Article

Youth volunteering for youth: Who are they serving? How are they being served?

Authors:
  • Reichman University (IDC Herzliya)
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Youth volunteering for at-risk youth can have an impact on the clients' willingness to receive help as well as the youth who volunteer. The current study, undertaken in drop-in centers for youth at-risk in Israel, studied youth volunteers in comparison with adult volunteers as well as the clients of the service. It combined quantitative and qualitative data in order to understand the motivations, benefits and commitment of youth volunteers and to compare these aspects with those of adult volunteers in the same organization. Findings show that youth volunteers have different motivations, benefits and costs than adult volunteers. Youth volunteers are more relationship oriented; adult volunteers are more service oriented; and the volunteer group plays several important roles in youth volunteering. The clients (at-risk youth) perceived the youth volunteers as helpful and described how volunteers their age changed their world view and empowered them to volunteer themselves. In addition, there are blurred boundaries between youth clients and volunteers.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Besides education and the income level, social networks play a role in the involvement in volunteering activity (Haski-Leventhal, et al.,2008). As like the participation, household income level is one of the predictions of likelihood to involve volunteering (Lee & Won, 2018). ...
... The awareness and sense of initiative of young people increase towards issues within their communities such as violence, drug abuse and drop-outs from the school. As they volunteer with the sense of helping behaviour, they gain self-confidence and inner motivation to involve in society more (Haski-Leventhal, et al.,2008). Henceforth, it can be argued that volunteering not only promotes skill development but creates a long-lasting impact on individuals' life. ...
... The volunteering is always an ambiguity term though; the volunteers defined the volunteering with giving to the community, being available, as a tool for learning and self-realization, and involvement to the community as active members. In volunteering literature, international volunteering and volunteering in the local community generally differ due to their specific natures (Lough & Tiessen, 2018b;Haski-Leventhal, et al., 2008). In international volunteering, the volunteer engages with another culture, another community and this engagement process comes with cultural restraints and linguistic barriers. ...
Full-text available
Thesis
The aim of this study is to understand the profile of the volunteers participated in European Voluntary Service or European Solidarity Corps programs in South-East Turkey as short- or long-term volunteers, their experiences before, during and after the volunteering process. The European Youth Programs and the policy papers which constitute the basis for these programs are explained. A general framework on the factors impacting international volunteering and European Youth Programs in Turkey and South-East Turkey with the information of the organizations constituting this study is elaborated. During the study, 19 volunteers were interviewed by using semi-structured interview methodology. During the analysis, the process of volunteering was divided into three clusters as before, during and after volunteering in South-East Turkey. While their profile and perception of volunteering align with the general international volunteering reality, their choices concerning education and employment differentiated. The most distinctive finding was that the hosting organizations’ free-space policy enabling the volunteer to take initiatives had a positive impact on the volunteers’ participation in the activities. Furthermore, the interaction between volunteers coming from different cultures created impact on the volunteering experiences more than their interaction with the local community regarding cultural awareness.
... Also relevant are the characteristics of modern therapeutic relations, which for example, confine the professional caregiver's contact with the beneficiary to working hours only, thus maintaining a distance between them and making it difficult for the caregivers to gain the trust of youth (Rosenfeld & Sykes, 2000). Therefore, volunteers have a considerable advantage in working with these adolescents: they forge more egalitarian, friend-like relationships which, in turn, encourage openness and trust, and they serve as role models for their beneficiaries and offer concrete assistance that focuses on the service user and that is directly related to a specific problem that has surfaced (Haski-Leventhal, Ronel, York, & Ben-David, 2008;Ronel, 2006;Ronel & Guter, 2003;Yanay-Ventura, 2016). ...
... Although the literature shows extensively that, for youth in distress, close and caring mentoring can inhibit antisocial behaviors, increase trust in parental (or other adult) authority, improve social achievement and self-motivation, and decrease dropout rates from school (DuBois, Portillo, Rhodes, Silverthorn, & Valentine, 2011;Keating, Tomishima, Foster, & Alessandri, 2002), little research has thus far been devoted to volunteers' perceptions and practical approaches (Weiler, Zarich, Haddock, Krafchick, & Zimmerman, 2014;Wilson, 2012). Other studies have highlighted the difficulties inherent in mentoring and the emotional toll it takes on volunteers (Haski-Leventhal et al., 2008;Herrera, DuBois, & Grossman, 2013;Larkin, Sadler, & Mahler, 2005;Yanay & Yanay, 2008;Zilberstein & Spencer, 2017), pointing to the need to learn more about the mentoring practices of volunteers in order to gain a better understanding of the methods of this unique service. This study marks an attempt to begin filling this gap by exploring the strategies employed by volunteers in mentoring youth in distress. ...
... The Unlike the other strategies, this strategy, which is the last one described in the findings, is not a strategy of action but rather an interpretive strategy used by the volunteers. Despite the extensive literature that deals with the personal challenges faced by mentors (Haski-Leventhal et al., 2008;Herrera et al., 2013;Larkin et al., 2005;Yanay & Yanay, 2008;Zilberstein & Spencer, 2017), the volunteers in this study seldom reported emotional difficulties or perhaps simply did not stress them in their narratives. And even when they described difficulties, they ultimately came to terms with them. ...
Article
Whereas the literature deals extensively with volunteering with at-risk youth, relatively little research has addressed the practical work strategies of the volunteers themselves. This study aims to fill this gap by exploring the strategies employed by youth mentoring volunteers based on qualitative research with 28 volunteers, two-thirds of whom defined themselves as former youth in distress. This focus enables us to learn about ways of coping with marginality from individuals who actually experienced it. The results point to six strategies that were reflected in the interviews: honesty and directness, listening, informal activities, refraining from judgment and containing anger and resistance, bridging between youth and caregiving entities, and cultivating a realistic sense of self-efficacy as volunteers. In essence, these strategies seek to increase access to the youth, to provide them with unconditional support, and to enable volunteers to supplement the professionals for the benefit of the youth. Though not professionals, volunteers create an agency-promoting environment to help youth escape marginalization. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0190740918311010?dgcid=author
... In a study of youth volunteering for youth at risk, it was found that such volunteers are more relationship oriented in their volunteer roles, while adult volunteers are more service oriented (Haski-Leventhal et al., 2007). Youth were more interested in establishing rapport with clients and volunteers, whereas adults were more task-oriented. ...
... Youth were more interested in establishing rapport with clients and volunteers, whereas adults were more task-oriented. There were also "blurred boundaries" between youth volunteers and youth clients (Haski-Leventhal et al., 2007). ...
... In addition, there has been very little research related to the role of motivation, leadership and barriers to engagement in youth volunteering, especially to indirect forms of service (Tessier et al., 2006;National Volunteer & Philanthropy Centre, 2008;Haski-Leventhal et al., 2007). ...
Article
Youth volunteerism is highly researched by volunteer organizations, but little is known about the factors impacting youth who provide indirect volunteering and the strengths and challenges which they face. Volunteering is indirect when the results of a volunteer’s work travels through more than one channel, (usually stakeholders spreading a message or raising funds), before reaching the intended client. Awareness raising and fundraising activities are two common examples of indirect volunteering that are attractive to many youth. Ten youth volunteers from five different organizations in the Greater Toronto Area were interviewed in order to investigate three important questions about indirect volunteering. These questions are: What strengths and challenges affect youth volunteers who provide indirect forms of service?What motivations, barriers to engagement, and opportunities for leadership affect youth volunteers who participate in indirect forms of service?How does role ambiguity impact indirect forms of service? The methodology included purposive sampling for youth volunteers to participate in semistructured, in-depth interviews. Open coding from an interpretivist framework was used to analyze the qualitative data. The results highlight motivations, barriers to engagement, and opportunities for leadership that validate prior literature and shed light on new themes. The results also highlight strengths and challenges for youth volunteers. Role ambiguity, along with two new core themes emerged as new issues that were important to youth volunteers who provide indirect service. These two new core themes included exploring issues of empowerment and power imbalances for youth volunteers and the meaning that youth ascribe to their volunteer experiences. Practice recommendations weighing strengths and challenges faced by youth volunteers across each of the core themes are provided in the discussion. Practice recommendations explore implementing job design and Community Service Learning to make indirect volunteering more clear for youth. The discussion also includes a conceptual framework with new models illustrating the provision of indirect services along with ideal and problematic pathways of engaging youth who are indirect volunteers. A conceptual framework illustrating ways to overcome role ambiguity is also provided. This research fills significant gaps in the literature about youth volunteers who are engaged in indirect service delivery. This thesis offers methods to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of work with youth in the volunteer sector—which is a deeply embedded component of the welfare state (Evers, Laville, Borzaga, Defourny, Lewis, Nyssens, & Pestoff 2004). Volunteerism is an act of helping, and volunteers perform their work in helping professions including the social services that serve the welfare state.
... Young individuals also volunteer, although what motivates them to do so differs (Omoto et al., 2000). Younger volunteers are largely motivated by the types of relationship they may develop, and meeting/making new friends (Haski-Leventhal et al., 2008;Omoto et al., 2000), while older volunteers were inspired by service and societal obligations concerns. Strong connections with family, friends, religious groups and schools also facilitate young people to volunteer (Duke et al., 2009;Perks & Konecny, 2015). ...
... Information is critically important in the recruitment of more young volunteers, and schools can be at the frontline of facilitating this information flow. Many studies (Astin & Sax, 1998;Flanagan et al., 1998;Hart et al., 2007;Haski-Leventhal et al., 2008;Hill & den Dulk, 2013;Torres, 2003;Verba et al., 1995;Walsh & Black, 2015) emphasize that schools that promote social participation are positively correlated with youth volunteering. Schools also offer a further opportunity: volunteering is associated with better academic performance in children (Khajehpour & Ghazvini, 2011;Moorfoot et al., 2015;Wang & Fahey, 2011). ...
