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Awakening Employee Creativity: The Role of Leader Emotional Intelligence

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Abstract

Creative activities are affect-laden. Laboring at perhaps the most inspiring and difficult of human endeavors, a creator frequently experiences the excitement of discovery and the anguish of failure. Engaging in creativity in organizations inevitably creates tension, conflict, and emotionally charged debates and disagreements because complex organizations need both control and predictability and creativity and change. In this paper, we describe five routes through which the innate creativity of organizational members can be awakened: identification, information gathering, idea generation, idea evaluation and modification, and idea implementation. We propose that leaders, and in particular, the emotional intelligence of leaders, plays a critical role in enabling and supporting the awakening of creativity through these five complementary routes. After describing theory and research on emotional intelligence, we develop propositions concerning how leaders' emotional intelligence can enable and promote followers' creativity in multiple ways.

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... However, they sampled IT employees. Zhou and George (2003) and Gupta and Bajaj (2017) proposed the influence of leaders' emotional intelligence (capital) on followers' creativity. However, they did not conduct any empirical study to validate their framework. ...
... Emotional intelligence refers to a person capability to observe his and other's feelings and emotions and use the information to guide his thinking and actions (Salovey and Mayer, 1990;Berman and West, 2008). Zhou and George (2003) claimed that emotional intelligence of the leader plays significant role in enabling the subordinate's creativity. Carmeli et al. (2014) found that emotional intelligence is positively associated with creativity and is mediated by generosity and vigor. ...
... Trust is important in fostering employee's creativity. The trust that the subordinates have of their leader will lead them to take risks in becoming creative (Zhou and George, 2003). This consequently gives them confidence that their leaders will seriously consider their proposed ideas and design directions. ...
Article
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Abstract Malaysia has recorded a moderate burden of TB (TB) incidence as indicated by World Health Organization (WHO), however the present trend of TB cases is mostly distressing. The Ministry of Health (MOH), Malaysia has come upon many pointers to manage the disease, but, the national TB technical report in 2015 emphasised that existing detection strategies of TB at the locations still have to be compelled to be integrated with relevant methods. A sociospatial method is proposed to assess potential risk factors in the rural-urban areas of Shah Alam and then used for targeting missing cases of the disease. The approach was created with three main steps: framework development, data sets acquisition, risk investigation and modelling. Urbanization, location of factory, financial status, potential group, human movement, house type, location of healthcare centres, and number of populations were fundamental factors used to decide the risk of TB endemic. This creative method has effectively evaluated a 65 % of potential high-chance TB risk areas. These areas have general similitudes with other endemic spots around the world, yet there are some fascinating discoveries uncovered in this neighbourhood ponder towards in the national TB control program. The vast majority of TB cases did happen in high rise housing regions, as well as they are accumulated at industrial area, high mobility human and low financial status in urban areas. Urban areas are commonly favoured region for the global TB cases, but the local TB endemic could likewise possibly happen in semi-urban or rural setting. Keywords: Spatial risk assessment; Human social behaviour; Built environment health; Tuberculosis
... Despite recent attention in the popular press, the subject of creativity, and its impact on sales performance, remains underexplored in the sales literature (see Evans et al., 2012;Groza et al., 2016). This lack of attention is all the more notable given the complex, and competitive, environment in which many firms reside, and where survival and adaptation are critically dependent on the creative behaviors of a firm's employees (Zhou & George, 2003). Indeed, more so than in many job functions, the need for salesperson creative selling is particularly salient as salespeople's job functions have become increasingly demanding (Evans et al., 2012). ...
... Hence, organizations need not only control and predictability, but also competition-and subsequently, creative behavior-to succeed in a dynamic, market environment (Zhou & George, 2003). Indeed, the behaviors of one's co-workers are often critical in shaping individual creative behaviors (Madjar et al., 2011). ...
... Defined broadly as the production of ideas, products, or procedures that are novel, original, and useful, creativity has been shown to be positively associated with common performance metrics such as job performance and overall organizational effectiveness (Amabile, 1996). Implicit in any discussion of creativity is that an incremental improvement in a routine job function, if derived creatively, can be defined as creative, just like a major scientific or technological breakthrough (Zhou & George, 2003). ...
Article
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Despite receiving significant attention in the popular press, the topic of creative selling remains underexamined in the sales literature. The current research helps to correct this notable omission by exploring the antecedents—and consequences—of salesperson creative selling. Drawing on the componential theory of creativity, we demonstrate that both individual difference (emotional intelligence; EI) and workplace environment (competition inspired by co-workers; CIC) variables drive salesperson creative selling, and that salesperson creative selling behaviors have positive, downstream consequences for performance. However, the interaction of EI and CIC reveals an attenuating effect of emotional intelligence, such that the effect of emotional intelligence on workplace creative selling is stronger at lower—rather than higher—levels of internal competition. In so doing, we take the counterintuitive position that a competitive, rather than collaborative, internal workplace environment might be best suited for sparking creative selling within the salesforce. We conclude our study by providing implications and offering suggested avenues for future research.
... In their review of contextual factors conducive to creativity, Shalley et al. (2004), for instance, claim that all contextual factors impact intrinsic motivation, which becomes the mediator between context and employees' creative output. This model also received some empirical support for components as well as the role of the motivation component (Shalley et al. 2004;Zhou and George, 2003). Furthermore, Woodman et al. (1993) build on Amabile's (1988) view that individual and context are contingent in creative processes and presented another comprehensive model of organizational creativity. ...
... Leaders emotional intelligence in five creative routs can influence awaking, enable and promote employee's creativity Awakening employee creativity The role of leader emotional intelligence ( Zhou and George, 2003) identified through use of assessment instruments such as the CPS (Creative Personality Scale) and the normative baselines that accompany these instruments (Gough, 1979). The collective creativity model (Hargadon and Bechky, 2006) considers collective patterns of interrelated activities between different people in groups over time (Hargadon and Bechky, 2006;Weick et al., 2008). ...
... The leader emotional intelligence model (Zhou and George (2003), proposes five routes through which creativity can be awakened in the workplace and also propose that emotional intelligence provides leaders with the capability to use these routes to effectively promote creativity among their subordinates (Zhou and George. 2003). ...
Article
To be competitive, organizations must also be innovative, making organizational creativity a crucial capability. Accordingly, the past decade has seen an increasing attention among scholars to fields such as innovation, organizational performance, and creativity. Nevertheless, studies in organizational creativity, i.e., the management of creativity at an organizational level, are still fragmented and have not converged into a single comprehensive conceptual model. The purpose of this paper is to scrutinize the literature on organizational creativity in order to map the different perspectives on the subject and provide direction for future research. The paper thoroughly explores the literature through bibliographic research on papers published between 1980 and 2020. The literature is mapped, categorized, and analyzed to identify the different models of organizational creativity, i.e., concepts, definitions, and theories. The paper identifies seven models and shows that field could converge by connecting two tracks of the literature: the track of the dynamic componential model with the track of the personal and contextual factors. Furthermore, the paper uses this insight to propose practical guidelines for managing creativity by mapping contextual factors at the individual, team, and organizational levels that can be used with the dynamic componential model.
... More and more studies have proved the positive relationship between EI and performance outcomes (Zhou and George, 2003;Vidyarthi et al., 2014;Deming, 2017), which include task performance, decision quality, creativity, and productivity. Specifically, members with high EI are good at regulating their emotions and are more likely to acquire a great deal of knowledge of how to use emotions to achieve their goals, such as participating in brainstorming in a passionate or excited mood (Gohm and Clore, 2002;Parke et al., 2015), which, in turn, is conducive to improve employees' creativity and job performance, and help members maintain a favorable emotional state. ...
... In the same context, individuals with high EI also influence others' emotional states or behavioral tendencies through exchange of social emotional resources, thus affecting others' job performance (Vidyarthi et al., 2014). For example, Zhou and George (2003) believed that leaders with high EI can accurately perceive employees' frustration at work and encourage employees to cultivate positive emotional states, thus promoting the generation of high-quality ideas and improving employees' work efficiency. ...
Article
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Emotion is a kind of micro foundation that can affect human behaviors even in the digital era. Emotional intelligence (EI) is an important psychological factor that affects the growth and development of organizations from the view of emotion. Based on current bodies of literature, a comprehensive review of EI can contribute to its theory development in organization research and facilitate EI research burgeoning. We visualize the landscape of EI by analyzing 1,996 articles with CiteSpace their concepts, dimensions, and measurement. We propose two specific mechanisms, which clarify how individuals with high EI use emotional information to influence themselves and others. Following this, we develop a theoretical framework of EI at levels of individual, team, and organization. Finally, future directions and research agenda are addressed. This research contributes to the literature of EI and provides practical insight for practitioners.
... Συνοπτικά, το εννοιολογικό περιεχόμενο της συναισθηματικής νοημοσύνης εντοπίζεται στις ικανότητες που συνδέουν τη νοημοσύνη και το συναίσθημα, για να ενισχύσουν τη σκέψη (Mayer et al., 2008). Ο όρος «συναίσθημα», όπως αναφέρεται στη σχετική βιβλιογραφία, αφορά σε ολόκληρο το εύρος των συναισθημάτων, από τα πιο ήπια και συχνά εμφανιζόμενα συναισθήματα μέχρι τα βραχύβια, έντονα συναισθήματα που διακόπτουν προσωρινά τη διαδικασία της σκέψης και επηρεάζουν τη συμπεριφορά (Zhou & George, 2003). Αποτελεί μια σύνθετη έννοια, με ορισμούς που συγκλίνουν, αλλά δεν ταυτίζονται απόλυτα. ...
... Η αντίληψη και η κατανόηση των συναισθημάτων -από τα πιο απλά έως τα πιο σύνθετα-και η αφομοίωση αυτής της πληροφορίας στον τρόπο με τον οποίο σκεφτόμαστε και εκφραζόμαστε, εμπλουτίζει τη γνωστική διαδικασία και διευκολύνει τις συναισθηματικές σχέσεις και την αντιμετώπιση συναισθημάτων όπως ο φόβος, η ανησυχία, ο θυμός ή η θλίψη (Πλατσίδου, 2004). Καθώς τα συναισθήματα διαδραματίζουν σημαντικό ρόλο στη γνωστική επεξεργασία εξωτερικών ερεθισμάτων και πληροφοριών, η συναισθηματική επίγνωση μπορεί, να ενισχύσει τη συγκέντρωση, να βοηθήσει στη λήψη αποφάσεων και να αυξήσει την ευελιξία της επεξεργασίας των παρεχόμενων πληροφοριών (Zhou & George, 2003). ...
