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The Self-Regulation Inventory (SRI): Psychometric properties of a health related coping measure

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Abstract

This research studies some of the psychometric properties of the Self-Regulation Inventory (SRI), a questionnaire designed by Grossarth-Maticek and Eysenck (1995) in order to assess coping behaviours related to health. The relationships between the SRI and basic dimensions of personality have also been investigated. A sample of 559 participants, 182 men and 377 women, answered both the SRI and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R). Our results showed that a five-factor solution of the SRI items appeared as the most robust internal structure for this instrument: positive actions, controllability, expression of feelings and needs, assertiveness, and well-being seeking. These five primary factors were clearly interrelated and a second-order factor analysis revealed a general self-regulation factor. Both the internal consistency and the temporal stability reliabilities of the SRI were adequate. In relation to personality, self-regulation was associated with emotional stability (low N) and extraversion and, to a lesser degree, with impulse control (low P).

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... The self-regulation scale includes 25 items to measure selfregulation in five areas of positive performance, controllability, a revelation of feelings and needs, determination, and wellbeing-seeking. The items are rated on a 5-point Likert-type scale, from 1 to 5 [35]. ...
... Using a Cronbach alpha coefficient, the validity of the Persian version of this inventory was examined and reported as 0.93, 0.91, and 0.92, respectively for the whole scale, male subjects, and female subjects, indicating a high internal consistency of the scale. Correlation coefficients between the scores of some subjects (77 female and 63 male subjects) in two tests conducted with a two-week interval were calculated for the whole scale as r =0.86, male subjects r=0.84, and female subjects r=0.84 [35,36]. ...
... focussing either on physical exercise or on psychological wellbeing/ mood. 47,51,52,79 The other three were not available, 33 measured a different outcome than we defined for this study (weight loss), 65 or turned out to be not a measure. 75 Table 1 reports general information on the nineteen included measures. ...
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Objective: We aimed to identify generic measures of self-regulation and to examine the degree to which these measures fit a recently developed conceptual model of self-regulation in a rehabilitation context. Data sources: Pubmed, Embase, PsycInfo, and CINAHL were searched. Review methods: Articles were included if they were published between January 2015 and August 2020 and reported on empirical studies (trials and observational studies) using a measure of self-regulation or a related concept, in an adult rehabilitation population. Main content was analysed by linking all items of the selected measures to one or more of the six sub-themes of self-regulation: (1) insight into physical and cognitive impairments, (2) insight into the consequences of the impairments, (3) insight into abilities, (4) to be able to communicate limitations, (5) trust in body and functioning, and (6) make use of abilities. Results: Two reviewers independently screened 7808 abstracts, resulting in the inclusion of 236 articles. In these articles, 80 different measures were used to assess self-regulation or related concept. Nineteen of these measures met the inclusion criteria and were included for the content analyses. Nine of these were self-efficacy measures. No measures covered four or more of the six sub-themes of self-regulation. The three sub-themes on gaining insights were covered less compared to the sub-domains 'trust' and 'make use of abilities'. Conclusions: Many measures on self-regulation exist None of these measures cover all six sub-themes of self-regulation considered important to measure self-regulation as a rehabilitation outcome.
... (P) y .97 (N); y en un reciente estudio con la misma versión (n=559, Marqués, Ibáñez, Ruipérez, Moya, & Ortet, 2005), los coeficientes fueron ligeramente menores pero manteniéndose el mismo patrón: las escalas E y N tienden a ser más elevadas comparadas con P y L (Caruso, Witkiewitz, Belcourt, & Gottlieb, 2001) El objetivo del presente artículo es obtener estimaciones de confiabilidad por consistencia interna y compararlos, usando varios métodos que traten de caracterizarlo de una manera más completa. Para ambos objetivos, la aplicación de la modificación Horst (1953) al KR puede probar ser una mejor estimación de la consistencia de los puntajes del EPQR debido que toma en cuenta el grado de dispersión de la respuesta promedio a los ítems (Merino & Charter, 2010), aspecto que no ha sido valorado apropiadamente en la investigación aplicada (Charter, 1995). ...
