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Overshadowed cues have reduced ability to retroactively interfere with other cues

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Abstract

The present series of experiments explores the interaction between retroactive interference and cue competition in human contingency learning. The results of two experiments show that a cue that has been exposed to a cue competition treatment (overshadowing) loses part of its ability to retroactively interfere with responding to a different cue that was paired with the same outcome. These results pose problems for associative models of contingency learning and are also difficult to explain in terms of current theories of causal reasoning. Additionally, it is proposed that in light of the interaction between interference and cue competition, interference could be used as an indirect measure for the study of cue competition effects.

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... Por ejemplo , este modelo no puede explicar por qué la interferencia entre claves se cancela con el entrenamiento masificado o al combinarla con un tratamiento de contingencia degradada (Wheeler y ). Y tampoco explica por qué la historia previa de una clave que ha sufrido un tratamiento de competición de claves afecta a su capacidad para actuar como clave interfiriente (Vadillo, Orgaz y Matute, 2008). Tal vez el modelo actual que más fácilmente pueda adaptarse para explicar toda esta variedad de resultados sea la hipótesis del comparador, desarrollada por Miller y sus colegas (Denniston, Savastano y Miller y Matzel, 1988; Stout y Miller, 2007) para dar cuenta de los fenómenos de competición de claves. ...
... Esto explicaría por qué la interferencia entre claves desaparece al interponer un intervalo de retención entre los ensayos A-O y la prueba o al salir del contexto en el que se entrenó la asociación A-O. Además, esta ampliación de la hipótesis del comparador, combinada con los desarrollos más recientes de la misma (Denniston y cols., 2001; Stout y Miller, 2007 ) permitiría explicar otros de los fenómenos citados anteriormente , como la atenuación de la interferencia con la contingencia degradada, con el entrenamiento masificado (Wheeler y) o con tratamientos previos de competición de claves sufridos por la clave interfiriente (Vadillo, Orgaz y Matute, 2008 ). En esta situación , la hipótesis del comparador se perfila como una de las mejores perspectivas teóricas desde las que abordar el estudio y la interpretación de la interferencia entre claves., 2008 ), los procesos implicados en el aprendizaje estarían fuertemente guiados por los datos (i. ...
... Por ejemplo , este modelo no puede explicar por qué la interferencia entre claves se cancela con el entrenamiento masificado o al combinarla con un tratamiento de contingencia degradada (Wheeler y ). Y tampoco explica por qué la historia previa de una clave que ha sufrido un tratamiento de competición de claves afecta a su capacidad para actuar como clave interfiriente (Vadillo, Orgaz y Matute, 2008). Tal vez el modelo actual que más fácilmente pueda adaptarse para explicar toda esta variedad de resultados sea la hipótesis del comparador, desarrollada por Miller y sus colegas (Denniston, Savastano y Miller y Matzel, 1988; Stout y Miller, 2007) para dar cuenta de los fenómenos de competición de claves. ...
... Esto explicaría por qué la interferencia entre claves desaparece al interponer un intervalo de retención entre los ensayos A-O y la prueba o al salir del contexto en el que se entrenó la asociación A-O. Además, esta ampliación de la hipótesis del comparador, combinada con los desarrollos más recientes de la misma (Denniston y cols., 2001; Stout y Miller, 2007 ) permitiría explicar otros de los fenómenos citados anteriormente , como la atenuación de la interferencia con la contingencia degradada, con el entrenamiento masificado (Wheeler y) o con tratamientos previos de competición de claves sufridos por la clave interfiriente (Vadillo, Orgaz y Matute, 2008 ). En esta situación , la hipótesis del comparador se perfila como una de las mejores perspectivas teóricas desde las que abordar el estudio y la interpretación de la interferencia entre claves., 2008 ), los procesos implicados en el aprendizaje estarían fuertemente guiados por los datos (i. ...
