Article

Empathy as added value in predicting donation behavior

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Abstract

Past behavior and socio-demographics represent traditional predictors of charitable giving. The present study examines, in a real fundraising setting, whether measures of empathy (i.e., empathic concern and personal distress) can improve these predictions. The findings confirm the relevance of traditional predictor sets and the added value of including measures of empathy. Empathic concern positively affects the donation decision. In addition, empathy negatively affects the donor's generosity toward one charity. However, for people with high empathic concern, considering only generosity toward one charity could be misleading because such people are more likely to donate to different charities. This result has implications for overall generosity. Therefore, a clear distinction between both personality traits is necessary.

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... Numerous factors can influence the motivations and attitudes of individuals toward sperm donation. In this study, besides the sexual orientations of donors and recipients, we investigated the role of other characteristics of potential donors-such as personality traits (White, Poulsen, & Hyde, 2017), empathy (Verhaert & Van den Poel, 2011), social values (Ryckman, Gold, Reubsaet, & van den Borne, 2009), and religious values (Rubio, 2015)-in influencing motivations and attitudes toward sperm donation. ...
... Empathy can also influence the perceived benefits of deciding to donate organs, and this affects how motivated individuals are to donate for themselves or for others (Cohen & Hoffner, 2013). People with high levels of empathic concern make donations in various contexts, with them focusing on alleviating the suffering of others and seeming rather other-oriented and compassionate toward others (Verhaert & Van den Poel, 2011). Given this, we therefore intend to explore the relationship between empathic concern and the motivations and attitudes toward sperm donation. ...
... People with high levels of empathic concern donate in various contexts, and they are compassionate toward others and seem to be oriented toward alleviating the suffering of others in need (Verhaert & Van den Poel, 2011). This explains the positive association between empathic concern and the motivation to help others have a child, as was found in this study. ...
Article
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Background The widespread access to medically assisted reproduction (MAR) techniques for all women, regardless of any infertility diagnosis, has led to an increased, but as yet unmet, demand for sperm donors in Portugal. For this study, we deployed an online survey to explore men’s motivations for donating and their attitudes toward anonymity and donating for specific groups.Method The study’s sample comprised men who were eligible to donate sperm (N = 282). The relationships between these factors and participants’ psychological and sociodemographic characteristics were also explored.ResultsThe results mostly indicated altruistic reasons for donating, positive attitudes toward anonymity, and a greater willingness to donate to infertile women. Overall, sexual orientation was not associated with the participants’ attitudes and motivations. Age, education level, conscientiousness, empathic concern, and conservative and religious values were associated with the participants’ motivations and attitudes toward sperm donation.Conclusion Recruitment campaigns should therefore consider the specific motivations, attitudes, and psychosocial characteristics of potential sperm donors. Indeed, parenthood is a universal right, so sperm donation should be encouraged, regardless of recipients’ fertility status. Clear information about the identifiability of sperm donors should also be provided.
... There are various forms of donations, ranging from voluntary work, blood donations to monetary donations [18]. According to research by Hoolwerf and Schuyt [52], more than 87.5 billion euro were donated in Europe in 2013. ...
... In this relation, research has identified factors including personal dispositions (e.g., altruism, empathy, enjoyment) [17,18], the demographics of a person (e.g., age, income, children) [54], the image of an organization [17], and the perceived relationship with the charity [55]. The donors' perception in the donation interaction process also plays an important role for or against a donation [55]. ...
... The focus on social cues displayed by a human-like CA during a user interaction could also play a valuable role in the individual's donation behavior since CAs' social cues can induce the users' perception positively (e.g., trust, satisfaction) [8,11]. Since many different studies have been conducted to understand the individuals' tendency for or against a donation [17,18,54], up until now, a knowledge gap exists where donation behavior is affected by the user interaction with a human-like CA. Our study investigates the context of CA-human interaction, especially with the background of social cues (e.g., human-like design) to fill this gap. ...
Chapter
Conversational agents (CAs) are rapidly changing the way humans and computers interact. Through developments in natural language processing, CAs are increasingly capable of conducting human-like conversations with users. Furthermore, human-like features (e.g., having a name or an avatar) lead to positive user reactions as if they were interacting with a real human conversational partner. CAs promise to replace or supplement traditional interactions between humans (e.g., counseling, interviews). One field of CA-human interaction that is not yet fully understood in developing human-like CAs is donating to a good cause. Notably, many charities rely on approaching people on the streets to raise funds. Against this background, the questions arise: How should a CA for raising funds for non-profit organizations be designed and how does human-like design of a CA influence the user’s donation behavior. To explore these two questions, we conducted a 2 × 2 experiment with 134 participants.
... There are various forms of donations, ranging from voluntary work, blood donations to monetary donations [18]. According to research by Hoolwerf and Schuyt [52], more than 87.5 billion euro were donated in Europe in 2013. ...
... In this relation, research has identified factors including personal dispositions (e.g., altruism, empathy, enjoyment) [17,18], the demographics of a person (e.g., age, income, children) [54], the image of an organization [17], and the perceived relationship with the charity [55]. The donors' perception in the donation interaction process also plays an important role for or against a donation [55]. ...
... The focus on social cues displayed by a human-like CA during a user interaction could also play a valuable role in the individual's donation behavior since CAs' social cues can induce the users' perception positively (e.g., trust, satisfaction) [8,11]. Since many different studies have been conducted to understand the individuals' tendency for or against a donation [17,18,54], up until now, a knowledge gap exists where donation behavior is affected by the user interaction with a human-like CA. Our study investigates the context of CA-human interaction, especially with the background of social cues (e.g., human-like design) to fill this gap. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Conversational agents (CAs) are rapidly changing the way humans and computers interact. Through developments in natural language processing, CAs are increasingly capable of conducting human-like conversations with users. Furthermore, human-like features (e.g., having a name or an avatar) lead to positive user reactions as if they were interacting with a real human conversational partner. CAs promise to replace or supplement traditional interactions between humans (e.g., counseling, interviews). One field of CA-human interaction that is not yet fully understood in developing human-like CAs is donating to a good cause. Notably, many charities rely on approaching people on the streets to raise funds. Against this background, the questions arise: How should a CA for raising funds for non-profit organizations be designed and how does human-like design of a CA influence the user's donation behavior. To explore these two questions, we conducted a 2x2 experiment with 134 participants.
... Hence, customer relationship management (CRM), which focuses on the relationship with donors, can be extremely valuable to them. For example, Verhaert and Van den Poel [60] demonstrate how nonprofits can use transactional data in order to predict which individuals are likely to donate again. It goes without saying that successful CRM initiatives can lead to increased loyalty of donors, significant cost reductions, and improved fundraising results [40]. ...
... Taking into account the relevance of social media to our study, we also include studies about donation behavior using social media. [53] x x x Bennett [7] x x x x Hsu et al. [35] x x x x Germain et al. [32] x x x Ferguson [27] x x x x Schlumpf et al. [54] x x x Garner & Garner [31] x x x Enjolras et al. [24] x x x Chell & Mortimer [15] x x x x Brown & Taylor [12] x x x Courtois & Verdegem [17] x x x Warren et al. [61] x x Farrow & Yuan [26] x x x Godin et al. [33] x x x Althoff & Leskovec [2] x x x Lee & Chang [42] x x x x Verhaert & Van den Poel [60] x x x x Our study x x x [31,54], recency and frequency of donation behavior [27], and the choice of charity [7]. The derived results are inherently historical as behavior is described and explained based on information from the past. ...
... Studies that focus on customer retention investigate potential reasons for churn or repeated donation behavior, and explain how their results can be incorporated into retention efforts (e.g., [33]). Studies focusing on customer acquisition highlight how their analyses and results can be used to identify potential donors and work out specific marketing strategies (e.g., [60]). Finally, research on donation behavior can be categorized according to the type of data. ...
Article
The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the value of Facebook data in predicting first-time donation behavior. More specifically, we provide evidence that Facebook data can be used as a valuable data source for nonprofit organizations in acquiring new donors. To do so, we evaluate three different dimensionality reduction techniques (i.e., singular value decomposition, non-negative matrix factorization, and latent Dirichlet allocation) over seven classification techniques (i.e., logistic regression, k-nearest neighbors, bagged trees, random forest, adaboost, extreme gradient boosting, and artificial neural networks) using five times twofold cross-validation. Next, we assess what type of Facebook data and which predictors are most important. The results indicate that we can predict first-time donation behavior based on Facebook data with high predictive performance. Our benchmark indicates that the combination of singular value decomposition and logistic regression outperforms all other analytical methodologies with an area under the receiver operating characteristic of 0.72 and a top decile lift of 3.33. The results show that Facebook pages and categories of Facebook pages are the most important data types. The most important predictors are dimensions related to age, education, residence, materialism, responsible consumption, and interest in nonprofits. The presented acquisition models can be used by nonprofit organizations to implement a one-to-one targeted marketing campaign towards Facebook fans. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first to determine the predictive value of Facebook data for nonprofits in a real-life acquisition context.
... Moreover, there is an active debate in the literature covered in this paper about using positive or negative images in non-profit advertising campaigns to motivate real actions for donations. In this context, empathy is an essential factor in inciting donation (Verhaert & Van den Poel, 2011). Most studies focus on studying emotions, considering that some emotions, such as guilt, mediate empathy. ...
