method developed in two steps: (1) during the research "Port modernization process at Santos: impacts on workers' health and illness", Federal University of São Paulo, (2009-2011); (2) workshops conducted by the ergonomist (teacher at Federal University of São Paulo) during the first 6 months of 2014 with 6 stowage workers aged 40 to 58 years old and professional experience among 21 and 31 years, on the theme of "construction and reflexion upon work". The objective of the four workshops was to build work done at stowage and to pinpoint the implications of modernization process upon the labour at Ro-Ro ships. The results indicate that variability at work include working conditions, work organization aspects and technology aspects. The conclusions present proposals related to those aspects. Resumo: O processo de modernização dos portos brasileiros ocorre visando à inserção do país em uma economia globalizada, mas o trabalho portuário continua ocorrendo em ambiente perigoso e aumentando os fatores determinantes de adoecimento dos trabalhadores. O objetivo do artigo é analisar e compreender o trabalho da estiva no embarque e desembarque de veículos leves em navios roll-on, roll-of. Trata-se de uma abordagem qualitativa amparada no método ergonômico com duas etapas: (1) contida na pesquisa "Processo de Modernização Portuária em Santos: implicações na saúde e no adoecimento dos trabalhadores", CNPq, nº 473727/2008 0, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, 2009 a 2011; (2) abordagem de oficinas desenvolvidas no primeiro semestre de 2014 com a temática de construção e reflexão sobre o trabalho, com 6 trabalhadores de estiva com idade de 40 a 58 anos, com antiguidade profissional entre 21 e 31 anos e a ergonomista, docente da universidade, na proposição de construir o trabalho e apontar as implicações do processo de modernização na faina no navio Ro-Ro. Foram realizadas quatro oficinas. Os resultados apontam que as variabilidades do trabalho contam com as condições do trabalho, aspectos relacionados a organização do trabalho e questões relacionadas as tecnologias. As propostas apresentadas nas considerações finais abarcaram estes aspectos. Palavras-chave: Condições de trabalho, trabalho portuário, saúde do trabalhador, saúde coletiva.
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The research is based on analysis of the survey for identification of reasons for injuries and following disability of staff which was organized in November and December 2020. Experts-respondents were 415 employees of 258 enterprises and organization in Chelyabinsk region. As the main reason for disability was named mental outside of work injuries. The second reason is physical outside of work injuries. The 3rd place in the list is physical injuries at work. The fourth reason is mental injuries at work. Thus, the working activity of respondents is 2.4 times less traumatic than outside of work activity. Experts named the reduction of attentiveness as the most valuable reason of injuries and following disability (24.3%). Then follow the omission of technical control over the content of materials, equipment performance and tool quality (19.2%), the omission of control over employees’ behavior (19.1%), risky behavior of employees at work (18.6%), problems of the legislative framework for safety and health (8.7%), no-fault incidents (5.8%).
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В рамках дослідження встановлено, що під час визначення проблематики причин виникнення та мінімізації проявів “людського фактора” доцільним є вивчення не окремих особистісних причин, що спонукали людину до певних небезпечних дій (бездіяльності), а загальних причин, що притаманні певному трудовому соціуму. З метою дослідження причин виникнення проявів “людського фактора” та розробки напрямів їх мінімізації, за допомогою методу анкетування було проведено опитування 1565 респондентів – представників трудових колективів м. Одеси та Одеській області, що розподілені за гендерною, віковою та професійною ознаками. За результатами опитування встановлено, що основними причинами виникнення проявів “людського фактора” є недотримання керівництвом підприємств вимог нормативно-правових актів з охорони праці, порушення правил та регламенту проведення інструктажів, свідоме порушення вимог інструкцій з охорони праці працівниками підприємств, формальний характер перевірки знань працівників з охорони праці, низький рівень соціальної відповідальності керівників та нерозуміння ними економічної вигоди від поліпшення стану охорони праці на підприємстві. Визначено основні напрями мінімізації проявів “людського фактора”, які полягають у необхідності: переходу існуючої в Україні системи загальнообов’язкового соціального страхування, що передбачає сплату роботодавцем єдиного соціального внеску, до системи диференційного, ризик-орієнтовного підходу визначення розміру (для кожного підприємства) страхових тарифів, з одночасним впровадженням системи тарифних коефіцієнтів “бонус-малус”; реформування системи вищої та професійної технічної освіти, шляхом повернення циклу дисциплін з охорони праці статусу нормативних з встановленням єдиних, для всіх закладів освіти відповідних рівнів акредитації, типових програм з вивчення зазначених дисциплін, що враховують напрями підготовки (спеціальності) майбутніх фахівців, а також вирішення проблеми невідповідності спеціальності (фахової освіти) викладачів закладів освіти фахової спрямованості циклу дисциплін з охорони праці; загальної популяризації охорони праці у суспільстві шляхом інформаційної підтримки, на державному рівні, концепції безпечного труда тощо.