Full-text available
Article
Australian regional communities are changing. The combined impact of out-migration and ageing populations means that the capacity of regional communities to function as they traditionally have is challenged. In this context, volunteer effort remains a vital part of building community resilience and social capital. Yet, volunteering per se is under threat, and encouraging young people to volunteer an even greater challenge. This paper presents the results of a project that sought to understand the barriers to, and incentives for, youth volunteering at three regional local government areas in South Australia. First, we find that despite a popular conviction that youth volunteering is on the decline, it has in fact increased; the actual decline is with those volunteers who are within the 35–55-year age groups. Second, we found that two models of volunteering exist in the regions: (1) volunteering as an activity involving participation on committees or doing regular primarily public good group-based work (e.g., emergency services, Rotary, conservation); and (2) event-based, one-off, fun activities (sometimes, but not always, for the broader public good). Volunteering per se, however, was considered by all participants as central to community identity. Culture, sports and youth clubs emerged as important hubs for youth activity and potential volunteer recruitment. We suggest a new model for regional youth volunteering that prioritizes events, partnerships and social media, as well as using existing institutions as bridging organizations.
... Steinberg (2011) stated that there is a sharp increase in the time adolescence spends with their peers as friends provide safe venues for them to explore their identity, find acceptance and belongingness. Haski-Leventhal et al., (2008) study showed that peers make an important role model as 'it is easier to feel closer to youth volunteers because they are like us'. ...
... The certificate was important as it would provide evidence of their involvement which would entitle them to gain co-curriculum credits. The credits are important as it would increase their chances of furthering their education in tertiary institutions and/or add value to their resume for a better job opportunity (Martinez & McMullin 2004, Haski-Leventhal et al. 2008, Finkelstien 2009, Widjaja 2010, Veerasamy et al. 2013. ...
Full-text available
Article
Nature conservation volunteer programs promote active learning through direct involvement. Although many volunteering programs have been initiated, school students' involvement is still low. One of the reasons is the lack of volunteering programs that fit students' needs and motivation. Hence, the study determines students' motivation to be involved in a nature conservation program based on the Motivation-Opportunity-Ability model. The study utilized focus group discussion (FGD) to obtain the primary data. The FGD sessions involved forty-five (45) secondary school students. All discussions were audio-recorded and analyzed thematically. Findings showed that students have positive beliefs about being a volunteer in a nature conservation program. Their volunteering behavior is motivated by the desire to contribute towards the conservation of the conservation sites and the local community. They are also motivated to achieve personal development through knowledge gains, new experiences, self-confidence and being a role model to their friends and family. Parents, teachers, and friends are important people in influencing their volunteering behavior. The selection of time and non-monetary rewards facilitates their involvement. The availability and accessibility of the volunteer program is supported by task knowledge and familiarization of the implementation of the program.
... In addition, 42 % of organisations state that EVS has had a particular impact on commitment to the inclusion of young people with fewer opportunities, again especially in the case of the two abovementioned groups (48 % and 47 % respectively). The literature review also showed that the presence of young volunteers makes the atmosphere warmer and the culture of the organisation more youth-friendly atmosphere (Haski-Leventhal et al., 2008;Mieńkowska-Norkiene 2011;Euroopa Nooerd, 2013). On the one hand, this signals the trustworthiness of the organisation in the eyes of beneficiaries, which is of key importance for example in reaching the hard-to-reach young people at risk of social exclusion (Haski-Leventhal et al., 2008). ...
... The literature review also showed that the presence of young volunteers makes the atmosphere warmer and the culture of the organisation more youth-friendly atmosphere (Haski-Leventhal et al., 2008;Mieńkowska-Norkiene 2011;Euroopa Nooerd, 2013). On the one hand, this signals the trustworthiness of the organisation in the eyes of beneficiaries, which is of key importance for example in reaching the hard-to-reach young people at risk of social exclusion (Haski-Leventhal et al., 2008). On the other hand, volunteer participation builds support for the organisation's governance structure and operations, thus contributing to its sustainability (Handy & Greespan, 2009). ...
... Traditionally, the world of volunteering has consisted of three major actors: the volunteers who give their time freely to help others with no monetary remuneration (see more about definition of volunteers in Cnaan et al., 1996; and on perceptions of who is a volunteer in Handy et al., 2000); the volunteer organisations which provide the mechanism for formal volunteering; and the clients (or recipients /members) which are the target population of the services provided by the organisations and the volunteers. Some overlapping areas can exist between the three circles, as recipients take part in, or even establish such organisations, or in the case of a client volunteering for other clients, that is, people who volunteer for their own social group (see the example of youth volunteering for youth; Haski Leventhal et al., 2008c). In the current article, we focus on the involvement of other actors, here called "third parties", to enhance volunteering. ...
... Often, their young age and little experience challenge voluntary organisations. Furthermore, adolescent volunteers tend to emphasize the role of the group, create sub-groups in the organisation, and even conflict with peers and staff (Haski-Leventhal et al., 2008c). ...
Full-text available
Article
Volunteering is perceived as important for creating social capital and civil society, and therefore has become a fundamental part of social policies across most Western countries. In this article, we examine the involvement of governments, corporations and educational institutes in encouraging volunteering, and pinpoint their role in developing volunteering circles. Based on essential concepts presented here (volunteerability and recruitability), we develop the third-party model, and show how third parties get involved. We identify new ways in which these parties can enhance volunteering, and discuss their impact on volunteerability and recruitability. The potential negative impacts of volunteerism and ways in which these can be ameliorated are also acknowledged. Finally, issues that arise due to such involvement are also discussed, thereby offering an important contribution to social policy research in the area of volunteerism.
... Moreover, this stage, according to V. Apukhtin and A. Bogomolov, became a brake on the development of the volunteer movement in the post-Soviet space, and also contributed to the formation of a negative perception of volunteer activities in society (Aptukhin & Bogomolov, 2015). Western researchers share the same opinion (Haski-Leventhal et al., 2008;Dean, 2014). For example, in their work on volunteering in the cross-national dimension, they note: "In the former socialist countries of Central and Eastern Europe, the very concept of volunteering had become suddenly obsolete, being contaminated by decades of state and party-led requirements to contribute time and efforts freely for some common social, cultural or political cause" (Helmut and Salamon, 1999). ...
Full-text available
Article
The article is devoted to the study of volunteering as a social technology through which young people are involved in public activity, and as a factor that affects the individual career strategies of its representatives. The world, all-Ukrainian and local tendencies of changes in the level of interest of young people in volunteering are compared, based on the results of a sociological survey of the attitude towards volunteering of students from one of the leading universities in Southern Ukraine and the results of other scientific studies on this issue. The results obtained confirm national trends. Thus, the most popular areas of volunteering among the youth coincide: helping children (74%), animals (66%), ATO soldiers (64%). The data on the motivational specifics of youth volunteering demonstrate a variety of perceptions of the value of volunteer experience even within the same age group of youth. The factor of student youth having free time is not a key factor in terms of their involvement in volunteering. The established interdependence between the self-identification of student youth and the presence of volunteer experience seems to be important. The obtained data and conclusions regarding age-related motivational characteristics and stereotypes about barriers to volunteering will help to correctly plan activities to involve young people in volunteering. In addition, the study will be useful for the development and improvement of educational programs aimed at training specialists in working with youth, organizing the involvement of its representatives in participating in the volunteer movement.
... Although young people perceive that volunteering improves their chances of finding a job (Cnaan et al., 2010;Donahue & Russell, 2009;Hill, Russell & Brewis, 2009;Newton, Oakley & Pollard, 2011;Smith et al., 2002;VInspired, 2008), there is little empirical evidence to show that this is actually the case (see for example, Hackl, Halla & Pruckner, 2007;Paine, McKay & Moro, 2013;Wilson & Musick, 1999). However, there is evidence to support that volunteering gives young people the opportunity to acquire knowledge; improve their interpersonal relationship skills and increase their communication skills (Broadbent & Papadopoulos, 2010;Celio, Durlak & Dymnicki, 2011;Conrad & Hedin, 1982;Fortier, Auger & Froment-Prévesto, 2007;Erturan-Ogut, 2014); develop skills like management and leadership (Broadbent & Papadopoulos, 2010;Donahue & Russell, 2009;Eley, 2003;United Nations Volunteers, 2011); make new contacts in their social networks that can help them access job opportunities; and experience different types of jobs that facilitate decisionmaking concerning their future professional career (Cnaan et al., 2010;Haski-Leventhal, Ronel, York & Ben-David, 2008;Lindsay, Chan, Cancelliere & Mistry, 2018;United Nations Volunteers, 2011;Speakman, Drake & Hawkins, 2001;Kay & Bradbury, 2009). All of these factors help to improve their employability, which is understood as the "set of skills and attitudes that allow an individual to secure and keep a job" (Royal Spanish Academy, 2017). ...
Full-text available
Article
Studies on the benefits of volunteering in young people have received some attention, although important knowledge gaps still exist concerning this matter. The main aim of this study is to analyse the different profiles of those who choose to take part in voluntary activities and those who do not; another aim being to analyse the benefits of volunteering in young people. A total of 66 young people participating in training programmes in Spain completed a questionnaire and took part in a follow-up survey six months later. The study found that the young volunteers were more likely to volunteer in the future, perceiving a greater social support and attaching more importance to interpersonal values. After completing their volunteer experience, the young volunteers, as opposed to the non-volunteers, had a positive image of volunteering and perceived themselves as more likely to find a job. The results obtained are discussed.