... Marketing campaigns can be created to be more targeted and useful for generating donations by a better understanding of what drives and motivates people to donate to a charity (Kashif et al., 2015). Several research on donations in the non-profit sector found the personal empathy value significant (Basil et al., 2008;Bergh & Reinstein, 2020;Martinez-levy et al., 2017;Verhaert & Van den Poel, 2011). In this respect, the impact of empathy on charitable donation intention is fully mediated by guilt responses (Basil et al., 2008), and there is a considerable amount of literature on guilt to be another relating factor for an individual's intention to donate to charity (Basil et al., 2008;Brennan & Binney, 2010;Urbonavicius et al., 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Advertising for non-profit organizations through television commercials is a valuable means of communication to raise awareness and receive donations. When it comes to social aspects, personal attitudes such as empathy are significant for reinforcing the intention to donate; and the study of eliciting emotions has critical attention in the literature, especially some types of emotion, such as guilt which mediates empathy. Different methodologies have been used to measure consumer emotions when faced with TV ads stimuli: mainly traditional techniques such as interviews or questionnaires after the ads viewing. In the last ten years, there has also been a great interest in new neuroscience techniques applied to measure emotional and cognitive reactions by physiological signals, frame by frame. Our research has applied neuromarketing technologies during the observation of a UNHCR commercial promoting legacy calls. The objective was to study cognitive and emotional reactions in order to increase the effectiveness whilst having the possibility to verify the results by measuring the benefits in terms of calls from contributors. The purpose of this research is to empirically prove the impact in calls thanks to changes in the message framing strategy in non-profit advertising suggested and measured by neuromarketing techniques. Particularly we measured the cerebral activity through an electroencephalogram to obtain an Approach-Withdrawal Index (AW); the heart rate and galvanic skin response through different sensors in the palm of one hand, to obtain an Emotional Index (EI), and finally, eye fixations through an eye tracker device to obtain the visual attention on key visual areas of the ads. After these indicators’ recordings on a sample of subjects, some suggestions to modify the advertising were made to create a more effective campaign. The results compared, those elicited by the first version of the spot (LVE) and those by the second version (HVE), confirmed that (1) the number of sellable and legacy calls increased with the message framing strategy modified in the second spot (HVE), (2) a lower cognitive and emotional reactions have been obtained in the final section of HVE, (3) the visual attention on the key information of the phone number to call, in the final call to action frames(CTA), was higher in HVE than in the first version of the spot (LVE), (4) the cognitive approach increased during the same CTA frames in HVE.
... However, the study only investigated the influence that donation appeals have on donation behavior, ignoring the potential effects of an individual's psychology on consumer decision making. On the other hand, previous studies on donation have revealed the important role played by individual aspects such as mindset (Septianto et al., 2018), self-identity (Shang et al., 2008;Winterich et al., 2013a,b), and demographic characteristics (Verhaert & Van den Poel, 2011). ...
... Previous studies examining emotion and donations have focused on negative emotions, such as shame, guilt, and embarrassment (Winterich et al., 2013a,b;Verhaert & Van den Poel, 2011;Tangney et al., 2007). This focus on negative emotions has been criticized as reducing sympathy, leading to negative evaluations of the charity and transferring these negative emotions to the audience (Septianto and Tjiptono, 2019; Fig. 1. ...
Consumer donation behavior includes the decision to donate and the amount donated. However, most previous work in this area implies that findings apply to both dimensions of the donation decision. The current research adopts an evolutionary psychology perspective to examine the role of two positive emotions – pride and gratitude – on the decision to donate and how much is donated. Two experimental studies demonstrate that pride positively influences the decision to donate when the donation is recognized; however, pride does not influence the amount that is donated. In contrast, gratitude positively influences the decision to donate and the amount donated via an affiliation motive, regardless whether the donation is recognized. This research contributes to the literature of prosocial behavior in the form of donating, by clarifying the role of positive emotions on each dimension of donation behavior.
... On the contrary, prior studies in donation have revealed the importance of empathy in predicting donation behavior (Verhaert and Van den Poel, 2011;Basil et al., 2008;Dickert et al., 2011;Lee and Chang, 2007). That is, people with empathetic concern tend to feel sympathy and compassion for distressed others (Verhaert and Van den Poel, 2011). ...
... On the contrary, prior studies in donation have revealed the importance of empathy in predicting donation behavior (Verhaert and Van den Poel, 2011;Basil et al., 2008;Dickert et al., 2011;Lee and Chang, 2007). That is, people with empathetic concern tend to feel sympathy and compassion for distressed others (Verhaert and Van den Poel, 2011). In addition, people with empathetic concern focus on the person in need and not themselves, with a selfless and altruistic motivation to help others in need (Bendapundi et al., 1996). ...
Article
Purpose This study aims to empirically test the proposition that high narcissistic consumers are more likely to perform donation-related behavior, such as the intention to donate and to share the donation link, compared to low narcissistic consumers when the organization’s reputation is high. Built upon the evolutionary psychology theory, this study proposes that narcissism activates the status motive, and the relationship between narcissism, organization reputation and donation-related behavior can be explained by status motive. Design/methodology/approach The current research comprises two between-subject experimental studies that use both measured and manipulated narcissism subsequently, whereas the organization’s reputation was manipulated in both studies. Findings The results demonstrate that narcissistic consumers are more likely to donate and to share the donation advertisement when the donation organization is perceived as having a high (vs low) prestige. Further, the status motive mediates the effect of narcissism on donation decisions only when the donation organization is perceived as having high (vs low) prestige. Research limitations/implications This research’s main limitation is that it only examines two alternate ways to improve perceived organization’s reputation (e.g. highlight the organization’s reputational features and link to reputable entities such as celebrities), although organizational literature suggests that perceived organization reputation can be improved in many ways. Practical implications From a practical perspective, social marketers and donation organizations potentially benefit from this research because it demonstrates that high narcissistic consumers potentially involve in donation-related behaviors more than consumers with low narcissism when the organization is perceived as highly reputable. Originality/value The current research contributes to the narcissism literature and adds to the evolutionary psychology theory by providing empirical evidence that narcissism, whether manifesting as a trait or a state, can activate a status motive that leads to prosocial behavior, but only when the donation organization is perceived as prestigious.
... With respect to methodology, this study tested the proposed links between decisionuseful disclosures and donation intentions by using data from the public, representing actual and potential donors. Thus, the study contributes to discussions of donors' motivation by extending prior studies that: (a) only used students as proxies for donors (Gordon & Khumawala, 1999;Trussel & Parsons, 2008); (b) were restricted to controlled environments when examining giving behaviours (Verhaert & Van den Poel, 2011); and (c) were focused on the behaviour of pre-existing, regular donors (Degasperi & Mainardes, 2017). By examining a sample of the Australian public (including existing and potential donors) in a "natural" uncontrolled environment, the observations made in this study provide a new insight into how the decision-usefulness of financial disclosure is linked to actual and potential donors' giving intentions. ...
Article
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The not-for-profit literature has not fully explored the decision-usefulness of financial disclosures with respect to the public’s donation intentions. Engaging with this lacuna, this study proposes that reputation and trust serve as important causal links between donors’ perceptions of the decision-usefulness of financial disclosures and their donation intentions. The study adopts the theory of planned behaviour and applies structural equation modelling to 400 useable responses from an Australian survey. The study finds: (1) a strong link between financial disclosures which donors perceive as decision-useful and their perception of the reputation of the reporting not-for-profit organisation (NFP), (2) a close association between donors’ perception of the reputation of an NFP (that is, their behavioural belief) and their trust in the organisation (their attitude), and (3) a significant link between donors’ trust in an NFP and hence their attitude towards the organisation with respect to their donation intentions. These results imply that the decision-usefulness of an NFP’s financial disclosures make donors more inclined to donate to the NFP via the impact of disclosures on donors’ perceptions of reputation and thence trustworthiness. In addition to contributing to the emergent NFP literature on disclosures and giving behaviour, these findings inform financial disclosure policies and practice by furthering the case for decision-useful financial disclosures among NFPs.
... Students should be accustomed to doing such activities, so students can slowly grow their empathy (Lazo & Vik, 2014). Furthermore, the habit of involving in social projects is considerably able to develop and improve the individual function of empathy (Hasgul & Serpen, 2014;Verhaert & Van den Poel, 2011). ...
Article
This study aimed to describe the profile of the students’ social skills of Bengawan Solo nature elementary school. The study was qualitatively conducted as a case study. The participants were teachers and students who were chosen by employing a purposive sampling technique. The data were obtained through observations, questionnaires, interviews, and document analysis. This study employed an interactive model data analysis included: data validating, data collection, data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing. The conclusions of the study comprise: (1) the cooperation aspect, students can collaborate well; (2) the assertion aspect, students can get along with new friends and communicate with others; (3) the responsibility aspect, students understand their role and responsibility to the God, themselves, others, and society; (4) the empathy aspect, students can feel others' feeling and problem; (5) the self-control aspect, students can control their mental state so that they can avoid anger and bad influences.
... Under such circumstances, practitioners have turned to marketing to encourage social attitudes and behaviors among individuals and have started to adopt a number of communication techniques (Anghelcev & Sar, 2014;Fajardo et al., 2018;Guidry et al., 2014). Understanding the underlying motivations that lead people to contribute is therefore one of the primary concerns in the literature to find the suitable marketing techniques that encourage contributions (Simpson et al., 2017;Verhaert & Van den Poel, 2011). ...
Article
Developing effective solicitation campaigns has become a priority for nonprofit organizations to raise funds. To do so, they have begun to introduce social information and recognition mechanisms in their campaigns to encourage donations, yet our current understanding of the effectiveness of these interventions is limited. This study intends to contribute to a better understanding of the effectiveness of these campaigns by investigating the role played by social norms, recognition, and their interplay in charitable giving. In addition, the study also investigates the extent to which these effects are moderated by self‐construal, an important individual psychological trait. This empirical investigation conducted an experimental design between subjects on a sample of 261 participants. A two‐stage correction approach was used to estimate two dependent variables. The effectiveness of social norms and recognition varies depending on the decision in play (whether to donate, or how much to donate) as well as on an individual's self‐construal (independent or interdependent). Strategies that combine several of these mechanisms should take into account their objective, that is, whether it is focused on boosting symbolic support or on incentivizing significant contributions. This article contributes by demonstrating that the type of social norm and the type of recognition matter, as they produce significant different effects on both the donation decision and the donation amount.