... Eysenck's research into personality and coping (see Marqués, Ibáñez, Ruipérez, Moya, & Ortet, 2005), and his research into cancer and coronary heart disease enriched health psychology, generating extensive debate, and quite often controversies, such as his finding of multiple synergistic causal factors in smoking-related illnesses (e.g., Eysenck, 1991a). As with other topics he researched, and while certain detractors have questioned Eysenck's objectivity in his research into personality, stress and physical disease using Grossarth-Maticek's rather unwieldy epidemiological data sets, the fact is that remaining true to character, Eysenck always carefully and logically considered the empirical evidence in attempting to solve controversial issues and advance psychology as a science (e.g., see Eysenck, 1991bEysenck, , 1993. ...
Article
The two most prominent individual differences researchers of the twentieth century were Hans J. Eysenck and Raymond B. Cattell. Both were giants of scientific psychology, each publishing scores of books and hundreds of empirical peer-reviewed journal articles. Influenced by Hebb's distinction between physiological (Intelligence A) and experiential (Intelligence B), Eysenck focused on discovering the underlying biological substrata of intelligence. Analogously, Cattell proposed the Gf–Gc theory which distinguishes between fluid and crystallised intelligence. Cattell's Culture Fair Intelligence Test (CFIT), a measure primarily of fluid intelligence, was constructed specifically to minimise differences in test bias in IQ scores between different ethnic/racial groups. Within the personality realm, Eysenck adopted a pragmatic three-factor model as measured via the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R) and its variants. In contrast, Cattell employed a lexical approach that resulted in a large number of primary and secondary normal and abnormal personality trait dimensions, measured via the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF), and the corresponding Clinical Analysis Questionnaire (CAQ), respectively. Recent molecular genetics findings provide empirical confirmation of Eysenck and Cattell's positions on the biological underpinnings of personality and ability traits, allowing an improved understanding of the causes of individual differences.
... The empirical evidence regarding neuroticism's role in behavioral self-regulation, however, does not support that relationship. Although some evidence suggests that high neuroticism hinders the ability to self-regulate (Bassan-Diamond, Teglasi, & Schmitt, 1995;Marqués, Ibáñez, Ruipérez, Moya, & Ortet, 2005;Nietfeld & Bosma, 2003), others have presented findings suggesting that high neuroticism enhances behavioral self-regulation due to frequent self-reinforcing behaviors (Kocovski & Endler, 2000) or planning (Morossanova, 2003). In addition, Perkins and Corr (2005) present evidence for an interaction effect between neuroticism and cognitive ability, where elements of neuroticism are positively related to self-regulatory behavior for individuals high in cognitive ability and negatively related to such behaviors for those low in cognitive ability. ...
This chapter proposes the development of a compound personality trait termed "goal propensity". Motivation is a key determinant of performance in virtually all contexts, and personality has long been viewed as an important influence on motivation. Despite the long history of exploring how personality influences motivation, we do not have a clear understanding of the linkage between individual differences in personality and work motivation or the tools to reliably and accurately predict individual differences in motivation. Advances in our understanding of personality and the convergence of motivation theories around models of self-regulation present the opportunity to achieve that understanding and predictive efficacy. Goal propensity would be a theoretically derived trait that would explain the role of personality in self-regulation models of motivation as well as allow the prediction of tendencies to engage in self-regulation. This chapter provides the rationale for the development of this construct, articulates the nature of the proposed goal propensity construct, and explores the value of such a construct for theory, future research, and human resource practice.
... Self-regulation and self-control beliefs reduce both the probability of the development of disorders and the treatment process of various disorders (O'leary et al., 1992). The above-mentioned beliefs, also, improve the function of the body's immune system through the modulation of stress (Grossarth-Maticek et al., 1999;Marqués et al., 2005;O'leary et al., 1992); the autonomy and impulse-control capacity (Penley & Tomaka, 2002;Vohs, Baumeister, & Ciarocco, 2005). Moreover, low self-regulation and self-control have a close relationship with behaviors like smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use, and behaviors threatening one's health. ...