Book
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The National Life/Career Competences Framework is a holistic endeavour that defines the content of the five life/career competences included in the study and presents contemporary scientific approaches, learning activities and techniques for cultivating and evaluating them. At the same time, the framework is further supported by the review of the European and National education, training and employment policies , while at the same moment respective European and International blueprints and competence frameworks have been studied. The Framework adopts a macro-approach in which each of the five competences is approached as a sum of multiple sub-competences. For each descriptive indicator, specific learning outcomes were developed based on four levels (basic, intermediate, advanced and expert) and on the four stages of Kolb's experiential learning cycle. Therefore, particular emphasis is laid on the reflection and the experience of those involved. Based on these learning outcomes, educational and counseling interventions can be developed for a wide range of individuals with the aim of empowering them in the context of their education, training, employment and life/career in general. Finally, the Framework concludes with the presentation of an array of five self-assessment tools that address each life/career competence separately. These tools reflect the descriptive indicators, learning outcomes and competence levels based on the theoretical literature review and the empirical study conducted. It must be made clear, though, that the purpose of the tools is not the psychometric evaluation, but the promotion of individual's learning and reflection.
... Nevertheless, individuals with poor emotional intelligence cannot manage their emotions effectively to help cognitive processes. They would find it tough to handle their feelings, emotions, and actions (Zhou & George, 2003). Regulation of emotion refers to an "individual's ability to manage their emotions to achieve fast recovery from physiological distress" (Wong et al., 2004). ...
... Regulation of emotion refers to an "individual's ability to manage their emotions to achieve fast recovery from physiological distress" (Wong et al., 2004). According to Zhou and George (2003), delaying instantaneous responses is also part of emotional management. Failure in regulating emotion can lead to a negative impact. ...
Article
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This study aims to assess the job characteristics and work engagement relationship. This study also investigated emotional intelligence as a moderator in the relationship mentioned above. The respondents were 200 nurses working in public hospitals in the northern states of Peninsular Malaysia. A Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS‐SEM) technique via Smart PLS 3.0 was used for data analyses. The findings indicated that task significance, autonomy, and feedback were significantly associated with work engagement. However, emotional intelligence failed to moderate the purported relationships. The results contribute to the job demand resources model and job characteristics theory by gauging job characteristics as the predictors of work engagement. The theoretical framework managed to substantiate partial support of the theory. Theoretical and practical implications, limitations, and recommendations for future studies are also presented.
... Construction managers possessing high levels of EI when faced with a challenge would easily appreciate emotions and use that to make cognitive decision-making and resolve the challenges and manage relationships with other people ( Bar-On et al., 2003). Zhou and George (2013) posit that EI allows a leader to properly determine what he or she is feeling and at the same time, be sympathetic towards the feelings of others. As they can identify what they are truly feeling and express these emotions, they are also more receptive towards the emotions of their subordinates (Zhou and George, 2013). ...
... Zhou and George (2013) posit that EI allows a leader to properly determine what he or she is feeling and at the same time, be sympathetic towards the feelings of others. As they can identify what they are truly feeling and express these emotions, they are also more receptive towards the emotions of their subordinates (Zhou and George, 2013). Firms come to expect new skills from employees who find themselves leading teams and projects cross-functionally (Gardner, 2013). ...
Article
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Purpose Even though emotional intelligence (EI) is reported to have many benefits, yet it remains mainly unexplored in the construction industry. This paper aims to present a critical review of EI research in the construction industry. Design/methodology/approach Search of literature was conducted by using Scopus engine. Relevant keywords were used to discover 146 publications. The titles, abstracts, keywords and full texts of the publications were examined to finally select 48 publications that were relevant. Scientometric analysis was undertaken with the aid of VOSViewer. Content analysis systematically reviewed the key themes. Findings The five topmost countries conducting research into EI in the construction industry are UK, Australia and the USA. The most influential authors in construction EI research are Goleman, D., Salovey, P. and Mayer, J.D. The significant impact of EI on leadership in the construction industry were that EI boosted transformational leadership style and EI influenced use of management-by-exception active style by construction leaders. Furthermore, EI leads to resilience against stress and EI enhances stress tolerance were the significant roles of EI on stress management. Research limitations/implications A limitation is in the number of publications reviewed. In spite of the critical review, the number of publications reviewed may not be exhaustive. Practical implications This research enhances knowledge and stimulates a deeper comprehension of EI research and also provides recommendations for further studies based on identified research gaps. Originality/value As a pioneering study that combines scientometrics and systematic review for EI research, this study enhances knowledge on EI in the construction industry.
... This is because emotional reactions provide a useful insight of 344 where interest should be focused; whereas unmanaged emotions can hinder effective information processing. So to avoid this unduly hindrance, emotional intelligence allows managers to not only use emotions but also to manage them effectively (Zhou & George, 2003); and (4) Use of Emotions (UOE) -is the ability of an individual to make use of his or her emotions by directing them towards constructive activities and personal performance. This also includes the ability of the individual to use emotion to aid the cognitive process. ...
... Emotions play an important role in the effective development of information for the individuals who are high on emotional intelligence. On the contrary, individuals with low emotional intelligence cannot effectively use their emotions to aid cognitive processes and may find it difficult to coordinate how they feel and what they are doing (Zhou & George, 2003). Therefore, individuals vary not only in awareness, appraisal and expression of emotions but also in their ability to use emotions in collaboration with their cognitive processes to enhance effective functioning. ...
Article
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Individuals with greater emotional intelligence are better able to appraise, manage and regulate the emotions of others. Such abilities allow these individuals to judge if their emotions are linked to opportunities, and thus use these emotions in the process of decision making that enhances higher performance. However, while there is substantial evidence documenting the effects of emotional intelligence on leadership and educational performance, there is much less research examining the influence of emotional intelligence on entrepreneurial performance. Thus, this study assessed the influence of the dimensions of emotional intelligence (i.e., self emotional appraisal, others' emotional appraisal, regulation of emotions and use of emotions) on entrepreneurial performance. Ex-post-facto design, simple random sampling technique and questionnaire were employed to generate data from selected respondents in the hospitality industry in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. The data were analysed using Chi-square test. It was found that each of the dimensions of emotional intelligence is significantly related to entrepreneurial performance. In view of this, enterprises' founders/owners should ensure that their managers and employees are emotionally intelligent through a well planned recruitment and selection process, training and retraining programme. Again, a positive emotional climate within the organisation through rewards and compensation system should be encouraged.
... Thirdly by considering employees as pioneers in bringing change (Oreg 2003). It was the situational experience perspective which earlier and majority of the authors considered while defining RTC (Coch& French, 1948;Zander, 1950).The recent shift took place to assess RTC from individual differentiation optics (Oreg 2003),He identified 6 sources that motivate an individual to resist from the change. Those six sources are(a) Reluctance To Lose Control, i.e. ...
... EI has raisedas a mountingquarter of research in OC domain (Doorewaard and Benschop, 2003) as well in leadership study (Zhou and George, 2003). There's quite a consciences occur with regards to strategic perspective as limited understanding exists in explanation, as by which means EI can be further groomed in the long run benefit to be in a position to achieve the competitive edge in organisation Di Fabio (2011) used the Emotional Intelligence Scale (EIS; Schutte et al., 1998) to study the relationship between the three factors of the Resistance to Change Scale (RCS; Oreg, 2003) (i.e., Routine Seeking, Emotional Reaction to Imposed Change, and Cognitive Rigidity) among Italian university students (306 and 213 university students, respectively). ...
Article
This research study is based on the investigation and validation of Organizational Learning Capacity with regards to leaders in educational sector as source of Competitive Advantage to the Higher Education Institutions and testing the impact of leader’s Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Resistance to Change to enhance Organizational Learning Capacity (OLC). This study can be the hallmark for the HEI’s for gaining competitive advantage through their human capital.The results shows that EI has significant contribution towards the OLC and when measured together with the trait of resistance to change the results significantly transformed which suggest that RTC negatively and significantly affect the relationship between EI and OLC therefore, to control and reduce the aspect of resistance to change by enhancing and investing in the trait of Emotional Intelligence of the individuals and leaders is suggested to gain the benefits of OLC to become superior in the industry.
... Amabile (1998) argues that it is reasonable to treat individual and small group creativity in the same way, as it is especially difficult to separate out individual idea contributions. However, Zhou and George (2003) provide a more compelling argument that creativity is often a collective activity which involves collaboration. ...
... Subjects E, G, and I talk about the need for collaboration. In the literature, Zhou and George (2003) note that "creativity is often a collective endeavour and involves collaboration and interaction with others", (Awakening Employee Creativity, p564). Amabile and Khaire (2008) highlight the leader's role to encourage and enable collaboration to manage for creativity. ...
Thesis
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Business leaders and their organizations are dealing with ever increasing levels of anxiety, conflict and uncertainty, exemplified by the recent COVID crisis, as they look to tackle tough innovation challenges in the face of growing competition from existing players and potential disruption in form of new product offerings and business models from new market entrants. Psychoanalysts have long provided a psychologically safe space in which clients can associate freely to reduce anxiety and explore their true, creative selves. While there is a wide body of research into creativity within individuals, as well as extensive research into the role of psychological safety and business leadership within innovative organizations from a psychological and systemic viewpoint, there is limited research on how business leaders can adopt a psychodynamic approach to extend psychological safety and enhance team creativity and innovation in their organizations. The goal of this paper is to develop a simple model of how business leaders can contain the individual and collective anxieties of innovation organizations to enhance team creativity and innovation. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis study was completed to explore the real-life experiences of nine business leaders working in innovative organizations. The results of the study demonstrate that senior leaders who inspire purpose and extend psychological safety to their teams can enhance innovation across organizations. Furthermore, by looking at the study results through a psychodynamic lens and using a grounded theory approach, this paper presents a basic model of horizontal leadership which identifies important containing behaviors such as being authentic and channeling conflict positively to extend beyond psychological safety to provide psychodynamic actualization, as well as creative tension and intrinsic motivation, to encourage specific learning and innovation behaviors within teams. This basic horizontal leadership model may not only provide guidance to business leaders for realizing ground-breaking innovation and building shared purpose during unprecedented times of uncertainty and change but also offer researchers and practitioners with an opportunity to complete further validation.
