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What are we talking about when we talk about entrepreneurship? The Journal of Business Venturing, 5, 15-25

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Abstract

The purpose of this research was to explore the underlying meanings researchers and practitioners have about entrepreneurship and to outline some themes that characterize the major issues and concerns that constitute the debate about entrepreneurship as a field of study.The process used to identify the themes that characterize entrepreneurship took the form of a policy Delphi. This Delphi was constructed as a series of three questionnaires to elicit definitions of entrepreneurship that were then analyzed and evaluated. In the first phase, a one-page questionnaire asking for a definition of entrepreneurship was sent to leading academic researchers in entrepreneurship, to business leaders and to politicians. The first questionnaire asked individuals: What is your definition of entrepreneurship? We received 44 responses (36 from academics, 8 from business leaders and none from politicians) from the 280 individuals whom we invited to participate (a 16% response rate).In phase 2, all of the entrepreneurship definitions from the first questionnaire were typed and sent back with a second questionnaire to the 44 respondents. The second questionnaire was generated through a content analysis of the entrepreneurship definitions. Ninety attributes were identified from the entrepreneurship definitions. The second questionnaire asked participants: How important is each attribute to your definition of entrepreneurship? Participants ranked the attributes from very important to unimportant. Of the 44 participants in phase 2, 41 responded to the second questionnaire (93% response rate). The responses from the second questionnaire were then evaluated and factor analyzed. The factor analysis sought to cluster the 90 attributes into a smaller set of factors (themes). The eight-factor solution was selected. The debate about what constitutes the nature of entrepreneurship can be characterized by these eight themes.The Entrepreneur. The entrepreneur theme is the idea that entrepreneurship involves individuals with unique personality characteristics and abilities. Innovation. The innovation theme is characterized as doing something new as an idea, product, service, market, or technology in a new or established organization. Organization Creation. The organization creation theme described the behaviors involved in creating organizations. Creating Value. This theme articulated the idea that entrepreneurship creates value. Profit or Nonprofit. The profit/nonprofit theme is concerned with whether entrepreneurship involves profit-making organizations only. Growth. At issue in this theme is the importance of growth as a characteristic of entrepreneurship. Uniqueness. This theme suggested that entrepreneurship must involve uniqueness. The Owner-Manager. This theme suggested that entrepreneurship involves individuals who are owners and managers of their businesses.The third phase of the Delphi asked the 41 participants to evaluate and comment on the eight factors generated in the second phase. Of the 41 participants in phase 3, 34 responded to the third questionnaire (83% response rate). Since no one agreed-upon definition of entrepreneurship appeared to emerge from the Delphi process, the researcher undertook a cluster analysis of the responses to the third questionnaire to uncover whether any similarities in viewpoints existed among the participants. The data was cluster analyzed using both hierarchical (complete linkage and single linkage) and K-means clustering techniques. Results from these analyses revealed two distinct clusters. The majority (79%) of the participants were clustered in group 1. The focus of this group seems to be on the characteristics of entrepreneurship. Group 1 looked at what happened in the situation. This group indicated that a situation was entrepreneurial if they could answer “yes” to these questions: Is there an entrepreneur involved? Is there innovation? Is there growth? Is there uniqueness? The other group, group 2, focused on the outcomes of entrepreneurship. Group 2 saw a situation as entrepreneurial only if value was created or if someone gained.
... L'ensemble d'avantages que génère l'entrepreneuriat justifie combien énorme l'intérêt croissant qu'il suscite (Davidsson, 1995 (Gartner, 1985 ;Hernandez, 1999 ;Fayolle, 2004 ;Moreau, 2004 (Chelly, et al., 2006). Tandis que le paradigme de création d'organisations est quant à lui reconnu comme le plus ancien, impulsé par les travaux de (Gartner, 1985 ;1988 ;1990 ;. Paradigme qui met au centre la question de la notion de création d'organisations, notion qui renvoie au concept d'émergence organisationnelle ou celui de l'impulsion d'organisations (Verstraete, 2000). ...
... Paradigme qui met au centre la question de la notion de création d'organisations, notion qui renvoie au concept d'émergence organisationnelle ou celui de l'impulsion d'organisations (Verstraete, 2000). (Shaver et Scott, 1991 ;Gartner, 1990 ;Greenberger et Sexton, 1988). ...