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Several factors influence the beginning and maintenance of substance use. The purpose of this study was to examine as well as to compare 'self-regulation' in both substance dependent and non-substance dependent individuals. In a cross-sectional study 228 (118 substance dependent and 110 with no history of using substance) participants aged 16-55 were recruited. All of the participants were asked to complete the Self-Regulation Inventory (SRI-25) and a demographic characteristics data checklist. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics (frequency, mean and standard deviation) and the t-test. The results showed significant differences between substance dependent and non- substance dependent groups in all the scales of the self-regulation inventory including positive actions, controllability, expression of feelings and needs, assertiveness, and well-being seeking (p<0.01). Self-regulation and self-control skills in drug dependent individuals are lower than those without substance dependence individuals. It is concluded that substance use may related to a deficiency in self-control and regulation of feelings. Therefore, for prevention and treatment of substance dependence disorder, it is necessary to work out and exploit strategies that include the improvement of self-regulation.
... All participants volunteered to complete, in counterbalanced order, within 20 minutes, both reliable and valid psychometric measures. One measure was McCown and Johnson's (1989) 15-item, uni-dimensional Adult Inventory of Procrastination (AIP; see Ferrari et al., 1995, for The other measure translated effectively in Spanish by Grossarth-Maticek and Eysenck (1995) to assess health-related coping behaviors was the 25-item Self-Regulation Inventory-Short (SRI-S) by Marqués, Ibáñez, Ruipérez, Moya, and Ortet (2005). This self-report coping measure has five factors that examine effective coping skills for life problems, namely: positive actions, solving problems and facilitating happiness (original author's α = 0.79), controllability, internal control attributions (original author's α = 0.68), expression of feelings and needs, identification and expression of needs, wishes and feelings (original authors α = 0.72), assertiveness, autonomy and self-confidence (original author's α = 0.69), and well-being seeking, satisfaction with oneself and others (original author's α = 0.70). ...
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Research relating procrastination and mental health suggests that poor adjustment may be explained directly by the stress resulted from worry/anxiety over the delay, and indirectly by the tendency to put off important coping behaviors. In the present study, participants (80 women, 24 men; age range = 18-33 years, M age = 21.12 years old, SD = 2.03) completed Spanish versions of a measure of coping behaviours related to mental health and a procrastination inventory evaluating the tendency to avoid starting or completing tasks across a variety of everyday situations. Results indicated that procrastinators compared to non-procrastinators reported significantly lower positive actions and expression feelings/needs. Significant predictors of procrastination by students were low positive actions, expressing feelings, and assertiveness. Implications are considered relevant to student personality and development.
... The empirical evidence regarding neuroticism's role in behavioral self-regulation, however, does not support that relationship. Although some evidence suggests that high neuroticism hinders the ability to self-regulate (Bassan-Diamond, Teglasi, & Schmitt, 1995;Marqués, Ibáñez, Ruipérez, Moya, & Ortet, 2005;Nietfeld & Bosma, 2003), others have presented findings suggesting that high neuroticism enhances behavioral self-regulation due to frequent self-reinforcing behaviors (Kocovski & Endler, 2000) or planning (Morossanova, 2003). In addition, Perkins and Corr (2005) present evidence for an interaction effect between neuroticism and cognitive ability, where elements of neuroticism are positively related to self-regulatory behavior for individuals high in cognitive ability and negatively related to such behaviors for those low in cognitive ability. ...
Article
This study examined relationships between a composite of several facet-level traits within the five-factor model (FFM) of personality and outcomes across 3 phases of behavioral self-regulation. The goal of this research was to investigate the potential of the compound trait approach as an alternative to predicting self-regulatory outcomes based on the full FFM, conscientiousness or other FFM factor-level traits, or any individual facet-level trait within the FFM. These relationships were investigated using a sample of 312 participants completing both goal-related questionnaires and a decision task designed to simulate aspects of self-regulated performance within organizations. Consistent with hypotheses, the collection of traits within the composite assertiveness, activity, achievement striving, deliberation, dutifulness, self-discipline, and ideas performed as well or better than any single factor or facet of the FFM. The future research and practice implications for goal propensity, a compound trait related to all phases of behavioral self-regulation, are discussed.