... If there is an activity that stands out as being communitybased, it is community volunteering. Youth volunteering can be defined as an activity with a positive social benefit performed by adolescents who volunteer for no monetary rewards (Haski-Leventhal et al., 2008). Some youth are encouraged or obliged to volunteer by their schools or as part of their school's curriculum. ...
Article
The Aim of this scoping review was to explore the available literature on volunteerism in adolescence and the benefits that this activity may report in their healthy development, from a salutogenic perspective. Searches were conducted in Pubmed, Cinahl, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library home databases; 15 articles were selected. Almost all of the studies were conducted in the United States between 1990 and 2000, primarily developed by psychologists and sociologists. The impact of volunteering was reflected in aspects that can be classified based on Lerner's dimensions of the PYD model. Volunteer activities promote an Improved academic, social, cognitive, and vocational competence in adolescents. An increase in conflict resolution capacity, leadership and personal agency, as well as improved pro-social attitudes and relationships with adults and peers, all of which contributed to their self-identification with the community. Moreover, increased positive development of adolescents reduces the rates of risky behaviors. Volunteerism may represent an opportunity for health promotion in adolescence. The concept of volunteering as an asset for health promotion during adolescence evokes the need to adopt and favor this view with regard to key areas of study associated with this stage such as education and health. Teams that work in community health, especially those in primary care, should recognize and value existing volunteer groups as an asset to promote the healthy development of adolescents. Friendlier health services should be encouraged that include comprehensive services from within educational institutions to community actions.
... Several researchers have looked into the relation of age and volunteer motives (Haski-Leventhal, Ronel, York & Ben-David, 2008;Hrafnsdottir, 2006b;Omoto, Snyder & Martino, 2000). In an Icelandic study young people mentioned personal reasons as their main reason for participating while the older age group mentioned more frequently the motive to serve for a certain cause (Hrafnsdottir, 2007). ...
... Meaningful youth involvement has been pivotal in advancing a number of social issues including health and mental health promotion (Flicker et al. 2008;Ramey et al. 2012;Ross 2010;Wong et al. 2010), the promotion of helping (Reavley et al. 2011;Haski-Leventhal et al. 2008), fostering community change (Campbell and Erbstein 2012;Zeldin et al. 2012), enhancing youth development (Christens and Peterson 2012;Fredricks and Eccles 2005), developing collectives between adults and youth (Ginwright 2005), advancing youth-focused research (Jacquez et al. 2013), and creating organizational change within youth-serving organizations (Schulman 2006;Zeldin et al. 2005). ...
Article
Many Canadian youth suffering from mental health issues do not access necessary services. There is a need for more evaluation of existing programs that promote access. mindyourmind is a web-facilitated community mental health program with a Web site developed to improve access to services for youth dealing with mental health issues. This article provides an in-depth description of youth engagement strategies used by mindyourmind and the results of a preliminary evaluation to determine the characteristics and usage patterns of Web site users and impacts on help-seeking behavior.
... It can be a pathway for the unemployed to develop skills for employment (DEC, 2012). Voluntary action can support those in need of services, providing for marginalized social groups (Haski-Leventhal, Ronel, York, & Ben-David, 2008). It can be individually satisfying, giving the volunteer a sense of personal meaning and enhanced health and wellbeing (Haski-Leventhal, 2009). ...
Full-text available
Article
Voluntary professional experience can be a powerful way for initial teacher education (ITE) students to develop an understanding of schools and their communities. Do ITE students make use of these opportunities? There is little Australian research that explores genuine volunteering that does not "require" students to engage with the community. We conducted an on-line survey with 141 ITE students who were eligible to participate in a volunteer program. What factors reduced volunteering and what factors enhanced it? The results showed that, while students value volunteering and can point to benefits that come from it, most are unable or unwilling to participate. What factors differentiate those students who do volunteer despite the demands of complex, busy lives?.
... Eldri ungmennin fengju einnig taekifaeri til þátttöku í tengslum við háskólanám. r agný þór a gU ðJohnsen og sigrún aðalbJarnardót tir Þá liggur fyrir rannsókn á ástaeðum ísraelskra ungmenna (12-19 ára) og eldri hóps leiðbeinenda (19 ára og eldri) fyrir því að taka þátt í sjálfboðaliðastarfi í miðstöðvum sem veittu ungmennum félagslegan stuðning, aðstoð og fraeðslu (Haski-Leventhal, Ronel, York og Ben-David, 2008). Gögnum var safnað baeði með spurningalistum og viðtölum. ...
Full-text available
Article
“My calling is to help and try to benefit others” Young people’s views on volunteering Abstract The past two decades have seen increasing amounts of research on young people‘s civic engagement (Sherrod, Torney-Purta, & Flanagan, 2010). The main focus, however, has been on their political engagement, rather than on their volunteerism that aims to help people in various ways (e.g., Higgins-D’Alessandro, 2010). This study explored young people’s views on their own volunteering, focusing on their motivation, goals, and values. It also aimed to continue developing an analytical model of young people’s civic engagement by extending it to volunteerism. Five young people aged 14 to 20 were interviewed using semi-structured in-depth interviews. On one hand, the main result of the thematic analysis suggests that the young people participating in the study connected their goals to personal gains such as selfconfidence, social competence and companionship. For example, within the theme of social competence they referred to different competencies. Some said they had improved in their social interactions, learned a lot through interpersonal communication and strengthened their collaboration skills, as well as improving their conflict solving skills. Others also referred to ethical issues, they had learned about honesty and respect to others. On the other hand, and equally important, they connected their aims to societal gains like having an impact, being an active citizen with a voice, and being helpful to people across society. Their views reflected various values of justice and human rights; thus, each of them had a personal focus, ranging from the rights of nations (e.g., Palestine) to the rights of minority groups such as handicapped children, as well as ensuring a voice for young people and women, and their wish to guarantee equal rights to a decent standard of living, including access to education, health services, and a livelihood. They called for justice, some offering examples on a national level and others on an international level. Also, they all emphasized helpfulness in relation to their volunteering: it is “a good feeling” to be able to help other people. They expressed empathy for the people they work with as well. For example, they put themselves in the shoes of people who need assistance and describe how hard they found the difficult situations some people live with and how much they would like to improve those situations. In addition, their sense of responsibility was clear; particularly their wish to be active as citizens and to serve as good role models for the youth they work with. Some of them felt their volunteer work had improved their understanding of people‘s different socio-economic situations (e.g., people with disabilities, poor children abroad) and of nations where human rights are violated. They said that the experience of working with these people had encouraged them to take further action. Similarly, Reinders and Youniss (2006) found that when volunteers communicate directly with those who receive the help, they experience their contribution as more important. They all said they would continue to volunteer throughout their lives. Also, the older ones in the group connected this experience to their future plans. One hoped to become a reporter and write about human rights, another planned to study psychology at university and hoped to connect it to volunteer work in the future, and the third intended to study sociology and political science based on her focus on the importance of encouraging young people to take active part in the development of society. They may well do so; studies indicate that volunteering at young ages and participating in service-learning projects predicts people’s later participation in volunteering (Hart, Donnelly, Youniss & Atkins, 2007). The main limitation of the study is that only five young people were interviewed. Also, this interview method may be limited in the sense that some might find it difficult to express and describe their ideas and experiences. The study has at least three key strengths. First, using in-depth interviews – which focus on young people’s interest in volunteering, and their values, aims, and actions, based on the analytical model of civic engagement (Sigrún Aðalbjarnardóttir, 2007, 2008) – we can develop a more holistic picture and a deeper understanding of their civic awareness and engagement as related to volunteering. Second, it is valuable since so few studies have been conducted on young people’s volunteering, particularly with regard to adolescents up to age 20, using in-depth interviews with this focus. The third strength is its development of an analytical model of young people’s civic awareness and engagement by focusing on volunteering. Given these strengths, the study should make an important contribution to this field of study, on both national and international levels. We do hope that the approach and the findings of this study can be of use to researchers in this field of study, to those who organize volunteer work for young people, and to those whose everyday work involves cultivating important ethical and societal values among the younger generation. Keywords: Volunteering, young people, interview study About the authors Ragny Thora Gudjohnsen (rthg3@hi.is) is a Ph.D. student in education at the University of Iceland, School of Education. She completed a Magister Juris degree at the University of Iceland in 1992, and an M.A. degree in education in 2009, also at the University of Iceland. Her research area is young people‘s civic engagement with a focus on their volunteering and empathy level. Sigrun Adalbjarnardottir (sa@hi.is) is a professor at the University of Iceland, School of Education. She completed a doctoral degree from Harvard University in 1988. Her research projects include a longitudinal study on risk, relationships and the resilience of young people; youth’s civic engagement; youth‘s social and interpersonal awareness; parenting styles; teachers’ professional development; and school development (see www.uni.hi.is/sa).
... Given the role that companies play in volunteering in Russia, we investigate whether companies might offer a way of shaping the volunteering infrastructure in Russia by converting the corporate volunteering of employees into broader civic engagement outside the workplace (for a detailed overview of volunteering infrastructure, see Bos 2014). Many studies in other contexts (e.g., service learning and community service) have shown the potential for transfer between particular types of formal volunteering and other forms of current and future volunteering, whether formal or informal (see e.g., Haski-Leventhal et al. 2008). ...
