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The determination of flavonoid contents in Mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals

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The determination of flavonoid contents in Mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals

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Flavonoid content of mulberry leaves of 19 varieties of species, determined spectrophotometrically in terms of rutin equivalent, varied from 11.7 to 26.6 mg g−1 in spring leaves and 9.84 to 29.6 mg g−1 in autumn leaves. Fresh leaves gave more extract than air-dried or oven-dried ones. HPLC showed that mulberry leaves contain at least four flavonoids, two of which are rutin and quercetin. The percentage superoxide ion scavenged by extracts of mulberry leaves, mulberry tender leaves, mulberry branches and mulberry bark were 46.5, 55.5, 67.5 and 85·5%, respectively, at a concentration of 5 μg ml−1. The scavenging effects of most mulberry extracts were greater than those of rutin (52.0%).

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... Flavonoids were quantified using the method adopted by Zhishen et al. [28]. The method involved mixing 500 μL of the extract with 1500 μL of distilled water. ...
... Flavonoids were quantified using the method adopted by Zhishen et al. [28]. The method involved mixing 500 µL of the extract with 1500 µL of distilled water. ...
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Eucalyptus extract-based pharmaceutical products are widely used because of their medicinal properties and their rich content of secondary metabolites, mainly phenolic compounds. This study aimed to maximise the extraction yield of these compounds and reduce the extraction duration by using a pulsed electric field (PEF) level of 6 kV/cm. The pulse width (T), number of pulses (n), and solvent concentration [C] were analysed. Several ethanolic extracts were obtained from the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus, and the content of total phenols, total flavonoids, and condensed tannins was measured through spectrophotometry. The results, obtained immediately after PEF treatment, revealed that for optimal values of the analysed factors, the total phenol content doubled and the flavonoid content increased significantly. However, PEF pre-treatment had no effect on the tannin yield. Moreover, optimisation was performed using the design of experiments methodology for identifying optimal values of the analysed factors.
... According to the detailed methods of Gurupavithra and Jayachitra [33], the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent procedure was used to determine the total phenolic content. As provided by Zhishen, et al. [34], the aluminum chloride colorimetric procedure was used to quantify flavonoids. Salkowski reagent, as proposed by Zhishen, Mengcheng, and Jianming [34], determined a quantitative estimate of IAA. ...
... As provided by Zhishen, et al. [34], the aluminum chloride colorimetric procedure was used to quantify flavonoids. Salkowski reagent, as proposed by Zhishen, Mengcheng, and Jianming [34], determined a quantitative estimate of IAA. At 540 nm, UV absorbance was checked using a UV spectrophotometer. ...
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Fungal endophytes are not widely known for their role in bioactive metabolite production and salinity stress alleviation in different crop plants. Presently, we investigated the salt stress (NaCl, KCl, and H2SO4) mitigation capabilities of fungal endophyte Candida membranifaciens (FH15) isolated from Euphorbia milii L. The pure culture filtrate (CF) of C. membranifaciens revealed siderophore production and solubilization of phosphate, with high levels of indoleacetic acid (IAA: 35.8µg/mL), phenolics (70 µg/mL), and flavonoids (50 µg/mL) by using a UV spectrophotometer. The LC/MS analysis of the CF showed different phenols and flavonoids that were identified as Salicylic acid, Baicalein, Aconitic acid, Feruloylquinic acid, Coniferyl aldehyde hexoside, Pentose, Chlorogenic acid, Myricetin, Propoxyphene, and Amino-flunitrazepam. Inoculation of maize seedlings with C. membranifaciens significantly (p = 0.05) enhanced the fresh and dry biomass, carotenoid, and chlorophyll contents under 100 mM salt stress conditions. Similarly, the catalase, peroxidase activity, phenols, proline flavonoids and relative water contents (RWC) of the maize plants were enhanced. More interestingly, the inoculation of C. membranifaciens on maize revealed a higher endogenous IAA level as compared to non-inoculated control plants. Endophyte C. membranifaciens inoculation on maize seedlings under salt stress revealed a 20.87% and 16.60% increase in fresh and dry biomass, as well as significantly enhanced root shoot length and allied growth attributes, in addition to an alleviation of the adverse effects of salinity stress. Conclusively, endophytic C. membranifaciens significantly enhanced the growth attributes of maize and mitigated the adverse effects of salinity stress. Such endophytic fungal strain could be used for further field trails to enhance agricultural productivity and facilitate sustainable agricultural practices.
... Determination of flavonoid content followed the well-established method of Zhishen et al. (1999). The flavonoid in the samples showed a yellow complex formulation with AlCl 3 solution. ...
... Finally, 1 mL NaOH 1 M in 0.55 mL distilled water was added. The absorbance of the solution was determined at 510 nm [33]. ...
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, which affects multiple tissues including kidneys. Soursop leaves (Annona muricata) are known to have antidiabetic potential, but their molecular and cellular effects are poorly characterized. We identified the bioactive compounds in soursop leaf ethanol extract (SLEE). The SLEE substances demonstrated the total alkaloid and total flavonoid contents. Twelve bioactive compounds profiles were identified in SLEE classified as alkaloid, flavonol glycoside, and monoterpenoid lactone derivatives. The SLEE treatments in mice were performed by dividing Swiss Webster mice into five groups, including negative and positive controls and three experimental groups provided with SLEE (doses 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg BW) for 14 days. The mice in the experimental groups were treated with alloxan to induce diabetes. The renal samples were stained for H&E for morphological changes. However, 600 mg/kg of SLEE showed a significant effect (p < 0.05) on the height of the Bowman’s space and prevented the tubularization of the left kidney’s glomerulus (p < 0.05). Altogether, we report no significant difference in the glomerular diameter, the thickness of the proximal convoluted tubules, the height of the Bowman’s space, and the glomerular tubularization after 14 days of treatment with SLEE.
... Total flavonoid concentration (TF) was determined through the colorimetric method described by Zhishen et al. (1999). The absorbance was determined at 510 nm. ...
Article
This study aimed to evaluate the biosorption mechanisms of bioactive compounds from jaboticaba (Plinia cauliflora) seeds adsorbed on residual Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds before and after the biosorption process was tested using the simulated gastrointestinal digestion technique. The biosorption process was evaluated at different solution pH values (2, 4, 6, and 8). In the present study, the biosorption occurred more favorably in an acid solution medium, and the highest adsorption capacity was found at pH 2 (qe= 49 mg g‐1). In alkaline conditions (pH>7), the biosorption was disfavored. The biosorption kinetics of phenolic compounds from jaboticaba seed extract in yeasts showed a fast equilibrium time (45 min). Additionally, 80% of biosorption occurred within the first 15 minutes. Regarding the isotherm studies, the increased adsorption capacity observed was directly proportional to the increase in the concentration of the initial solution, presenting an L‐type curve characteristic of monolayer adsorption. The Sips and Jovanovic monolayer models suggest that the maximum adsorption capacity (q) was 75 mg g‐1. According to the separation factor (RL) of the Langmuir model, the adsorption of the phenolic compounds extracted from the jaboticaba seeds occurred favorably (RL = 0.509). Additionally, the concentration of total phenolic compounds after simulated gastrointestinal digestion was reduced in crude and biosorbed extracts, with bioaccessibility values of 5.37 and 2.64, respectively. However, the concentration of these total compounds increased after intestinal digestion of the biosorbed yeast. The biosorption equilibrium time was reached at 45 minutes, and the maximum adsorption capacity for the concentrations studied was 50 mg g‐1 at pH 2. These results show that S. cerevisiae is a biosorbent capable of protecting and releasing compounds during gastrointestinal digestion and acts as a polyphenol delivery system.