... Research suggests that volunteers for prosocial services demonstrate a higher degree of empathy (3). Empathy has also been associated with a tendency toward altruistic help, charitable giving, and donations (4)(5)(6). Based on these findings, we designed this study to test the following hypotheses: ...
Article
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The “No One Dies Alone” (NODA) program was initiated to provide compassionate companions to the bedside of dying patients. This study was designed to test the following hypotheses: (1) Empathy scores would be higher among medical students who volunteered to participate in the NODA program than nonvolunteers; (2) Spending time with dying patients would enhance empathy in medical students. Study sample included 525 first- and second-year medical students, 54 of whom volunteered to participate in the NODA program. Of these volunteers, 26 had the opportunity to visit a dying patient (experimental group), and 28 did not, due to scheduling conflicts (volunteer control group). The rest of the sample (n = 471) comprised the “nonvolunteer control group.” Comparisons of the aforementioned groups on scores of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy confirmed the first research hypothesis ( P < .05, Cohen d = 0.37); the second hypothesis was not confirmed. This study has implications for the assessment of empathy in physicians-in-training, and timely for recruiting compassionate companion volunteers (armed with personal protective equipment) at the bedside of lonely dying patients infected by COVID-19.
... If consumers identify with the producers, it is likely that they will have empathic reactions. Empathy has been studied as an important theoretical variable in ethical consumption activities with the ability to understand the situations and emotions of others [52]. us, if the producer's information is concrete, it is expected that consumers with high EI levels will show stronger reactions. ...
Article
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In the context of ethical consumption, we examine the effects of farmers’ facial expression in print advertising on consumers’ responses to local food. Furthermore, we try to verify the moderating role of emotional intelligence (EI) on consumers’ responses to the advertising message strategy. The advertising message strategy that connects farmers and consumers is expected to create more favorable responses among consumers toward local food and its retailers. This study examines consumers’ responses (perceived product quality, trust, and a positive attitude toward the local food retailer) to three conditions of farmers’ facial expression in the advertisement (neutral facial expression, positive facial expression, and product only, with no portrait) across two levels of EI (low and high). We find that farmers’ positive facial expressions in the advertisements have the greatest positive effects on consumers’ perceived product quality, trust, and attitude toward the local food retailer under a high level of EI. Therefore, individuals with a high level of EI were more influenced by facial expressions in print advertising, whereas those with a low level of EI were less influenced by facial expressions in print advertising, and their responses were indifferent to whether the local food farmer had a neutral or a positive facial expression in print advertising. Our findings suggest that marketing practitioners consider personal characteristics such as EI in persuading local food consumers in target markets to implement strategies to promote local food purchase and consumption.
... Further, we argue that empathy toward anthropomorphized unattractive produce will increase purchase intentions. Empathy has been regarded as an important predictor of helping behavior and social inclusion (Coke et al., 1978;Beeney et al., 2011;Verhaert and Poel, 2011). For example, empathy drives consumers to support firms that have been treated unfairly by paying higher purchase price (Allard et al., 2020). ...
Consumer generally prefer produce with perfect/attractive appearance and reject unattractive produce (e.g., spotted apples, curved cucumbers), which results in global economic and sustainability issues. Researchers are making efforts to find strategies to reduce consumer or retailer waste of unattractive produce. This article aims to study the role of anthropomorphism communication in the marketing of unattractive produce and to identify an empathy-helping underlying psychological mechanism. Three experimental studies found that when unattractive produce is anthropomorphized, the situation of rejection evokes consumer empathy. Feelings of empathy drive consumers to accept and purchase unattractive produce. In addition, the positive effect of anthropomorphism on purchase intentions is moderated by popularity of unattractive produce (e.g., number of shoppers). The effect of anthropomorphism is strengthened when the produce is unpopular, and it is weakened when the produce is popular.
... (Charity 1,volunteer 4) Empathy: "I feel very strongly really that the children in our society often have a pretty raw deal, that they are the saviour of our society." (Charity 1, volunteer 1) In the data, it is the decision-making around cause that appears most closely related to the literature on prosocial behaviour and empathetic emotion (Wieseke et al., 2012;Verhaert and Van den Poel, 2011). The more empathetic a person feels towards cause, the more likely they are to support that cause. ...
Article
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Purpose This paper aims to explore how volunteers choose one nonprofit organisation (NPO) rather than another. It identifies the drivers of choice, and the relationship between them, to enable NPOs to strengthen their volunteer recruitment. Design/methodology/approach A total of 51 service-delivery volunteers were interviewed, drawn from 5 leading NPOs. A laddering technique was used to understand the context in which the choice of organisation was made and the underlying personal needs and goals. The data was analysed using means-end chain (MEC) methodology to uncover the relationships between, and hierarchy of, the decision drivers. Findings Brand, cause, and role were found to be important in meeting personal needs and goals through volunteering. The paper makes three contributions. Firstly, it presents a clearer understanding of NPO choice through adopting an integrated theoretical perspective. Secondly, it identifies the decision-making process and key relationships between the attributes of the NPO, the consequences for the volunteer, and the connection to their personal needs. Finally, the study makes an important contribution to literature through presenting a new conceptual framework of volunteer decision-making in the nonprofit context to act as a catalyst for future research. Research limitations/implications This research is both impactful through, and limited by, its context selection: regular service-delivery volunteers from five NPOs within two causes. The paper presents a rich research stream to extend this understanding to other nonprofit stakeholders, other causes including medical volunteer, and smaller NPOs. Practical implications In an increasingly competitive nonprofit environment with a growing need to support the vulnerable in society, NPO sustainability is dependent on their ability to recruit new volunteers. NPOs compete not only with other organisations with similar causes but also those offering similar volunteering roles, and other uses of time to meet personal needs such as sport, career, or community. Understanding how volunteers make their choice of NPO rather than other uses of their time is of vital importance to make the most effective use of scarce marketing resources. This paper contributes to that practitioner understanding. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to extend the understanding of generic motivations of volunteers to consider specific choice of NPO. Unlike previous literature, the authors bring together theory on brand, cause, and role with personal needs. The authors are also the first to apply MEC methodology to the nonprofit context to uncover the personal underlying, less salient reasons behind NPO choice and the relationship between them.
... Altruism is confirmed by the fact that-regardless of the type of individual donation (charitable giving or migrant remittance)-donor revenue plays a limited role in explaining both the decision and amount to donate (Carling 2008;Beldad, Snip, and van Hoof 2014). Among the altruistic drivers of giving, disasters trigger an empathy effect leading individuals who have experienced increased vulnerability to feel morally compelled to help people facing similar situations (Verhaert and Van den Poel 2011). Although existing studies mainly focus on so-called "natural" disasters (especially floods), they show that the less victims are deemed responsible for their situation, the more impact empathy has on the decision to donate (Zagefka and James 2015). ...
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As Covid-19 disrupts political and economic arrangements around the world, International Political Economy (IPE) is uniquely positioned to reflect on the pandemic's global economic and financial impact. To explore what IPE research can bring to the table, we situate state and market crisis responses within patterns of continuity and change in core structures of the international political economy as well as developments in everyday life. Spanning themes from the role of industrial animal farming and global value chains in spreading the virus to how the pandemic affects foreign aid, the politics of IMF aid disbursements, distributional conflicts within the European Union and surveillance capitalism, we outline research agendas for scholars and students of International Relations and International Political Economy to examine the origins, spread and responses to Covid-19 in years to come.
... Researchers also investigated the influence of altruism and empathy on monetary contributions and purchasing decisions. Verhaert and van den Poel (2011) show that compassion has a positive effect on the decision to donate money and that it leads to an overall increase in generosity. Altruism is also positively associated with increased willingness to pay for environmental conservation (Ojea & Loureiro, 2007). ...
Article
This paper aims to evaluate how prices are formed in the informal tourism market and how this has a bearing on the livelihoods of informal traders. More specifically, the objectives of this research were to: (i) determine the dependence and strategies of informal traders on sales and fair prices for their livelihood; (ii) assess price judgement of tourists in two currencies and (iii) determine whether altruism influences price judgement. A mixed-methods approach was followed, where interviews were held with informal craft traders and a questionnaire was electronically administered to 450 international tourists who visited South Africa. The results show that the informal craft traders are supporting extended family members in southern African countries. The informal tourism economy in South Africa therefore plays an integral part in providing a source of livelihood for many migrants. In addition, tourists have inaccurate price judgements, which is more pronounced for lower valued items, and leads to price distortions in the market. We also find that price judgement in the unfamiliar currency distorts the effect of pro-social behaviour on price judgement, with higher levels of altruism only being associated with price overvaluations in the respondent’s home currency.
... There is a general acceptance of the value of donor intention as a predictor of actual donations (Kashif et al., 2015), evidenced with financial donors in the United Kingdom (Smith & McSweeney, 2007), mainland Europe (Verhaert & Van den Poel, 2011), and blood donors in the United States (France et al., 2007). Lee et al. (1999) had earlier demonstrated that intention was a powerful predictor of future behaviors spanning the three major forms of giving (money, time, and blood). ...
Article
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The United Kingdom is generous toward charitable donations, and this commitment appears robust against a background of economic uncertainty. While prior work has identified a clear preference for domestic over international causes, research has yet to identify the range of variables that significantly correlate with this important element of charitable choice. A survey of 1,004 U.K. residents was designed to assess willingness to donate to local, national, and international causes. For each destination, stepwise multiple regression analysis identified the key variables that correlate to an individual’s willingness to donate. Findings suggest that donor willingness correlates with levels of trust, preferred types of charitable cause, and donation channels. In contrast, the role of donor demographics is relatively limited. The findings suggest some commonality in the variables that associate most significantly with willingness to donate locally and nationally, but those relating to international donation intention are relatively distinct.