Full-text available
Article
This paper discusses the relationship between corporate volunteering and civic engagement outside the workplace in Russia, proceeding from a mixed-method approach. The quantitative findings are based on a comparison between employees in 37 Russian companies who participated in corporate volunteering (N = 399) and those who did not (N = 402). Using binary logistic regression analysis, we demonstrate that employee participation in corporate volunteering is positively related to four forms of civic engagement outside the workplace: informal volunteering, formal volunteering, formal monetary donation, and informal monetary donation. In addition, we draw on information obtained from interviews with 10 corporate volunteers, as well as with all 37 company corporate volunteering managers, to develop a general explanation for why corporate volunteering might lead to civic engagement. We identify three primary explanations. First, trust in companies can be converted into increased trust in social institutions. Second, corporate volunteering can expose employees to other realities, thereby leading them to rethink their priorities. Third, corporate volunteering socializes employees to volunteering, thus making them more likely to incorporate volunteering into their personal repertoires of activities. Corporate volunteering appears to be an effective mechanism for stimulating civic engagement and volunteering infrastructure in post-communist countries. © 2015 International Society for Third-Sector Research and The Johns Hopkins University
... This may not be surprising given that education was found to be the most consistent predictor of volunteerism (Wilson, 2000) and that compared to non-volunteering youth, volunteering youth show higher personal competency, more access to social power, and more contact with family, friends and teachers who volunteer (Sundeen & Raskoff, 2000). Nevertheless, studies documenting the effects of intervention programs aimed at engaging youth from adverse or minority backgrounds to volunteer for their communities have testified to positive effects similar to those presented earlier for the general population (Haski-Leventhal, Ronel, York, & Ben-David, 2008;Pritzker, LaChapelle, & Tatum, 2012). Regarding youth in care specifically, a number of authors have commented on the success of private initiatives supporting young people by encouraging them to actively care for others (e.g., Gilligan, 1999), but on the whole the issue has received very little attention. ...
Article
Much of the attention concerning youth in care focuses on the ways they are being helped and supported. This study focuses on the motivations and experiences which lead youth in care to assume a helper role, the meaning they ascribe to such a role and the benefits consequently gained. The study sample consisted of 28 Israeli and German care leavers, aged 18-26, who had begun, were about to begin or had already finished higher education. The results show various motivations for assuming a helper role e.g. socialization through early parental roles within biological families, modeling by significant others, and exposure to pro-social values and opportunities for volunteering within the care systems. The ways these young people sup-port others varies. Some volunteer within their communities, some support members of their family of origin, and others integrated the idea of supporting others into their career choice. According to these young people, assuming a helper role provided a strong sense of purpose in life and contributed to their self-efficacy, social connectedness and ability to cope with their adverse past. In particular, supporting others seems to reflect care leavers' wish to lead a normal life.
... Naime, kada je riječ o ovoj temi u znanstvenoj literaturi, tu još uvijek vlada deficit sveobuhvatnih znanstvenih tekstova u kojima se raščlanjuju javnopolitički čimbenici politike za mlade, koristeći se pritom policy metodologijom. Uglavnom je u tekstovima riječ o pojedinim njenim aspektima – primjerice, političkoj participaciji mladih (Bessant, 2004; Forbig, 2005; Checkoway, Gutierrez, 2006; Checkoway, 2010), socijalnoj inkluziji mladih (Cartmel i dr., 2003; Barry, 2004; Weil i dr., 2005; MacDonald, Shildrick, 2007), volontiranju (Jones, 2005; Haski-Leventhal i dr., 2008; Marta, Pozzi, 2008), kulturi mladih (Amit-Talai, Wulff, 1995), zdravlju mladih (Perry i dr., 1985), zapošljavanju (Gregg, 2001; Neumark, Wascher, 2004; Breen, 2005), informiranju (Chelton, Cool, 2007) i drugim policy područjima. Kako bi se olakšalo stavljanje politika za mlade u analitički okvir, Howard Williamson (2002) predlaže koncept 5C kao alat za razumijevanje (a potencijalno i procjenu) politika za mlade. ...
Full-text available
Chapter
Mladi su, bar nominalno, jedan od prioriteta ne samo Hrvatske, nego i cijele europske zajednice. Visok stupanj nezaposlenosti, nedovoljna participacija u društvenom i političkom životu te porast radikalnih stavova razlozi su relevantnosti politika za mlade. Definirana kao sve one aktivnosti koje omogućuju mladima stvaranje povoljnih uvjeta za učenja, mogućnosti i iskustva potrebnih za usvajanje kompetencija za aktivno sudjelovanje u privatnom i društvenom životu, politika za mlade počinje dobivati sve veću važnost, kako među civilnim akterima, tako i državnim institucijama. Kao i sve identitetske politike, politika za mlade eklektična je i poprilično fluidna. Upravo ta eklektičnost razlog je disperzije ovlasti i odgovornosti državnih aktera za rješavanje problema koje targetira navedena javna politika. Glavna ideja teksta je dati uvod u strukturu i aktere politike za mlade u Hrvatskoj. Uzimajući u obzir da su normativni akti i akteri te njihov međuodnos ključni za razumijevanje javnih politika, u ovom radu će se detaljno analizirati zakonska i podzakonska rješenja vezana za politiku za mlade, kao i istražiti utjecaj i ekspertizu aktera. Polazna pretpostavka je da postoji diskrepancija između državnih i nedržavnih aktera u kompetencijama vezanim za kreiranje politika za mlade, no da unatoč smanjenom kapacitetu državnog aparata, politika za mlade u RH ispunjava (minimalne) preduvjete kvalitete, responzivnosti, djelotvornosti i adekvatnosti. Smještajući hrvatski primjer u europski kontekst te analizirajući procese inherentne politici za mlade, tekst će dati presjek najvažnijih segmenata koje bi politika za mlade trebala uključivati te, naposljetku, odgovoriti na pitanje, ima li Hrvatska uistinu koherentnu politiku za mlade ili se više radi o skupu segmenata bez zajedničkog nazivnika.
... The professionalisation process of volunteer management in Australia perform well. Second, it is the volunteers themselves who often want more training -it has been found that the level of training was related to satisfaction, respect to the organisation and supervisor, and retention of volunteers (Haski-Leventhal, Ronel, York, & Ben-David, 2008). It is true that volunteer managers still have to learn how to train newcomers and gain the necessary skills, knowledge and information to do it. ...
... Furthermore, previous contributions on volunteer management have rarely focused on young volunteers and/or volunteers in youth service organizations, despite the fact that these volunteers might be driven by other motives (Clary et al., 1996;Haski-Leventhal, Ronel, York, & Ben-David, 2008). In addition to the managerial challenges listed above, and given the educational value of volunteering for young people (McBride, Johnson, Olate, & O'Hara, 2011;Vallory, 2012), these organizations deserve more attention. ...
... The effects of PYD interventions may be stronger among those youth categorized as marginalized or disadvantaged (Haski-Leventhal, Ronel, York, & Boaz, 2008;Spring, Dietz, & Grimm, 2007). In fact, the PYD movement emerged from resistance among scholars and practitioners to a deficit approach, treating youth as problems. ...
Article
Youth volunteer service is prevalent worldwide, though little systematic information exists on its forms and features in the Global South. Anecdotal evidence suggests that programs may embrace principles of positive youth development. The youth may be engaged in substantial, meaningful roles that impact their development while they positively impact others. This descriptive study assessed the forms and institutional features of youth volunteer service in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). A cross-sectional electronic survey was implemented with 374 sponsoring organizations throughout 12 countries in LAC; the organizations sponsored a total of 533 youth volunteer service programs. The programs functionally resemble a positive youth development approach, though the characteristics of the volunteers suggest that they may be more socio-economically advantaged. Implications are drawn for inclusive practices and further research.
Full-text available
Article
Гипотеза эмпатии-альтруизма –распространенная объяснительная модель просоциального поведе-ния. С некоторыми ограничениями мы можем говорить о том, что волонтерство с бездомными жи-вотными является феноменом просоциального поведения, так как конечный благополучатель подоб-ной деятельности –общество. К настоящему моменту у нас есть только единичные данные об эмпа-тии и альтруизме зоодобровольцев. Вопрос о том, детерминирует ли уровень эмпатии альтруизм у таких добровольцев по отношению к животным, по-прежнему остается открытым.Целью нашей ра-боты было изучить способность добровольцев эмоционально сопереживать другим в целом, а также выяснить, связана ли эта способность с альтруистической ориентацией.Мы протестировали 114 доб-ровольцев, помогающих бездомным животным, из различных российских благотворительных орга-низаций с помощью опросника «Шкала эмоционального отклика» А. Мехрабиана, Н. Эпштейна (в адаптации Ю.М. Орлова и Ю.Н. Емельянова) и анкеты, разработанной нами в соответствии с методи-кой VFI и теорией мотивов Э.Дж. Клари (Clary et al., 1998). На основании полученных данных мы разделили добровольцев на две группы: альтруисты и не альтруисты. Далее сравнили уровни эмпатии в двух группах, используя t-критерий Стьюдента (для независимых выборок).Добровольцы показали умеренную (с тенденцией к низкой) эмпатию по отношению к людям. В то же время сострадание к животным было чрезвычайно высоким как среди альтруистов, так и среди не альтруистов. Связи между общей способностью к эмоциональной эмпатии и альтруизмом зооволонтеров не обнаружено.Наши результаты свидетельствуют о том, что, несмотря на то, что волонтерство с животными может быть по сути просоциальным, зооволонтеры сопереживают в первую очередь животным, а не людям или обществу в целом. С другой стороны, подобный уровень эмпатии может быть связан с эмоцио-нальным выгоранием, усталостью от сочувствия, а также указывать на некоторую специализацию в эмпатии у таких индивидов (по отношению к людям или животным) или проявление негативного от-ношения к людям с учетом особенностей зооволонтерства. Требуются дальнейшие исследования по данной теме. Работы, подобные нашей, могут быть полезны для удержания зооволонтеров и профи-лактики, превенции их эмоционального выгорания.