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L’objectif de cette étude est de décrire la dynamique entrepreneuriale par la présentation des différentes phases de sa trajectoire et leur succession dans le temps. Ensuite, expliquer la relation entre la dynamique appréhendée au moyen du niveau d’activités entrepreneuriales et la création d’entreprises par la saisie d’opportunités en identifiant les facteurs qui permettent aux individus potentiels entrepreneurs de parvenir à l’effectivité de leurs projets entrepreneuriaux. Quatre variables clés ont étés retenues au regard de l’analyse théorique, il s’agit du passage de l’intention à l’acte de création d’entreprise, la motivation de création par saisie d’opportunités, la possession des compétences entrepreneuriales requises pour le processus de création ex nihilo et l’adaptation de services d’accompagnement aux réalités contextuelles. Cinq théories nous ont servi à émettre nos hypothèses de recherche, à savoir ; la théorie de la formation de l’évènement entrepreneurial de Shapero (1981), la théorie des motivations push et pull de Shapero (1975), la théorie du capital humain de Becker (1964) et celle de la personnalité de l’entrepreneur de Bruyat et Julien (2001) et enfin la théorie de la mobilisation des ressources de Oberschall (1973). Après traitement des données issues des enquêtes, les résultats montrent que toutes les quatre variables explicatives retenues relevées ci-dessus constituent les déterminants de la dynamique de création d’entreprises dans le contexte congolais. Sans idée de vouloir généraliser, la présente recherche a permis malgré tout le développement de concepts de dynamique entrepreneuriale dans un contexte de création d’entreprises par saisie d’opportunités en République Démocratique du Congo, études très peut mener, si pas encore jusqu’à présent.
... Research [46][47][48] shows that innovation lies at the heart of entrepreneurship, making it a decisive element in fostering economic and social progress in emerging nations. Furthermore, in the literature, innovations can be traced that are attributed to the often-identified functional feature of entrepreneurs [3,[49][50][51][52][53]. ...
... Innovation is considered one of the most essential foundations of entrepreneurship and a principal feature when describing entrepreneurs [53,[72][73][74]. In this research, we will study innovation at the entrepreneur level as appraised with the Jackson Personality Inventory questionnaire [75]. ...
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Researchers have studied entrepreneurial curiosity and innovativeness as determinants of entrepreneurial behavior but have not linked them with company growth in a model. The intention of this enquiry was to examine the associations between the entrepreneur’s psychological constructs of entrepreneurial curiosity and innovativeness and business growth, as examined by the conceptualization and analysis of hypotheses. For this research, data were obtained via a survey questionnaire. The sample consisted of 851 entrepreneurs of companies in three European countries. Each company had 250 workers or fewer. This study contributes to the entrepreneurship knowledge base by presenting empirical testimony on the associations between entrepreneurial curiosity, entrepreneurial innovativeness, and firm growth, as well as presenting advanced cross-nationally analogous measurement instruments of entrepreneurial curiosity and innovativeness. The entrepreneur’s curiosity is important for their innovativeness, and this innovativeness is essential for business growth.
... Entrepreneurship as a study among researchers has generated numerous interests in the academic circle. Gartner (1990) who opined that there is never a single unified or acceptable meaning to entrepreneurship due to the fact that it differs according to each individual in the field. In support of Gartner's position, stating that there is no single unified definition of entrepreneurship, there exists a list of analyzed position to entrepreneurship by different scholars; some categorically justify entrepreneurship as risk engaging capacity (Macko & Tyszka, 2009) while some scholars are of the opinion that entrepreneurship is the ability to build an organization (Pahuja, 2015). ...
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Though not large in number but a considerable quantity of scholars has taken time to dig into the effects and impact of religion and culture on economic development and by of importance entrepreneurial choice and intention (EI), but quite a little is somewhat known on the fundamental impact of religion on how it affects migrants in entrepreneurial intention or choice in their new or current location. The researchers of this paper have hereby used this work to examine and assess the impact of how religion affects migrants when attempting to make entrepreneurial choice or intention. From the pool of hundreds of respondents in the conducted research among migrants across different continents asking how their religion has played an impact on their entrepreneurial choice or intention. This work did expose that religion is a fundamental consideration and that it forms the basis for migrants when deciding on entrepreneurial choice or intention. High among respondents were Muslims and Christians, while not leaving out faithfuls from other religions such as Hindu, Jews and Buddhist. It was emphatic among majority that religion takes effect and impacts their decision to be an entrepreneur; therefore, it can be concluded from finding as analyzed with empirical verification that for migrants in their new or current location that religion impacts, affects and influences entrepreneurial decision, also that there is a link between entrepreneurial choice or intention and whatever faith practiced. The researcher makes use of primary data in investigating the impact of religion on migrant entrepreneurship using SPSS version 20.0 in analyzing data obtained from respondents. KEYWORDS : Belief, Entrepreneur, Migrant, Religion. Entrepreneur Intention.