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Retroactive interference between cues trained apart was long ago studied in the psychology of memory, within the paired associate tradition. Current theories of learning, however, predict that interference between cues should not occur if they are trained elementally. Here we review the available evidence on retroactive interference between cues trained apart and show that this effect is very similar to other, classical effects, in the area of learning, such as interference between outcomes and competition between cues. We suggest that a stronger connection between these research areas is important, as common mechanisms are quite possibly responsible for all these effects. Finally, we discuss whether associative or the causal inference mechanisms currently studied in the area of learning could provide a satisfactory explanation for these effects. La interferencia retroactiva entre claves entrenadas elementalmente fue en su día un fenómeno muy estudiado en la psicología de la memoria, dentro de la tradición de los pares asociados. Sin embargo, las teorías actuales del aprendizaje predicen que no debería ocurrir interferencia entre claves si estas se entrenan por separado. En este trabajo revisamos la evidencia disponible y mostramos que la interferencia entre claves tiene enormes similitudes con otros efectos clásicos del aprendizaje, especialmente con los efectos de interferencia entre resultados y de competición entre claves. Postulamos, por tanto, que tiene sentido establecer una mayor conexión entre todas estas áreas de investigación y plantear que es muy posible que todos estos efectos sean debidos a mecanismos comunes. Finalmente discutimos si los procesos asociativos o los procesos de inferencia causal que se estudian actualmente en la psicología del aprendizaje podrían dar cuenta de estos efectos.
... Rescorla-Wagner models have been successful in explaining a range of behaviours related to learning and conditioning across numerous fields (Miller, Barnet, & Grahame, 1995;Siegel & Allan, 1996). However, with few exceptions (e.g., Harrison, 2005;Vadillo, Orgaz, & Matute, 2008), their application in the context of road safety is rare. ...
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The safety in numbers (SiN) effect is often invoked as a mechanism by which increasing numbers of vulnerable road users introduced into a transport network can result in reduced per-capita risk of collision resulting in injury or death. Mechanisms underlying SiN’s function, however, have not been well described. Extending previous agent-based modelling work, this study explored the potential role of behavioural adaptation of drivers to the presence of cyclists that followed patterns of Rescorla–Wagner (R–W) learning models. Results indicated that SiN effects consistent with those present in real-world studies were replicable in a simulated environment, and that R–W model input settings were able to control the strength of the SiN effect in combination with the influence of increased cyclist density. The combined theoretical and simulation model presented here provides a novel means by which the potential safety effects of cycling policy settings and interventions may be academically and practically explored.
... Within a Pavlovian preparation, less conditioned lick suppression was observed to the target CS (X) when an interfering association was trained (Z-O), relative to when a control treatment exposed the subjects to the same number of unpaired presentations of the interfering cue and the outcome. These observations are concordant with numerous other reports concerning associative cue interference (e.g., Cobos, López, & Luque, 2007;Escobar et al., 2001b;Luque et al., 2010;Luque, Morís, Cobos, & López, 2009;Luque, Cobos, & López, 2008;Matute & Pineño, 1998;Miguez et al., 2012;Vadillo, Orgaz, & Matute, 2008;Pineño et al., 2000). ...
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Retroactive cue interference refers to situations in which a target cue X is paired with an outcome in phase 1 and a nontarget cue Z is paired with the same outcome in phase 2, with less subsequent responding to X being seen as a result of the phase 2 training. Two conditioned suppression experiments with rats were conducted to determine whether retroactive cue interference is similarly modulated by a manipulation that influences retroactive outcome interference (e.g., extinction). Both experiments used an ABC renewal-like design in which phase 1 training, phase 2 training, and testing each occurred in different contexts. Experiment 1 found that training the target association in multiple contexts without altering the number of training trials during phase 1 decreased retroactive cue interference (i.e., increased responding consistent with the target association). Experiment 2 found that training the interfering association in multiple contexts without altering the number of interference trials during phase 2 increased retroactive cue interference (i.e., decreased responding consistent with the target association). The possibility of similar mechanisms underlying cue interference and outcome interference is discussed.