... An employee's innovative behavior is complex, consisting of both the generation and introduction of new ideas as well as their implementation; this is different from creative behavior (i.e., only generating new ideas) [61][62][63]. Scott and Bruce (1994) and Van de Ven (1986) argued that studies of what motivates or enables individuals' innovative behavior are critical [1,2]. ...
Article
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Although the value of a supportive organizational strategy has been recognized over time, there is a need to better understand its relationship with employees’ psychological and behavioral responses. This study focuses on employees’ innovative behavior as a result of their perceptions of internal market orientation in the organization. It proposes a sequential process model that examines the impact of internal market orientation on employees’ innovative behavior through the ethical climate, psychological ownership, and employee stewardship toward the organization. Using data collected from 310 employees of small and medium-sized enterprises in various industries in South Korea, a linear sequential relationship among the constructs is confirmed. The findings of this empirical study, therefore, suggest that the ethical climate, psychological ownership, and stewardship mediate the effects of internal market orientation on employees’ innovative behavior. The research thus offers a conceptual framework that shows the sequential process of the effect of internal market orientation on innovative behavior. Further, it shows that the perception of an ethical climate can be influenced by management and can develop an employee’s psychological ownership. Implications for managers and directions for future research are also discussed.
... Leaders uphold the morale of the adherents monetarily for their achievement of building up new helpful strategies (Malamud, 2011). Leaders guarantee that the adherents are content with the challenging undertakings and resulting organizational environment they adapt to 25 (Zhou & George, 2003), since strategic leaders notice their adherents will be effective as long as they give them monetary, emotional, and ethical fulfillment (Lennick & Kiel, 2011). ...
Conference Paper
Strategic leaders can effectively impact all business stakeholders and positively actualize critical management systems to the organizations. The strategic leader can decide and foresee an organization's future as per present organizational functioning and the organizational environment. In this time laden with uncertainties amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, everybody is universally experiencing an unusual fright. Present-day leaders can either deal with the business's vulnerabilities effectively by adopting a solution-driven approach or may lose the equilibrium notwithstanding vulnerabilities by performing ineffective management practices. This study, discusses strategic leadership and examines its uniqueness among other leadership styles, thereafter, discusses the usefulness of strategic leadership during the unprecedented and unforeseen times brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic, which is laden with uncertainty. In this paper, we have discussed the COVID-19 pandemic, its impact on business organizations including homecare, and the strategies adopted by the strategic leaders to mitigate the impact of the pandemic on business organizations. We present strategic leadership's vitality due to its innate suitability in face of the uncertainties encountered in the organizational environment and therefore indicate how strategic leadership aligns well with the uncertainties.
... Therefore, creativity is a concept that is closely related to the ideas of employees. Indeed, it has been suggested that an original idea with no potential value may be unusual but may not be creative (Zhou & George, 2003). The person with creative thinking is the person who tries to achieve the same goal in different ways. ...
Article
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Organizations need to give importance to employee loyalty and creativity activities in order to protect their interests in an intensely competitive environment. A management approach that protects organizational interests by excluding employees will be less successful. In this case, the relations between leadership and employees come to the fore: providing colleague support within the organization, sharing the experience and expertise of the employees, helping fellow colleagues in their duties and providing support will increase the commitment and creativity mentioned within the organization. Within the scope of the purpose of the research, surveys collected from 400 staff experts working in GSM companies were analyzed. The Smartpls 3.2 program was used for Factor Analysis and Path Analysis and Mediation effect analysis for variables. As a result of the analysis, the positive effect of task-oriented leadership on co-worker support, organizational commitment and employee creativity of employees, and the positive effect of co-worker support on organizational commitment and employee creativity, and finally, the positive mediator effect of co-worker support was revealed for this sector.
... Furthermore, we find a positive relationship between homogeneous networks and linear DM. Linear thinking and linear DM are mostly influenced by the accumulation, inheritance, and spread of extant knowledge (Zhou and George, 2003). In other words, homogeneous networks help entrepreneurs focus on the current demand through the flexible use of professional knowledge, industrial experience, and market know-how. ...
Article
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Entrepreneurial networks are important for the identification of entrepreneurial opportunities and development in the context of social media. This exploratory research investigates the relationships in entrepreneurial networks, by considering decision-making, and entrepreneurial opportunities, and focusing on the role of decision-making in the relationship between entrepreneurial networks and entrepreneurial opportunities. Using data from 512 Chinese entrepreneurial firms, hierarchical regression analyses and structural equation modeling are employed to create a mediation model that links entrepreneurial networks to entrepreneurial opportunities through decision-making. Our findings are as follows: (1) heterogeneous networks are positively related to innovative opportunities, and homogeneous networks are positively related to imitative opportunities; (2) heterogeneous networks positively affect non-linear decision-making (non-linear DM) while homogeneous networks positively influence linear decision-making (linear DM); (3) positive relationships exist between non-linear DM and innovative opportunities and between linear DM and imitative opportunities; and (4) non-linear DM fully mediates between heterogeneous networks and innovative opportunities, and linear DM partially mediates between homogeneous networks and imitative opportunities. This paper contributes to literature on entrepreneurship by broadening understanding of the mechanisms of entrepreneurial opportunity formation in emerging markets and provides important insights for entrepreneurs and policymakers.
... The supporters of Ability EI relate it with cognitive abilities and dimension of mental intelligence alone. Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso (2008) (Zhou and George 2003); as well as EI and leader/member exchange (Dasborough and Ashkanasy 2002). A rationale is provided in the research methodology section for adopting trait EI model and questionnaire concerning the school leadership. ...
Article
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Emotional intelligence is considered crucial for the leaders. School leaders in Pakistan particularly of primary schools are appointed just on the basis of seniority and the common mismanagement issues in the schools can be due to lack of emotional intelligence among them. Therefore, an effort using gender based comparative survey has been made to assess the level of emotional intelligence among primary school leaders. TEIQue has been employed to obtain data from 260 school teachers about the emotional intelligence of their school leaders. Results revealed moderate level of emotional intelligence on most of its facets among male and female school leaders. However, male school leaders have comparatively better level of EI as compared to female school leaders. The concerning authorities may timely focus to assess EI for the appointment and professional development of school leaders.
... Carmeli et al. (2003) noted that managers with high Emotional Intelligent produce positive work attitudes and unselfish behaviours [4]. Likewise, Zhou et al. (2003) claimed that managers with high emotional intelligence can use emotion to promote cognitive processes, recognise primary issues, and ...
Article
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Construction industry faces problems and challenges everywhere. Nevertheless, these problems and obstacles are present in developing countries such as India against a general situation of socioeconomic stress, systemic resource shortages, structural failures, and a general inability to address key issues. For completion of project successfully it is necessity to concern various human quotient. Very few researchers had worked in this area, they consider only impact of emotional quotient. The review paper describes the impact of human quotient on the success of construction project and it shows that this quotient is very important for hiring on various post in organization. Hiring an employee based on various human quotient will increase project"s success.
... It has been shown that an authentic individual does not behave like a traditional leader when they are a leader and that they conduct this leadership function only on expressing themselves and does not compromise on transparency and honesty . The authentic leader also inspires employees with encouragement and enthusiasm using emotional experiences such as hope and optimism (Ilies et al., 2005;Zhou & George, 2003). This inspiration broadens employees' perspectives and increases the probability of taking creative and innovative actions (Fredrickson, 2001). ...
Article
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Keywords: Creative Behavior, Servant, Transformational and Authentic Leadership Leaders are expected to trigger and increase the creative behavior of their followers, and hence they need to adopt various leaderships together. This study focuses on the effect of the servant and transformational leadership on employee creative behavior and the moderating role of authentic leadership on these relationships. One thousand one hundred forty-six blue-and white-collar employees working in the western region of Turkey were selected by convenience sampling. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Process Macro by Hayes have been used to determine the effects and interactions among variables. Servant and transformational leadership were positively related to employee creative behavior, and that these effects increased if moderated by authentic leadership. Thus, authentic leadership strengthens the positive impact of servant and transformational leadership on employee creative behavior. It is predicted that leaders should be servants or transformational leaders to increase employee creative behavior in their organizations. It should be taken into account that if these leaders also exhibit authentic leadership, the effect of leadership on employee creative behavior will be even greater. A second leadership is also included in the relationship between leadership and employee creative behavior, which is generally examined through a single leadership type. The interaction of this second leadership with other leadership is also tested.
... In fact, perspective taking is a prerequisite for empathy, a key characteristic of high EI individuals (Salovey & Mayer, 1990). Third, the ability to regulate one's emotions and those of others help to maintain harmonious social relationships by preventing disputes from spiralling out of control and recognizing the potential flashpoints that could lead to conflict (Zhou & George, 2003). ...
Article
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Emotional intelligence (EI) is foundational to students’ success in the university. However, past studies on EI in the higher education context have mostly focused on how EI is related to academic achievement neglecting student engagement and other learning-related outcomes (e.g., generic outcomes). In this study, we examined whether and how individual differences in EI influence students’ learning, engagement, and achievement during their first year at university. An explanatory sequential mixed-methods design was used to garner both quantitative and qualitative insights. We recruited and followed up with 560 first-year students in Hong Kong. The quantitative findings revealed a strong EI gradient with more emotionally intelligent students having higher levels of learning, engagement, and achievement. Qualitative findings corroborated the quantitative results and further showed that emotionally intelligent students are goal-directed, assertive, and self-regulated. Taken together, this study sheds light on the importance of EI for the optimal functioning of first year university students. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
... Meanwhile, better-qualified candidates can be attracted by more substantial company support through an enhanced social image and reputation, thereby encouraging top management to innovate and adopt SCSR (Tong et al., 2018;Zhou and George, 2003). ...