... These results may apply for autonomously motivated people as well, because extraversion is shown clearly linked to self-regulation defined as "a flexible autonomous, functional way of solving problems and getting over difficulties" (Grossarth-Maticek & Eysenck, 1995, p. 792). Autonomous self-regulation is further characterized by positive actions to solve problems and wellbeing seeking behavior among patients (Marqués, Ibáñez, Ruipérez, Moya, & Ortet, 2005), which may be reflected by valuing continued dental treatment because they "find benefits" in it. This health promotion type of self-regulation has been shown to be negatively associated with vulnerability to develop a disease among healthy people, and has prospectively been negatively linked to death among patients with cancer, coronary heart disease, and other diseases (Grossarth-Maticek & Eysenck, 1995). ...
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Purpose: To develop and explore underlying dimensions of the Self-Regulation Assessment (SeRA) and psychometric features of potential components. Further, to identify associations between the SeRA and disability-management self-efficacy, type of diagnosis, and type of rehabilitation. Materials and methods: Based on a previously developed model of self-regulation, expert and patient opinions, and cognitive interviews, a list of 22 items on self-regulation (the SeRA) was constructed. The SeRA was included in a cross-sectional survey among a multi-diagnostic group of 563 former rehabilitation patients. Exploratory analyses were conducted. Results: Respondents had a mean age of 56.5 (SD 12.7) years. The largest diagnostic groups were chronic pain disorder and brain injury. Four components were found within the SeRA, labelled as "insight into own health condition," "insight into own capabilities," "apply self-regulation," and "organization of help." Cronbach's alpha was high (total scale: 0.93, subscales: range 0.85-0.89). Only scores on the first subscale showed a ceiling effect. Subscale three showed the highest correlation with a self-efficacy measure. Small differences in SeRA total scores (range 71.6-78.1) were found between different diagnostic groups. Conclusion: The SeRA is a new self-regulation measure with four subscales. Further research is needed to establish the validity and reliability of the SeRA. IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATIONThe Self-Regulation Assessment (SeRA) was developed to provide a comprehensive measurement of self-regulation among rehabilitation populations.The SeRA could potentially be used to identify persons with self-regulation problems at the start of rehabilitation treatment and measure outcomes of rehabilitation for self-regulation.The SeRA could potentially be used to help analyse outcomes of rehabilitation practice as well as evaluate interventions on self-regulation.
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The present study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of group-based acceptance and commitment therapy on self-regulation of maladjusted couples. This study was conducted by using a quasi-experimental method with pre-test-post-test design with a control group. The statistical population of the study included maladjusted couples in the age range of 20 to 50 years in Districts 4 and 5 of Tehran. Among them, 80 people were selected by a convenience sampling and they were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. A self-regulation inventory (25 questions) was used to collect data and according to the research design, the subjects were assessed in two stages of before and after the group training. The treatment program was performed for 7 sessions of 90 minutes for the couples in the experimental group, but the control group received no intervention during the study. The collected data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance in SPSS-26 software. Results revealed that self-regulation scores and their dimensions in the experimental group increased significantly compared to the control group. According to the results of the present study, it can be stated that acceptance and commitment therapy can significantly improve positive actions, controllability, expression of feelings and needs, assertiveness and well-being seeking and can be used as a useful model in psychological counseling of couples.