... Photographic narratives that convey unhealthiness highlight patients' suffering caused by the illness. Past research examining prosocial behavior suggests that witnessing others' desperation can provoke empathy emotions, which powerfully propel helping behaviors (e.g., Batson 1990;Fisher and Ma 2014;Verhaert and Van den Poel 2011). When we care about others, we feel distressed when they are suffering (Batson 1990). ...
Conference Paper
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Online medical crowdfunding brings new hopes to families who cannot afford to pay for their medical expenses. As photos play a dominant role in persuasion, this study investigates the impact of photographic narratives on online medical crowdfunding campaigns. From the perspective of theory of persuasive communication, photos are categorized into three persuasive types: pathos (emotional-related), ethos (credible-related), and logos (rational-related). Using a unique dataset constructed from a medical crowdfunding website, the results show that both pathos (emotional-related) and ethos (credible-related) photos have positive persuasion effects. For logos (rational-related) photos, photographic narratives on medical expenses have a negative persuasion effect, while photographic narratives on financial disadvantages have no significant effect on medical crowdfunding performance. Our study provides important theoretical and practical implications.
... Furthermore, a significant relationship between past donating behavior and intentions to donate was found by Smith and McSweeney (2007). Similarly, Verhaert and Van den Poel (2011) state that donors who have made a lot of donations in the past are more likely to donate in the future. Considering these explanations, the hypothesis H4 is developed as follows: ...
Article
While more and more people have been forced from their homes by natural disasters, wars, and violence, the citizens of the least developed countries are facing problems like famine, epidemics, and lack of education, chronically. Nonprofit organizations (NPOs) are challenging these situations with their limited sources. We aim to define the main organizational factors affecting individuals to donate to NPOs in the Turkish context. For this purpose, a theoretical model was developed by combining models of prominent studies in the literature, and structural equation modeling was performed by employing data gained via a survey on donors of Yeryüzü Doktorları (Doctors Worldwide Turkey) to validate the model. As a result, past donations, brand image, and familiarity positively affect intention to donate to NPOs, while there is not a significant relationship between typicality and intention to donate to NPOs in the Turkish context. Therefore, Turkish NPOs can evaluate their fund-raising and branding strategy and redesign their fund-raising processes by considering these findings.
... Literature in this area has considered empathy as a multidimensional construct, consisting of two dimensions: cognitive and affective ( Davis, 1983 ;McBane, 1995 ). While some researchers might operationally define empathy as both cognitive and affective ( McBane, 1995 ;Wieseke et al., 2012 ), or cognitive per se (i.e., perspective taking; Cojuharenco and Sguera, 2015 ;Parker and Axtell, 2001 ), our study focuses on empathy as an affective state ( Verhaert and Van den Poel, 2011 ;Wondra and Ellsworth, 2015 ). Furthermore, prior studies have validated the role of empathy in ethical decision making ( Cojuharenco and Sguera, 2015 ;Lehnert et al., 2015 ;Mencl and May 2009 ;Pohling et al., 2016 ). ...
Article
Despite the tremendous growth of Airbnb, various media have reported ethical misconduct occurring within the Airbnb context by both hosts and users. The current research seeks to examine the interactive effects of power (high vs. low) and psychological distance (close vs. distant) to explain individual tolerance of unethical behavior across two experimental studies for the case of Airbnb. Specifically, we propose that when an individual (i.e., an Airbnb host or user) feels powerless (vs. powerful), that individual will show a low level of tolerance to unethical behavior and tend to judge the ethical behavior more harshly. However, the effect of power will only emerge in the psychologically close condition (e.g., a host judging a host's unethical behavior), but not in the psychologically distant condition (e.g., a host judging a user's unethical behavior). Further, we establish that this interactive effect is mediated by feelings of empathy.
... Still, there are also personal and contextual factors that might induce this kind of behavior. Personal distress can increase a person's focus on helping others (Verhaert & Van den Poel, 2011). It might also be a way to deal with stressful situations and relieve negative emotions such as sadness and anxiety (Cialdini et al., 1981). ...
Article
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Resumo Objetivo: O propósito desta pesquisa é explorar como a manutenção do relacionamento com prestadores de serviço durante a pandemia da Covid-19 afeta o bem-estar do consumidor e sua intenção de compra no período pós-pandemia. Originalidade/valor: Este artigo usa dados empíricos coletados durante a pandemia de Covid-19, para compreender como indivíduos podem melhorar seu bem-estar durante eventos estressantes por meio do uso de serviços e também como empresas podem aumentar suas possibilidades de recuperação durante essa situação. Design/metodologia/abordagem: Dados foram coletados através de questionário no Brasil durante o período intermediário da pandemia de Covid-19. Para executar a análise, foram feitas modelagens de equações estruturais. Resultados: Resultados mostram que quanto mais forte era a confiança no prestador de serviço antes do período estressante, maior será a manutenção do relacionamento com ele durante esse período. A manutenção do relacionamento entre consumidor e prestador de serviços durante a pandemia de Covid-19 melhora a satisfação com a vida e a saúde (i.e., bem-estar) do indivíduo (mesmo quando o serviço não é prestado da forma combinada previamente, e.g., aulas on-line de yoga). Os efeitos positivos no bem-estar são explicados por uma maior percepção de controle e sensação de estar ajudando o prestador de serviço durante um período de crise. Adicionalmente, a manutenção do relacionamento com o prestador de serviços durante esse período aumenta a intenção de recompra futura (i.e., após a pandemia) do consumidor junto a esse prestador de serviços. / Abstract Purpose: This research aims to explore how the maintenance of cus­tomers’ relations with service providers during the Covid-19 pandemic affects customers’ well-being and repurchase intentions for the post-pandemic period. Originality/value: This paper uses empirical data collected during the Covid-19 pandemic to shed light on how individuals can improve their well-being during stressful life events through service provisions and how businesses can increase chances of recovery after stressful situations such as a pandemic. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected during the pandemic with Brazilian consumers. Structural equations models (SEM) techniques were used. Findings: Results show that the stronger the customer’s trust in the service provider before the stressful event, the higher the maintenance of the provider’s relationship during this period. More importantly, this relationship maintenance with the service provider during the Covid-19 pandemic (even when the service is not being provided as previously agreed, e.g., online yoga classes) improved the individual’s satisfaction with life and health (i.e., well-being). These positive effects on well-being are explained by perceptions of control and the feeling of helping the service provider during a crisis (i.e., a pandemic). Furthermore, maintaining the relationship with the service provider during this period increased customers’ future repurchase intentions with the business.
... Également, une personne vivant en milieu urbaine a plus facilement accès à des structures de don. En ce qui concerne les variables psychologiques, l'empathie, la culpabilité, la nostalgie, le matérialisme, l'altruisme ou l'égoïsme affecte le comportement de don (Verhaert & Van den Poel, 2011;Bennett, 2003;Merchant, Ford, & Rose, 2011;White & Peloza, 2009). ...
Conference Paper
Malgré un besoin croissant, la recherche en marketing sur le comportement de don n'a pas encore entièrement délimité la pratique du don d’objets. Au travers de 16 entretiens, cette recherche tente de comprendre ce que signifie donner des biens aux associations, en distinguant trois catégories : les objets ordinaires, les produits de première nécessité et les objets précieux. Si les résultats montrent des divergences selon la nature de l'objet, le don aux associations est une manière d'exprimer sa personnalité, de favoriser le local, de perpétuer des valeurs familiales, symboliques, culturelles et/ou civiques et de donner une chance à chacun tout en en tirant des bénéfices utilitaires personnels. Cette recherche souligne l'importance de distinguer l'objet qui a été donné et propose d’intégrer les objets précieux et les produits de première nécessité dans la littérature sur le don d’objets.
... Altruism is confirmed by the fact that-regardless of the type of individual donation (charitable giving or migrant remittance)-donor revenue plays a limited role in explaining both the decision and amount to donate (Beldad et al., 2014;Carling, 2008). Among the altruistic drivers of giving, disasters trigger an empathy effect leading individuals who have experienced increased vulnerability to feel morally compelled to help people facing similar situations (Verhaert & Van den Poel, 2011). Although existing studies mainly focus on so-called "natural" disasters (especially floods), they show that the less victims are deemed responsible for their situation, the more impact empathy has on the decision to donate (Zagefka & James, 2015). ...
Preprint
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The COVID-19 pandemic is not merely an epidemiological phenomenon, but a set of global crises intertwined with political and economic processes in manifold ways. This collection brings together fifteen contributions from the interdiscipline of Global Political Economy reflecting on origins, implications and responses during the first year of the global pandemic.
... | 2021 consumption and a feeling of dominance may decrease consumers' motivation to engage in charitable behavior. Indeed, empirical research has shown that feeling empathy prompts individuals to engage in helping behaviors (Batson et al., 2002), such as donating to charity (Verhaert & Van den Poel, 2011) or volunteering (Davis et al., 1999). ...
Article
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Charitable behaviors are essential to organizations and consumers. The majority of research to date has focused on the personal characteristics of donators and donation recipients that influence charitable behaviors. However, our understanding of the influence of the shopping process on subsequent charitable behaviors is limited. In this study, we focus on how purchasing a servant brand could influence consumers' subsequent charitable behavior. Across five studies, we investigated the effect of purchasing a servant (vs. partner) brand on consumers' subsequent charitable behaviors. This effect occurs because purchasing a servant brand enhances consumers' dominance‐feeling and reduces their feelings of empathy, and their reduced empathy in turn undermines their subsequent willingness to donate. Finally, we demonstrate the moderating roles of power distance beliefs and shopping environment in attenuating the detrimental effect of servant brand consumption on reduced empathy and subsequent charitable behaviors. These findings offer important insights into the ubiquitous nature of brands in consumers' everyday lives by detailing how servant brand consumption influences charitable behavior.