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Container terminals are critical nodes in the globalisation of trade. Many are operated by global companies with strong corporate rhetoric espousing zero tolerance of injury and ill-health. Yet operational practices often contribute to the intensification of work and outsourcing of labour; conditions associated with poor safety and health. Serious and fatal injuries and ill-health continue to occur in these terminals. With reference to the findings of a study of occupational safety and health (OSH) arrangements in terminals operated by four of the largest operators, key contextual determinants in the terminals’ labour relations and regulatory environments that influence practice and outcomes are identified. The influences are compared in different national settings and, the paper finds, like multinational companies generally, global operators are obliged to adapt and reflect local contexts. In relation to OSH best practice, a critical influence is the way that local context acts to constrain and challenge business logics and interests. This acts to make 'best practice' more likely where companies are constrained in this way, regardless of the claims of their corporate rhetoric.
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This paper is aimed at the risk assessment of operational safety for oil tankers. Based on the operational features of oil tankers and relevant literature, the Risk Factors (RFs) of operational safety were first identified. A revised risk matrix based on a fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) approach was then proposed to assess the risk classes of the RFs. Finally, to validate the research model, the oil tanker fleet of Chinese Petroleum Corporation (CPC) in Taiwan was empirically investigated. The results can provide practical information for oil carriers to improve their ships' operational safety. Furthermore, the revised risk matrix may provide a theoretical reference for methodological researches in safety risk assessments.
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This paper attempts to find out the causal relationship between port performance and port traffic by using Indian data. The use of cointegration analysis has come out with the result that performance precedes traffic in most of the ports of India. Hence, government policy towards performance augmenting facilities should be given priority so that higher efficiency induces higher traffic
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Trends in the rates of total injuries and fatal accidents in the different sectors of Italian industries were explored during the period 1951-98. Causes and dynamics of injury were also studied for setting priorities for improving safety standards. Data on occupational injuries from the National Organisation for Labour Injury Insurance were combined with data from the State Statistics Institute to highlight the interaction between the injury frequency index trend and the production cycle-that is, the evolution of industrial production throughout the years. Multiple regression with log transformed rates was adopted to model the trends of occupational fatalities for each industrial group. The ratios between the linked indices of injury frequency and industrial production showed a good correlation over the whole period. A general decline in injuries was found across all sectors, with values ranging from 79.86% in the energy group to 23.32% in the textile group. In analysing fatalities, the trend seemed to be more clearly decreasing than the trend of total injuries, including temporary and permanent disabilities; the fatalities showed an exponential decrease according to multiple regression, with an annual decline equal to 4.42%. The overall probability of industrial fatal accidents in Italy tended to decrease exponentially by year. The most effective actions in preventing injuries were directed towards fatal accidents. By analysing the rates of fatal accident in the different sectors, appropriate targets and priorities for increased strategies to prevent injuries can be suggested. The analysis of the dynamics and the material causes of injuries showed that still more consideration should be given to human and organisational factors.