Full-text available
Article
Youth’s participation in community service is a proposed but uncharted way to prevent their violent perpetration. To clarify the preventive function, this study analyzes two-wave panel survey data on 1,710 Chinese youths in Hong Kong according to empowerment theory. Specifically, the theory posits that empowerment functions when it targets youth plagued by powerlessness. Two hypothesized conditions of relative powerlessness are being female and living in poor housing. Results support the hypotheses when participation in community service appeared to prevent violent perpetration, and the prevention was greater under the two powerless conditions. These results importantly emerged with the control for prior violent perpetration and adjustment for selectivity into the participation. The results thus imply the value of inviting youth to participate in community service to prevent their violent perpetration. The invitation can target youth who are female or residing in poor housing.
Full-text available
Article
Volunteerism is influenced by varied motivational factors. As the world is still suffering from the devastating effect of the COVID-19 pandemic, China, through collective efforts by the government, local people, and the international community comprising of student volunteers, has been able to reduce the rate of infection. The qualitative study involving fifteen (15) international postgraduate student volunteers explored the motivation behind their decision to volunteer in the deadly COVID-19 crisis. Participants of the study were randomly sampled from three universities. Findings of the study suggest that student volunteers were largely influenced by intrinsic-altruistic motives as opposed to extrinsic motives. The volunteers distributed mask, thermometers, checked temperatures, educated students on COVID-19, and made videos to encourage students suffering from anxiety, depression, and boredom. It was found that despite contextual challenges, the intrinsically and altruistically motivated volunteers had satisfaction to engage in volunteering activities. Volunteer management boards should ensure volunteers are well-motivated. Future research should replicate this study by investigating factors that affect the volunteering role of international students and the impact of international volunteering on well-being and work-life of volunteers.
Full-text available
Article
Background Children of African asylum seekers are a growing population in the Western world. Many of them who live in extreme social exclusion experience social alienation and powerlessness. Based on the assumption that the unique relationships between mentors and mentees can increase well-being, more in depth data on the perspectives of the practical work strategies of the volunteers themselves would be useful to understand their actions and underlying principles of actions in mentoring children of asylum seekers.Objective To explore the experiences and strategies employed by nonprofessional volunteers who mentor children of asylum seekers.Method In-depth semi-structured interviews with 19 volunteers who mentor children (age range 6–12) of African asylum seekers in Israel were conducted. A thematic analysis based on grounded theory approach was employed.ResultsBased on the volunteers’ perceptions, the data suggest a four-level process of strategies aimed at resistance to othering and the development of a sense of personal agency through mentoring.Conclusions The perceptions of volunteers who work with the children of asylum seekers suggest they use strategies that seek to increase the children’s sense of belonging and agency and to provide them with the unconditional support they usually do not receive elsewhere. The findings suggest that volunteers may help create an agency-promoting environment to help asylum seeker children cope with their distress. Studies using controlled designs might examine the effects of volunteers by developing guidelines and action principles as a basis for fostering standardized training for volunteers who work with children in extreme social exclusion.
Article
Purpose Encouraging college students to volunteer is a supposed but uncharted way to contribute to their career commitment. Clarifying the ways of the contribution is therefore necessary. From the social capital perspective, volunteering and network density among friends represent social capital to reinforce each other. Thus, enhancement of the contribution by the density is a focus of the clarification. Design/methodology/approach The examination employs a two-wave panel survey of 410 university students to estimate the effects of volunteering and friend network density at Wave 1 on career commitment at Wave 2. Essentially, the examination adjusted for biases due to sample attrition and self-selection into volunteering. Findings Volunteering at Wave 1 showed a significant contribution to career commitment at Wave 2. Moreover, the contribution significantly increased with friend network density at Wave 1. Research limitations/implications Findings from this panel survey of university students in Hong Kong require future research for substantiation. For instance, such research can apply an experimental design to volunteering to guarantee the internal validity of the contribution of volunteering. Practical implications Social capital theory is applicable to the promotion of career commitment. Specifically, optimizing the strength of social capital through the combination of volunteering and friendship is promising. Originality/value Empirical support for the application of social capital theory to career development is evident. Particularly, the joint contribution of volunteering and friendship is demonstrable.
Chapter
As a person goes through the various stages of life, many things change, including the ways one volunteers and for what reasons (Musick and Wilson 2008). This chapter reviews research on formal volunteering at three different life stages: youth, elderly, and parental volunteering. In each stage, we discuss the definitions, unique characteristics, and scope of volunteering. We further analyze the existing knowledge on motivations, benefits, challenges, and impact for each age group. Furthermore, we discuss the cultural differences of volunteering in each stage in various regions around the world. We conclude with a comparison between the three groups and discuss future trends. The three life stages examined are more distinct and meaningful in industrial and post-industrial societies than in less complex societies, owing to mass education and longer lifespans. Given wide cultural differences in how individuals progress through these stages, the intersection of life-cycle stage and cultural setting are major variables in understanding patterns of volunteering.
Full-text available
Chapter
For over 60 years, research has shown that formal volunteering (FV) is influenced significantly by psychological factors and variables, which many scholars see as the results of individual genetics, socialization into one’s culture and social roles, and idiosyncratic personal experiences. Such predictors are sometimes referred to as dynamic variables. This chapter reviews research from various nations mainly on such motivational factors as personality traits, values, general and specific attitudes, habits, intentions, and goals/values as influences on FV. Less research is available on other, potentially relevant, psychological factors, such as affects-emotions, intellectual capacities, cognitions-information-perceptions, and the self, let alone on serious pain as a factor affecting volunteering. Yet some, often much, empirical evidence and also relevant theory support the necessity of studying such psychological factors, as well as motivations in understanding FV, partially validating the recent S-Theory of Smith (2014b, 2015a, 2017b). Smith’s (1994) Active-Effective Character (A-EC) Model, now re-named as the Active-Prosocial Character (A-PC) Model, is also supported. FV is one common example of prosocial behavior, which has received extensive study for several decades, especially by psychologists (cf. Dovidio et al. 2006; Schroeder and Graziano 2015; Schroeder et al. 1995; Wittek and Bekkers 2015).
Full-text available
Chapter
Warum engagieren sich Menschen, und was hat sie veranlasst, ihre freiwillige Tätigkeit aufzunehmen? Zum einen sind äußere Faktoren relevant, denn manche Personen haben eher die Gelegenheiten und die Ressourcen, sich zu engagieren, als andere. So wurde bereits gezeigt, dass Geschlecht, Alter und Bildung (siehe Kapitel 3) sowie das soziale und kulturelle Umfeld eines Menschen einen großen Einfluss haben (vgl. Wilson & Musick 1998).
Article
In many Western welfare states, social work services that have traditionally been provided by paid employees are being replaced by family support, community support, informal networks, and volunteering. For the field of social work, it is relevant to know what it matters to beneficiaries whether services are provided by volunteers or by paid employees. The central question of this article is therefore as follows: What are the differences between unpaid and paid social services for beneficiaries? The article is based on literature review and focus groups. Our results suggest that beneficiaries do experience some differences regarding the advantages of volunteer services for beneficiaries that can be summarized in three propositions: (1) services provided by volunteers are more relational than are services provided by paid employees, and they are therefore perceived as more equal, flexible and sincere. (2) The effects of volunteer services for beneficiaries are not exclusively positive. (3) Although particular tasks may appear to be interchangeable to some extent, the relative advantages of a given task depend upon whether it is performed by a paid worker or by a volunteer. Additional research is needed in order to provide further validation.
Research
Although volunteering is the most organized and formal manner of altruism, the two subjects are rarely connected in literature. In this article reviewed is the egocentric approach that is found in four social disciplines: psychology, sociology, economics and socio-biology (evolutionism), and the way that studies on altruism are based on Utilitarian philosophy and on the homo economicus perception of man. All of the above have influenced the study of volunteerism: the research questions, the study areas, and the conclusions on the essence of volunteering. We then review a different approach based on Deontological philosophy: the alter-centric approach, already influencing the study of altruism. New directions of approaching and studying volunteerism are suggested.
Article
Steeds vaker wordt er in Nederland een beroep gedaan op vrijwilligerswerk in het opvoeden en opgroeien van kinderen en jongeren. Of vrijwilligerswerk werkelijk een goede invloed heeft op de ontwikkelingskansen van de jeugd is een nog onbeantwoorde vraag. In dit artikel proberen wij een eerste begrip te krijgen van de pedagogische waarde van vrijwilligerswerk. Daarvoor hebben wij uitgebreid literatuuronderzoek gedaan binnen jeugdstudies, sociaal werk, filantropische en civil society studies. De conclusie luidt dat vrijwilligerswerk vermoedelijk geen aparte pedagogische waarde heeft, maar een aantal eigenschappen kent die van invloed lijken te zijn op de sociale relaties met kinderen en jongeren en de omgevingen waarin zij opgroeien. Doordat het contact en het handelen op vrijwillige basis plaatsvindt, lijken er eerder en meer persoonlijke en betekenisvolle relaties en omgevingen te ontstaan, die geborgenheid bieden en uitnodigen tot leren. Tegelijkertijd kent deze vrijwillige betrokkenheid ook een scherpe rand. Zowel de pedagogische deskundigheid als het pedagogische klimaat schieten nogal eens tekort met als mogelijke uitkomst dat kinderen en jongeren het risico lopen blootgesteld te worden aan onfatsoenlijk en antisociaal gedrag.
Article
A vexing research question concerns reciprocal relationships between social responsibility and volunteerism, characterized by volunteer identity and low volunteering cost perceived among young volunteers. This study analyzes panel data collected from 527 university students engaged in a volunteering project at a university in Hong Kong, China. Controlling for background and selectivity factors, the study reveals that the volunteer’s social responsibility displayed a positive effect on volunteerism 6 months later, but volunteerism did not yield a positive effect on social responsibility 6 months later. These results imply the emphasis on social responsibility as a precursor to sustain volunteerism. They also imply the need for university to orchestrate volunteering projects that foster volunteers’ volunteerism and social responsibility.