... Also, prosocial tendencies (Fernando et al., 2014), narcissistic trait (Konrath et al., 2016) and empathy (Bekkers, 2006) emerged as contributing factors in the propensity to donate. In particular, scholarly authors showed that empathic concern and intentions to donate are positively related (Verhaert & Van den Poel, 2011). Furthermore, individual's volunteer role identity is associated to their will to donate time or money (Grube & Piliavin, 2000;Finkelstein & Brannick, 2007;White et al., 2016). ...
Conference Paper
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Charitable donations represent a possible indirect way to face the social challenge of poverty with people donating a certain amount of money independently of their social status and social roles. As such, scholarly authors devoted to the study of charity and donating behavior have proposed several models following different perspectives to explain the motivational factors and the individual conditions affecting donating behavior. In the present study, we aim at contributing to the selfish altruism model by suggesting the effect of pseudoinefficacy as possible cognitive bias which may be detrimental for deciding to donate. On the one hand, the selfish altruism model has gained notable attention as a possible explanation of the decision-making process underlying donating behavior. This model suggests that people offer aid to receive something in return or to gain a personal advantage. Such a personal benefit can be seen as the individual sense of being morally satisfied, namely, warm-glow. That is, those who donate may feel higher levels of social esteem, gratitude and respect from others which are aspects feeding their warm-glow. Individual would decide to donate by the possibility to gain moral satisfaction rather than acting for the common good. On the other hand, according to cognitive psychology, pseudoinefficacy may affect donating behaviors as an illusion of inefficacy that arises when individuals can only help some people but not others who yet are equally in need. In this sense, the phenomenon of pseudoinefficacy contributes to the selfish altruism model as an explanation of the individuals' emotions that may reduce donors' warm-glow. Ultimately, we propose a critical and interdisciplinary review of donating behaviors model and propose a research agenda for further investigations. Given the widespread of poverty as linked to the worldwide changes (i.e., novel pandemic of Sars-Cov-2), theoretical indications and reflections on donating behavior represent a pragmatic and moral concern whose relevance rests in the potential applied implications.
... This is known as "the empathy helping hypothesis" in the realm of charity and donation (Bagozzi & Moore, 1994;Fisher et al., 2008). The empathy and prosocial behavior relationship is supported by a substantial amount of research (Andreychik & Migliaccio, 2015;Bagozzi & Moore, 1994;Batson, 1983;Chang & Chen, 2019;Coke et al., 1978;Kemp et al., 2013;Strong & Martin, 2014;Verhaert & Van den Poel, 2011;Weiss & Cohen, 2019). Donation for a good cause is essential. ...
Article
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Exploring the hidden factors behind donors’ inspiration is of great importance. This will go a long way, enabling charitable organizations to design more effective communication in donation appeals. For decades, the donation appeals used for charity emphasize on negative emotion sadness to induce empathy in viewers. However, using extreme negative emotions like sadness in donation appeals has adverse psychological effects; causing distress to viewers. In contrast, there is almost non-existent research on donors’ inspiration in such donation appeals. This research analyses donors’ inspiration in experimental studies. The data were collected through survey questionnaires. The findings reveal that the sadness & dignity combined condition triggers higher inspiration than the sadness condition; resulting in a positive evaluation of the donation appeal in the combined condition as compared to the sadness condition (Study-1). Further, the combined condition elicits higher inspiration than the sadness condition; causing higher donations in the combined condition than both the sadness and dignity conditions (Study-2). In a nutshell, this research reveals that dignity inspires people. Specifically, it shows that combining sadness & dignity is more effective than the sadness dominating emotion in persuading people to donate. Theoretical and practical implications of the study are discussed.
... Empathy is defined as an "emotional capacity and a process" (Lazarus, 1991, p. 412), and is an other-oriented "response congruent with the perceived welfare of another" (Batson, 1990, p. 339). Research in charitable giving has found that empathy plays an important role in shaping generosity (Basil et al., 2008;Kim & Kou, 2014;Lee et al., 2014;Verhaert & Van den Poel, 2011), yet such research has largely focused on the relationship between negative emotions and empathy (Bagozzi & Moore, 1994). In this vein, for example, Small and Verrochi (2009) find that images with sad facial affect garner greater levels of sympathy, which subsequently positively impacts giving. ...
Article
Nonprofit brands vary widely in their positioning to consumers, ranging from crisis and desperation to joy and optimism. The literature, however, provides limited direction for the many nonprofit organizations that seek to align their brand with positive emotions. Herein, we examine the relationship between affective displays (sad vs. happy) portrayed in charitable advertisements and consumer self-construal in shaping consumer generosity. We employ one field study (study 1) and one lab experiment (study 2), using different charitable causes (i.e., Kiva.org [study 1] and a fictitious children’s cancer charity [study 2]) and currencies (i.e., lending money [study 1] and volunteering time [study 2]). Taken together, we find that happy (sad) affective displays are most effective for consumers who hold an independent (interdependent) self-construal, and that this alignment heightens empathy and in turn increases perceptions of efficacy, which increases generosity. Implications for future research and nonprofit practice are discussed.
... Similar results have been found in adults. For example, increased affective empathy (empathic concern subscale of the IRI) was associated with increased monetary donations to charities (Verhaert & Van den Poel, 2011). Among medical students, scores on the self-report ...
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The study of trait empathy and the experience of empathy has implications for psychopathologies, the enactment of prosocial behaviors, and inhibition of aggression. For the most part, studies on empathy have been limited to the examination of trait empathy and/or empathy-related prosocial behaviors. However, to better understand how trait empathy may translate into empathy-related behaviors, it is important to find the best ways to elicit and measure state empathy, as well as characterize the relationship between trait and state empathy. Additionally, research into the relationship between normal-range personality traits and empathy on both a trait and state level has largely been limited to research with physician empathy, indicating the need to examine relationships between personality traits and state empathic reactions. The current study sought to fill these gaps in the literature through exploring the efficacy of a set of empathy-eliciting film clips and further characterizing the nature of empathy responses by examining the role that individual differences in trait empathy and normal-range personality traits play in responses to the clips. In the present study, undergraduate students completed a film clip task and reported their state affect at baseline and following each film clip. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to compare self-reported emotional responses to a set of film clips selected to elicit empathy (showing persons in distress) with responses to negative affect non-empathy (i.e., negative control) clips and neutral clips. These analyses would help validate whether the empathy clips elicited a greater degree of endorsed empathy adjectives (e.g., sympathetic, compassionate), relative to baseline, than the other two types of clips. Further, relationships between individual differences in trait empathy and five-factor model (FFM) personality traits and these state empathic responses were examined using mixed model ANOVAs. Finally, the extent to which FFM personality traits accounted for variance in relationships between trait and state empathy was examined with hierarchical regression to determine whether general personality measures may be used to predict state empathy rather than using face-valid empathy-specific trait measures. Overall, results showed support for the efficacy of the empathy clips for uniquely eliciting empathy. The results also showed expected relationships between trait and state empathy, with trait cognitive empathy showing the most consistent relationships with state empathic responses to the empathy clips. The latter is likely related to the nature of the film clip task, where the ability to interpret individuals’ emotional states (perspective taking) and the degree to which participants become involved in story characters’ experiences (fantasy) are essentially tied to emotional reactions to the clips. Although the FFM personality trait of openness to experience showed significant relationships with state empathic reactions to the clips, agreeableness did not, which was inconsistent with predictions. Additionally, general personality traits did not account for a significant proportion of the variance in the relationship between trait and state empathy, suggesting that personality measures cannot be used in place of trait empathy measures in predicting state empathy. This research produced an effective film clip stimulus set that may be used to elicit empathy in a lab setting and expanded upon the limited literature on the association between state empathy and individual differences in trait empathy and normal-range personality. The findings also lent methodological insight that may be used to improve future empathy elicitation studies.
... Although there are arguments against the separation of the two concepts e.g., [13,14], the two concepts can be separated but have close interactions [15] as Strayer [16] argued that affective empathy is the content of empathy while cognitive empathy is the process where the content is established. However, many of the prior studies have considered empathy as a single dimension [17], or have focused on only one particular dimension of empathy e.g., [18]. ...
Article
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(1) Background: Empathy affects an individual’s decision to participate in volunteering, and volunteering, in turn, influences mental health. Intriguingly, studies have been limited in exploring underlying mechanisms and boundary conditions for the relationship between empathy and mental health. Furthermore, volunteering studies have overlooked the multi-dimensionality of empathy. Therefore, this study seeks to contribute to extant literature by investigating the mediating effect of volunteering for the relationships between cognitive and affective empathy and mental health and the moderating effect of gender for the relationship between empathy and volunteering. (2) Methods; Data were collected using a survey in South Korea and consisted of 301 full-time employees who voluntarily engaged in their corporate volunteer programs. Furthermore, they voluntarily participated in the study. The hypotheses were tested with path analysis and a group comparison was also conducted. (3) Results: Volunteering was found to mediate the relationships between cognitive empathy and affective empathy with mental health. In addition, gender moderated the relationship between empathy and volunteering. (4) Conclusions: As the study found empathy to increase individuals’ engaging in volunteering activities which then improved mental health, the study supports extant theoretical frameworks on empathy and volunteering. Moreover, the study found gender differences on empathy and volunteering; thereby supporting and contributing to extant literature.
... Some scholars have investigated donation behavior and individual emotion, social status, and basic characteristic. Based on the influence of individual emotions on donation behavior, Dickert et al. (2011) and Verhaert and Van den Poel (2011) found that there is a correlation between compassion and willingness to donate. Furthermore, Lay et al. (2019) explored the relationship between donation behavior and individual donors' emotions through a study of 1,300 Chilean participants aged 18-64 years, and found that empathy had a positive influence on donation behavior and personality. ...