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Temporary work, supplied by temporary-help agencies and sometimes referred to as ''job in leasing", was only recently introduced in Italy, and has since spread considerably thanks to its flexibility and cost effectiveness. In this study, trends in the rates of occupational injuries in different sectors of Italian industries in the period 2000–2004 are explored, contrasting direct employment and temporary work. Data on occupational injuries from the National Organization for Labour Injury Insurance as well as data directly obtained through a field survey in three large manufacturing firms were analysed to high-light the interaction between injury frequency index (FI) and the characteristics of the labour force. FI for temporary workers ranged between 89.23 and 94.10, i.e., between 136.4% and 175.2% more than the value found for direct employees in the most hazardous industrial sector. Also accident severity (assessed on the basis of time lost due to injuries) is twice the overall value of the severity index. The results from the field survey confirmed the trend: FI for direct employees ranges from 25.7 to 45.0 in respect of total hours of work in the range 1.99 Â 10 6 –2.40 Â 10 6
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Around ten years have elapsed since the UNCTAD model on port development was put forward as an explanation of how ports have adapted to incorporate technological, political and operational changes. The UNCTAD Three Generation Port Model is critically examined in the light of research carried out under the WORKPORT project funded by the European Commission, 1998–1999. Evidence from the WORKPORT study shows that, rather than developing in discrete steps, ports evolve continuously, adapting to new technologies, fresh legislation, revised working practices and other influences on an as-required basis. Further, it is demonstrated that several streams of evolution can be observed simultaneously; the pace of change within each stream can vary substantially. One of the prominent features of ports is that they often have several terminals, some operating along traditional lines while others may be leading edge in terms of technology, working practices or other aspects; all of them may be equally effective. The UNCTAD model, implying ports develop in discrete steps, or generations, is therefore shown to be fundamentally flawed.
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Several authors, on the basis of mathematical models of different complexity, have faced the study of dispersion and transformations following an open sea oil spill. The different phenomena involved in the release evolution were quantified: convective transport by sea currents; wave action; turbulent diffusion; buoyant action on dispersed particles; superficial spreading of the oil due to different density between sea water and hydrocarbon; and evaporation and emulsification rates. In dealing with a release in the port area, besides the environmental consequences, the most severe hazards are linked to fires and explosions due to the formation of a flammable cloud by evaporated hydrocarbons and air and subsequent ignition. If a cloud of sufficient size is formed and ignition occurs instantly, a large fire, jet flame or fireball may occur, but significant blast-pressure damage is unlikely. Instead, the blast effect produced by vapour cloud explosion (i.e. cloud formation and ignition delayed typically by some minutes) can vary greatly depending on the flame propagation velocity, confinement and turbulence and can result in extensive damage. This paper considers such events in confined areas, focusing on individual intervention time and types more suitable for containing the risk on an acceptable level. Considering that intervention time and dispersion time are comparable, the basic variables allowed for in developing the mathematical model were oil spill spreading rate, hydrocarbon evaporation rate, cloud transport and dispersion into the atmosphere. The simplified model allows identifying risk areas and intervention times in confined regions and ports of relative simple geometry. The same model can also be applied to more complex geometry, typical of port areas, obtaining conservative results for a preliminary risk evaluation. The results of the model, even if conservative, have not yet been tested with laboratory or full-scale data.
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Central composite design was used to determine the optimal levels of microbiological parameters, viz., slant age, seed age and inoculum level, for enhanced griseofulvin production by Penicillium griseofulvum MTCC 1898 and Penicillium griseofulvum MTCC 2004 in shake flask fermentation. The optimal levels of slant age, seed age and inoculum level for Penicillium griseofulvum MTCC 1898 were found to be 8.8772 days, 4.2093 days, 12% (v/v) (&#7617.56 kg dry cell mass/m3) and for Penicillium griseofulvum MTCC 2004, 8.221 days, 3.4875 days and 9% (v/v) (&#768.09 kg dry cell mass/m3) respectively. The yield of griseofulvin under optimal conditions was found to be 1.65 times for Penicillium griseofulvum MTCC 1898 and 1.07 times for Penicillium griseofulvum MTCC 2004 higher than that obtained using unoptimized conditions. The fermentation time for maximum production of griseofulvin by Penicillium griseofulvum MTCC 1898 and Penicillium griseofulvum MTCC 2004 decreased by 4 days and 2 days respectively.