Thesis
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The thesis explores the determinants of corporate social responsibility (CSR) adoption and its implications on company financial performance (CFP) and investment in China. In doing so, we aim to answer two primary research questions: (1) how a company’s dynamic capabilities—its ability to respond to the changing environment—can influence the company at incorporating CSR into its operations; and (2) how corporate social performance (CSP) is associated with a company’s financial accounting and investment performance. The study is divided into three empirical research papers as outlined below. The purpose of paper one is to investigate the determinants that influence a company to incorporate CSR into its operations, which is to adopt strategic CSR (SCSR). The paper primarily examines how a company’s dynamic capability can affect the adoption of SCSR. This study draws on the stakeholder, dynamic capability, and neo-institutional theories. Data were collected from 134 Chinese companies listed on the Shenzhen stock exchange (SZSE) and Shanghai stock exchange (SHSE) over the period 2017 to 2019 to examine the role of dynamic capability on SCSR adoption. The findings suggest that a higher level of dynamic capability than the average industrial level negatively affects SCSR adoption. The findings also reveal that dynamic capability, stakeholder pressures, and regional culture are important predictors of the adoption of SCSR. The empirical findings provide valuable insights into how CSR can affect company performance if used strategically. The use of dynamic capability theory in the study explains SCSR adoption from the perspectives of dynamic capabilities. The study partially supports DCT by focusing on the impacts of dynamic capability on SCSR adoption within companies operating in a developing country, China. Paper two aims to investigate how CSP relates to CFP across the company life cycle (CLC) stages, including the introduction, growth, maturity, and decline/shake-out stages. This paper also examines how the focus of CSP, in terms of stakeholder dimensions, shifts across the CLC stages. To examine the two research objectives, we used quantitative data collected from 1,628 large, listed Chinese pharmaceutical companies from 2010 to 2018. Drawing on the resource-based view (RBV), stakeholder theory and CLC theory, the study finds supporting evidence that CFP is improved with better CSP across the CLC stages. It also finds, on the basis of different stakeholder groups and across the CLC stages, that the effects of CSP are different. Investors, employees, suppliers, and the government are the most influential stakeholder groups influencing CFP. The study results suggest that CFP is directly linked to CSP and CLC and that the link is associated with stakeholder dimensions of CSR. Overall, the findings highlight the important role of CLC and CSP, which are often cited as important factors for enhancing CFP. This study provides valuable insights into the influence of CLC on CSP, which in turn may shed light on management practices to allocate resources and improve CFP. Paper three explores the association between CSP and company performance through capital market effects and the role of cash flow volatility (CFV). This paper uses investment–cash flow sensitivity (ICFS) to capture the capital market effects. Drawing on the RBV and stakeholder theory, the association between CSP and ICFS was tested in this paper. To investigate the research objective, this paper used quantitative data collected from 4,082 companies listed on the SZSE and SHSE in China over the period 2010 to 2020. The study finds that companies with better CSP tend to have a greater and significant ICFS in a developing economy such as China. It also finds that the positive association between CSR and ICFS is weaker for companies with a more volatile current CFV and stronger for companies with a more volatile expected CFV. This demonstrates that CFV partially mediates or moderates the relationship between CSP and ICFS. The role of CFV on the association between CSP and ICFS highlights the need for regular management attention and evaluation on the investments and performance in non-financial engagements. This management attention should also be paid when making decisions relating to resource allocation and investment policies. In addition, managers should consider the company's cash flow stability and uncertainty sides in the competitive market environment. These findings suggest that the emphasis on the role of CFV is important in evaluating the performance effect of CSR through the capital market’s response. This study contributes to the CSR, financial accounting and investment literature by responding to the call for research in ICFS in the context of developing countries in general and research on the role of CFV on CSP–ICFS association in particular.
... Besides, individual high self-efficacy serves better and has a high rate of successful performance (Walumbwa et al., 2011). In several organisational environments, the researcher fined the impact of self-efficacy on employee creativity (Gong et al., 2009;Zhou and George, 2003). According to Tu and Lu (2016), the leader plays a role model for subordinates and generates new ideas. ...
Article
The study’s purpose is to explore the relationship among empowering leadership (EL) and employee creativity through knowledge sharing and employee creative self-efficacy. A standard questionnaire is distributed among 352 employees and their leadership for data collection of the study. The study participants are taken from top management, including lower-level employees working in the telecommunication industry. We analyse data using the structural equation modelling technique. The results show that empowering leadership significantly affect employees’ creativity and creative self-efficacy mediates the relation between empowering leadership and employee creativity and knowledge sharing to strengthen empowering leadership and employee creativity relationships. Our findings explain that leadership has a strong role in employees’ creativity. Additionally, the implications of the study inform practitioners to investigate this phenomenon in other areas.
... The organisational behaviour literature contends that freedom over one's work facilitates creativity while control may hinder creative thought and output (Shalley et al., 2000;Speklé et al., 2017a, b;Zhou & George, 2003). However, PMSs, as an integral component of the MCS, possess the ability to influence employee behaviour (Burney et al., 2009;Sholihin & Pike, 2010) with the manner in which such performance measures are used (i.e. ...
Article
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This study examines the associations between top management’s interactive and diagnostic use of financial and non-financial performance measures with individual manager’s (i.e. middle and lower level managers) creativity, and the mediating role of middle and lower level manager’s perceived fairness of their performance appraisal on such associations. Using data from a survey of 220 middle and lower level managers from manufacturing organisations in Australia, the structural equation model revealed direct positive associations between both the diagnostic use of financial performance measures and the interactive use of non-financial performance measures with individual creativity. Further, the positive effect of the interactive use of financial performance measures on individual creativity is positively and fully mediated by distributive, interpersonal and informational fairness, while the positive effect of the interactive use of non-financial measures is positively and partially mediated by interpersonal and informational fairness. In addition, procedural fairness positively and partially mediates the effect of the diagnostic use of financial performance measures on individual creativity, and interpersonal fairness positively and fully mediates the effect of the diagnostic use of non-financial performance measures on individual creativity. The findings contribute to the performance measurement and appraisal literature examining the interactive and diagnostic use of both financial and non-financial performance measures and extends the sparse literature on the role of perceived fairness in explaining the behavioural effect of performance measurement systems. The findings also provide implications for practice, revealing the importance of the interactive and diagnostic use of financial and non-financial performance measures, and manager’s perception of the fairness of performance appraisal processes as a mechanism through which individual manager’s creativity can be enhanced.
... In jobs with low work control predictability, it is unclear how one has to handle ever different disturbances and problems. Attempts to create something new often fail to bear fruit, which may result in frustration and uncertainty (Zhou & George, 2003). Supervisors and coworkers may provide emotional support to deal with setbacks (Madjar et al., 2002). ...
Article
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In this study, we investigate how the level of work control predictability affects employee creativity. Specifically, we examine whether supervisor and coworker support moderate the predictability-creativity relationship. We use survey data from 128 employee–supervisor dyads from a governmental organization in Belgium. Multilevel analyses demonstrated a significant inverted U-curve relationship between predictability and leader-rated creativity, indicating that too little or too much work control predictability contributes less to employee creativity compared to moderate levels of work control predictability. Moreover, supervisor and coworker support moderate this relationship in such a way that for employees who receive low support the inverted U-curve relationship is significantly stronger compared to employees that receive high support. This is the first study that focuses on work control predictability in relation to creative performance.
... As such, innovation results from an intricate process of leadership and creativity in managing ideas, opportunities, processes, and tools to offer enhanced products and services (Subramaniam & Youndt, 2005). Furthermore, leadership behaviours can support creative efforts at a fundamental level by creating conditions conducive to enabling creative outcomes (Shalley & Gilson, 2004;Tierney & Farmer, 2004;Zhou & George, 2003). Complexity leadership theory broadens this perspective to posit leadership not only enables creative outcomes, but also is intertwined with the creative process itself. ...
... The fact that school principals do not communicate one-by-one and prefer to convey the tasks through meetings and correspondence weakness the power of communication between the teacher and the school principal and causes a decrease in motivation. Teamwork and collaboration suffer under conditions of a hostile environment, unrealistic expectations, poor communications, lack of skills training, and coercive rather than coactive control (Follett, 1924;Longenecker & Neubert, 2000;Rayner, 1996;Zhou & George, 2003;Gilley et al., 2009). Teachers have also stated that school principals' not using Turkish effectively and a judgmental style also can reduce their motivation. ...
Chapter
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In this study, the effect of verbal communication style of school administrators on the motivation of classroom teachers is investigated according to the views of classroom teachers. The effect of the verbal communication style of school administrators working in primary schools on the motivation of classroom teachers is discussed in terms of the opinions of and classroom teachers. In schools where communication is not adequately provided, teachers are faced with problems of not being able to adopt the place they are in, having adaptation problems, not being able to achieve their motivation level and low job satisfaction level. Motivation and job satisfaction in schools are closely related to the harmony of teacher-school principal communication. So, we try to determine that school principals working in primary school have had to cope with the inability of classroom teachers to be motivated as a result of not understanding the importance of verbal communication in providing the motivation of classroom teachers. In this context, we try to answer these questions: What is the effect of the verbal communication style of school principals who work in primary schools on the motivation of classroom teachers?
... With the rapid development of artificial intelligence and digital economy, innovation has become key to the sustainable development of organizations (Zhou and George, 2003). As the backbone of innovation productivity, employees' innovation performance is directly related to the development of organizations. ...
Article
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Based on the transaction theory of stress and the theory of resource conservation, which introduces knowledge acquisition and intrinsic motivation as mediating variables, a chain mediating model for the influence of challenge-hindrance stress on innovation performance is constructed. Data of 295 samples collected in three stages were used to testify hypothesis. The results confirmed a positive relationship between challenge stress and innovation performance, and a negative relationship between hindrance stress and innovation performance. Intrinsic motivation and knowledge acquisition play a parallel and chain mediating role in the relationship between challenge-hindrance stress and innovation performance. These findings contribute to a deeper understanding of how challenge -hindrance stress affects innovation performance and provide important practical guidance for improving innovation performance.
... Follower creativity may also be boosted when leaders are high in psychological capital, which refers to a combination of hope, resilience, optimism, and self-efficacy (Avey et al., 2012), or when leaders possess high emotional intelligence (Zhou & George, 2003). Affective leader constructs may also contribute to follower creativity, such as positive affect (Visser et al., 2013) and "affective presence," or the extent to which leaders are able to effectively transmit their own affective state to others (Madrid et al., 2016). ...