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Drug addiction is considered as a global epidemic which drastically affects millions of people worldwide, damaging an individual’s physiological, social, and psychological facets. One of the constructs that has been determined as an essential factor in the development of a variety of addictive behaviors is self-regulation. It plays an important role in predicting, maintaining, and treating addiction. In this study, the efficacy of Desensitization of Triggers and Urge Reprocessing (DeTUR), an Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing (EMDR) addiction protocol, in improving self-regulation was tested among fourteen (14) in-house clients of two drug treatment and rehabilitation centers using sequential explanatory mixed method research design wherein Self-regulation Inventory-Short Version (SRI-S) and individual interviews were employed. Results explicitly proved that self-regulation scores obtained significantly differed before, after, and even the delivery of delayed posttest using the EMDR as an intervention. The study confirmed that EMDR enhances the clients’ self-regulations (Overall SRI) and the sub-areas: positive actions, controllability, expressions of feelings and needs, assertiveness, and well-being seeking. Themes generated using thematic analysis further established a basis for the efficacy of EMDR. Keywords: drug addiction, self-regulation, Eye-movement Desensitization Reprocessing (EMDR), Desensitization of Triggers and Urge Reprocessing (DeTUR)
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The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of the scales from Grossarth-Maticek in the prediction of cancer and coronary heart disease (CHD). Factor analyses, based on responses from a community sample of 5133 subjects between the ages of 40 and 65, showed that the scale measuring Type 1 (disposition for cancer) correlated highly with the scale measuring Type 2 (disposition for CHD) personalities. Both scales had high positive loadings on a factor which had positive markers of neuroticism and depression and negative markers of optimism, sense of coherence, and social support. In two separate case–control studies, the Type 1, 2, and 4 (disposition for health) scales failed to successfully discriminate between groups of healthy individuals and those with a clinical diagnosis of cancer or CHD. Logistic regression analyses using data from the community sample showed that traditional risk factors such as gender, passive smoking, and neuroticism led to significant discrimination between healthy subjects and subjects with cancer or CHD. In contrast the scales from Grossarth-Maticek explained only a small part of the health versus illness variance and have little incremental validity over other traditional health-related personality constructs. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
It is suggested that the scientific status of psychology is put in danger by the lack of paradigms in many of its fields, and by the failure to achieve unification, psychology is breaking up into many different disciplines. One important cause was suggested by Lee Cronbach in his 1957 presidential address to the American Psychological Association: the continuing failure of the two scientific disciplines of psychology—the experimental and the correlational—to come together and mutually support each other. Personality study in particular has suffered from this disunity, and the debates about the number of major dimensions of personality. Examples are given to show that by combining methods and theories typical of these two disciplines, one can be put forward paradigms that would be impossible without such unification. Such a paradigm is suggested for personality and intelligence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
ABSTRACT We review prior evidence—and present data of our own—linking measures of adaptational style to the traits comprising the five-factor model of personality. Neuroticism has been studied most extensively and is consistently associated with passive and ineffective coping mechanisms. Conscientiousness has emerged as an equally powerful predictor of coping; however, it is related to active, problem-focused response strategies. Extraversion is less broadly related to coping but tends to be correlated with social support seeking, positive reappraisal, and problem-focused coping. Openness is largely unrelated to many traditional coping inventories, but appears to reflect a more flexible, imaginative, and intellectually curious approach to problem solving. Finally, Agreeableness is only modestly related to coping. These results demonstrate the value of using well-articulated taxonomic schemes as a framework for trait-based research.
Article
Comorbidity among childhood disruptive behavioral disorders is commonly reported in both epidemiologic and clinical studies. These problems are also associated with early substance use and other markers of behavioral disinhibition. Previous twin research has suggested that much of the covariation between antisocial behavior and alcohol dependence is due to common genetic influences. Similar results have been reported for conduct problems and hyperactivity. For the present study, an adolescent sample consisting of 172 MZ and 162 DZ twin pairs, recruited through the Colorado Twin Registry and the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study were assessed using standardized psychiatric interviews and personality assessments. DSM-IV symptom counts for conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, along with a measure of substance experimentation and novelty seeking, were used as indices of a latent behavioral disinhibition trait. A confirmatory factor model fit to individual-level data showed a strong common factor accounting for 16–42% of the observed variance in each measure. A common pathway model evaluating the genetic and environmental architecture of the latent phenotype suggested that behavioral disinhibition is highly heritable (a2 = 0.84), and is not influenced significantly by shared environmental factors. A residual correlation between conduct disorder and substance experimentation was explained by shared environmental effects, and a residual correlation between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and novelty seeking was accounted for by genetic dominance. These results suggest that a variety of adolescent problem behaviors may share a common underlying genetic risk. Am. J. Med. Genet. (Neuropsychiatr. Genet.) 96:684–695, 2000. © 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article
We conducted a short-term longitudinal study examining the structure of coping behavior and the relationship between coping style and depression during adolescence. The sample consisted of 603 adolescents in Grades 6–11 who were surveyed in the fall of 1989 and again in the fall of 1990. A two-dimensional model of coping was found using confirmatory factor analysis with the factors being approach and avoidant coping. Four cross-sectional and seven longitudinal coping groups were formed to explore group differences in depression. Approach copers reported the fewest symptoms of depression, while avoidant copers reported the most. Subjects who changed over time from approach to avoidant coping evidenced a significant increase in depressive symptoms, whereas subjects who switched from avoidant to approach coping displayed a significant decrease in depression over a one-year period. These findings imply that adolescents who are able to elicit social support, engage in problem solving, and cognitively restructure events within a positive light are more likely to successfully negotiate the challenges of adolescence.