Article
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There is little literature on the impact of donation on individual wellbeing in China. This study examines individual donations in China to answer the question of whether helping others makes us happier and to provide policy implications for in Chinese context. Based on the 2012 Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) data and using ordered logit and OLS as benchmark models, this study finds that donation can significantly increase individual happiness. After using propensity score matching (PSM) to eliminate the possible impact of self-selection, the above conclusion remains robust. After a sub-sample discussion, it is found that this effect is more pronounced under completely voluntary donation behavior, and is not affected by economic factors, indicating that the happiness effect of donation does not vary significantly depending on the individual’s economic status. This study contributes to the literature on donation behavior by examining the impact of donation behavior on donors’ subjective happiness in China, and further identifies subjective happiness differences, as between voluntary and involuntary donations, thereby providing theoretical and empirical support for the formulation of policies for the development of donation institutions in China.
Article
Previous studies have shown that generosity is driven by empathy and that both generosity in economic sharing behavior and monetary loss empathy decay as the social distance increases. However, it is still unclear whether this decay in economic sharing generosity can be influenced by the decay in monetary loss empathy. In the current study, we carried out two experiments to investigate this issue to deepen our understanding of the relationship between monetary loss empathy and generosity in economic sharing behavior. Our results show that in the observation group (observers watch their friend, and a stranger plays a gambling game), a negative correlation between log-transformed k value (ln(k)) and the distinction of d-FRN (feedback-related negativity difference between gain and loss) between friends and strangers was observed. However, in the execution group (executors play a gambling game themselves and watch a stranger play the same gambling game), there was no significant correlation between ln(k) and the distinction of d-FRN between self and strangers. Current results indicate that the decayed generosity across different social distances in economic sharing behavior can be modulated by the decayed monetary loss empathy. The study adds weight to the relationship between decayed monetary loss empathy and decayed generosity in sharing economic behavior at the level of social distance and provides electrophysiological evidence.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate whether a U-shaped relationship exists between the length of time a donor has been a regular member in a nonprofit organization and the amount donated over time. In addition, this research analyzes whether this relationship is moderated by donation frequency. Design/methodology/approach Using a database of 6,137 members from a collaborating nonprofit organization, a longitudinal study is conducted over an eight-year period (2013–2020). A set of ordinary least square (OLS) regression analyses are carried out to empirically test the proposed hypotheses. Findings This study finds a nonlinear, U-shaped relationship between donation amount and relationship length. This effect can be explained through the dynamic evolution of two dimensions of commitment: affective (decreasing over time) and normative (increasing over time). The results also reveal that these effects, however, become flatter for members who engage in more frequent donations. Originality/value The results provide novel insights revealing the nonlinear nature of the relationship between the length of time a donor has been a member of a nonprofit organization and the amount donated, and underscores the moderating role of donation frequency, which makes the U-shaped relationship flatter, thus increasing the amounts donated. Despite their relevance in the service ecosystem, nonprofits have been under-represented in prior work. This study offers important practical insights into the effective management of the regular donor portfolio.
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Nearly 50% of all Earths’ forests have been cleared and considering forests hold 80% of the world’s diversity, it is crucial to support efforts by non-profit organizations (NPO) and government to stop deforestation. Yet, NPOs combat in an increasingly competitive donation sphere, with only 3% of donations going to conservation and animal welfare NPO’s. The present research aims to develop a novel perspective to increase consumer support (financial and time resources) to NPOs by examining the use of emotion (hope vs. fear) and numerical information (range vs. point value). Across three experimental studies, we provide concrete empirical evidence that hope increases the effectiveness of numerical information specified as a point value format, whereas fear will increase the effectiveness of numerical information specified as a range format. Our results provide practical implications for conservation NPO marketers in terms of matching emotion and numerical format.
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This study aims to elucidate the effects of a prosocial orientation on investments in entrepreneurial businesses through crowdfunding platforms. By drawing on the theory of empathy in social psychology, we focused on social issues that campaigns address, rather than the rhetoric and narratives used in campaigns. We applied a topic modeling method to identify types of social issues expressed in campaign documents. Furthermore, we conducted a questionnaire survey to measure the degree of empathic feeling about social issues. The results revealed that high levels of empathy to social issues do not directly lead to supporting behavior, and in particular, high levels of emotional empathy suppress the effects of cognitive empathy. Instead, backers are more likely to invest in campaigns that address social issues that evoke cognitive empathy and that are perceived to be a viable business.
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As a special type of social information systems, crowdfunding platforms draw researchers’ attention in recent years for their increasing popularity. In supplement to big-data analyses on user-generated content, behavioral research using survey and interview observations provide insights on why people like or hesitate to use such platforms. Nevertheless, extant studies focus on user intention and equity/reward-based projects, leaving the knowledge body on why people actually engage in donation-based crowdfunding underdeveloped. Based on Activity Theory, this study explores the critical success factors of crowdfunding in terms of website acceptance, crowd familiarity, and donation reciprocity. It then develops a research model that adapts relevant constructs from e-commerce and charitable behavior literature to predict user trust and readiness leading to actual donation. To test the hypothesized relationships, a structural equation modeling analysis was performed on 744 survey responses collected from crowdfunding platform users in multiple countries. Results provide supporting evidence to most hypotheses and confirm the importance of factors related to the technological system as well as social collaboration in the crowdfunding activity.
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Donor behavior and the act of charity have attracted evident attention globally in recent years primarily because of squeezed government funding to charities and Nonprofit Organizations (NPOs) post 2008 financial meltdown. This paper reviewed 148 articles on charity donor behavior and giving behavior, and provides a coherent and contemporary view with a classification scheme having various categories based on different attributes. The purpose of this study is twofold. First, it covers a systematic literature review (SLR) of charity donor behavior and its drivers. Second, it identifies the gaps in the current body of knowledge and highlights the future research direction. Using SLR Method, the present research identifies, meticulously evaluates, critically analyzes, and synthesizes findings of the relevant studies published in international journals in the fields of consumer behavior, information technology, services marketing, psychology, economics, and marketing management from 1980 onwards. Subsequently, various emerging themes in the area of Donor Behavior are identified based on gaps to facilitate the researchers and practitioners for their future research efforts.
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Traditional HR functions of recruitment, selection, training/development, and retention must be adapted when managing a volunteer workforce. While much research has focused on what motivates people to volunteer, very little has focused on the process of volunteer motivation. In this paper, we move beyond the traditional content-based approaches to explain how people decide whether to volunteer, how much effort to expend, and then whether to continue volunteering over time. Our model, based on image theory, provides new insights into volunteer decision making and behavior.
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The tendency of an individual to share his beings with other people arises from the social aspect of human nature. Especially in today's conditions where the gap between advantageous and disadvantaged groups is getting deeper, donation is extremely important to reach a global level of welfare and to create fair living standards for all. Due to the stated priorities, donation behavior has an important place among both religious and moral values. However, the factors that lead an individual towards donation behavior are not only social rules. In addition to external factors, important internal factors such as emotions also play a big role in the donation decision. In addition, there are many variables such as the donated thing itself, total assets of the donor and indeed the characteristics of the donor. Donation behavior, which is widely examined in the literature, is also considered as an important decision making subject. In our study, the effects that motivate an individual towards a donation; along with the donation amount and the ratio of donation, were examined with framing heuristics which express the individual's knowledge of the victim. The mentioned variables were associated with stress as one of the strongest negative arousal output, to understand the emotional aspect of a donation decision. The stress levels of the participants, who manipulated by two different scenarios, were monitored with galvanic skin response to determine the decision-making scenarios which triggered stress. As a result; it has been found that the individual's effort to gain the money he donates and the features of the donation call significantly affect the decision.
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The tendency of an individual to share his beings with other people arises from the social aspect of human nature. Especially in today's conditions where the gap between advantageous and disadvantaged groups is getting deeper, donation is extremely important to reach a global level of welfare and to create fair living standards for all. Due to the stated priorities, donation behavior has an important place among both religious and moral values. However, the factors that lead an individual towards donation behavior are not only social rules. In addition to external factors, important internal factors such as emotions also play a big role in the donation decision. In addition, there are many variables such as the donated thing itself, total assets of the donor and indeed the characteristics of the donor. Donation behavior, which is widely examined in the literature, is also considered as an important decision making subject. In our study, the effects that motivate an individual towards a donation; along with the donation amount and the ratio of donation, were examined with framing heuristics which express the individual's knowledge of the victim. The mentioned variables were associated with stress as one of the strongest negative arousal output, to understand the emotional aspect of a donation decision. The stress levels of the participants, who manipulated by two different scenarios, were monitored with galvanic skin response to determine the decision-making scenarios which triggered stress. As a result; it has been found that the individual's effort to gain the money he donates and the features of the donation call significantly affect the decision.
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Traditionally, charities that seek donations for human-suffering causes have relied heavily on emotional appeals designed to motivate negative feelings such as sadness and fear. Past research supports a sympathy-helping hypothesis that donation campaigns that use images of human-suffering to evoke sympathy and empathy increase prosocial behaviors. Empirical evidence also supports an inspiration-helping hypothesis whereby the positive emotion of strength inspires people to donate. Consistent with the proposed sympathy + inspiration-helping hypothesis, appeals that combine hope and sadness (vs. hope-dominant and sadness-dominant appeals) elicit sympathy and inspiration that motivate increased donations toward human-suffering causes. In addition, Study 2 results support that improving emotion appeals (sad to hopeful) generate higher donations than declining emotion appeals (hopeful to sad). Study 3 shows that cognitive load moderates the emotion-donation relationship. Under high load when mental resources are constrained, donations declined for the sadness + hope mixed emotion appeal.