Chapter
Because leadership and creativity represent two of the most popular topics in the fields of management and organizational behavior, it should not be surprising that a large body of literature has emerged in which the two are jointly examined. Leadership is a commonly studied independent variable, whereas creativity is an outcome of paramount importance for organizations, and the two are also theoretically connected in several ways, suggesting that leadership could precipitate followers’ creative outcomes. This relationship pattern, called “creative leadership,” is the most common way leadership and creativity interact in the extant scholarship. Most of the existing work has focused on “facilitating” creative leadership, in which followers (but not leaders) generate creative outputs, often as a result of leadership behaviors and styles, relationships, or the characteristics of their leader. This work generally finds that positive leadership precipitates positive creative outcomes, although some findings have emerged suggesting that considerable nuance may exist in these relationships, a promising area for future research. Much less scholarship has examined how leaders might direct others to implement their own creative visions, or how leaders might integrate their own creative efforts with those of their followers to enhance overall creativity. Research on these forms of creative leadership is often limited to specific creativity-relevant industries, such the culinary field and the arts, but there is opportunity to examine how they might operate in more general organizational fields. Other phenomena linking leadership and creativity are plausible but less understood. For instance, leaders may assemble creative contexts, engage in unconventional behavior, or emerge as leaders regardless of their hierarchical positions. Least explored of all is the idea of an opposite causal order—that of creativity affecting leadership, such that creative acts or experiences by an organizational member might drive or alter leadership emerging from themselves, their managers, or their followers. After review of the extant literature in these areas, potential topics for future scholarship are identified within and among the different research streams.
... Broadly, the study of traits and individual differences includes personality, needs, motives, values, and temperament (Yukl & Gardner, 2020). Commonly studied traits include, but are not limited to, intelligence (Ghiselli, 1963), locus of control (Miller & Toulouse, 1986), emotional maturity (Zhou & George, 2003), narcissism, extraversion (Bono & Judge, 2004), and conscientiousness. Zaccaro (2007) summarizes the trait-based approach to leadership and discusses a number of key aspects of the trait-based approach. ...
Book
Abstract: The charismatic, ideological, and pragmatic (CIP) theory of leadership has emerged as a novel framework for thinking about the varying ways leaders can influence followers. The theory is based on the principle of equifinality or the notion that there are multiple pathways to the same outcome. Researchers of the CIP theory have proposed that leaders are effective by engaging in one, or a mix, of the three leader pathways: the charismatic approach focused on an emotionally evocative vision, an ideological approach focused on core beliefs and values, or a pragmatic approach focused on an appeal of rationality and problem-solving. Formation of pathways and unique follower responses are described. The more than fifteen years of empirical work investigating the theory are summarized, and the theory is compared and contrasted to other commonly studied and popular frameworks of leadership. Strengths, weaknesses, and avenues for future investigation of the CIP theory are discussed
Article
The link between shared leadership and employee creativity has been consistently labeled as positive in prior studies, discounting a possible negative relationship. A parallel mediation model was constructed to establish the favorable and unfavorable outcomes of shared leadership on employee creativity. The model is based on the job demands–resources model that originates from conservation of resource theory. Psychological safety and role stress play positive and negative mediating roles, respectively. The theoretical model was validated using data collected from 232 employees of 42 teams in China. Empirical results demonstrate (a) a positive association between shared leadership and employee creativity through psychological safety and (b) a negative one through role stress. These relationships have theoretical and practical implications.
Article
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Construction industries are very big in the India. After agriculture, construction industries and real estate is the largest sector and it will create 15 million jobs in 2022, according to Economic survey 2017-18. The sector employed over 40 million workforces in 2013 and in 2017 it reaches to 52 million. Construction projects are already complex project and with employee associated with the project make it more difficult to complete it successfully. Reason is that every individual is different mindset, different way of thinking and different human characteristics. For any project the main stakeholders are Project manager, Contractor, Owner and Site engineer. So that their performance decides the successful completion of any project. In this paper, various human quotient and their characteristics are shown. Based on the questionnaire date is collected related from project manager, owner, contractor and site engineer. According to analysis, most important human quotient is Emotional Quotient in Project manager, Spiritual Quotient in Developer and Contractor and Adversity Quotient in Engineer for successful completion of project.
Article
Creative performance (CP) has become an indispensable need for survival and competitiveness in today's business world. In response to this exigent situation, the current research is focused on investigating the role of employee attitudes, namely mindfulness and happiness, in their CP. This research also highlights the mediating role of creative processes engagement (CPE) between mindfulness, happiness, and CP pathways. CP comprises individual creativity (IC) and innovative work behaviors (IWB). The target population of the current study was manufacturing and service firms in Pakistan, and structural equation modeling was used to test the theoretical model and proposed hypotheses. The results indicated that mindfulness and happiness positively and significantly influence employee CP. Furthermore, mindfulness and happiness indicated a significant positive impact on IWB and IC. CPE partially mediated the relationships between mindfulness and CP and happiness and CP. The results propose imperative directives for the leadership of manufacturing and service organizations by suggesting different ways to promote CP among employees through their attitudes.
Article
Purpose Despite the current dynamism in the education sector that was manifested in new approaches to work that require innovative workforce, little empirical studies have been conducted on how to influence innovativeness in higher education institutions. Moreover, though studies have established a link between hope and innovative work behaviour, no study has established how hope and its two components of agency and pathways influence innovative work behaviour. The purpose of this study is to establish the influence of hope and its two components of agency and pathways on innovative work behaviour. Design/methodology/approach A quantitative cross-sectional research design was adopted in this study. The study employed hierarchical regression to test the hypothesised relationship between hope and its components of agency and pathways on innovative work behaviour using a sample drawn from public universities in Uganda in the two categories of academic and administrative staff. Findings The findings reveal that pathways and agency influence innovative work behaviour. The Findings also revealed that hope significantly influences innovative work behaviour over and above its individual components of agency and pathways. Research limitations/implications The study was cross-sectional in nature and the findings may not portray a true picture of the relationship between the study variables over time as behaviour is ever changing. Further studies could carry out a longitudinal study to establish the effect established in this study at different time intervals. The results provide a more complex understanding of how hope and its two components of agency and pathways enhance innovative work behaviour. Practical implications The findings of the study provide insightful direction to managers in public universities in Uganda to consider different avenues of increasing employee hope so as to enhance innovative work behaviour. This can be done through targeted interventions like involving employees in goal setting and setting alternative means to achieve goals. Originality/value The value of this study is both empirical and theoretical. Empirically, this study is the first to establish the influence of hope and its two components of agency and pathways on innovative work behaviour in Uganda’s university setting. Theoretically, the study extends veracity of the conservation of resources theory (COR) by clarifying those employees who possess the psychological characteristics of hope exhibit innovative work behaviour. The study also extends on the theory of hope by revealing that agency and pathways influence innovative work behaviour.
Article
Introduction How emotional intelligence interrelates with employee innovation becomes a timely and crucial topic for research, for human resource and organizational psychology practitioners and academicians alike. Objective The study examined the mediating effect of person-group fit and adaptive performance on employee innovation. A sequential mediation framework explaining the relationship between emotional intelligence and employee innovation was constructed. This study differentiates itself from other similar studies on emotional intelligence and employee innovation since it suggests a novel approach to enhance employee innovation. Methods Electronic as well as paper-based surveys were conducted to collect the data and the analysis of 417 responses revealed that the hypotheses were strongly supported by the data. Results We found that a sequential mediation effect exists between person-group fit and adaptive performance. The findings offer a significant contribution to the field of human resources, since prior research has examined neither the simple mediating effect nor the sequential mediating effect of person-group fit and adaptive performance between emotional intelligence and employee innovation. Conclusion The theoretical and practical implications of the findings were explored which have substantial value for human resources especially, for recruitment and training teams.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of ethical leadership and psychological capital on knowledge sharing and knowledge creation in organizations. It also investigates the mediating effect of psychological capital and moderating effect of shared goals in the relationship between ethical leadership and knowledge sharing and between ethical leadership and knowledge creation. Design/methodology/approach The study uses a quantitative research design wherein the survey questionnaire has been used to gather data from 700 respondents in public sector research organizations, information technology companies and central universities and colleges. Hypotheses of the study have been tested using structural equation modelling. Findings The findings unveil that ethical leadership and psychological capital have a positive impact on knowledge sharing and knowledge creation. Psychological capital mediates and shared goals moderates the relationships of ethical leadership with knowledge sharing and knowledge creation. Knowledge sharing mediates between ethical leadership and knowledge creation. Research limitations/implications The study exploits quantitative research methodology, which may be supplemented by other research methodologies by future researchers. Practical implications This study offers new insights into the sharing and creating of knowledge by employees under the influences of ethical leadership and psychological capital. It will encourage future researchers and practitioners to further explore these dimensions for a more detailed investigation and explanation at work place. This study suggests that organizational leaders should behave in an ethical manner and should emphasise on various organizational interventions to increase psychological capital and shared goals to strengthen knowledge sharing and knowledge creation. Originality/value This study is among early attempts for investigating the linkage of ethical leadership and psychological capital with knowledge sharing and knowledge creation.
Article
Although employee creativity has been identified to promote organizational competitiveness, its effect on leader empowering behaviors remains underexplored. This study investigated the underlying mechanism and boundary condition under which employee creativity influences leader empowering behaviors. Drawn on social exchange theory and similarity-attraction theory, this study developed a moderated-mediation model in which supervisor–subordinate guanxi serves as the intervening mechanism and supervisor–subordinate similarity serves as a boundary condition influencing this relationship. Using three-wave, time-lagged survey data collected from 309 supervisor–subordinate dyads, this study found that supervisor–subordinate guanxi mediates the relationship between employee creativity and leader empowering behaviors, and that this relationship is stronger when supervisor–subordinate similarity is high rather than low. Finally, theoretical and practical implications were discussed.
Article
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As two important aspects in creativity, creative performance and evaluation are influenced by many individual and contextual factors. One of such factors is feedback. Past research has also found that perspective taking increases creative performance and interpersonal creative evaluation. Although different forms of feedback, such as feedback valence, style, contents, have shown significant effects on creativity, feedback that incorporates perspective taking and its effect on creative performance and evaluations have not been examined in the literature. To fill these gaps, we examined how perspective-taking feedback affects creative performance and interpersonal and intrapersonal creative evaluations among participants who were friends in this study. We found that, compared with participants in the objective focus feedback group, those in the perspective-taking (PT) feedback group had a significantly smaller decrease of fluency between before and after experiment. Although no significant difference was found in interpersonal creative evaluation between two feedback conditions, participants in PT group had a significantly larger increase in intrapersonal creative evaluation between before and after experiment. Results and the implications were discussed under the context of creativity research.