Article
Several prospective studies conducted by H. Eysenck and R. Grossarth-Maticek have demonstrated that personality can be considered as a risk factor in cancer and coronary heart disease. It was found that persons being prone to certain kinds of illness showed different types of reactions to interpersonal stress. A questionnaire developed by Grossarth-Maticek and Eysenck to measure 6 different reaction types was applied to a sample of persons who were suffering from different kinds of psychosomatic complaints and who were attending relaxation training programs, and to a sample of students. In addition, data concerning personality, coping-styles and health behavior were collected in both samples. It was found (1) that Grossarth-Maticek and Eysenck's behavior types were markedly correlated with basic personality dimensions, such as Neuroticism, Extraversion, Psychoticism and open vs closed mindedness (Rokeach, 1960, The open and closed mind. New York: Basic Books), (2) that these behavior types were connected with different types of coping, and (3) that finally these behavior types were associated with different kinds of psychosomatic complaints and diseases, as well as cancer and coronary heart disease.
Article
Psychometric properties of the R/ED Scale were investigated in four samples of Spanish populations: male (n = 98) and female (n = 239) students, healthy women (n = 96), women with benign breast disease (n = 90), and women with breast cancer (n = 122). Analyses reveal high inter-item consistency (Cronbach's alpha from 0.82 to 0.87), high item remainder correlations (ranking from 0.63 to 0.32), high test-retest reliability (15 days, r = 0.81), and no significant correlations between R/ED Scale and Social Desirability (r = −0.17) and faking (r = −0.09) were found. In line with Spielberger and colleagues' results, factorial analysis reveals the stability (across samples) of two factors, so called, ‘Rationality’ and ‘Emotional Defensiveness’. Finally, R/ED (R and ED Subscales) scores as well as item scores significantly differ between the breast cancer group and the other groups. These results are congruent with those obtained by Spielberger and associates as well as supporting the hypothesis that cancer patients have a specific behavioral pattern.
Article
Many studies have shown the importance of personality traits as factors related to alcohol use and misuse. The relationship between personality traits and alcohol consumption was studied in a sample of 149 non-alcoholic women using the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP) and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R). The results showed positive correlations between alcohol consumption and disinhibitory personality traits (sensation seeking, impulsivity, psychopathy, nonconformity) and dimensions (psychoticism and extraversion). Sensation seeking combined with impulsivity were the strongest predictors of alcohol consumption. Anxiety-related traits and neuroticism were not related to alcohol frequency/amount of alcohol use.
Article
This study was designed to determine the role extraversion plays in influencing the utilization of social support and how this support might then subsequently influence extraverts' and introverts' differential experience of stress. Ninety-nine undergraduate introductory psychology students served as participants in the study. Participants were administered questionnaires that assessed level of extraversion, perceived available support, enacted support, social network characteristics, and stress, as measured by daily hassles. Results of the study revealed positive correlations between extraversion and perceived availability of support (Belonging and Tangible), enacted support (Directive Guidance, Nondirective Support, Positive Social Interaction, Tangible Assistance), and social network characteristics (network size and contact with network members). Extraversion was also positively correlated with stress. Results of path analyses suggested that perceived availability of support, in particular Belonging support, might mediate the relationship between extraversion and stress.
Article
This article introduces a new personality inventory dealing with self-regulation. This is in some ways the opposite of neuroticism, and measures personal autonomy or independence, particularly as far as emotional dependence is concerned. Our concern was the relation between self-regulation and health, and large samples of healthy men and women were tested and followed up to demonstrate high predictability of mortality from cancer, coronary heart disease and other causes of death from scores on the questionnaire. It was also demonstrated that psychological risk factors were largely independent from physical risk factors, and could be changed by behavioural-cognitive treatment, reducing mortality.