... Entrepreneurship as a study among researchers has generated numerous interests in the academic circle. Gartner (1990) who opined that there is never a single unified or acceptable meaning to entrepreneurship due to the fact that it differs according to each individual in the field. In support of Gartner's position, stating that there is no single unified definition of entrepreneurship, there exists a list of analyzed position to entrepreneurship by different scholars; some categorically justify entrepreneurship as risk engaging capacity (Macko & Tyszka, 2009) while some scholars are of the opinion that entrepreneurship is the ability to build an organization (Pahuja, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Though not large in number but a considerable quantity of scholars has taken time to dig into the effects and impact of religion and culture on economic development and by of importance entrepreneurial choice and intention (EI), but quite a little is somewhat known on the fundamental impact of religion on how it affects migrants in entrepreneurial intention or choice in their new or current location. The researchers of this paper have hereby used this work to examine and assess the impact of how religion affects migrants when attempting to make entrepreneurial choice or intention. From the pool of hundreds of respondents in the conducted research among migrants across different continents asking how their religion has played an impact on their entrepreneurial choice or intention. This work did expose that religion is a fundamental consideration and that it forms the basis for migrants when deciding on entrepreneurial choice or intention. High among respondents were Muslims and Christians, while not leaving out faithfuls from other religions such as Hindu, Jews and Buddhist. It was emphatic among majority that religion takes effect and impacts their decision to be an entrepreneur; therefore, it can be concluded from finding as analyzed with empirical verification that for migrants in their new or current location that religion impacts, affects and influences entrepreneurial decision, also that there is a link between entrepreneurial choice or intention and whatever faith practiced. The researcher makes use of primary data in investigating the impact of religion on migrant entrepreneurship using SPSS version 20.0 in analyzing data obtained from respondents. KEYWORDS : Belief, Entrepreneur, Migrant, Religion. Entrepreneur Intention.
... Entrepreneurship as a study among researchers has generated numerous interests in the academic circle. Gartner (1990) who opined that there is never a single unified or acceptable meaning to entrepreneurship due to the fact that it differs according to each individual in the field. In support of Gartner's position, stating that there is no single unified definition of entrepreneurship, there exists a list of analyzed position to entrepreneurship by different scholars; some categorically justify entrepreneurship as risk engaging capacity (Macko & Tyszka, 2009) while some scholars are of the opinion that entrepreneurship is the ability to build an organization (Pahuja, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Though not large in number but a considerable quantity of scholars has taken time to dig into the effects and impact of religion and culture on economic development and by of importance entrepreneurial choice and intention (EI), but quite a little is somewhat known on the fundamental impact of religion on how it affects migrants in entrepreneurial intention or choice in their new or current location. The researchers of this paper have hereby used this work to examine and assess the impact of how religion affects migrants when attempting to make entrepreneurial choice or intention. From the pool of hundreds of respondents in the conducted research among migrants across different continents asking how their religion has played an impact on their entrepreneurial choice or intention. This work did expose that religion is a fundamental consideration and that it forms the basis for migrants when deciding on entrepreneurial choice or intention. High among respondents were Muslims and Christians, while not leaving out faithfuls from other religions such as Hindu, Jews and Buddhist. It was emphatic among majority that religion takes effect and impacts their decision to be an entrepreneur; therefore, it can be concluded from finding as analyzed with empirical verification that for migrants in their new or current location that religion impacts, affects and influences entrepreneurial decision, also that there is a link between entrepreneurial choice or intention and whatever faith practiced. The researcher makes use of primary data in investigating the impact of religion on migrant entrepreneurship using SPSS version 20.0 in analyzing data obtained from respondents.
... "The appropriateness of the utilization of different theories and the suitability of different conceptualizations of entrepreneurship" (Davidsson & Wiklund, 2000;Gartner & Brush, 2016), which match corresponding levels of analysis, is crucial for a successful progress of the field of entrepreneurship research (Davidsson & Wiklund, 2001, p. 82). If we define entrepreneurship as the "creation of new enterprise" (Low & MacMillan, 1988), or as "entrepreneurial initiatives" (Schumpeter, 1934), which result in venture creation (Gartner, 1989(Gartner, , 1990Schumpeter, 1934), or the improved performance of existing firms (Wiklund, 1998;Zahra, 1991), we may arrive at different conclusions as to who may be considered an entrepreneur, from scholars who concentrate on, for example, entrepreneurial orientation (Lumpkin & Dess, 1996). (Davidsson & Wiklund, 2001, p. 95) recommend to approach entrepreneurship "as a broad research domain concerned with novelty and value creation in the economy", and this view has also accompanied my research. ...
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