Article
Drawing on the job demand-resource (JD-R) model, the current study constructs a dual-pathway approach which aims to reveal the mixed impact of AI awareness on service innovative behavior. Specifically, this paper argues that AI awareness will both increase employees' emotional exhaustion, inhibiting their service innovative behaviors (strain pathway) and stimulate employees' intrinsic motivation, promoting their service innovative behaviors (motivation pathway). Meanwhile, employees’ future orientation will buffer the strain pathway and strengthen the motivation pathway. Multisource data (n = 317) from China support the proposed theoretical framework. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Article
The current constantly volatile and dynamic work environment on the global scene requires education institutions as knowledge dissemination platforms to enhance staff creativity to thrive. But empirical studies about creativity in the service sector and, more particularly, in education settings are limited. And studies that seek to establish the link between hope and creativity have not considered how hope enhances the different behaviors that make up creative behavior, although scholars have revealed that creativity involves different activities. We used a sample drawn from the academic staff of three public Universities in Uganda located in Kampala city to establish how hope influences creative behavior. The research employed a cross-sectional study design to assess the hypothesized linkage between hope and creative behavior. The results establish that hope has a significant effect on the three dimensions of creativity. Regarding control variables, apart from Education which significantly influenced idea exploration, idea generation, and idea championing, age, gender and tenure did not significantly influence the three facets of creative behavior. The results build on the theory of hope by demonstrating the impact of hope on various aspects of creative behavior. The findings support the dual pathway to creativity model's arguments that individuals with high hope levels are cognitively flexible to work towards the achievement of creative targets and, when befallen by failure, can devise other solutions to tackle work-related challenges.
Article
In this paper, we use self-determination theory to examine the benefits of the use of paradoxical leader behaviour (PLB) by supervisors. We posit that PLB can initiate two complementary mechanisms: a top-down mechanism (perception of leaders' legitimate power) that may encourage employees to satisfy and exceed standard performance criteria, and a bottom-up mechanism (employee intrinsic motivation) that stimulates employees to be proactive. We argue that implementing these mechanisms simultaneously may interactively enhance employee creativity. Our study is based on field data collected from a sample of 392 employees and their supervisors. We find that PLB is positively related to employees’ perception of legitimate power and intrinsic motivation. Furthermore, power perception and intrinsic motivation are associated with standard performance and proactive behaviour, respectively, and these mechanisms jointly influence employee creativity. In demonstrating the efficacy of balancing extrinsic requirements and intrinsic motivation, our findings have significant theoretical and empirical implications for employee motivation.
Article
Purpose The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between psychological empowerment and employee creativity with the mediating role of creative process engagement and intrinsic motivation by testing the research model. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from in-depth interviews and surveys of 420 Vietnamese telecommunications enterprises employees. To test models and hypotheses, the collected data has been processed through Cronbach's alpha analysis, exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) using SPSS 22.0 and AMOS 24.0 tools. Findings The results confirm that psychological empowerment has a positive direct and indirect relationship through creative process engagement and intrinsic motivation with employee creativity. Research limitations/implications The main limitation of this paper is that a full study of the impact of leadership style on psychological empowerment and psychological empowerment to employee creativity should be conducted in the future at Vietnamese telecommunications enterprises. Practical implications Telecommunications enterprises managers who want to stimulate employee creativity need to pay attention to empowering workers and creating conditions for them to participate in the creative process when doing work. Originality/value The main contribution of this research is to apply theories of psychological empowerment, self-determination and composition theory of creativity to understand the relationship between psychological empowerment, creative process engagement, intrinsic motivation and employee creativity of telecommunications enterprises employees in the context of a developing country in Asia.
Article
Purpose Although a burgeoning body of literature has established the influence of hope and employee creativity, the debate on the relative importance of hope and its components of pathway and agency on its outcomes has not been clarified. Literature has it that hope and its individual components of pathway and agency have a varying magnitude of influence on its outcomes. Some scholars argue that agency and pathway components better predict its outcomes than overall hope. The current study establishes the relative importance of hope and its components on creativity using evidence from Makerere University, Uganda. Design/methodology/approach The study adopted a cross-sectional quantitative survey design to collect data from the academic staff of Makerere University. The study used usefulness analysis to establish the relative importance of the predictor variables on the dependent variable. Findings The study findings revealed that agency and hope components of hope significantly predicted creativity. Overall, hope also significantly predicted creativity. Regarding relative importance, hope turned out to be the most “useful” predictor of creativity, followed by its components of agency and pathway. Research limitations/implications The study was conducted in a public university setting located in urban areas. The findings may not be generalizable to private settings due to variations in the teacher's creative behaviour with variation in the creative environment. The study was also cross-sectional, which may not yield results of changing employee creativity over time. Further studies should establish the link between hope and creativity using a longitudinal survey to compare employee creativity using data collected at different intervals. Originality/value The value of the current study is both theoretical and empirical. Theoretically, the study findings enrich the hope theory by revealing the relative importance of hope on its outcomes over and above its components. The study also confirms the assertions of the dual pathway to creativity model by revealing that employees who are rich in hope components of agency and pathway have the cognitive flexibility to pursue creative goals and, when faced with failure, can generate alternative solutions to solve work problems.
Conference Paper
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APSTRAKT U poslednje vreme, kao što je poznato, sve se više vrši analiza efikasnosti trgovinskih preduzeća na bazi višekriterijumskog odlučivanja. Imajući to u vidu, u ovom radu se analizira efikasnost trgovine u Srbiji na bazi MAIRCA metode. U kontekstu toga predložene su adekvatne mere za unapređenje efikasnosti trgovine u Srbiji u budućnosti. Dobijeni rezultati empirijskog istraživanja primenom date metode pokazuju da se u poslednje vreme znatno poboljšala efikasnost trgovine u Srbiji. Najbolja je bila u 2019. Na to su pozitivno uticali brojni makro i mikro faktori. Ključne reči: efikasnost, trgovina Srbije, determinante, MAIRCA metoda. ABSTRACT Recently, as it is known, the analysis of the efficiency of trade companies on the basis of multi-criteria decision-making is being performed more and more. With this in mind, this paper analyzes the efficiency of trade in Serbia based on the MAIRCA method. In this context, adequate measures have been proposed to improve the efficiency of trade in Serbia in the future. The obtained results of empirical research using the given method show that the efficiency of trade in Serbia has significantly improved recently. The best was in 2019. It was positively influenced by numerous macro and micro factors. Key words: efficiency, Serbian trade, determinants, MAIRCA method
Article
Purpose There is no innovation without ideas. More than ever before, these ideas are increasingly difficult to express in a changing environment ripe with emotions. Today's organizations need to understand why their employees may or may not develop, voice and implement innovative ideas in the face of this emotional tension. Current literature focuses on external factors that empower employees to innovate. This research attempts to shift the focus to the individual by investigating the relationship between emotional intelligence, openness to experience and innovation voicing behavior. Design/methodology/approach This study employs a quantitative survey among 288 US-based workers to test a mediated model of emotional intelligence, openness to experience and innovation-focused promotive voice. The authors assessed both the measurement and structural models through partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM), while controlling for a range of variables with the potential to confound construct measurements. Findings The findings validated the positive effect of emotional intelligence on openness to experience, while also finding a significant impact of openness to experience on innovation-focused promotive voice. More importantly, evidence suggests that openness to experience mediates the relationship between emotional intelligence and innovation focused promotive voice. Originality/value These findings shed new light on why employees might start the innovation process by developing and, ultimately, voicing innovative ideas. Further, this new insight focuses on the impact of intrapersonal factors as it relates to innovation and attempts to fill a gap in what is known about innovative behavior.
Article
Purpose This paper aims to examine the drivers of employee creativity and organizational innovation empirically. And to study how employee creativity significantly impacts organizational innovation in a highly competitive market. Design/methodology/approach This study is grounded in positivism philosophy. The theoretical model is grounded in the dynamic capability view (DCV) and further developed ten hypotheses and sub-hypotheses. To test our research hypotheses the authors utilized psychometric-based instruments. The authors obtained 575 responses from the automobile industry in India after multiple follow-ups. The data were utilized to check the construct validity and tested the authors’ research hypotheses using the co-variance-based structural equation modeling (SEM) tool (IBM SPSS AMOS 20.0). Findings The results support the authors’ research hypotheses. The findings of this study conform to the previous findings of the scholars which is an important aspect of the study. In the past various scholars have made an attempt to reproduce the results in different contexts. In a way, it helps to build confidence in the scientific merit of the results. It may be considered as an incremental contribution to the literature but it helps establish confidence in the theory of creativity and innovation. Practical implications The results offer a nuanced understanding to the practitioners and policy makers to understand “what” and “how” to improve employee creativity that plays a significant role in organizational innovation. Originality/value This study is an attempt to examine how the theory of creativity and innovation can be embraced by the Indian automobile industry.
Article
In contrast to the enormous literature on the relationships between creativity and personal values, relatively few studies have addressed the question of the creativity–service quality link. The purpose of this study is to examine the antecedent factors of the motivation and cooperation climate of service quality and to consider the consequences of service quality on banking service employees’ creativity. Data were collected from 502 bank employees in China. The results of structural equation modelling (SEM) found multiple mediation roles in a cooperative climate and service quality management that characterise the relationship between employees’ motivation and creativity. In addition, the moderate roles of social interaction and knowledge sharing are also discovered. Several alternative models of the first and second factors of motivation and service quality management were examined to determine the robustness of the original proposed models.
Thesis
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It discussed about the emotions of people working in hospitality and Healthcare industry. It signifies the importance of emotional intelligence.
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The present study sought to ascertain whether ability to decode nonverbal messages can be legitimately viewed as a part of a generalized construct of “social intelligence.” Fifty-two townspeople viewed two sets of 70 black-and-white photographs. For one set of photos, subjects had to judge whether or not a mixed-sex couple shown in each photo represented a couple in a genuine relationship (as opposed to a pair of strangers posing just for the experiment). For the other set of photos, subjects had to judge which of two individuals (same- or mixed-sex) was the other's supervisor. Models of stimulus variation (used to assess internal validity) provided quite good accounts of the cues used in making these judgments and of the weights assigned to the cues. Subject variation on the tasks (used to assess external validity) was unrelated to any but one of the external measures (a cognitive one), however, and performances on the two kinds of judgments were uncorrelated. Thus, internal validation procedures succeeded, but external validation procedures did not. It was concluded from these (and other) data that claims that the measurement of decoding skills assesses an aspect of social intelligence may be at best premature, and at worst incorrect.