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The paper reviews scientific studies of the past two decades dealing with the effects of advances in production technology on industrial injuries. The main features of these studies and the evidence gathered with regard to injury frequency, severity and characteristics are described. The accident co-determinants pointed to by the studies are highlighted. Methodological and theoretical shortcomings are discussed, and a research agenda comprising five questions is proposed. The fairest conclusion at this stage is that technological change may have positive effects with regard to injury occurrence and also promote personal well-being. But the conditions and moderating factors enabling favorable outcomes are not yet fully understood.
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Many companies still use the lost-time accident rate as the main or only measure of safety performance and produce length analyses of the data. I suggested, in 1976, that the effort could be more usefully spent on the collection of data on the failure rates of equipment and people. This has proved to be more difficult than expected. Nevertheless, the use of quantitative methods of risk assessment has grown beyond expectations and uncertainties in the data are not the main source of error. Recent official inquiries have criticised the competence of senior managers, so far as safety is concerned, though not their motives. The paper suggests some aspects of safety to which they might pay more attention, including a better understanding of the nature of human error.
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Accident reports from the 1230 work-related single fatalities in the years 1989, 1990, and 1992 were collected and analyzed to reveal the significant factors contributing to such fatalities. The aggregated and disaggregated fatality rates of twelve accident types were standardized using the total number of workers of the same age, gender, and industry. The standardized fatality rates were subjected to the analysis of variance using age, gender, industry, worker's experience, source of injury, and size of the company as the independent variables. It was discovered that industry and age were the main significant factors, and the interaction effect between industry and age was significant for the fatality rates of almost all accident types. The relationship between age and mean fatality rate differed depending upon the industry and accident type. Fatality rate has a significant rising trend with age for falls, collapse, being struck by and against, falling objects, explosion, drowning, and slipping and tripping accidents. Fatality rate of electric shock declined significantly with age.
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Increasing global competition and shareholder pressure are causing major changes in the chemical industry. Over the last decade companies have been continuously improving staff efficiency. As a result, most modern chemical plants can be regarded as lean. Plans to further reduce the number of staff have come under increasing criticism by personnel for safety reasons, and there is strong resistance to further staff reductions. It is clear that management and workers often have conflicting viewpoints for more than just safety reasons; technologists and safety engineers also have different points of view. This results in complex decision-making processes and makes it difficult to realize changes.What can the chemical industries learn from their experiences of decision-making and management with regard to staff reductions?In our exploratory research that used four case studies, we were able to identify and analyse three distinct patterns, with some variations:•Fragmented and incomplete decision-making.•Unintended and undesirable side effects generated by the decision-making and management of change.•Development of difficult dilemmas and ambiguous issues.In this paper, we present a conceptual model that includes factors important for optimizing shifts. This model can serve as a common frame of reference for all agents involved in the decision-making and management process with regard to staffing.The present study was based on four cases, which means our findings serve to form rather than test hypotheses. At this early stage it is not yet possible to generalize from or validate the results, but we plan to go beyond these preliminary results in future research.
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This paper summarizes data from ten studies examining the relationship between organizational and workplace factors and injury rates. The studies were identified from a systematic literature search, as well as from other sources, and were included if they reported comparisons among at least 20 workplaces. Factors that were examined in at least two studies were identified. Their relationship with injury rates was determined. It was not possible to make quantitative comparisons between studies. We looked for ‘consistency’ or ‘contradiction’ in the relationships. Among the variables ‘consistency’ associated with lower injury rates were: empowerment of the workforce (in general matters); delegation of safety activities; and an active role (in health and safety) of top management. Among the ‘contradictory’ variables were the level and use of discipline for safety violations; and several others that were contradictory only in subgroups of the same study. We discuss the limitations of synthesizing results from the diverse studies.