Article
This study examined whether and how McCrae and Costa’s Big Five personality dimensions (N, E, O, A, and C) are associated with stress and coping processes, including cognitive appraisals, subjective reactions, use of coping strategies, and task performance. Participants were 97 male and female university undergraduates who completed an abbreviated version of the NEO-PI prior to preparing and presenting a speech to an audience. Immediately after their speeches, participants reported their emotional reactions and the coping strategies used during the task. Two independent coders rated participants’ speech task performances. Correlational analyses indicated reliable associations between the five personality dimensions and many of the study’s variables. Findings generally support previous research into the association between the Big Five and stress and coping, and provide new information about the association between the Big Five and both appraisal and performance variables.
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between Type 2 and four different personality traits; aggression, hostility, anxiety and depression. Data was collected from men who had suffered coronary heart disease (CHD), had been hospitalized and had later enrolled at a physical outpatient clinic, as well as from a randomly assigned control group.Analysis of the data indicates that Type 2 is related to anxiety and depression, high Type 2 scorers score remarkably higher on depression and anxiety than the low Type 2 scorers. The high and low Type 2 persons also score significantly different on aggression and hostility. From the results of this study the Type 2 construct seems to be related to even more negative emotions than were revealed in previous studies.
Article
An English translation of the Differentiation and Self-regulation extension scales has been used in conjunction with a reduced form of the Short Interpersonal Reactions Inventory (SIRI) in a sample of 2844 Australian twins aged over 50. Significant correlation was found between Type 1 (cancer-prone) and Type 2 (coronary heart disease prone), and between Self-regulation and Type 4 (healthy). The low correlations reported in other studies between the two alternative subscales of Type 4 are also observed. The Differentiation scales of Agitation and Inhibition were not found to significantly improve discrimination between Grossarth-Maticek's personality Type 1 and 2 subjects in this study.
Article
Proper use of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) requires the researcher to make a series of careful decisions. Despite attempts by Floyd and Widaman (1995), Fabrigar, Wegener, MacCallum, and Strahan (1999), and others to elucidate critical issues involved in these decisions, examples of questionable use of EFA are still common in the applied factor analysis literature. Poor decisions regarding the model to be used, the criteria used to decide how many factors to retain, and the rotation method can have drastic consequences for the quality and meaningfulness of factor analytic results. One commonly used approach--principal components analysis, retention of components with eigenvalues greater than 1.0, and varimax rotation of these components--is shown to have potentially serious negative consequences. In addition, choosing arbitrary thresholds for factor loadings to be considered large, using single indicators for factors, and violating the linearity assumptions underlying EFA can have negative consequences for interpretation of results. It is demonstrated that, when decisions are carefully made, EFA can yield unambiguous and meaningful results.
Article
Afirmaba Ivan Illich, en su conocido ensayo sobre las Profesiones Inhabilitantes, que una característica esencial de las mismas era el desarrollo y frecuente utilización de una jerga profesional inaccesible al no profesional. Particularmente, destacaba Illich, que tanto abogados como médicos eran especialmente proclives a caer en esta dinámica del lenguaje. Una de las razones para ello es la necesidad de hacerse imprescindibles para el común de los mortales (y de este modo mantener el estatus profesional). A ello habría que sumarle, además, la posibilidad de encubrir, bajo una densa retórica, la carencia de un contenido relevante que fuese algo más allá del sentido común. No se quiere decir, sin embargo, que esa jerga profesional sea innecesaria en todos los casos o que siempre se use para enmascarar una práctica que no va más allá de lo obvio. Es criticable cuando sólo sirve para incapacitar al público en general en la realización de tareas que no requerirían, de hecho, un conocimiento especial. Baste recordar aquí el Médico a Palos de Molière cuando le preguntaban al protagonista ¿por qué produce sueño el opio?, a lo que el falso médico respondía: «porque tiene propiedades dormitivas». Viene esto al caso del ensayo que nos ocupa, el optimismo inteligente, porque, sus autores, rompiendo en cierta medida las ataduras académicas, han sido capaces, sin trivializar el asunto, de hacer un extenso recorrido por todos los ámbitos de la emoción humana y, particularmente, aquella que despierta (y siempre ha despertado a lo largo de la historia de la humanidad) el mayor interés, la felicidad. Su naturaleza, sus bases biológicas y sociológicas, sus límites y sus mecanismos de aprendizaje son los grandes tópicos que se abordan entorno al tema del optimismo. A su vez, dentro de cada uno de ellos son tantos los temas que se discuten que sería imposible citarlos para ajustarse a un comentario más académico.