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A theoretical framework for understanding creativity in a complex social setting, such as an organization, is developed. Organizational creativity is defined as the creation of a valuable, useful new product, service, idea, procedure, or process by individuals working together in a complex social system. The starting point for the theoretical development is provided by the interactionist model of creative behavior developed by Woodman and Schoenfeldt (1989). This model and supporting literature on creative behavior and organizational innovation are used to develop an interactional framework for organizational creativity. The theoretical framework is summarized by 3 propositions that can effectively guide the development of testable hypotheses.
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Outlines current theory and research on the dyadic approach to understanding how the behavior of individuals becomes teamwork for accomplishing unstructured tasks (dyadic organizing). Major points include the following: (1) Dyadic organizing processes are contingent on the nature of the tasks to be organized. (2) Even within organizational units, various dyadic structures are organized to accomplish unstructured tasks, and supporting dyadic understandings emerge during the role-making and role-routinization processes. (3) Variations in the quality of dyadic structures within units have implications for both organizational and career outcomes. (4) Research is needed to determine the effects of various organizational systems on dyadic organizing and vice versa. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study adopted an interactional approach to understanding how 2 of the Five-Factor traits, openness to experience and conscientiousness, are related to creative behavior in the workplace. Openness to experience is theorized to result in high levels of creative behavior and conscientiousness is theorized to result in low levels of creative behavior when the situation allows for the manifestation of the trait influences. More specifically, the authors hypothesized that openness to experience would result in high levels of creative behavior if feedback valence were positive and job holders were presented with a heuristic task that allowed them to be creative. The authors also hypothesized that conscientiousness would result in low levels of creative behavior if supervisors engaged in close monitoring and coworkers were unsupportive. The authors tested their hypotheses in a sample of office workers, and 5 out of the 6 hypotheses were supported.
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Using a mood-as-input model, the authors identified conditions under which negative moods are positively related, and positive moods are negatively related, to creative performance. Among a sample of workers in an organizational unit charged with developing creative designs and manufacturing techniques, the authors hypothesized and found that negative moods were positively related to creative performance when perceived recognition and rewards for creative performance and clarity of feelings (a metamood process) were high. The authors also hypothesized and found that positive moods were negatively related to creative performance when perceived recognition and rewards for creativity and clarity of feelings were high.
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A three-factor (3 × 3 × 2), between-subjects design was used to investigate effects of productivity goals (difficult, do your best, or no goals), creativity goals (difficult, do your best, or no goals), and personal discretion (high or low) on two dependent variables: creativity and productivity. High levels of creativity and productivity were obtained when either a do-your-best creativity goal and difficult productivity goal or a difficult creativity goal and difficult productivity goal were assigned, suggesting that two different types of goals can be assigned without reducing performance on either dimension. Creativity was lowest in three conditions: (a) difficult productivity goal and no creativity goal, (b) do-your-best productivity goal and no creativity goal, and (c) no creativity goal and low personal discretion. These results indicate that when individuals are given a productivity goal or low personal discretion and no creativity goal, creativity decreases. Implications are discussed.
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The role of social and situational influences in the performance-rating process has received relatively little research attention yet merits increased attention. Although there has been acknowledgment of the role of social and situational factors in shaping rater cognition and evaluation, research has typically proceeded in a piecemeal fashion, isolating a single variable at a time. Such an approach fails to recognize that performance rating is a process with multiple social and situational facets that need to be considered simultaneously. In the present study, we tested a model of the performance-rating process, employing several social and situational variables that have been infrequently investigated and typically not in conjunction with one another. Results indicated support for the overall model and specific links within it. Implications of the results for performance-rating research are discussed. There is perhaps not a more important human resources system in organizations than performance evaluation. Supervisors' ratings of subordinates' performance represent critical decisions that are key influences on a variety of subsequent human resources actions and outcomes. Indeed, this pivotal role of performance evaluation has promoted systematic efforts to develop a more informed understanding of the performance-rating process. Landy and Farr (1980) issued a call for research investigating the cognitive processes underlying performance appraisal decisions. Although the process focus has generated considerable research concerning various components of performance-rating decisions, more comprehensive investigations incorporating several of those components has been lacking. Furthermore, process-oriented research has been limited by its reliance on laboratory studies (DeNisi & Williams, 1988). Whereas the cognitive processes involved in performance-rating decisions can be well illuminated in laboratory studies, the "quiet" nature of laboratory studies often does not match the "noisy" context in which performance-rating decisions are actually embedded (Lord & Maher, 1989).
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In this article we develop a theoretical framework for understanding creativity in complex social settings. We define organizational creativity as the creation of a valuable, useful new product, service, idea, procedure, or process by individuals working together in a complex social system. The starting point for our theoretical development is provided by the interactionist model of creative behavior developed by Woodman and Schoenfeldt (1989). This model and supporting literature on creative behavior and organizational innovation are used to develop an interactional framework for organizational creativity. The theoretical framework is summarized by three propositions that can effectively guide the development of testable hypotheses.
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The creative process, one of the key topics discussed in Guilford's (1950) address to the American Psychological Association and his subsequent work, refers to the sequence of thoughts and actions that leads to novel, adaptive productions. This article examines conceptions of the creative process that have been advocated during the past century. In particular, stage-based models of the creative process are discussed and the evolution of these models is traced. Empirical research suggests that the basic 4-stage model of the creative process may need to be revised or replaced. Several key questions about the creative process are raised, such as how the creative process differs from the noncreative process and how process-related differences may lead to different levels of creative performance. New directions for future research are identified.
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This study focused on the conditions under which job dissatisfaction will lead to creativity as an expression of voice. We theorized that useful feedback from coworkers, coworker helping and support, and perceived organizational support for creativity would each interact with job dissatisfaction and continuance commitment (commitment motivated by necessity) to result in creativity. In a sample of 149 employees, as hypothesized, employees with high job dissatisfaction exhibited the highest creativity when continuance commitment was high and when (1) useful feedback from coworkers, or (2) coworker helping and support, or (3) perceived organizational support for creativity was high.
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This book explores corporate purpose—a company’s expressed overriding reason for existing—and its effect upon strategy, executive leadership, employees, and, ultimately, on competitive performance. Sharply challenging the conventional wisdom that corporations should be dedicated to shareholder wealth creation, the author presents a compelling argument that the path to competitive advantage and outstanding long-term financial performance lies instead in a customer-focused corporate purpose. The book is in four parts. Part I shows how corporate purpose exerts a powerful effect on strategy, management, and the meaning employees derive from their work. A customer-focused purpose harmonizes these critical factors and enables leaders to push strategic thinking deeper into the organization and at the same time to grant employees a greater degree of autonomy. In contrast, a goal of maximizing shareholder wealth sows the seeds of conflict among the market-oriented purpose, product-focused strategies, and the individual values of employees. Part II critiques the logic of “value-based management” and the relationship of the firm to the equity markets. It explores the validity of extending traditional concepts of property rights to share ownership, concluding that the separation of stock ownership from the responsibility for, and managerial control over, corporate actions makes traditional property rights arguments inapplicable to the underlying assets of a corporation. Part III examines the functioning of corporate purpose in a global economy. When a firm operates globally, purpose needs to retain its motivational power across national boundaries, which a shareholder-focused purpose does not do. Part IV explores the implications of corporate purpose for leaders, arguing that infusing an organization with a worthy purpose is an essential responsibility of leadership. Purpose is the foundation for the shared values that define organizational character, raise moral aspirations, and enhance performance. Drawing upon a wide range of thought from the world of business as well as from historical studies, cultural anthropology, philosophy, theology, and psychology, Leading with Purpose is sure to be an essential text as businesses move into the twenty-first century.
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Describes experiments in which happy or sad moods were induced in Ss by hypnotic suggestion to investigate the influence of emotions on memory and thinking. Results show that (a) Ss exhibited mood-state-dependent memory in recall of word lists, personal experiences recorded in a daily diary, and childhood experiences; (b) Ss recalled a greater percentage of those experiences that were affectively congruent with the mood they were in during recall; (c) emotion powerfully influenced such cognitive processes as free associations, imaginative fantasies, social perceptions, and snap judgments about others' personalities; (d) when the feeling-tone of a narrative agreed with the reader's emotion, the salience and memorability of events in that narrative were increased. An associative network theory is proposed to account for these results. In this theory, an emotion serves as a memory unit that can enter into associations with coincident events. Activation of this emotion unit aids retrieval of events associated with it; it also primes emotional themata for use in free association, fantasies, and perceptual categorization. (54 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In recent years, innovative schools have developed courses in what has been termed emotional literacy, emotional intelligence, or emotional competence. This volume evaluates these developments scientifically, pairing the perspectives of psychologists with those of educators who offer valuable commentary on the latest research. It is an authoritative study that describes the scientific basis for our knowledge about emotion as it relates specifically to children, the classroom environment, and emotional literacy. Key topics include: historical perspectives on emotional intelligence neurological bases for emotional development the development of social skills and childhood socialization of emotion. Experts in psychology and education have long viewed thinking and feeling as polar opposites reason on the one hand, and passion on the other. And emotion, often labeled as chaotic, haphazard, and immature, has not traditionally been seen as assisting reason. All that changed in 1990, when Peter Salovey and John D. Mayer coined the term emotional intelligence as a challenge to the belief that intelligence is not based on processing emotion-laden information. Salovey and Mayer defined emotional intelligence as the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use motivated scientists, educators, parents, and many others to consider the ways in which emotions themselves comprise an intelligent system. With this groundbreaking volume, invited contributors present cutting-edge research on emotions and emotional development in a manner useful to educators, psychologists, and anyone interested in the unfolding of emotions during childhood. In recent years, innovative schools have developed courses in “emotional literacy” that making; these classes teach children how to understand and manage their feelings and how to get along with one another. Many such programs have achieved national prominence, and preliminary scientific evaluations have shown promising results. Until recently, however, there has been little contact between educators developing these types of programs and psychologists studying the neurological underpinnings and development of human emotions. This unique book links theory and practice by juxtaposing scientific explanations of emotion with short commentaries from educators who elaborate on how these advances can be put to use in the classroom. Accessible and enlightening, Emotional Development and Emotional Intelligence provides ample evidence about emotional intelligence as well as sound information on the potential efficacy of educational programs based on this idea.