Full-text available
Technical Report
Article
Educational research and practice could benefit from and contribute to multi-disciplinary study of well-being. In particular, research on the well-being of youth within and beyond school may benefit students, educators, administrators, and the community. This review provides a conceptual framework that (a) integrates research on well-being from economics, sociology, psychology and the health sciences, (b) organises this literature within seven domains of inquiry: Having, Being, Relating, Thinking, Feeling, Functioning, and Striving, and (c) highlights research pertinent to senior high school level educational experiences. This framework provides an important foundation from which further research on well-being can be developed.
Article
In the fierce competition that volunteer involving organizations face nowadays over people's willingness to donate their time, marketing strategies should be used. In order to enhance the organization's recruitability (ability to recruit suitable volunteers), it is important for volunteer organizations to understand what the positioning of the organization is and the type of volunteering that is being offered. In the current article we suggest using a marketing tool to increase the ability to recruit volunteers: positioning and perceptual mapping. Our perceptual mapping – the volunteer matrix is based on two dimensions: price (different costs attached to the volunteer experience) and quality (the overall quality of the volunteering experience). Thus, the matrix includes four different positions, and we demonstrate the manners in which different volunteer organizations or roles are positioned in each. Discussed are also the possible implementations of the matrix in order to recruit suitable volunteers and retain them. Copyright
Article
Although volunteering is the most organized and formal manner of altruism, the two subjects are rarely connected in literature. In this article reviewed is the egocentric approach that is found in four social disciplines: psychology, sociology, economics and socio-biology (evolutionism), and the way that studies on altruism are based on Utilitarian philosophy and on the homo economicus perception of man. All of the above have influenced the study of volunteerism: the research questions, the study areas, and the conclusions on the essence of volunteering. We then review a different approach based on Deontological philosophy: the alter-centric approach, already influencing the study of altruism. New directions of approaching and studying volunteerism are suggested.
Full-text available
Article
Tocqueville ([1835] 1956) posited that “by dint of working for one's fellow citizens, the habit and taste for serving them is at length acquired” (197). Informal social control theories similarly suggest that voluntary service gradually draws persons to virtue. Are volunteers less likely to breach the social contract? This article estimates the effects of volunteer experiences on the occurrence and timing of arrest using data from the Youth Development Study, a prospective longitudinal survey of 1,000 adolescents. After statistically controlling for the effects of antisocial propensities, prosocial attitudes and behavior, and commitments to conventional lines of action, we find a robust negative relationship between volunteer work and arrest. We then investigate age dependencies in the nature and effect of volunteer work.
Full-text available
Article
This article reviews the American literature in social science for the period 1975–1992 on the determinants of volunteer participation in programs and associations. It finds that most studies are too narrow in the hinds of variables that they include and that explanatory power is reduced as a result. Such participation is significantly greater for certain hinds of variables: contextual (for example, smaller community), social background (for example, higher education), personality (for example, more efficacy/internal locus of control), and attitude (for example, more group attractiveness) as well as situational variables (for example, being asked to join). Very few studies combine measures of each type of variable. When several predictor realms arc included, much higher variance is accounted for. Other social participation (political, mass media, recreational, and so on) is associated with volunteer participation. This association confirms a general activity model that posits a clustering of different types of socioculturally approved discretionary activity.
Full-text available
Article
This article reviews some of the best researched volunteer service programs for adolescents and addresses three major questions: 1) What do existing data tell us about the effectiveness of community volunteer service programs in positively influencing the lives of the participants? 2) What do we know about why such programs work? 3) What are the most promising directions for future research and programming efforts to pursue? The review suggests that diverse, successful volunteer programs for adolescents, along with school-based support, are related to improvements in both the academic and social arenas. Specifically, volunteering relates to reduced rates of course failure, suspension from school, and school dropout, and improvement in reading grades; to a reduction in teen pregnancy; and to improved self-concept and attitudes toward society. The conditions under which the volunteering occurs, such as number of hours and the type of volunteer work, seem in some cases to be important to these outcomes, as does the age of the student volunteer; however, much is yet to be understood about these factors.
Full-text available
Article
The term volunteer is used too broadly in denoting nonsalaried service. In this article, the authors attempt to delineate the boundaries of the term volunteer. They first reviewed 11 widely used definitions of volunteer. Using a content analysis, they identified four key dimensions commonly found in most definitions of volunteer. They then proposed an infernal continuum (Guttman scale) for each dimension that distinguished between ''pure'' and ''broadly defined'' volunteers. They analyzed the importance of these dimensions in determining how people perceive what makes a volunteer They expanded this analysis by introducing and exemplifying the concept of the net cost of volunteering. They developed a 21-item instrument and asked 514 respondents to assess the extent to which each item represented their perceptions of a volunteer Their findings support the dimensions and their continuum as well as the importance of net cost as a basis for public perceptions of what makes a volunteer.
Full-text available
Article
The purpose of this research was to illuminate high schools' roles in encouraging volunteer community service. The authors sought to answer four questions: (a) What is the extent and distribution of secondary schools that sponsor or provide volunteer service programs, (b) how do secondary schools promote or support volunteering among students, (c) what is the rationale for offering community service, and (d) what is the conceptual relationship between school auspices and community service offerings ? The findings generally support the expected differences between public and private schools;for example, private religious schools are mast likely to mandate service experiences for their students. However the differences between private religious and nonsectarian schools need further elaboration. To the extent that civic participation is based on social interdependence and a sense of community responsibility or ownership, high school community service remains problematic as a means to socializing students into the role of civic participation.
Full-text available
Article
The Social and Personal Responsibility Scale was employed in a study of the Youth Volunteers program, involving 44 adolescents in 12 projects, equally divided between child care and community service. Participants showed statistically significant gains on the Social Responsibility subscale. Girls gained more than boys and volunteers in community improvement projects gained more than those in child care. However, as in previous studies, gains were quite modest. Testimony from adolescents and adult participants was more strongly positive, volunteers citing improvement in their knowledge of themselves and others and the acquisition of new skills, adults seeing greater willingness to make decisions. Child care volunteers and their adult advisers said they gained competence in working with young children. The generalized impact of volunteer experience on enduring attitudes appears to be positive but small. Future studies should attend as well to differences in the nature of the experiences adolescent volunteers have and to effects that vary among participants.
Full-text available
Article
In this study, 258 volunteers in human services and 104 nonvolunteers were asked to rank in importance 28 motives for volunteering that had been identified in a thorough literature review. According to the literature, most researchers assume that motivation to volunteer (MMV) is a two-or three-dimensional phenomenon, but very few studies have carried out an empirical analysis of the internal dimensionality of MTV. The present findings indicate that when all 28 motives were subjected to various types of factor analysis, most items were grouped together on one factor. In other words, a unidimensional scale was obtained.
Full-text available
Article
This research investigated how local community-based and nonprofit organizations benefit from cooperation with community-based learning (CBL) initiatives such as service learning, internships, and volunteering. By examining data from local organizations that cooperate with a campus-based student volunteer program, the authors empirically assessed the extent to which local organizations benefit from cooperation with CBL initiatives. The data enabled comparisons of the relative contributions of university student volunteers and off-campus volunteers recruited from the larger community. The authors found that student volunteers constitute a substantial pool of volunteer labor for local organizations, yet they play different roles than community volunteers, roles that vary by organizational form. Student volunteers are generally the least likely to provide or help plan and coordinate services compared with community volunteers. These differences can be offset by a modest amount of training for student volunteers. The findings do not support the notion that students are used exclusively for routine tasks.
Full-text available
Article
Individual motivation is the core of the actualization and continuity in voluntary work from both the standpoint of theoretical research and practical volunteerism. Volunteer motivation also provides an excellent research area for investigating the wider sociological theme of late-modern participation. This study, based on the data from 18 interviews, explores volunteer motivation utilizing a phenomenological approach to individual experience and the meaning of volunteerism. Using a phenomenological approach illuminates the nature of volunteer motivation more holistically. The research includes 767 motivational elements in 47 themes and develops an innovative four-dimensional octagon model of volunteer motivation—the theoretical and practical applications of which are discussed.
Full-text available
Article
About one third of each age cohort of high school graduates in the Israeli kibbutz opt for a year of community service before enlistment into the military. The motives that underlie this volunteering were explored from the perspective of kibbutz youth's prolonged transition to adulthood. The analysis revealed a blend of individualistic and collectivistic orientations linked with expectations of satisfying instrumental as well as explorative and expressive needs within a context of moratorial and liminal experience. Particular combinations of motives were also found to vary by the intended field of activity during this year.
Full-text available
Article
Previous research on student involvement suggested that business and engineering students manifest lowest rates of voluntary action. Similarly, it was thought that social science students are the most involved in voluntary action, with students of natural sciences and humanities in the middle. However, there were very few studies that empirically compared these assertions. Furthermore, these assertions were not investigated from cross-cultural perspectives. Based on a study of students in 12 countries (N = 6,570), we found that even when controlling for background variables, social science students are actually less engaged in voluntary action than other students. Engineering students are higher than expected on voluntary action while students of humanities are the most involved in voluntary action. When studying these differences in the 12 selected countries, local cultures and norms form different sets of findings that suggest that there is no universal trend in choice of academic field and voluntary action. © International Society for Third Sector Research and The Johns Hopkins University 2008.
Full-text available
Article
Volunteers are difficult to monitor because they are not liable to serious sanctions. We propose that we cannot learn about volunteer work from existing knowledge of paid employees. We then review the literature regarding volunteer commitment and performance. Based on a sample of 510 consistent volunteers in human service organizations, we assess three sets of variables (demographic, personality, and situational) to determine their significance in explaining variability in volunteer commitment and performance. The findings suggest that careful screening and use of symbolic rewards are significant in explaining variation in volunteer satisfaction, hours volunteered per month (commitment), and length of service (tenure).