... Aluminium chloride colorimetric method (Zhishen et al., 1999) was used to measure total flavonoid content. An aliquot (1 mL) of extracts and quercetin solutions (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg/L) was added to 4 mL double distilled water in a10 mL volumetric flask. ...
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i>Neolamarckia cadamba is a pharmacologically significant tropical tree, exploited for various biological studies due to its rich secondary metabolites. In the present investigation, comparison of pharmacological and biological studies of five different extracts of Neolamarckia cadamba leaves have been carried out. This is the first report of phytochemical studies of five different extracts, coupled with FT-IR spectroscopy. Methanol extract (NCLE-D) was found to be rich in secondary metabolites. This extract also showed higher phenolic (279.023 GAE/g extract) and flavonoid (1067.48 QE/g extract) contents. Ethyl acetate extract (NCLE-C) and NCLE-D showed significant free radical scavenging activity with IC<sub>50</sub> 15.17 µg/mL and 16.12 µg/mL respectively compared to ascorbic acid (positive control) with IC<sub>50</sub> 5.22 µg/mL. NCLE-C exhibited antibacterial activity as well. These results suggest that Neolamarckia cadamba is capable of producing bioactive compounds especially from its leaves; hence, could be a valuable source of new drugs for treating diseases.
... TFC was measured in the plant extracts using the aluminum chloride colorimetric assay according to a published procedure [19] with slight modifications. Aliquots of tested samples (2 mL of methanol containing 10 mg dry extract of each plant) were mixed with 300 µL of (5%) sodium nitrite. ...
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Drought is among the most common abiotic stresses that significantly influence plants’ growth and metabolic activities. In this study, Eriocephalus africanus L. (Asteraceae) was exposed to three levels of drought stress (irrigation with 75, 50, and 25% field capacity), together with foliar spraying of a plant hormone, salicylic acid (1, 2, and 3 mM SA), to observe the effect of drought stress and SA on its secondary metabolites. These growing conditions efficiently affected its total flavonoid and polyphenol contents (TFC and TPC, respectively). TFC and TPC increased by 53% and 35%, respectively, in stressed plants. Consequently, the radical scavenging activity improved by 140%. UPLC-ESI-MS/MS profiles of the extracts of control and stressed plants were assessed. Among identified polyphenols, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid predominated in both samples, although it was detected in a greater percentage of stressed plants. Essential oils hydro-distilled from the plants showed a higher yield (1.05 ± 0.03% v/w) in stressed plants. Artemisia ketone prevailed in all oil samples’ GC/MS chromatograms, with a higher yield (42%) recorded in stressed plants. In conclusion, drought stress and SA spraying triggered the production of phenolic and essential oil components and increased the radical scavenging activity of E. africanus. Thus, agricultural conditions are optimized to provide a continuous supply of plant materials with appropriate amounts of bioactive constituents for economic industrialization.
... The test was run for the extracted seeds using aluminum chloride colorimetric assay following the procedure reported by Zhishen et al. [15] using the standard curve of Catechin "secondary metabolite". The total flavonoids were estimated from the following standard curve (y = 0.0028 x, r 2 = 0.988). ...
Article
Purslane contains the highest amount of omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants, and has better nutritional quality. Gamma irradiation is harmless and dependable method for refining the shelf life and nutritional quality of the stored seeds. The aim of this research is to study the influence of irradiation by gamma on structure, ascorbic acid and phenolic content of Purslane seeds. The results show that, ascorbic acid, phenolic content, carbohydrate and protein content in Purslane seeds decreased after exposed by gamma rays. Super oxidase dismutase, fat and fiber content in Purslane seeds increased after exposed by gamma radiation. The shape, size, interconnection and arrangement of molecules in/or around benzene ring in Purslane cells changed after exposure to gamma radiation.
... The ethanolic extracts of TFC were calculated in line with Zhishen et al. (1999). A total 10 μL of Aluminum chloride (10%) and CH 3 COOK (1 M) was blended with 20 μL of the sample, then, diluted with 160 μL of H 2 O and incubated during 30 min. ...
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Objectives The present study aimed to explore the eliciting effects of increasing concentrations (50, 100, and 200 µM) of methyl jasmonate (MeJA). We cultivated actively proliferating buds of Phoenix dactylifera L. cv. Barhee in a temporary immersion system and we monitored the bioactive compound accumulation after 7 days of culture. Methods Total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid (TFC) contents were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), and radical scavenging activity using DPPH and ABTS assays. We also explored the activity of phenylpropanoid pathway enzymes, namely phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), tyrosine ammonia-lyase (TAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Results Our results revealed that MeJA treatment induced oxidative stress, and at the same time increased the activity of related defense enzymes in a dose-dependent manner. Exogenous application of MeJA at 200 µM increased ROS (two fold), hydrogen peroxide (3.7 fold), nitric oxide (14 fold), MDA (6.3 fold), superoxide dismutase (5.9 fold), catalase (4.4 fold) and guaiacol peroxidase (3.87 fold). Furthermore, the results demonstrated that 200 µM MeJA treatment enhanced the activities of PAL (3.65 fold), TAL (4.35 fold), PPO (threefold) and increased TPC (twofold) and TFC (1.75 fold) contents in buds cultures higher than the control. HPLC analysis showed that buds cultures exposed to 200 µM MeJA accumulated maximum amount of catechin (11 fold), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (1.48 fold), caffeic acid (2.5 fold) and p-coumaric acid (1.76 fold) and demonstrate antioxidant capacity with the lowest DPPH (114.5 µg ml⁻¹) and ABTS (90.2 µg ml⁻¹) IC50 values on day 7 of culture as compared to the control. The MeJA in the culture medium directly reduced cell viability in a dose dependent manner up to 35% with the highest concentration. Conclusion The results of this study has revealed, for the first time, that MeJA offers a promising potential for the production of phenolic compound in Phoenix dactylifera L. buds.
... With minor modifications, the Zhishen et al. (1999) method was used to determine the flavonoid composition of essential garlic oil. 1 mL of essential garlic oil and 1.25 mL of distilled water were combined in this method. A 75-liter solution of sodium nitrite was added. ...
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Abstract Garlic is a plant that is native to Central Asia and belongs to the Alliaceae family. When garlic bulbs are crushed, they release a sulfoxide molecule called alliin, which is the precursor to the garlic's distinctive scent and flavor. Fresh garlic and its essential oil are used in the food sector as natural antioxidant agents, flavorings, and antimicrobials, notably in processed chicken and meat products. In this research, on a number of pathogenic strains, the garlic essential oil’s antibacterial activity was investigated in vitro using minimum bactericidal concentration, minimum inhibitory concentration, and the disk diffusion technique. Gas chromatography was used to identify the garlic essential oil’s chemical components. Aluminum chloride colorimetric, Folin-Ciocalteu, and radical reduction capacity methods were used to measure flavonoid, total phenol, and antioxidant content. It was shown that the most resistant to essential garlic oil were gram-negative bacteria, including Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The mixture of diallyl disulfide was 40.3% greater, according to the results of the chemical compound identification of essential garlic oil. Antioxidant activity, flavonoids, and total phenol of essential garlic oil were 80%, 0.24 mg quercetin in grams, and 0.33 mg gallic acid in gram, respectively. The findings of this investigation revealed that garlic might be exploited as a source of medicinal chemicals.