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Cause-related marketing is prevalent in today’s marketing environment. The purpose of this research is to build and test a conceptual model surrounding the idea of a generous consumer – and what may lead a consumer to buy products affiliated with cause-related marketing. To do this, we examine the impact of pro-social consumer behaviors (i.e., social responsibility, empathy, moral reasoning, and self-report altruism (SRA) past helpfulness) on interpersonal generosity. Further, we explore the role of both pro-social consumer behaviors and interpersonal generosity on cause-related purchase intentions. Findings indicate that several pro-social consumer behaviors are predictors of cause-related purchasing intentions. Additionally, it is found that interpersonal generosity mediates other pro-social behaviors in determining consumer receptiveness to cause-related market exchanges.
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In this paper, we investigate if nonprofit organizations (NPO) requesting donations online are perceived differently in terms of their cognitive and affective natures. Then, we examine how individual differences in terms of need for cognition (NFC) and emotion (NFE) interact with perceptions of nonprofit cognitive/affective orientations in influencing donation intentions. In Study 1, one‐tailed paired‐sample t‐tests were conducted and effect sizes were computed to investigate the differences in perceived natures of a few select NPOs. In Study 2, multiple linear regression is used to examine how donation intentions are influenced by perceived NPO nature and NFC/NFE. Some NPOs are perceived to be more (less) cognitive than affective (and vice versa). Donors with a high NFC are more willing to donate to predominantly cognitive NPOs, while those with high NFE are more willing to donate to predominantly affective NPOs. The effect of congruence between perceived NPO nature and donor processing styles on monetary donation intentions has not been studied in online or traditional monetary donation context. Our findings can help nonprofit managers in segmentation, targeting, and positioning. Managers can use NFC and NFE as psychological bases for segmentation. We suggest NPOs a way to target donors whose processing styles are congruent with the perceived nature of NPOs. We propose that positioning NPOs in a way that can appeal to high NFE or NFC donors may be beneficial to NPOs.
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This experiment examined the effects of fundraising message characteristics on donation intentions through a simulated social media campaign. A 2 (abstract vs. concrete message) × 2 (gain vs. loss framing) between-subjects experiment ( n = 213) revealed that a message with detailed fundraising outcomes elicited a greater intention to donate through heightened perceived message credibility, perceived transparency, cognitive elaboration, and empathy. Gain and loss framing, however, did not result in significant differences in donation intentions. Theoretically, this study uncovered the psychological mechanisms through which message concreteness increases donation intentions. Practically, results of this study provided implications for drafting effective fundraising messages that can be disseminated on social media.
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Charitable organizations continue to increase in the United States. Procuring charitable donations and meeting fundraising goals can be challenging for new organizations. Mental representations, or construals of phenomena, often drive charitable behaviors, preferences, and choices. Healthy Homes for Healthy Living (HHHL) focuses on reconstructing houses to prevent vectors that spread Chagas disease in rural communities in Ecuador. Drawing upon construal level theory (CLT), we explored charitable giving behaviors of potential donors. Our findings revealed: (a) smaller psychological distances did not influence charitable giving, and (b) message recipients showed favorable attitudes toward unfamiliar charities dealing with unfamiliar issues. We offer implications for CLT application in the context of charitable giving and fundraising by new charitable organizations and intention to share messages.
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Purpose The rapid development of the Internet in China has profoundly affected the country's charities, which many people support through online donations (e.g. providing financial help) and charity information forwarding (a new behavior of participating in online charities via social media). However, the development of online charities has been accompanied by many problems, such as donation fraud and fake charity information, which adversely affect social kindness. The purpose of this paper is to understand people's online donation and forwarding behaviors and to explore the mechanisms of such behaviors from the perspectives of cognitive-based trust and emotional-based empathic concern. Design/methodology/approach This study developed a research model based on the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) and stimulus–organism–response (SOR) model. The researchers obtained 287 valid samples via a scenario-based experimental survey and conducted partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) to test the model. Findings The results indicated that (1) online donation intention is motivated by rational-based trust and emotional-based empathic concern; (2) online charity information forwarding is triggered only when trust is built, and there is no significant correlation between empathic concern and forwarding intention; and (3) content quality, initiator credibility, and platform reputation are three critical paths to promote trust; in addition, an individual's empathic concern can be motivated by the emotional appeal. Originality/value This study highlights the different mechanisms of donation and forwarding behaviors and provided theoretical measures for motiving trust and empathic concern in the online context to promote people's participation in online charity.
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Moral identity and empathy are two important contributors of charitable donation. But there are also inconsistent findings which suggest the existence of moderating variables. This research investigated their effects on charitable donation when the fictional recipients have or have not responsibility for HIV infection. Through four between‐subjects experiments, we respectively explored the effect of responsibility of AIDS patients (blameless vs. blameful; manipulated by different ways of HIV infection) on donation, and its interaction with trait moral identity (study 1a, n = 313, Mage = 19.37, 70% females), primed moral identity (study 1b, n = 392, Mage = 19.43, 72% females), trait empathy (study 2a, n = 310, Mage = 19.34, 67% females), and primed empathy (study 2b, n = 366, Mage = 19.39, 55% females). Measures of moral identity and empathy, and a priming technique with moral identity and empathy words as stimuli were used research tools. The results demonstrated that when AIDS patients were not responsible for their plight (blameless), moral identity and empathy (regardless of trait or activated) showed positive effects on donation. When AIDS patients were responsible for their plight (blameful), however, all positive effects disappeared. Trait moral identity even showed a negative effect on donation. These results indicated that the prosocial effects of moral identity and empathy are conditioned by characteristics of the beneficiaries.
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Research dealing with various aspects of* the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985, 1987) is reviewed, and some unresolved issues are discussed. In broad terms, the theory is found to be well supported by empirical evidence. Intentions to perform behaviors of different kinds can be predicted with high accuracy from attitudes toward the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control; and these intentions, together with perceptions of behavioral control, account for considerable variance in actual behavior. Attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control are shown to be related to appropriate sets of salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs about the behavior, but the exact nature of these relations is still uncertain. Expectancy— value formulations are found to be only partly successful in dealing with these relations. Optimal rescaling of expectancy and value measures is offered as a means of dealing with measurement limitations. Finally, inclusion of past behavior in the prediction equation is shown to provide a means of testing the theory*s sufficiency, another issue that remains unresolved. The limited available evidence concerning this question shows that the theory is predicting behavior quite well in comparison to the ceiling imposed by behavioral reliability.
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As the nonprofit sector grows and its relationship with the public sector deepens, nonprofit managers are working harder at developing donated financial and human resources. Although much research on nonprofit fund-raising has looked at who donates and which fund-raising strategies are most effective, no work to date has connected the two concepts; to illuminate which fund-raising strategies work with which donors. Using interview data conducted with nonprofit fund-raising executives and survey data on Atlanta residents, the authors estimate the impacts of sociodemographic and economic characteristics on the success of different donor development approaches. After constructing conceptual and empirical models, the authors’ data analysis allows them to develop a set of management implications that will assist nonprofit managers in crafting development strategies for the organizations they operate.
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Baron and Kenny's procedure for determining if an independent variable affects a dependent variable through some mediator is so well known that it is used by authors and requested by reviewers almost reflexively. Many research projects have been terminated early in a research program or later in the review process because the data did not conform to Baron and Kenny's criteria, impeding theoretical development. While the technical literature has disputed some of Baron and Kenny's tests, this literature has not diffused to practicing researchers. We present a nontechnical summary of the flaws in the Baron and Kenny logic, some of which have not been previously noted. We provide a decision tree and a step-by-step procedure for testing mediation, classifying its type, and interpreting the implications of findings for theory building and future research. (c) 2010 by JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH, Inc..
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Empathy, sympathy, and related vicarious emotional responses are important concepts in developmental, social, and clinical psychology. The purpose of this paper is to examine conceptual and methodological issues concerning the assessment of vicarious emotional responding and to present data from a series of multimethod studies on the assessment of empathy-related reactions and their association with prosocial behavior. The findings presented are consistent with several conclusions: (a) In some contexts, physiological, facial, and self-report indexes can be useful markers of vicarious emotional responses, (b) other-oriented sympathetic responding is positively related to prosocial behavior (particularly altruism) whereas personal distress reactions sometimes are associated with low levels of helping, and (c) physiological arousal is higher for personal distress than sympathetic reactions.
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Describes the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and its relationships with measures of social functioning, self-esteem, emotionality, and sensitivity to others. 677 male and 667 female undergraduates served as Ss. Each of the 4 IRI subscales displayed a distinctive and predictable pattern of relationships with these measures, as well as with previous unidimensional empathy measures. Findings provide evidence for a multidimensional approach to empathy. (29 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
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An evolutionary perspective offers novel insights into some major obstacles to achieving happiness. Impediments include large discrepancies between modern and ancestral environments, the existence of evolved mechanisms "designed" to produce subjective distress, and the fact that evolution by selection has produced competitive mechanisms that function to benefit one person at the expense of others. On the positive side, people also possess evolved mechanisms that produce deep sources of happiness: those for mating bonds, deep friendship, close kinship, and cooperative coalitions. Understanding these psychological mechanisms--the selective processes that designed them, their evolved functions, and the contexts governing their activation--offers the best hope for holding some evolved mechanisms in check and selectively activating others to produce an overall increment in human happiness.
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Despite the serious shortage of human body parts for transplantation purposes, little research has been done to provide guidance for action. Based on sample data, this pilot study examines the demographic and attitudinal characteristics of potential donors. The results have direct relevance for programs to increase the supply of body parts.