Full-text available
Article
Volunteers are the cornerstones on which the voluntary sector is predicated. We are accustomed to using this phrase in every aspect of our lives, yet too little systematic work has been carried out to define this term in a rigorous and precise manner. Volunteering is the essence of the scholarly work of numerous academicians around the world, however there are many issues that arise when people report their own volunteering or attempt to define the term volunteer. No clear-cut definition that encompasses all aspects of volunteering exists. Often too many different activities and situations are aggregated into this concept (Cnaan, Handy, & Wadsworth, 1996; Scheier, 1980; Smith, 1995; Tremper, Seidman, & Tufts, 1994; Vineyard, 1993).
Full-text available
Article
We present a framework to describe the process of conducting community-based qualitative research. Qualitative research activities are presented as a series of interrelated acts called asking, witnessing, interpreting, and knowing. Each act in the research process is described in terms of current qualitative research practices, and illustrated with examples from our own research projects on families with schizophrenia and men's mutual support and batterer intervention groups. We critically examine the assumption that qualitative research serves to reveal or amplify the voices of participants. We examine connections between qualitative research and social change and describe the use of qualitative research to not only empower marginalized groups, but also to critique and transform privileged groups. The framework is intended to help community researchers to more fully conceptualize, understand, and engage in the practice of qualitative research.
Article
We present a framework to describe the process of conducting community‐based qualitative research. Qualitative research activities are presented as a series of interrelated acts called asking, witnessing, interpreting, and knowing. Each act in the research process is described in terms of current qualitative research practices, and illustrated with examples from our own research projects on families with schizophrenia and men's mutual support and batterer intervention groups. We critically examine the assumption that qualitative research serves to reveal or amplify the voices of participants. We examine connections between qualitative research and social change and describe the use of qualitative research to not only empower marginalized groups, but also to critique and transform privileged groups. The framework is intended to help community researchers to more fully conceptualize, understand, and engage in the practice of qualitative research.
Article
The interest and recognition of the importance of volunteers over the last two decades has only highlighted confusion surrounding use of the term volunteer. Quite often in accounts of volunteer activity, terms are used interchangeably, although their content may vary. This article aims at analytically clarifying many of the complexities embedded in volunteer activity. In this endeavor, we use a mapping sentence method, which groups a variety of volunteer characteristics under key interrelated facets. We use a variety of literature-based components of volunteerism and systematically group them into ten facets. Together, they provide clarity and better understanding of the major components of volunteer activity.
Article
Volunteering is any activity in which time is given freely to benefit another person, group or cause. Volunteering is part of a cluster of helping behaviors, entailing more commitment than spontaneous assistance but narrower in scope than the care provided to family and friends. Although developed somewhat independently, the study of volunteerism and of social activism have much in common. Since data gathering on volunteering from national samples began about a quarter of a century ago, the rate for the United States has been stable or, according to some studies, rising slightly. Theories that explain volunteering by pointing to individual attributes can be grouped into those that emphasize motives or self-understandings on the one hand and those that emphasize rational action and cost-bene tit analysis on the other. Other theories seek to complement this focus on individual level factors by pointing to the role of social resources, specifically social ties and organizational activity, as explanations for volunteering. Support is found for all theories, although many issues remained unresolved. Age, gender and race differences in volunteering can be accounted for, in large part, by pointing to differences in self-understandings, human capital, and social resources. Less attention has been paid to contextual effects on volunteering and, while evidence is mixed, the impact of organizational, community, and regional characteristics on individual decisions to volunteer remains a fruitful held for exploration. Studies of the experience of volunteering have only just begun to plot and explain spells of volunteering over the life course and to examine the causes of volunteer turnover. Examining the premise that volunteering is beneficial for the helper as well as the helped, a number of studies have looked at the impact of volunteering on subjective and objective well-being. Positive effects are found for life-satisfaction, self-esteem, self-rated health, and for educational and occupational achievement, functional ability, and mortality. Studies of youth also suggest that volunteering reduces the Likelihood of engaging in problem behaviors such as school truancy and drug abuse.
Article
This qualitative study examines the impact of a personal encounter with perceived goodness, as represented by volunteers who are perceived as altruistic by those they help. It focuses on the encounter between at-risk street youths and lay volunteers in a mobile outreach service. The findings reveal that the street youths perceived the volunteers as representing pure altruism, and this stimulated several positive processes. Meeting the volunteers raised their awareness of giving without expecting a reward, which sharply contradicts their view of the world as a battlefield. Consequently, they understood and partially internalized the idea of non-material gratification. In some cases, the example set by the volunteers inspired the young people to consider volunteering themselves. Finally, they were able to generalize the altruistic image to the entire service and overcome their initial objections to a service run by the establishment. The proposed explanation, related to positive psychology, refers to the contrast between the example of the volunteers and the self centeredness of the street youths, which shifted slightly as a result.
Article
I n contrast to other age groups, more Canadians aged 15 to 24 are becoming volunteers. The volunteer participation rate of most of the popu-lation changed little between 1987 and 1997, but that of young people almost doubled, growing from 18% to 33%. Their share of the volunteer pool also grew— from 13% to 18%. For many young people, volunteer experience is an important link to the job market. As a form of civic education, volunteering is valuable not only to those involved, but also to the future workforce and to social cohesion (Sundeen and Raskoff, 1995). 1 Why has the youth volunteer rate risen? Using the National Survey of Volunteer Activity (a supplement to the October 1987 Labour Force Survey [LFS]) and the National Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Par-ticipating (a supplement to the November 1997 LFS), this article examines some sources of the growth. It also looks at the types of volunteer organizations most able to attract young people, and some factors that may have encouraged volunteering, including changes in the labour market.
Article
Political and general volunteering were characterized in late adolescence and young adulthood and related to predictive factors from infancy, childhood, and adolescence. One hundred five White participants (48 boys) completed measures of their volunteer involvement at 18 and 21 years of age. In addition, cognitive, social, adjustment, stress, and family data were collected from infancy through adolescence. Results indicated that most adolescents are involved in at least one volunteer activity. From 18 to 21 years of age, the likelihood of volunteering in a political activity increases significantly. In examining predictors of volunteering, results indicate that the strongest relations with volunteering are shown by adolescent factors including cognitive ability, family coherence, and membership in a prosocial organization (such as the Boy Scouts). Results support the notion that the social structure may be modified to provide incentives that increase volunteering.
Article
We examined the differences between two groups of general education high school students: those who volunteered to participate in a peer buddy program designed to increase their social interactions with their peers with severe disabilities (n = 30), and those who chose not to volunteer (n = 30). Differences were examined using the Social Distance Questionnaire for Attitudes of High School Students Toward Handicapped Persons. Analyses indicated that, at pre-test, peer buddies reported significantly greater willingness to interact with people with severe disabilities and more previous contact with these individuals than did nonvolunteers. There were no differences between the scores of the groups on knowledge of disability or affect toward persons with disabilities. After one semester of enrollment in the program, social willingness, knowledge, and contact scores of peer buddies increased significantly, whereas the scores of nonvolunteers remained the same as at the pre-test. In addition, students self-reported previous contact with individuals with disabilities positively correlated with their scores indicating their social willingness to interact with their peers with disabilities. Implications of the study are discussed with respect to benefits of and recommendations for peer interaction programs.
Article
Because traditional mental health models are inadequate in meeting the needs of adolescents, hotlines have been developed to alleviate this gap in service. National survey results of adolescent hotlines and an indepth study of one program are presented. Although data indicated only 10% of hotlines exclusively use peers to answer phones, the authors' case study suggests that the “self-help” model of volunteering has benefits not only for consumers but also for adolescent volunteers.
Article
The present investigation used responses to Independent Sector's 1992 national survey of giving and volunteering in the United States to address several questions about the motivations of volunteers. Drawing on the functional approach to volunteers' motivations, and its operationalization in the Volunteer Functions Inventory (VFI), relations between motivations and various aspects of volunteer behavior were examined, along with associations of motivations and demographic variables. Analyses revealed that current volunteers and nonvolunteers differed on motivations; people with different volunteering histories revealed different motivational patterns; unique combinations of motivations were associated with different types of volunteering activities; and motivational differences were associated with different demographic groups The implications of these findings for understanding the nature and function of the motivations to volunteer, and the applications to the practice of volunteerism, are discussed.
Article
Combining a life course perspective with recent theorizing on motivationally related agendas for social behavior, this study investigated the purposes, expectations, and outcomes of adult hospice volunteers of varying ages. Specifically, support was found for the hypothesis that younger volunteers tend to be motivated by and to achieve outcomes related to interpersonal relationships, whereas older volunteers tend to be motivated to a greater extent by service or community obligation concerns. Furthermore, in hierarchical regression analyses predicting overall satisfaction, benefits relative to costs, commitment, and changes in self-esteem over 6 months of volunteer service, relationship-related variables demonstrated greater and significant predictive power for younger relative to older volunteers. Service-oriented variables, hypothesized to be more influential in predicting the outcomes of older volunteers, tended to be inconsistently related to these same outcomes. Discussion focuses on the theoretical significance of the findings for contemporary approaches to motivation and research on volunteerism and aging, as well as the practical implications of the results for volunteer recruitment, satisfaction, and retention.