... The flavonoid was extracted by ethanol, and the supernatant was mixed with 5% sodium selenite, 10% aluminium nitrate and 4% sodium hydroxide. The mixture was determined with colorimetry at 510 nm [67]. Then, 5 mL 3% sulfosalicylic acid was used to extract proline, and 2 mL supernatant was transferred to a clean tube and mixed with ninhydrin (47 mM), phosphoric acid (0.8 M), and glacial acetic acid (0.25 M) and subsequently boiled at 98 °C for 60 min. ...
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Background Drought stress has negative effects on plant growth and productivity. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of physiological responses and gene expression was performed. The responses and expressions were compared between drought-tolerant (DT) and drought-sensitive (DS) peanut varieties to investigate the regulatory mechanisms and hub genes involved in the impact of drought stress on culture. Results The drought-tolerant variety had robust antioxidative capacities with higher total antioxidant capacity and flavonoid contents, and it enhanced osmotic adjustment substance accumulation to adapt to drought conditions. KEGG analysis of differentially expressed genes demonstrated that photosynthesis was strongly affected by drought stress, especially in the drought-sensitive variety, which was consistent with the more severe suppression of photosynthesis. The hub genes in the key modules related to the drought response, including genes encoding protein kinase, E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, potassium transporter, pentatricopeptide repeat-containing protein, and aspartic proteinase, were identified through a comprehensive combined analysis of genes and physiological traits using weighted gene co-expression network analysis. There were notably differentially expressed genes between the two varieties, suggesting the positive roles of these genes in peanut drought tolerance. Conclusion A comprehensive analysis of physiological traits and relevant genes was conducted on peanuts with different drought tolerances. The findings revealed diverse drought-response mechanisms and identified candidate genes for further research.
... For the total avonoid content, a colorimetric assay was used in this study by modifying from Zhushen, J. et al. 41 0.5 mg of the extracted P. betle and 2 mL of 2% AlCl 3 were added to a test tube. Then, it was vortexed and le at room temperature to react for 30 min. ...
... TFs were determined by nitration with NaNO 2 of aromatic rings bearing a catechol group, followed by reaction with AlCl 3 under alkaline conditions [43]. The absorbance of the sample was measured at 510 nm, and the total flavonoid content in the leaves was expressed in equivalents of the standard catechin (mg eq C. g −1 DW). ...
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Climate change accentuates abiotic stress conditions putting at risk several commercial cultivars particularly vulnerable to salinity in the early stages of development, which makes adopting new technologies in tune with the environment necessary to mitigate its impact. In this study, we tested the possible effects of a commercial biostimulant (BALOX®) on enhancing salt stress tolerance in salt-treated tomato plants, analysing plant growth and several stress biochemical markers: photosynthetic pigments, ion contents in roots and leaves, leaf concentrations of different osmolytes, oxidative stress markers, non-enzymatic antioxidants, and the specific activities of major antioxidant enzymes. The experimental design consisted of three soil salinity levels (non-saline, saline, and very saline), two biostimulant doses (0.4 mL and 0.8 mL of the BALOX® stock per litre of irrigation water), and the non-treated control (without biostimulant), evaluated at 30 and 60 days of treatment. The biostimulant favoured plant growth, especially at the root level and in saline soils. In addition, it helped reduce Na+ and Cl− uptake by the roots and seemed to stimulate, to some extent, K+ and Ca2+ transport to the aerial part of the plant. The BALOX® application significantly reduced the level of stress affecting the plants in saline soils, as shown by the decrease in the contents of proline and oxidative stress biomarkers and the activity of salt-induced antioxidant enzymes. Some of the biostimulant effects were also observed under low salinity conditions; therefore, in addition to enhancing salt stress responses, BALOX® appears to stimulate the growth of tomato plants through a general improvement of photosynthesis and primary metabolism.
... Total flavonoid and carotenoid contents. Total flavonoid were determined according to Zhishen et al. [1999] and carotenoid content was estimated by using spectrophotometer. Flavonoids found in the 80% methanol extract were measured through 5% NaNO 2 as well as 10% AlCl 3 and read intensity of colour at 510 nm. ...
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Effect of foliar application of zinc oxide on growth and photosynthetic traits of cherry tomato under calcareous soil conditions
... The analyses were also performed in triplicates and the results were expressed in Gallic acid equivalents. From these two results, the tannin content of the plant samples was calculated as follows, Tannins = Total phenolics -Non phenolics Estimation of total flavonoids content The flavonoids content was determined by the aluminumtrichloride method Zhishen et al., (1999). A volume of 200 µL of fruit extract was taken in different test tubes and 2 mL of distilled water was added to each test tube. ...
Article
This study focused on the determination of secondary metabolites to an evaluation of the biological activity of Elaeocarpus variabilis Zmarzty fruit extract, an endemic medicinal plant. Their total Phenolic, tannin, flavonoids, alkaloids and saponins contents were quantified and their antioxidant activity, determined by DPPH, total antioxidant, ABTS, FRAP and Fe2+ chelating activity. The ethyl acetate extract exhibited the highest radical scavenging activity. The most relevant contents in total phenolics (Gallic Acid Equivalent mg/g), tannin (Gallic Acid Equivalent mg/g), total flavonoids (Rutin equivalent mg/g), total alkaloids (Quinine equivalent mg/g), and total saponin (Diosgenin equivalent mg/g) were observed. Significant correlations were established between antioxidant activity and secondary metabolites. Though the in vitro anti-diabetic activity was carried out using -amylase and -glucosidase inhibition, this indicates that the absorption and digestion of carbohydrates would probably reduce the blood glucose levels and hence help the management of type-2 diabetes. The ethyl acetate extract exhibited the potential of anticancer activity on human HT-29 colon cancer cell line IC50 values (30.0 ± 1.0) the valuable activity that compared to doxorubicin (17.0 ± 0.5). While this is the first study concerning extract from E. variabilis, our findings highlighted the richness’ in flavonoids of those extracts and their amazing potential as a source of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and anticancer agents.
... The determinations of polyphenols, total flavonoids, vitamin C, and total anthocyanins in the HSL infusion were made by different techniques as previously reported; vitamin C concentration, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins and polyphenols were determined by the methods of the Jagota, Jia, Lee's and Sánchez-Rangel, respectively [11][12][13][14]. The HSL infusion at 1.5 % contained; cyaniding-3-glucoside (105.8 ± 19.48 mg/L), quercetin (0.29 ± 0.01 mg/L), polyphenols (0.38 ± 0.02 mM/L) and vitamin C, (0.40 ± 0.01 mg/L). ...
... The total proanthocyanidins were determined by the vanillin-hydrochloric acid method, according to the report published by Mitsunaga et al. [38]. The total flavonoids were determined by the method described by Zhishen et al. [39]. The total phenolic acids were analyzed by the ferric chloridepotassium ferricyanide method, as described by Feduraev et al. [40], whereas the total anthocyanins were determined spectrophotometrically at 520 nm by the method exposed by Iland et al. [41]. ...