... Esto explicaría por qué la interferencia entre claves desaparece al interponer un intervalo de retención entre los ensayos A-O y la prueba o al salir del contexto en el que se entrenó la asociación A-O. Además, esta ampliación de la hipótesis del comparador, combinada con los desarrollos más recientes de la misma (Denniston y cols., 2001;Stout y Miller, 2007) permitiría explicar otros de los fenómenos citados anteriormente, como la atenuación de la interferencia con la contingencia degradada, con el entrenamiento masificado (Wheeler y Miller, 2007) o con tratamientos previos de competición de claves sufridos por la clave interfiriente (Vadillo, Orgaz y Matute, 2008). En esta situación, la hipótesis del comparador se perfila como una de las mejores perspectivas teóricas desde las que abordar el estudio y la interpretación de la interferencia entre claves. ...
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In an interference-between-cues design, the expression of a learned Cue A --> Outcome 1 association has been shown to be impaired if another cue, B, is separately paired with the same outcome in a second learning phase. In the present study, we assessed whether this interference effect is mediated by participants' previous causal knowledge. This was achieved by having participants learn in a diagnostic situation in Experiment 1a, and then by manipulating the causal order of the learning task in Experiments 1b and 2. If participants use their previous causal knowledge during the learning process, interference should only be observed in the diagnostic situation because only there we have a common cause (Outcome 1) of two disjoint effects, namely cues A and B. Consistent with this prediction, interference between cues was only found in Experiment 1a and in the diagnostic conditions of Experiments 1b and 2.
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Two lick suppression studies were conducted with water-deprived rats to investigate the influence of spatial similarity in cue interaction. Experiment 1 assessed the influence of similarity of the spatial origin of competing cues in a blocking procedure. Greater blocking was observed in the condition in which the auditory blocking cue and the auditory blocked cue originated at the same spatial location. Recent investigations have demonstrated that manipulations that impact competition between cues trained together have similar effects on interference between cues trained apart. Therefore, Experiment 2 investigated the influence of similarity of the spatial origin in proactive interference of Pavlovian conditioning by separately pairing two auditory cues with a common outcome, originating at the same spatial location or different spatial locations. Greater proactive interference was observed in the condition in which the interfering cue and target cue originated at the same spatial location. The results are considered in light of the possibility that a similar mechanism may underlie interference between cues trained apart and cue competition between cues trained together.
Article
Cue competition is one of the most studied phenomena in associative learning. However, a theoretical disagreement has long stood over whether it reflects a learning or performance deficit. The comparator hypothesis, a model of expression of Pavlovian associations, posits that learning is not subject to competition but that performance reflects a complex interaction of encoded associative strengths. That is, subjects respond to a cue to the degree that it signals a change in the likelihood or magnitude of reinforcement relative to that in the cue's absence. Initially, this performance-focused view was supported by studies showing that posttraining revaluation of a competing cue often influences responding to the target cue. However, recently developed learning-focused accounts of retrospective revaluation have revitalized the debate concerning cue competition. Further complicating the picture are phenomena of cue facilitation, which have been addressed less frequently than cue competition by formal models of conditioning of either class. The authors present a formalization and extension of the comparator hypothesis, which results in sharpened differentiation between it and the new learning-focused models.
Article
Most theoretical accounts of backward blocking place heavy stress on the necessity of the target cue having been trained in compound with the competing cue to produce a decrement in responding. Yet, other evidence suggests that a similar reduction in responding to the target cue can be observed when the outcome is later paired with a novel cue never trained in compound with the target cue (interference between cues trained apart). The present experiment shows that pairing another nonassociated cue with the same outcome may be sufficient to produce a decremental effect on the target cue, but the presence of a within-compound association between the target and the competing cue adds to this effect. Thus, both interference between cues trained apart and within-compound associations independently contribute to backward blocking.
On the role of controlled cognitive processes in human associative learning
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Conditioned reflexes
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The implicit association test as a measure of acquired associative strength between cause and effect in human causal learning
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Trial spacing is a determinant of cue interaction
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Temporal encoding as a determinant of blocking
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On the role of controlled cognitive processes in human associative learning
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