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The techniques for hazard identification of cargo, ships and port installations is discussed. Hazardous events related to port installations are identified and effects of chemical releases on board ship, on sea and in port are discussed through cause-consequence analysis. Suggestions are provided with respect to hazard containment in cargo sheds.
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This study discusses the relationship between fatal accidents in the workplace and certain macro-structural features of production life in Finland during the period from 1977 to 1991. The fatality rate was studied in relation to variables describing economic activity and the frequency of non-fatal accidents. Construction and manufacturing were studied separately. According to the results the relationship between fatal and non-fatal accidents was reverse, in the case of construction, in a statistically significant way. In the construction industry the fatality rate increased with declining number of cubic metres under construction. The results did not lend support to pro-cyclic approximations of the relation between business cycles and fatal accidents, but supported the hypothesis of the different causation of different accident types. On the other hand, in the case of non-fatal accidents, the social construction of accident statistics must also be taken into account.
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A study has been carried out of accidents occurring in seaports. A total of 471 accidents occurring between the beginning of the twentieth century and October 2002 have been analysed. The results obtained show a significant increase in the frequency of accidents over time: 83% of the accidents occurred in the last 20 years and 59% in the past decade. The most frequent accidents were releases (51%), followed by fires (29%), explosions (17%) and gas clouds (3%). More than half the accidents occurred during transport: loading/unloading operations, storage and process plants also make a large contribution to the total. The various causes of the accidents have also been analysed, as have the type of substance involved and the consequences for the population (number of people killed, injured and evacuated). Finally, some conclusions are drawn concerning the need to improve certain safety measures in ports.
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Europe has been subject to tremendous changes in terms of flexibility of work and labour in response to macro trends like globalisation and the resulting fierce market competition. Such changes in the world of work can give rise to new safety risks. Although the effects of “changing work environment” are fairly documented for psychosocial and ergonomic risks, the subsequent effects on occupational safety are less investigated. This paper sets a general framework on changing work environment presenting prominent descriptions by various institutes.New trends in work environment including new work organisational forms, new contractual relationships, new technologies and changes in the workforce are briefly presented. This paper reviews existing evidence on the effects of changing work environment on safety and occupational accidents. It further suggests an underlying mechanism explaining these effects that is based on organizational factors. Finally it discusses safety prevention challenges to policy makers. In conclusion a sustainable work system is suggested as an alternative to intensive systems.
Article
To explore the underlying mechanisms between organisational downsizing and deterioration of health of employees. Longitudinal cohort study. Data were assembled from before downsizing (time 1); during major downsizing affecting some job categories (time 2); and after downsizing (time 3). Contributions of changes in work, support, and health related behaviours between time 1 and time 2 to the relation between downsizing and sickness absence at time 3 were assessed by multilevel modelling. Mean length of follow up was 4.9 years. Setting: Raisio, a town in Finland. 764 municipal employees who remained in employment after downsizing. Records of absences from work from all causes with medical certificate. Downsizing was associated with negative changes in work, impaired support from spouse, and increased prevalence of smoking. Sickness absence rate from all causes was 2.17 (95% confidence interval 1.54 to 3.07) times higher after major downsizing than after minor downsizing. Adjustment for changes in work (for instance, physical demands, job control, and job insecurity) diminished the relation between downsizing and sickness absence by 49%. Adjustments for impaired social support or increased smoking did not alter the relation between downsizing and sickness absence. The findings were unaffected by sex and income. The exploration of potential mediating factors provides new information about the possible causal pathways linking organisational downsizing and health. Downsizing results in changes in work, social relationships, and health related behaviours. The observed increase in certificated sickness absence was partially explained by concomitant increases in physical demands and job insecurity and a reduction in job control. A considerable proportion of the increase, however, remained unexplained by the factors measured.
Environmental management of port operations – the ports sector’s response to the European dimension
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The impact of advances in production technology on industrial injuries
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