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1) Background: Beibinghong is a grapevine variety that is well distributed in Northeastern China due to its adaptation to extreme cold conditions and vine diseases. Nonetheless, Beibing-hong wines are extremely acidic and rich in phenolic compounds. The aim of this research was to study the effects of leaf removal at véraison and foliar K + applications on Beibinghong vines to reduce the acidity and increase their polyphenol content. (2) Methods: Beibinghong berries were harvested when they reached close to 20 °Brix, and the physicochemical parameters were determined. (3) Results: Leaf removal at véraison plus K + foliar applications to Beibinghong vines decreased the titratable acidity and increased the total phenolic and phenolic acid contents compared with the control. Moreover, the titratable acidity in the Beibinghong berries was negatively related to their total contents of phenols, proanthocyanidins, and anthocyanins. (4) Conclusions: Leaf removal at véraison performed with foliar K + applications to vines could be an interesting alternative for Beib-inghong production under cold-climate viticulture because it allows for a decrease in the acidity and an increase in the phenolic content of the berries, without incurring the risk of sunburn.
... The method described by Jia et al. (1999) was used to determine the flavonoids content in the seeds. Briefly, 2 g of powdered seeds was homogenized in acidified ethanol (1 acid acetic:100 ethanol) and centrifuged at 13,000 ×g for 12 min. ...
Article
Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) is considered a serious agricultural pest worldwide. We explored the effects of artificial diets containing ten legumes, including broad beans (Shadan, Feyz, Saraziri, Barekat, and Mahta cultivars), white kidney beans (Dehghan cultivar), red kidney beans (Goli cultivar), common beans (Khomein cultivar), cowpeas (Mashhad and Arabi cultivars) on the feeding responses of H. armigera by quantifying specific primary and secondary metabolites in the studied legumes and determining larval nutritional indices and digestive enzyme activities. The results showed that the highest efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD) and relative growth rate values (RGR) of whole larval instars were obtained in the Dehghan and Goli cultivars. However, the lowest values of ECD and RGR were observed in the larvae fed on the Khomein and Mahta cultivars. The highest proteolytic and amylolytic activities of larvae were found on the Dehghan and Mashhad cultivars. The highest and lowest values of standardized insect-growth index and index of plant quality were observed in larvae feeding on the Dehghan and Khomein cultivars, respectively. Additionally, significant variations in phytochemical metabolites were recorded among the studied legume cultivars. Significant negative or positive correlations were also found between feeding characteristics and enzymatic activities of H. armigera with the biochemical composition of the studied legumes. The cluster analysis results revealed that artificial diets containing Mahta and Khomein cultivars were unsuitable for H. armigera , and can be used as candidates for integrated pest management programs or for screening insect inhibitors to produce genetically modified pest-resistant plants.
... TFC was determined by UV-visible spectrophotometry, using the method proposed by Zhishen et al. [33]. PCPCs and purple corn flour were dissolved in the mix of methanol and water (70:30 v/v). ...
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Purple corn seeds germinated at 25 ◦C and 35 ◦C for 5 days were used to obtain purple corn protein concentrate (PCPC25 and PCPC35). PCPC25 and PCPC35 were subject to gastrointestinal hydrolysis. PCPC and its hydrolysates were used to evaluate their functional and biological properties. Total flavonoid content (TFC), total flavonol content (TFLC), total anthocyanin content (TAC) and total proanthocyanin (TAP) were determined. The polyphenols and flavonoids were identified by UPLC-QDa. Protein solubility (PS), water and oil absorption capacity (WAC and OAC) were determined. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the FRAP, ABTS and DPPH methods. PCPC35 showed the highest TFLC values (11,091.37 mg rutin equivalents (RE)/100 g dry weight DW), and TFL presented values of 7975.59 mg RE/100 g DW. The PCPCs presented better functional properties than the hydrolysates. PCPC25 presented a PS of 59.43%PS at pH 8.0, 27.77%WAC and 24.94%OAC. PCPC25 and PCPC35 showed high values of antioxidant activity. PCPC25 showed ABTS values (570.97 µmol trolox equivalents (TE)/g DW) and FRAP (772.85 µmol TE/g DW). PCPCs hydrolysates were less active with ABTS values (74.12 µmol TE/g DW) and FRAP (59.42 µmol TE/g DW).
... As the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent is sensitive to reducing compounds, including polyphenols, it produced blue color during the reaction [44]. The totality of flavonoid content gotten from the extracts was estimated using the method proposed by Zhishen et al. [45]. Each 1 mL sample was mixed with 4 mL of distilled water and 0.3 mL of NaNO 2 solution (10%). ...
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An ulcer is an erosion of the gastric mucosa that occurs following an imbalance between the aggression and protective factors and/or an infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). About 90-100% of duodenal ulcers and 70-80% of gastric ulcers are caused by H. pylori. The objective of this work was to evaluate in vitro the anti-H. pylori activity and then the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of aqueous and methanol extracts of Alstonia boonei. The anti-H. pylori tests (CMI and antiureasic activity) were determined using the agar well diffusion method, the microbroth dilution method, and the measurement of ammonia production by the indophenol method; the anti-inflammatory properties were evaluated by inhibition of proteinases, denaturation of albumin, production of NO by macrophages, cell viability, and hemolysis of red blood cells by heat; then, the antioxidant properties were evaluated by the FRAP method (ferric reducing antioxidant power) and the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) test. The results show that the best trapping of the DPPH radical was obtained with the methanol extract (EC50 = 8.91 μg/mL) compared to the aqueous extract (EC50 = 19.86 μg/mL). The methanol extract also showed greater iron-reducing activity than the aqueous extract and vitamin C. Furthermore, at the concentration of 200 μg/mL, the methanol extract showed a percentage (96.34%) strains of H. pylori higher than that of the aqueous extract (88.52%). The MIC90 of the methanol extract was lower than that of the aqueous extract. The methanol extract showed a higher percentage inhibition (85%) of urease than the aqueous extract (73%). The methanol extract at a concentration of 1000 μg/mL showed the greatest ability to inhibit proteinase activity, albumin denaturation, and red blood cell hemolysis; on the other hand, maximum cell viability and greater production of nitrite oxide by macrophages were obtained with the aqueous extract. Aqueous and methanol extracts of Alstonia boonei possess anti-H. pylori which would probably be linked to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
... The total flavonoid content in RJ sample was measured using the assay developed by Zhishen, et al. [14]. 2 g of RJ was dissolved in 20 ml of deionized water and filtered using whatman grade 1 filter paper. To that 0.3 ml of sodium nitrate solution (5g/l) was added. ...
... As polyphenols were reported to show anti-CT activity [33], total phenolic content and total flavonoid content in seven extracts were estimated using Folin-Ciocalteu [34] and AlCl 3 colorimetric methods [35], respectively, with minor modifications. ...
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Citation: Charla, R.; Patil, P.P.; Bhatkande, A.A.; Khode, N.R.; Balaganur, V.; Hegde, H.V.; Harish, D.R.; Roy, S. In Vitro and In Vivo Inhibitory Activities of Selected Traditional Medicinal Plants against Toxin-Induced Cyto-and Entero-Toxicities in Cholera. Toxins 2022, 14, 649. https://doi.
... Samples were read at 510 nm using a Shimadzu Spectrophotometer UV 1800, (Washington, USA). Catechin was used as the reference substance [25]. ...