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Mediation is said to occur when a causal effect of some variable X on an outcome Y is explained by some intervening variable M. The authors recommend that with small to moderate samples, bootstrap methods (B. Efron & R. Tibshirani, 1993) be used to assess mediation. Bootstrap tests are powerful because they detect that the sampling distribution of the mediated effect is skewed away from 0. They argue that R. M. Baron and D. A. Kenny's (1986) recommendation of first testing the X --> Y association for statistical significance should not be a requirement when there is a priori belief that the effect size is small or suppression is a possibility. Empirical examples and computer setups for bootstrap analyses are provided.
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There is considerable evidence that trait empathy affects single-episode helping behavior. However, the influence of empathy on more continuous altruistic behavior, such as voluntarism, has not been investigated. This study utilizes a four-dimensional empathy scale, the Davis Interpersonal Reactivity Index, to assess the relationship between trait empathy and voluntarism. Structural equation analysis results indicate that Perspective Taking, Empathic Concern, and Personal Distress dimensions of empathy are positive antecedents of voluntarism as hypothesized. The Fantasy dimension was not related to voluntarism.
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The constructs of emotionality and regulation are central to many current conceptualizations of temperament. In this article, the role of individual differences in emotionality and regulation in empathy-related responding (sympathy and personal distress) is discussed, and relevant research is reviewed. In general, sympathy has been linked to intense emotionality and high regulation. People prone to personal distress (a self-focused aversive response to another's emotions or situation) tend to be low in regulation and prone to intense and frequent negative emotions. Empathy-related responding generally is predicted better by the combination of emotionality and regulation than by either separately. Examples of interventions designed to promote empathy, sympathy, and prosocial behavior in which emotionality and regulation are targeted behaviors are discussed.
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We construct an integrated theory of formal and informal volunteer work based on the premises that volunteer work is (1) productive work that requires human capital, (2) collective behavior that requires social capital, and (3) ethically guided work that requires cultural capital. Using education, income, and functional health to measure human capital, number of children in the household and informal social interaction to measure social capital, and religiosity to measure cultural capital, we estimate a model in which formal volunteering and informal helping are reciprocally related but connected in different ways to different forms of capital. Using two-wave data from the Americans' Changing Lives panel study, we find that formal volunteering is positively related to human capital, number of children in the household, informal social interaction, and religiosity. Informal helping, such as helping a neighbor, is primarily determined by gender, age, and health. Estimation of reciprocal effects reveals that formal volunteering has a positive effect on helping, but helping does not affect formal volunteering.
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A study was conducted to explore the effects of empathic predispositions on viewing and contributing to the annual muscular dystrophy telethon. A multidimensional measure of empathy (the Interpersonal Reactivity Index) was used to assess empathic predisposition, and respondents answered questions concerning their past viewing of the telethon and contributions to it. As predicted, only one facet of empathy-a tendency to experience sympathy and concern for others-was associated with more viewing of and contributing to the telethon. Other aspects of empathy, such as role-taking, fantasizing ability, and feelings of personal distress, were unrelated to either viewing or contributing.
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The major decision variables for the development of a direct mail campaign are the characteristics of the mailing and the characteristics of the targets receiving the mailing. Traditional direct mail research treats both aspects separately although they are likely to interact. We present a new target selection strategy that simultaneously takes both characteristics into account by using different mailings offereng the same product to different targets. Using data from an experiment conducted by a Dutch health care organization, we show that our selection strategy increases the net returns of a fund raising campaign.
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[This book examines] empathy from the standpoint of contemporary social/personality psychology—emphasizing these disciplines' traditional subject matter (e.g., emotion, cognition, helping, aggression) and its research techniques (survey research, laboratory experiments). [The author's] goal was to provide a thorough, readable . . . summary of contemporary empathy research [primarily for advanced undergraduate and graduate students]. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A compliance tactic whereby a target is first shown a list of other compliers and is then asked to comply with a request was examined in 5 field experiments. Exp I with 120 university students showed that this tactic significantly increased the number of donors when they were asked for a money donation. Exps II and III with 60 adults and 60 male students replicated the basic finding for a household population and for a request for a blood donation, respectively. Exp IV with 300 male students varied the number of other donors and the size of their donations and found that Ss' compliance with a request to donate money was affected by these factors. Findings are interpreted as consistent with the expectations derived from the informational social influence hypothesis. Exp V with 90 adults replicated part of Exp IV and suggested that a list effect does not materialize when the norms governing compliance are too strongly violated. (21 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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recognition of emotions / role taking and empathy / role of social-emotional experience in empathy / vicarious affect / clinical perspectives / directionality of affect / facial expressive measures of empathy (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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With the advent of one-to-one marketing media, e.g. targeted direct mail or internet marketing, the opportunities to develop targeted marketing (customer relationship management) campaigns are enhanced in such a way that it is now both organizationally and economically feasible to profitably support a substantially larger number of marketing segments. However, the problem of what segments to distinguish, and what actions to take towards the different segments increases substantially in such an environment. A systematic analytic procedure optimizing both steps would be very welcome.In this study, we present a joint optimization approach addressing two issues: (1) the segmentation of customers into homogeneous groups of customers, (2) determining the optimal policy (i.e. what action to take from a set of available actions) towards each segment. We implement this joint optimization framework in a direct-mail setting for a charitable organization. Many previous studies in this area highlighted the importance of the following variables: R(ecency), F(requency), and M(onetary value). We use these variables to segment customers. In a second step, we determine which marketing policy is optimal using markov decision processes, following similar previous applications. The attractiveness of this stochastic dynamic programming procedure is based on the long-run maximization of expected average profit. Our contribution lies in the combination of both steps into one optimization framework to obtain an optimal allocation of marketing expenditures. Moreover, we control segment stability and policy performance by a bootstrap procedure. Our framework is illustrated by a real-life application. The results show that the proposed model outperforms a CHAID segmentation.
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Using real-life purchase behavior data of apparel and survey information, this study compares the Relationship Quality and the Theory of Planned Behavior models. The attitude towards the buying behavior, the subjective norm and perceived behavioral control (antecedents of the buying intention in the Theory of Planned Behavior) are better predictors of behavioral intentions than Relationship Quality. In both models intentions fully mediate the impact of attitudinal antecedents on behavior, both in terms of purchase incidence and purchase behavior (amount spent, number of visits, and types of products bought). Frequency and recency of prior buying behavior and, to a lesser extent, its monetary value, predict subsequent purchase incidence, above and beyond the impact of attitude and intention. Attitudinal antecedents of behavior significantly predict buying behavior, but they become insignificant when buying behavior is included in the model.
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This paper provides the first empirically based marketing model of the perceptions of givers and the resulting impact on donations. Within nonprofit marketing there is a considerable amount of extant research to support the view that both extrinsic and intrinsic variables can be used to separate givers and non-givers to nonprofits. However, they are less useful in explaining the level of support that will be offered. Perceptual factors may offer more utility in this regard. Structural equations models are presented based on a survey of over 1300 donors that link a series of perceptual determinants to the level of the average donation to a specific organization. The potential mediating roles of trust and commitment are also explored. Trust appears unrelated to the direct benefits that accrue to donors as a consequence of their gift. Rather, trust (and indirectly, commitment) is predicated on the perceived benefits supplied to beneficiaries and the manner in which the impact of these benefits is communicated back to donors.
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I study the relationships of resources and personality characteristics to charitable giving, postmortem organ donation, and blood donation in a nationwide sample of persons in households in the Netherlands. I find that specific personality characteristics are related to specific types of giving: agreeableness to blood donation, empathic concern to charitable giving, and prosocial value orientation to postmortem organ donation. I find that giving has a consistently stronger relation to human and social capital than to personality. Human capital increases giving; social capital increases giving only when it is approved by others. Effects of prosocial personality characteristics decline at higher levels of these characteristics. Effects of empathic concern, helpfulness, and social value orientations on generosity are mediated by verbal proficiency and church attendance.
Researchers often conduct mediation analysis in order to indirectly assess the effect of a proposed cause on some outcome through a proposed mediator. The utility of mediation analysis stems from its ability to go beyond the merely descriptive to a more functional understanding of the relationships among variables. A necessary component of mediation is a statistically and practically significant indirect effect. Although mediation hypotheses are frequently explored in psychological research, formal significance tests of indirect effects are rarely conducted. After a brief overview of mediation, we argue the importance of directly testing the significance of indirect effects and provide SPSS and SAS macros that facilitate estimation of the indirect effect with a normal theory approach and a bootstrap approach to obtaining confidence intervals, as well as the traditional approach advocated by Baron and Kenny (1986). We hope that this discussion and the macros will enhance the frequency of formal mediation tests in the psychology literature. Electronic copies of these macros may be downloaded from the Psychonomic Society's Web archive at www.psychonomic.org/archive/.
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This special issue highlights an empirical approach that has increasingly grown in prominence in the last decade—field experiments. While field experiments can be used quite generally in economics—to test theories’ predictions, to measure key parameters, and to provide insights into the generalizability of empirical results—this special issue focuses on using field experiments to explore questions within the economics of charity. The issue contains six distinct field experimental studies that investigate various aspects associated with the economics of charitable giving. The issue also includes a fitting tribute to one of the earliest experimenters to depart from traditional lab methods, Peter Bohm, who curiously has not received deep credit or broad acclaim. Hopefully this issue will begin to rectify this oversight.
Bekkers René. Traditional and health-related philanthropy: the role of resources and personality
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Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1991. Bekkers René. Traditional and health-related philanthropy: the role of resources and personality. Soc Psychol Q 2006;69(4):349–66.
De Cannière Marie Hélène, De Pelsmacker Patrick, Geuens Maggie. Relationship quality and the theory of planned behavior models of behavioral intentions and purchase behavior
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Davis Mark H. Empathy: a social psychological approach. Madison, WI: Brown & Benchmark Publishers; 1994. De Cannière Marie Hélène, De Pelsmacker Patrick, Geuens Maggie. Relationship quality and the theory of planned behavior models of behavioral intentions and purchase behavior. J Bus Res 2009;62(1):82–92.