Article
Previous research has suggested that volunteering may have beneficial developmental consequences for adolescents. However, the sparse research on youth volunteerism is generally limited by a cross-sectional design that does not elucidate causal relations. This study addresses the questions, "Who participates in volunteer work?" and "What are the effects of youth volunteerism?" A panel study of a representative community sample of both volunteers and nonvolunteers indicates that those adolescents who become involved in volunteer activities have higher educational plans and aspirations, higher grade point averages, higher academic self-esteem, and a higher intrinsic motivation toward school work. But irrespective of these bases of selection, there is evidence that volunteering affects important work-related and social outcomes. Volunteering is found to strengthen intrinsic work values and the anticipated importance of community involvement and to decrease the anticipated importance of career.
Article
This panel study examines whether educational, work, and family roles promote volunteerism during late adolescence and early adulthood, as they do later in adulthood. The findings reveal substantial continuity in volunteerism from adolescence through the transition to adulthood and highlight the importance of values expressed in adolescence for volunteerism in the years following. Controlling these processes, attending school during this life stage promotes volunteerism. In contrast, full-time work investments in the early life course are found to hinder volunteer participation, as does the presence of young children in the family, especially at earlier parental ages. The results support a life course perspective for understanding civic participation.
Article
Participation in voluntary associations is usually explained by a Weberian theory that uses human capital variables; however, Durkheimian theory suggests the importance of parental socialization and family status variables. Using a three-wave panel study, this article models the changes in social participation that people experience while moving from high school to parenthood. Voluntary participation is accounted for in part by the transmission of socioeconomic status, but family socialization through example and value modeling are often more important. When self-oriented (occupation and profession) and community-oriented (service, church, community, fraternal, and neighborhood) types of participation are distinguished, the status transmission theory explains self-oriented but not community-oriented participation. Family socialization explains community-oriented but not self-oriented participation. Thus, theories of voluntarism must be differentiated according to the type of voluntary association concerned.
Article
what accounts for the emergence of peer groups and peer cultures in adolescence / how do teenagers come to understand and find their place in this peer system / how stable is the system / does the structure of peer groups or the pattern of interrelationships among peer cultures remain consistent throughout adolescence / do young people commonly shift their allegiances among peer crowds / how do peer groups affect individual behavior and psychological well-being / finally, can or should adults attempt to structure adolescent peer cultures or manipulate a teenager's place within the peer system / these questions form the agenda for this chapter debunking the myth of the youth culture / redirecting research in the multiplicity of peer cultures the emerging character of adolescent peer groups / finding one's peer group niche / transformations in peer groups and peer group relations / the place of adults in adolescent peer groups (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The recruitment of young people into volunteering activities is the primary focus of this article. We examine which teenagers volunteer, the ways that teenagers become involved in volunteer activities, and why teenagers do not volunteer. Teenagers who volunteer tend to have dominant status, that is, access to social power, high personal competency, and socialization into volunteer experiences through family, church, and school. Personal contact with family, friends, and teachers who are involved with service, prior participation in school- and church-based service, and personal initiative lead teenagers to learn about and engage in volunteering activities. Teenagers who do not volunteer often do not have sufficient time or interest. Differences exist among teenagers as to which factors prompt volunteering. For example, teenagers who are white, have parents who volunteer, and attend religious services are more likely than others to learn about volunteer activities through organizations, and teenagers with higher personal competency (grade point averages) are more likely than others to learn about volunteering activities at school. The article includes suggestions for recruitment policy and management of teenage volunteers.
Article
Community service often involves sustained prosocial actions by individuals. This article focuses on one kind of such actions, volunteerism. Volunteerism involves long–term, planned, prosocial behaviors that benefit strangers, and usually occur in an organizational setting. A selective review of the literature on the correlates of volunteerism is presented. One part of the review concerns the relationship between dispositional variables and volunteerism; it includes new data from an on–line survey that show significant relationships among personality traits, religiosity, and volunteer activities. The other part concerns how organizational variables, alone and in combination with dispositional variables, are related to volunteerism. A theoretical model of the causes of sustained volunteerism is presented and the practical implications of this model are discussed.
Article
This article identifies factors that may contribute to, prevent and/or manage burnout in crisisline volunteers. These factors were assessed through a Burnout Questionnaire. Benefits form the volunteer work was the factor most often chosen as preventing/managing burnout; volunteer turnover was most frequently seen as contributing to it. Recommendations for reducing buurnout and increasing overall satisfaction in crisisline volunteers are presented.
Article
The study examined positive and negative responses to volunteering (satisfaction with volunteering, perceived contribution to beneficiaries, and burnout) among 102 adolescents in Israel. The conceptual framework for explaining those responses was the ecological approach to the study of human development. In that context, the paper deals with the combined contribution of two ecological systemsâ€"the ontogenic system and the microsystem. The ontogenic system included sociodemographic variables (gender and religiosity), as well as empowerment resources. The microsystem included variables related to family context (parental volunteer activity and family support for volunteering), as well as to the context of volunteer activity (perceived rewards, difficulties with volunteering, and professional supervision). Sociodemographic variables and difficulties in relations with the provider organization predicted burnout, whereas rewards and professional supervision predicted satisfaction with volunteering. Empowerment contributed most to explaining volunteers’ perceived contribution to the beneficiaries of services.
Conference Paper
Video-based media spaces are designed to support casual interaction between intimate collaborators. Yet transmitting video is fraught with privacy concerns. Some researchers suggest that the video stream be filtered to mask out potentially sensitive ...
Article
The volunteer management literature suggests that the most effective means of recruitment is personal asking. However, agencies that apply this method do not report the expected success in volunteer recruitment. Often they face the volunteer recruitment fallacy: those people assumed to be interested in volunteering do not necessarily volunteer. Based on the literature of shyness or social anxiety and on empirical observations, this article suggests that social anxiety often deters volunteering by new recruits. We hypothesize that people with greater levels of social anxiety will be less likely to volunteer. Furthermore, we hypothesize that people with high social anxiety will prefer to give monetary support to worthy causes rather than volunteer their time, and if they do choose to volunteer, they will do so alongside friends. Our hypotheses are supported based on the findings from a large-scale nonrandom sample in North America. We suggest how to avoid the volunteer recruitment fallacy by creating a personal environment in which high-social-anxiety recruits feel safe and accepted. By removing the fear of being negatively judged by strangers as they enter the agency and creating a more personal approach, new recruits may have a higher probability of becoming long-term and consistent volunteers.
Article
Since 1970, the Volunteer Counseling Service of Rockland County, New York, has pioneered the innovative use of community lay people to do high-level counseling for clients with a wide range of serious social problems. The article gives the history and an overview of the mechanics and the model of work that have made this agency viable.
Article
Volunteers and their voluntary work play an important role within the 'mixed economy' of health and welfare provision in the U.K. A survey of volunteers working in a hospice organisation in Leicestershire (LOROS) found that most of them were satisfied with their work experiences as volunteers, and felt that they were adequately supported and valued by the organisation and its paid staff. They had become volunteers mainly through contact with friends, and a substantial minority were motivated by their own personal experiences of death. Their contact with dying patients did not cause them any serious emotional difficulties. LOROS has grown from a small, tightly focused organisation, dependent on a relatively small group of committed volunteers, to a much larger, busier, more diverse and geographically dispersed organisation, dependent upon a large pool of volunteers. These changes in the organisation had affected the way in which some volunteers experienced their work, and although they were supportive of the expansion of the organisation their sense of intimacy and belonging had lessened. Given the increasing competition for voluntary workers, the sensitive management of change is seen as vital if LOROS is to maintain the commitment of its volunteers and maintain its attractiveness as an organisation which should be supported by voluntary work.
Article
To examine the relationship between home life risk factors and suicide attempts among homeless and runaway street youth recruited from both shelters and street locations in Denver, CO; New York City; and San Francisco, CA. Street youth 12-19 years old (N = 775) were recruited by street outreach staff in Denver, New York City and San Francisco in 1992 and 1993 and interviewed. Cross-sectional, retrospective data were analyzed to examine the relationship between suicide attempts and antecedent home life variables. Logistic regression was used to identify factors predicting suicide attempts. Forty-eight percent of the females and 27% of the males had attempted suicide. The mean number of suicide attempts was 6.2 (SD = 12.9) for females and 5.1 for males (SD = 7.6). Among females, 70% reported sexual abuse and 35% reported physical abuse. Among males, 24% reported sexual abuse and 35% reported physical abuse. Sexual and physical abuse before leaving home were independent predictors of suicide attempts for females and males. Other home life factors hypothesized to be risk factors for suicide attempts were not significant. Interaction terms were not significant. Among street youth who were sexually or physically abused in this sample, the odds of attempting suicide were 1.9 to 4.3 times the odds of attempting suicide among those not sexually or physically abused. Interventions attempting to reduce risky behaviors in this population must include assessments of suicidal behaviors as well as components for assisting youth in dealing with the behavioral and emotional sequelae of physical and sexual abuse.
Article
This study investigated the motivational needs of adolescent volunteers. The Volunteer Needs Profile (Francies, 1982) was administered to adolescents in a variety of volunteer settings, and data were examined using factor analysis. While there were similarities between the motivations of adolescent and older volunteers, some important differences were found. The findings are explored in the context of the adolescent developmental stage, and implications are discussed.
Article
A useful framework for understanding methods is to think of them as being on a continuum of holistic and pattern focused to particularistic and specific. This paper argues for this conceptualization rather than thinking of quantitative and qualitative methods as oppositional and potentially contradictory. A case study provides an example of using both quantitative and qualitative methods in a holistic and pattern-focused study, while also attending to the values and goals of community psychology. The substantive research goal is to understand a child's experience of places related to school. Methods include ethnographic long-term participation and observation, interviews, multidimensional scaling, and social network analysis. Most quantitative method variables are generated from study participants; no outside structure is imposed. The quantitative methods extend and inform the qualitative methods, just as the qualitative methods extend and inform the quantitative methods. The quantitative and qualitative methods work reciprocally to extend and inform each other.