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... Total flavonoid content (TFC) was measured by modifying the method of [24]. Briefly, 0.5 mL of diluted extracts, 3.2 mL of distilled water, and 0.15 mL of 5% NaNO were mixed. ...
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Cultivated wild Panax ginseng (CWPG) has been reported to have a higher content of ginsenoside than normal Panax ginseng. This study was carried out to increase the antioxidant activity and active ingredients by the puffing process. Therefore, effects of moisture content and pressure conditions on the antioxidant activity and active ingredients of CWPG were investigated. Extraction yield and crude saponin content were decreased at all moisture contents with increasing pressure. HPLC analysis showed that the contents of ginsenoside Rg3 and compound K were increased by puffing when the pressure increased. Antioxidant properties, total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were increased by puffing. The correlation between color change and antioxidant activity showed the greatest correlation with the decrease of L value. It is expected that the progress of this study will play an important role in the international market of high-value-added food using CWPG.
... The total flavonoids content (TFC) was determined through colorimetric technique as previously described Zhishen et al. (1999). Briefly, distilled water and 0.3 mL NaNO 2 were added. ...
... Concentrations of total phenolic compounds were determined spectrophotometrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and calculated as caffeic acid equivalents [69]. Total flavonoid content in plant tissues was measured spectrophotometrically using the standard curve of catechin [70]. The percentage of radical scavenging activity was measured by color artificial stable free radical DPPH• (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) assay. ...
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... Total avonoids concentration was determined using a modi ed colorimetric method described previously by Zhishen et al. [20] and used catechin as a standard. Methanol extract or standard solution (250 µl) was mixed with distilled water (1.25 ml) and 5% NaNO 2 solution (75 µl). ...
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The purpose of this paper is to enhance the nutritional quality of pretzels using sprouted garden cress seeds. Sprouting was performed in garden cress seeds at 3and 6 days to select the best sprouting conditions. Chemical composition, total phenols, flavonoids, and DPPH were performed on sprouted and un-sprouted garden cress. Sprouted and un-sprouted garden cress seeds were substituted at 0, 5, 10, and, 15% level with wheat flour in pretzels preparation. Chemical analysis, sensory properties and protein quality were performed on pretzels to assess its nutritional quality. After 3& 6 days, sprouting increased ( P ≤ 0.05 ) ash (9.89, 5.88%), fiber (10.20, 8.61%), and protein (24.71, 25.92%). Sensory scores showed no ( P ≤ 0.05 ) differences between pretzels with sprouted and un-sprouted garden cress at 5 and 10% for all attributes. Pretzels with 10% sprouted garden cress was the highest ( P ≤ 0.05 ) of Zinc (20.1), iron (67.05), magnesium (494), calcium (1503), potassium (2885) and phosphorus (328 and 48mg/100g). In vitro protein digestibility (78.46%), total essential amino acids (3.8), total non-essential amino acids (4.8%) were increased in pretzels with 10% sprouted garden cress compared to un-sprouted seeds. Sprouted garden cress could be used to improve the nutritional quality of pretzels at 10% level of substitution with wheat flour with highly acceptability.This study leads to valuable addition and improvement of consumers diet, especially with the exploration of the potential of sprouted garden cress seed in a popular bakery snack like pretzels was very limited.
... The development of food products or ingredients with specifi c health promoting benefi ts (nutraceuticals or functional foods) is currently the fastest growing and most consumer-driven segment of the food industry [Hardy, 2000]. Mulberry leaves, bark and branches have long been used in Chinese medicine to treat fever, protect the liver, improve eyesight, strengthen joints, facilitate discharge of urine and lower blood pressure [Zhisen et al., 1999]. In Japan, consumption of berry leaves as a tea or powdered juice has been increasing [Katsube et al., 2009]. ...
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Diabetes is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by elevated blood sugar levels, leading to many undesirable health consequences. There are many herbal formulations, traditionally used by the Northeast Indian population for disease management. These formulations require scientific validations to optimize their efficacy and increase their popularity. In this study, we attempt to scientifically validate a polyherbal formulation traditionally used for the management of diabetes through preliminary phytochemicals investigation, characterization of potential phytochemicals using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, high-resolution liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HR-LC/MS) analysis, and in silico characterization of physiochemical, drug-likeness, and pharmacokinetic properties of identified phytochemical compounds. Qualitative phytochemical screening of various extracts of the formulation confirmed the presence of alkaloids, phenols and tannins, flavonoids, fats, and oils. Phytochemical quantification of the various extracts showed that the highest total phenolic content is present in the ethanolic extract (35.61 ± 0.15 mg GAE/g), while the highest total flavonoid content is present in the chloroform extract (76.33 ± 2.96 mg QE/g) of the formulation. FT-IR spectroscopic analysis revealed various characteristic band values with various functional groups in the formulation extract such as amines, alcohol, fluoro compounds, phenol, alkane, alkene, and conjugated acid groups. HR-LC/MS analyses identified nearly 51 compounds including 9 small peptides and 42 potential phytochemical compounds. In silico SwissADME analysis of identified compounds revealed 25 potential compounds following Lipinski’s rule and showing drug-like characteristics, and out of them, 16 compounds exhibited good oral bioavailability, as revealed in the bioavailability radar. The overall study showed that the presented polyherbal formulation is enriched with bio-active phytochemical compounds with good pharmaceutical values.
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Ginger ( Zingiber officinale) rhizomes are commonly used in foods and employed for many ailments including gastrointestinal disorders. Our main objective was to evaluate the effect of Zingiber officinale aqueous extract (ZOAE) on gastrointestinal (GI) physiological motility and colonic dysmotility. Thereby, Wistar rats were given loperamide (LP, 3 mg/kg, b.w.) and ZOAE (75, 150, and 300 mg/kg, b.w.) or yohimbine (YOH, 2 mg/kg, b.w.). ZOAE-action on intestinal secretion was assessed using Ussing chamber technique and intestinal motility with isometric transducer. GI-transit (GIT) and gastric emptying (GE) were evaluated with the charcoal meal test and the red phenol methods. ZOAE-bioactive components were analyzed by liquid chromatography-high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-HRESIMS). Constipation was induced with LP and the different indicators such as stool composition, GIT, oxidative stress biological parameters, and colonic mucosa histological alteration were performed. Anti-constipation effect of ZOAE was confirmed on stool composition, GIT (53.42% to 85.57%), GE (55.47% to 98.88%), and re-established oxidative balance. ZOAE induces an amplitude increase of spontaneous intestinal contraction with EC50 of 10.52 μg/mL. No effect of ZOAE was observed on electrogenic transport of intestinal fluid. These findings suggest that ZOAE-bioactive candidates might exert an anti-constipation action and spontaneous intestinal contraction modulation.