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This article presents a framework for emotional intelligence, a set of skills hypothesized to contribute to the accurate appraisal and expression of emotion in oneself and in others, the effective regulation of emotion in self and others, and the use of feelings to motivate, plan, and achieve in one's life. We start by reviewing the debate about the adaptive versus maladaptive qualities of emotion. We then explore the literature on intelligence, and especially social intelligence, to examine the place of emotion in traditional intelligence conceptions. A framework for integrating the research on emotion-related skills is then described. Next, we review the components of emotional intelligence. To conclude the review, the role of emotional intelligence in mental health is discussed and avenues for further investigation are suggested.
Article
This study examined the independent and joint effects of expected developmental assessment strategies (self-administered, other-administered, and no assessment) and creative personality on individuals' creative performance. Data were collected from 68 participants who performed a role-playing task in a laboratory setting. Results showed that individuals exhibited the highest creative performance when they expected a self-administered assessment (i.e., an opportunity to assess their own work in order to develop their creativity-relevant skills) and had creative personalities.
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It is argued that emotions are lawful phenomena and thus can be described in terms of a set of laws of emotion. These laws result from the operation of emotion mechanisms that are accessible to intentional control to only a limited extent. The law of situational meaning, the law of concern, the law of reality, the laws of change, habituation and comparative feeling, and the law of hedonic asymmetry are proposed to describe emotion elicitation; the law of conservation of emotional momentum formulates emotion persistence; the law of closure expresses the modularity of emotion; and the laws of care for consequence, of lightest load, and of greatest gain pertain to emotion regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Emotional intelligence is a type of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one's own and others' emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use the information to guide one's thinking and actions (Salovey & Mayer, 1990). We discuss (a) whether intelligence is an appropriate metaphor for the construct, and (b) the abilities and mechanisms that may underlie emotional intelligence. © 1993.
Article
Although a number of factors condition the success of creative efforts, most investigators recognize the fundamental importance of novel problem solutions. As a result, a number of systems intending to describe the processes contributing to the generation of innovative problem solutions have been proposed. In the present article, earlier models describing the processes contributing to creative problem solutions are reviewed. The common themes appearing in these models are then considered in relation to the use of extant information structures. Certain implications of cognitive information processing for understanding the nature and ontogeny of the creative act are then discussed, along with their potential contributions to the identification and development of creative potential.
Article
Many students of creativity have argued that certain cognitive processing skills are required for successful performance on the kind of complex, novel problems confronting creative people. In this study, a measure was developed to assess problem construction skills. This measure, based on a model of the problem construction process proposed by Mumford, Reiter-Palmon, and Redmond (1994), presented multiple alternative problem definitions that varied with respect to content, quality, and originality. When scores on this measure were related to performance on a series of creative problem-solving tasks, multiple correlations in the mid 30s were obtained. Further, it was found that the tendency to define problems using high-quality procedures and restrictions added to the variance explained by the standard measures of ability and divergent thinking skills. The implications of these findings for assessing processing skills are discussed as well as their implications for understanding the problem construction process.
Article
Available evidence indicates that the combination and reorganization of extant knowledge structures plays an important role in the generation of new ideas. This study was intended to test a model of the operations held to influence application of the combination-and-reorganization process. Accordingly, 155 undergraduates were asked to solve 12 category combination problems. The instructions given to subjects were manipulated to influence application of three operations held to influence the originality of category combinations: feature identification feature mapping, and feature elaboration. The relatedness of the categories presented was also manipulated. We found that solution quality was consistently influenced by category interrelatedness and, under conditions restricting the pool of available relations, category elaboration. Feature identification and feature mapping were found to influence solution originality but not solution quality. The implications of these findings for understanding creative problem solving and the combination-and-reorganization process are discussed.
Article
This paper suggests that feelings (moods and emotions) play a central role in the leadership process. More specifically, it is proposed that emotional intelligence, the ability to understand and manage moods and emotions in the self and others, contributes to effective leadership in organizations. Four major aspects of emotional intelligence, the appraisal and expression of emotion, the use of emotion to enhance cognitive processes and decision making, knowledge about emotions, and management of emotions, are described. Then, I propose how emotional intelligence contributes to effective leadership by focusing on five essential elements of leader effectiveness: development of collective goals and objectives; instilling in others an appreciation of the importance of work activities; generating and maintaining enthusiasm, confidence, optimism, cooperation, and trust; encouraging flexibility in decision making and change; and establishing and maintaining a meaningful identity for an organization.
The examination of contextual factors that enhance or stifle employees’ creative performance is a new but rapidly growing research area. Theory and research in this area have focused on antecedents of employee creativity. In this paper, we review and discuss the major theoretical frameworks that have served as conceptual foundations for empirical studies. We then provide a review and critical appraisal of these empirical studies. Based on this review, we propose exciting possibilities for future research directions. Finally, we discuss implications of this body of work for human resource management.
Article
The present study integrated a number of streams of research on the antecedents of innovation to develop and test a model of individual innovative behavior. Hypothesizing that leadership, individual problem-solving style, and work group relations affect innovative behavior directly and indirectly through their influence on perceptions of the climate for innovation, we used structural equation analysis to test the parameters of the proposed model simultaneously and also explored the moderating effect of task characteristics. The model explained approximately 37 percent of the variance in innovative behavior. Task type moderated the relationship between leader role expectations and innovative behavior.
Article
This study examined the independent and joint contributions of employees' creativity-relevant personal characteristics and three characteristics of the organizational context - job complexity, supportive supervision, and controlling supervision - to three indicators of employees' creative performance: patent disclosures written, contributions to an organization suggestion program, and supervisory ratings of creativity. Participants (171 employees from two manufacturing facilities) produced the most creative work when they had appropriate creativity-relevant characteristics, worked on complex, challenging jobs, and were supervised in a supportive, noncontrolling fashion.
Article
In this article we explore assumptions about the levels of analysis embedded in the extant literature on creativity in organizations. Uncovering and then relaxing these assumptions allow us to extend the literature with an alternative but complementary model of how creativity unfolds in complex, large-scale, and long-duration organizational projects. We build on the paradigm of sensemaking and propose a multilevel model of creativity that, as its defining feature, examines how periodic organizational crises reframe the negotiated order of belief structures about creativity.
Article
We describe the development and validation of a new instrument, KEYS: Assessing the Climate for Creativity, designed to assess perceived stimulants and obstacles to creativity in organizational work environments. The KEYS scales have acceptable factor structures, internal consistencies, test-retest reliabilities, and preliminary convergent and discriminant validity. A construct validity study shows that perceived work environments, as assessed by the KEYS scales, discriminate between high-creativity projects and low-creativity projects; certain scales discriminate more strongly and consistently than others. We discuss the utility of this tool for research and practice.
Article
Two positions concerning positive mood and its relation to creative problem solving have been taken. The general position (GP) postulates that there is a consistent positive relation between positive mood and creative problem solving. The qualified position (QP) states that the relation is a contingent one. This study explores one possible limitation to the GP, by testing Weisberg's (1994) suggestion that positive mood facilitates productivity but not quality of ideas. Self-reported mood was measured by positive, negative, and arousal scales. Divergent thinking tasks scored for fluency, flexibility, originality, and usefulness were used as criterion variables. A perfect, theoretically predicted rank order between positive mood and degree of solution constraint measured by the divergent thinking indices emerged. Positive mood was significantly related to an idea quantity factor but not to an idea quality factor. Although this evidence is not conclusive, it supports the QP and indicates that the GP should be modified to include task type and degree of solution constraint.
Addresses criticisms of the authors' previous linking of emotion and intelligence by explaining that many intellectual problems contain emotional information that must be processed. Using P. Salovey and J. D. Mayer's (1990) definition of emotional intelligence as a type of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one's own and others' emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use the information to guide one's thinking, it is argued that intelligence is an appropriate metaphor for the construct. The abilities and mechanisms that underlie emotional intelligence are described. These mechanisms are (1) emotionality itself, (2) facilitation and inhibition of emotional information flow, and (3) specialized neural mechanisms. Emotionality contributes to specific abilities, and emotional management influences information channels and problem solving. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
nature of creativity / intercorrelational relations among creativity, intelligence, and wisdom / use of implicit creativity in evaluation of the creativity of others / differences among laypersons and various experts in their conceptions of creativity intellectual facet of creativity / the relation of intelligence to the internal world / metacomponents / knowledge-acquisition components / relation of intelligence to experience / relation of intelligence to the external world intellectual styles / functions of government / forms of mental self-government / levels of mental self-government / scope of mental self-government / learning of mental self-government personality / tolerance of ambiguity / willingness to surmount obstacles / willingness to grow / intrinsic motivation / moderate risk-taking / willingness to work for recognition integration (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Tested the possibility that liking may influence rating accuracy by operating as an integral dimension in 66 undergraduate raters. Ss evaluated vignettes of 4 professors; liking was manipulated with 40 trait terms (e.g., amusing, greedy, bashful) that engendered different liking levels, but had little implication for professor performance. Results indicate a significant effect on rating accuracy, suggesting that liking is an integral dimension that is difficult to separate from performance dimensions. Results support the potential importance of affect in appraisal. (40 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A group of 13 artists and 14 non-artists was given the task to paint an illustration for a poem which would be suitable for publication. The experiment was strictly controlled with set limits of laboratory sessions. The authors felt this experiment made two contributions to the existing concept of artistic creation: (1) an analysis of the differences of activity between artists and non-artists; and (2) the formulation of creative thought as one whole process of all the various aspects participating concurrently instead of the four distinct "stages" (preparation, incubation, illumination, verification). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The process of creative thought in sketching pictures was studied by having artists sketch pictures while expressing their thoughts aloud, and by having them answer questions concerning their usual practices. 50 professional artists and 50 unpracticed sketchers served as subjects. The reports revealed the same four stages of creative thought, namely, preparation, incubation, illumination, and verification, already revealed in a study of poetic creation. The course of thought is similar as between artists and non-artists. Non-artists draw more objects and more different kinds of objects than do artists. Artists spend approximately the same time as poets on unorganized and organized thought. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)