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The olive species (Olea europaea L.) is an ancient traditional crop grown under rainfed conditions in the Mediterranean Basin. In response to the growing national and international demand for olive oil, the olive cultivars are introduced into highly arid new bioclimatic areas. Subsequently, the morpho-physiology and phytochemistry of olive trees are potentially changing among cultivar types and geographical conditions. In the present work, we have undertaken an assessment on the impacts of geographical location and cultivar types on the leaf morpho-physiology and phytochemistry of olive trees. Thus, leaves of the two most cultivated olive tree varieties, Chemlal and Sigoise, were collected from three geographical regions (Setif, Batna, and Eloued) with increasing aridity in Algeria. Leaf samples from the geographical regions were analyzed using the standard physiological experiment, colorimetric method, and a chromatography assay. Leaves of both cultivars exhibited a significant variance in terms of the leaf shape index but not for the leaf tissue density, specific leaf weight, and specific leaf area. Photosynthetic pigment contents were affected by both cultivar type and geographical location, with the lowest pigment content recorded in the Sigoise cultivar from the Setif region. Compared with the Setif and Batna regions, dried leaves of both cultivars from the Eloued region showed the higher levels of the total polyphenol, total flavonoid, and total tannin, as well as a better antioxidant capacity. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of all leaf extracts identified the following phenolic acids as major compounds: oleuropein, naringin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, kaempferol, quercetin, quercitrin, luteolin-7-O-naringenin, and quinic acid. Lower contents were found for p-Coumaric acid, trans-Ferulic acid, hyperoside, rutin, apigenin, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid, o-Coumaric acid, and gallic acid. Also, epicatechin and catechin+ were not found in the leaf extracts of the Sigoise cultivar. The leaf organic extracts in both cultivars displayed promising anti-cancer activity that was affected by geographical location and organic solvent polarity. Briefly, although increasing aridity and soil organic and mineral deficiency affected the leaf morpho-physiological parameters, both cultivars sustained a chemical richness, a good antioxidant, and an anti-tumoral capacity in leaves. Furthermore, the findings revealed that regardless the olive tree genotype, there was a significant impact of geographical location on the leaf morpho-physiology, bioactivity, and chemical composition, which may consequently modulate the growth and oil production of olive trees.
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Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway illness. For the first time, we evaluated the proposed anti-asthmatic protective and therapeutic potency of inhaling Punica granatum juice (PJE) and peel (PPE) extract mixture (PM). Rats were challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) for 23 days and aerosolized with PM before each OVA challenge (protected group) or following the final OVA challenge for 3 days (therapeutic group). Considerable concentrations of phenolics were detected in PJE and PPE. Therefore, PM demonstrated synergistic scavenging abilities of NO and DPPH radicals. It also showed synergistic anti-inflammatory activities against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in the white blood cells by lowering the gene expression of CXCR1, CXCR2, IL-6, and IL-8. In addition, PM increased IL-10 gene expression while decreasing NO and TNF-α levels in LPS-exposed cells. Regarding the rats that were protected with PM, they exerted pulmonary pro-oxidant effects but prevented the OVA-induced upregulation of NF-κB, IKK, TNF-α, COX-2, iNOS, IL-13, and COL1A1, as well as MUC5AC and mucin over-secretion. While PM in the therapeutic group improved reactive oxygen species levels and normalized most of the investigated inflammatory and fibrotic mediators and mucin formation, but slightly improved the antioxidant indices. In addition, OVA-induced morphological alterations were massively improved after PM inhalation for short or long periods. Thus, PM inhalation prevented and treated OVA-induced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis, while the inhalation period between 3 and 23 days needs to be optimized to acquire a better impact on the antioxidant indices.
Chapter
Marine algae are recognized to be a good source of vital nutrients, such as carbohydrates, protein, and minerals, and a range of other health-promoting chemicals that can treat different ailments and diseases. While these marine macroalgae are strongly established in East Asian culture as nutritional habits, the phycocolloid industry has been their primary application in Western countries. However, as seaweed consumption becomes more widespread around the world, this condition is changing dramatically. Several edible seaweeds, such as Ulva green algae and Turbinaria brown algae, have a high nutritional value and are considered rich sources of dietary fibers and minerals. Furthermore, their abundance of bioactive chemicals including phenols, flavonoids, and alkaloids make them great prospects for a wide range of medicinal applications, including antioxidant activity. The nutritional and phycochemical compositions of two marine weeds, as well as the health benefits associated with their consumption, were disclosed by the results of this study. Turbinaria decurrens ethanol extract has a greater phenolic content (174.53 mg GAE/g extract) than Ulva lactuca ethanol extract (108.10 mg GAE/g extract). The presence of quercetin and gallic acids in both extracts of T. decurrens and U. lactuca is confirmed by qualitative examination of data collected by HPLC. Seaweeds and/or their components are also addressed as functional ingredients in the production of novel and enhanced foods.Key wordsMarine algaePhycochemical Turbinaria decurrens Ulva lactuca and HPLC
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In this study, fresh-cut (FC) mango cubes were treated with cold plasma (CP) at 75 kV for 3 min using a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) generator and then stored at 15 °C for 4 d to simulate a shelf life, during which the quality parameters and related physiological metabolisms were evaluated. The results showed that CP treatment effectively delayed the declines in organoleptic and nutritional qualities in FC mangoes, as manifested by higher retentions of chromaticity parameters (L*, a* and b*), firmness, soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), SSC/TA ratio and carotenoids content in CP-treated samples during storage. CP treatment repressed the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (O2-. and H2O2) and reduced the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), thus reducing oxidative damage to FC mangoes. Inhibition of browning-related phenolic oxidation, as demonstrated by higher contents of total phenolics and flavonoids accompanied by lower activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD), was noted in CP-treated FC mangoes compared to control FC fruit. CP treatment also maintained antioxidant capacity in stored FC mangoes by increasing the contents of ascorbic acid (AsA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) and enhancing the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR). In addition, CP treatment markedly inhibited the growth of total microbial counts, thus contributing to the improvement of edible safety in FC mangoes. The results suggest that CP treatment could be a promising preservation technology for improving the quality and extending the shelf life of FC mango fruit.
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Ficus talboti King (Moraceae) is broadly utilized for different diseases, for example, diabetes, diarrhea, leucorrhea, menorrhea, vaginal diseases, and hemostatic, laxative, and nervous disorder. This study aims to investigate the free radical scavenging, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory capacities of methanol extract of F. talboti stem bark (MEFt). To assess the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory capacities of the concentrates (petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, methanol, and hot water), five in vitro test frameworks were utilized, i.e., ABTS, FRAP, phosphomolybdenum, metal chelating limit, and DPPH extremist searching examines. MEFt at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, p.o. was to evaluate anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity by various models. The total phenolic (78.18 g GAE/100 g remove) content was quantified to be higher in MEFt. In addition, the free radical scavenging capacities of ABTS (6812.22 μM TE/g concentrate) and DPPH (IC50 1.32 μg/mL) models indicated MEFt with higher action. The antinociceptive uncovered that MEFt has higher action at a portion of 200 mg/kg in hot plate test (12.05%), acidic acid-induced writhing test (32.54%), and formalin-initiated paw licking test (75.69%). In addition, the mitigating movement of MEFt additionally appeared by the decrease of paw edema measurement in both carrageenan- and egg albumin-induced paw edema models. Explanatory impacts on cotton pellet-induced granuloma in rodents have demonstrated noteworthy decrease in the weight of granuloma (69.30%) by MEFt at 200 mg/kg. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of bioactive compound quercetin which may be liable for all pharmacological activities. This study shows that MEFt have critical antiradical, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory and mitigating action conceivably because of the presence of phenol constituents.Key words Ficus talboti AntioxidantAnti-inflammatoryCarrageenanHistamine
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The present study focused to examine the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant properties of leaves, bark, and fruits of Ficus tsjahela Burm.f belonging to the well-known family Moraceae. The active principles were extracted by the method of soxhlation. The crude extracts were analyzed to establish a phytochemical profile using the standard principles, followed by the estimation of phenols, tannins, and flavonoid contents that were evaluated. The antioxidant effect was estimated by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydroxyl (DPPH), nitric oxide, and metal chelating activity. Result data was analyzed by SPSS software (SPSS v.20), and Duncan test was used to find out statistical significance. The overall results revealed that methanol extract of F. tsjahela has showed the highest presence of bioactive compounds with comparative amounts of phenol, tannins, and flavonoid contents. Ascorbic acid, BSA, rutin, gallic acid, and glucose were used as the reference standard. The IC50 (concentration required for 50% inhibition) was calculated for DPPH radical scavenging activity. The total phenol content was 187.3 ± 12.1 mg (GAE)/g, 949.7 ± 124.6 mg GAE/g, and 834.4 ± 30.7 mg GAE/g extract for the leaf, bark, and fruit, respectively, and the total flavonoid content was 15.20 ± 0.71 mg RE/g, 129.4 ± 11.08 mg RE/g, and 65.64 ± 6.80 mg RE/g extract for the leaf, bark, and fruit, respectively.Key wordsPhytochemicalsMoraceae Ficus tsjahela Bioactive compoundsAntioxidants
Article
Amyloid plaques or fibrils are deposits of abnormal proteins that mostly contain β-sheets, which accumulate in different organs and tissues, resulting in impaired tissue function and causing fatal and debilitating diseases. In this study, the effects of Salvia officinalis extract (SOE), prepared from its flowers, on both prevention of amyloid plaques formation and removal of accumulated fibrils were investigated. Therefore, 14 mg/ml of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) was incubated in the absence and presence of 7, 14 and 28 mg/ml of SOE in high temperature and acidic pH to form amyloid fibrils. In this line, thioflavin T (THT), 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid (ANS) fluorescence test, Congo red absorbance test, Circular dichroism, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy were employed to study the effect of the extract on these processes. The results indicate that SOE presents a strong anti-amyloidogenic activity. The extract to protein ratio of 0.5:1 (7:14 mg/ml) did not cause the formation of amyloid fibrils in the HEWL solution. However, it resulted in defibrillation of HEWL in a dose-dependent manner. Based on our result, the extract to protein ratio of 1:1 (14:14 mg/ml) was the best ratio to change the structure of long and massive HEWL fibrils to thin and little fibrils. In general, it can be concluded that SOE contains compounds that can be useful for the treatment of amyloid-dependent diseases.
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Genus Phyllanthus is known for its pharmacological potential owing to its bioactives of about 126 terpenoids, 102 phenylpropanoids, 73 phenolics, 54 flavonoids, 53 tannins, 33 sterols, and 31 alkaloids. Hence, the phytochemical analysis on Phyllanthus candolleanus, a member of this medicinal genus, revealed its bioactive potential by its exemplary amounts of nutrients and phytocompounds on quantification. The fresh and dry bark extracts of P. candolleanus were subjected for evaluation of antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and anti-inflammatory potentials. Under nutritional analysis, fresh bark sample had higher level of carbohydrates (15.69 ± 8.32 mg GE/g sample), and starch was profound in dry bark sample with a quantity of 92.52 ± 2.26 mg GE/g sample. Proteins and amino acids were higher in DAE with an amount of 631.11 ± 29.58 mg BSAE/g extract and 29.80 ± 0.40 mg LE/g, extract respectively. Phenolics were higher in DME (4118.27 ± 7.90 mg GAE/g extract), while flavonoids were higher in FEAE (420.42 ± 24.61 mg RE/g extract), and tannins were in surplus in FME (2111.6 ± 1.49 mg GAE/g extract). In assessment of antioxidant potential through DPPH scavenging assay, DME showed higher scavenging with an IC50 value of 3.18. In phosphomolybdenum reduction assay, FEAE showed higher activity (420.42 ± 24.61 mg AAE/g). In NO scavenging assay, DEAE showed a highest inhibition of 43.75%. In FRAP assay, DME had the highest ability of 467.76 ± 26.57 mg Fe (II)E/g extract. In metal ion binding assay, FME (246.60 ± 1.6 mg EDTAE/g extract) showed better ability. Anti-inflammatory activity of FME (75.19%) was comparatively effective than other extracts. Inhibition of hyperglycemia inducing α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes was much domineering by DAE (30.17%) and FME (40.87%), respectively, in vitro.Key words P. candolleanus AntioxidantsAntidiabeticAnti-inflammatoryPhytochemicals
Article
The phytochemical profile, antioxidant, antibacterial, and cytotoxicity of Senna hirsuta (M−Sh) leaf extracts were investigated in human prostate cancer PC‐3 cell lines. Antioxidant bioactive components like phenolics, tannins, and flavonoids were measured at 15.36±0.19, 2.97±0.11, and 19.77±0.51, respectively. An intense dose‐dependent radical scavenging activity was observed for M−Sh with 83 % in 500 μg/mL for DPPH. M−Sh boosted ABTS radical inhibition from 35 % at 100 μg/ml to 70 % at 500 μg/ml, whereas hydroxyl radical scavenging was 96 % at 500 μg/ml, significantly greater than butylated hydroxytoluene (91.91 %). The maximum NO scavenging activity of M−Sh was 83 %, and the lipid peroxidation inhibition was 87 % at 500 μg/ml. The M−Sh exhibited antibacterial efficacy against Escherichia coli (25 mm), Bacillus subtilis (24 mm), and Staphylococcus aureus (21 mm). The MTT assay was used to study anti‐proliferative activity, which inhibited PC‐3 cell growth with an IC50 of 257.13 μg/mL over 24 hours. These results demonstrate that M−Sh inhibits PC‐3 cell proliferation by shedding from the surface and assuming a spherical shape. Additionally, the morphology of PC‐3 cells showed shrinkage, blebbing membrane condensation, and nuclear chromatin margination, indicating that M−Sh was cytotoxic to PC‐3 Cells. The biological activities of Senna hirsuta methanolic extracts (M−Sh) were investigated. The extracted compounds showed excellent antioxidant, antibacterial, and cytotoxic properties. PC‐3 cancer cells were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the extracts. The results indicate that at low concentrations, M−Sh inhibits PC‐3 cell growth. M−Sh can be a beneficial and relevant molecule for therapeutic properties.
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The flavonoids scavenge hydroxyl (.OH) radicals generated by UV photolysis of hydrogen peroxide. Free .OH radicals were spin-trapped by 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide and the adduct was detected by high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with an electrochemical detector. The scavenging activity of flavonoids decreases in the order: myricetin > quercetin > rhamnetin > morin > diosmetin > naringenin > apigenin > catechin >5,7- dihydroxy -3′,4′,5′-trimethoxyflavone > robinin > kaempferol > flavone. The activity increases with the number of hydroxyl groups substituted in the aromatic B-ring. The presence of a hydroxyl at C-3 and its glycosylation does not further increase scavenging efficiency. It is suggested that the overall antioxidant effect of flavonoids on lipid peroxidation may be due to their .OH and O·−2 scavenging properties and the reaction with peroxy radicals.
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Many enzymes and secondary compounds of higher plants have been demonstrated in in vitro experiments to protect against oxidative damage by inhibiting or quenching free radicals and reactive oxygen species. The roles of many other compounds as potential antioxidants can be inferred by their similarity to synthetic antioxidants of related structure. The evidence supports at least a partial antioxidant role in vivo for many classes of plant metabolite.
Article
The effects of several flavonoids and other known antioxidants on the thermal autoxidation of refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD)-palm oil were studied. The lipid peroxidation was indexed by measuring the malonyldialdehyde (MDA) production using the 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test. The antioxidative action decreased in the order of morin > kaempferol > myricetin > quercetin > vitamin A > α-tocopherol > apigenin > (+)-catechin > chrysin > datiscetin > luteolin > naringin > taxifolin > rutin > butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) > naringenin. The flavonoid aglycones were more potent in their antiperoxidative action than their corresponding glycosides. Structure-activity revealed that the flavonoid molecule with polyhydroxylated substitutions on rings A and B, a 2–3 double bond, a free 3-hydroxyl substitution and a 4-keto moiety, would confer potent antiperoxidative properties upon the compound. The flavonols, namely morin, myricetin, kaempferol and quercetin, would be suitable potential antioxidants for use in the stabilization of RBD-palm oil and its fractions against thermal autoxidation. The structural activity of the flavonoids on the RBD-palm oil was similar to those observed for these compounds in animal tissue or enzyme systems.
Article
For autoxidation, the initiation reactions, which are believed to be responsible for the formation of hydroxyl radicals, are inhibited by superoxide dismutase (SOD). Soybean lipoxygenase types I, IV and V were not inhibited by SOD in model systems containing linoleic acid.Autoxidation in a low-iron model system was further reduced by SOD. Autoxidation in the presence of haemin was rapid but also inhibited by SOD. These observations indicate that SOD mainly prevents the formation of hydroxyl radicals via the Haber-Weiss reaction during the iron-catalysed oxidation of linoleic acid, although it is possible that the enzyme might also inhibit haemin-catalysed oxidation by scavenging an oxy-haem complex.
Article
The reactive superoxide radical, O2-, formerly of concern only to radiation chemists and radiobiologists, is now understood to be a normal product of the biological reduction of molecular oxygen. An unusual family of enzymes, the superoxide dismutases, protect against the deleterious actions of this radical by catalyzing its dismutation to hydrogen peroxide plus oxygen.
Article
Probimane, dl-1,2-bis (4-morpholine-methyl-3, 5-dioxopiperazin-1-yl) propane, is a new antitumor agent synthesized by Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The scavenging effects of probimane on active oxygen radicals produced in 3 different systems were studied with the ESR spin trapping methods. In Fenton's reaction, probimane remarkably scavenged hydroxyl radicals (.OH) and the rate of scavenging .OH by probimane 0.05 mmol/L was 47%, compared to 5% by vitamin E (VE) and 30% by ascorbic acid (AA). In irradiation riboflavin system, in which superoxide (O2-.) was produced, the agent also had the scavenging effects on O2(-.). The rate of scavenging O2-. by probimane 0.05 mmol/L was 13%, higher than that by VE (7%) but lower than that by AA (90%). In cell system where the active oxygen radicals were produced during the respiratory burst of human neutrophils (Neu) stimulated by TPA (tetradecanoylphorbol acetate), probimane exhibited a dose-dependent scavenging action on the radicals. The rate of the radical scavenging by probimane 0.05 mmol/L was 37%, much higher than that by VE (9%) but lower than that by AA (68%). Probimane had no effect on the rate of oxygen consumption by human Neu, measured with spin probe oxymetry.
Article
Flavonols (quercetin and rutin) and flavanes (cyanidol and meciadonol) were studied for their effect on non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation, lipoxygenase and cyclo-oxygenase activities, binding to albumin and platelet membranes. These biochemical properties of four flavonoids were compared with respect to their antithrombotic action in vivo and their efficacy at influencing the platelet-endothelium interaction in vitro. All four flavonoids inhibited the ascorbate-stimulated formation of malondialdehyde by boiled rat liver microsomes (quercetin greater than rutin approximately cyanidol approximately meciadonol) and inhibited platelet lipoxygenase activity (quercetin greater than cyanidol greater than meciadonol greater than rutin) whereas only flavonols, but not flavanes, stimulated cyclo-oxygenase and were bound to platelet membranes. The same two flavonols dispersed platelet thrombi which were adhering to the rabbit aortic endothelium in vitro (EC50 for quercetin was 80 nM and for rutin 500 nM) and prevented platelets from aggregation over blood-superfused collagen strip in vivo (ED50 for quercetin was 5 nmol/kg and for rutin 33 nmol/kg i.v.). Cyanidol and meciadonol were not effective as anti-thrombotic agents. It is concluded that activated platelets adhering to vascular endothelium generate lipid peroxides and oxygen-free radicals which inhibit endothelial biosynthesis of prostacyclin and destroy endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF). Flavonols are anti-thrombotic because they are selectively bound to mural platelet thrombi and owing to their free radical scavenging properties resuscitate biosynthesis and action of endothelial prostacyclin and EDRF. Thus, flavonols release the thrombolytic and vasoprotective endothelial mediators only in these vascular segments which are covered by a carpet of aggregating platelets.
Article
Nitro blue tetrazolium has been used to intercept O2− generated enzymically or photochemically. The reduction of NBT by O2− has been utilized as the basis of assays for superoxide dismutase, which exposes its presence by inhibiting the reduction of NBT. Superoxide dismutase could thus be assayed either in crude extracts or in purified protein fractions. The assays described are sensitive to ng/ml levels of super-oxide dismutase and were applicable in free solution or on polyacrylamide gels. The staining procedure for localizing superoxide dismutase on polyacrylamide electrophoretograms has been applied to extracts obtained from a variety of sources. E. coli has been found to contain two superoxide dismutases whereas bovine heart, brain, lung, and erthrocytes contain only one.
Article
Scavenging of a superoxide and simultaneous formation of free radicals with phenolic antioxidants were investigated with cobalt and iron tetraphenylporphyrin-thiolate complexes as models of P-450 enzymes. The kinetics of decay of the superoxide and development of free radical ESR signal intensities were studied. Based on a molecular orbital calculation of the hyperfine splitting, the radical species generated were confirmed to be those of phenoxyl radicals. The biological implication of superoxide, including active oxygen forms, for the reaction was discussed.
Article
Depletion of hepatic glutathione in phenobarbital-induced rats by phorone (diisopropylidene acetone) led to an enhancement of spontaneous lipid peroxidation IN VITRO. Addition of exogenous glutathione, dithiocarb or one of the flavonoids (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, 3-O-methylcatechin, quercetin, taxifolin, rutin, naringin or naringenin led in every case to a dose-dependent inhibition of this peroxidative activity. The concentration values yielding 50% inhibition (I 50 ) varied from 1.0 × 10 -6 M for glutathione to 1.9 × 10 -5 M for naringenin. Naringin and naringenin, which lack the 3′-OH-group, were the least active inhibitors. The only structural feature of the flavonoids which affects their antioxidative action appears thus to be the 3′,4′-dihydroxy-grouping.
A study on reaction kinetics of superoxide dimutase and its model compounds with superoxide ion by illumination
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Nutritional benefits of flavonoids. International conference on food factors: Chemistry and cancer prevention
  • E Frankel