Article
How can we cope better, or help others to do so? The answer to this depends on knowing what an individual is coping with. This, in turn, depends on the appraisal, by the individual concerned, of the significance of what is happening for well-being--in effect, the source of harm, threat, challenge. Cases of myocardial infarction, cancer and chronic pain have some harms, threats, and challenges in common but there are also unique factors in each illness. The patient with a chronic illness is continually appraising his or her symptoms, pains, disease progression with respect to their significance for well-being and survival, and coping accordingly. The paper presents a microanalytic, contextual and process-centred approach to coping which is part of a broad system of thought, emphasizing cognitive appraisal and the person's ongoing relationships with the environment as factors of his or her emotional life. Implications for prevention and treatment of illness in a perspective of health promotion are discussed as well as the need for research to predict long-term outcome from stress and coping.
Article
This paper describes a novel method of behaviour therapy applied to cancer-prone and coronary heart disease-prone patients in a prophylactic manner, to reduce the probability of their dying of cancer or coronary heart disease. The treatment can also be applied to patients already suffering from cancer in order to prolong their lives. The methods used are described in considerable detail, together with the rationale leading to their adoption. In Part II of this paper are the results of several studies showing that the methods are surprisingly successful in preventing death in cancer-prone and coronary heart disease-prone probands, and prolonging life in patients already suffering from terminal disease.
Article
The construction of a new Personality-Stress Inventory is discussed, based on previous research and other types of inventory constructed on the same principles. Scores on the inventory divide people into six types, selectively prone to different types of disease. The instrument is administered twice, with six months intervening, and changes in the inventory scores are prognostic of the probability of contracting different diseases. Evidence is presented to show the validity of the questionnaire and the method used.
Article
The main aim of this study was to scrutinize the link postulated in 1988 between the Type 2 construct of Grossarth-Maticek, Eysenck, and Vetter and the incidence of coronary heart disease. Self-report data were collected from 58 men who had suffered an infarct, had been hospitalised, and had later enrolled at a physical outpatient clinic as well as from a randomly assigned control group of 70 men. Analysis showed that the Type 2 scores in the infarct group did not differ significantly from those of the control group or from measures taken immediately after an acute myocardial infarction and measures taken 3 months later. The results do not support the hypothesis of a strong association between coronary heart disease and Type 2 scores.
Article
In this study, 6,386 males and 5,990 females, with a mean age of 55 years, constituting a random sample, were administered questionnaires by interviewers relating to amount of self-regulation and drinking status. They were then followed up over a 20-yr. period, and health status (living well, chronically ill, or deceased) was ascertained. It was hypothesized that the deleterious effect of alcohol would be worse for those low on self-regulation; that health status would be worse for those in whom drinking diminished self-regulation, as compared with those for whom drinking improved self-regulation; and that smoking would have greater effects in lowering health status in those in whom drinking diminished self-regulation than in those in whom drinking improved self-regulation. All predictions were borne out by the data at high statistical significance. The results confirmed findings from an earlier study to the effect that psychological factors like self-regulation powerfully influence the kind of effects drinking has with respect to health.
Independent empirical evidence on the estudies from Crvenka and Heidelberg
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Amelang, M., Schmidt-Rathjens, C., & Feldt, K. (1997). Independent empirical evidence on the estudies from Crvenka and Heidelberg. In J. Bermú dez, B. De Raad, J. De Vries, A. M. Pé-Garcí, A. Sá-Elvira, & G. L. Van Heck (Eds.). Personality psychology in Europe (Vol. 6, pp. 344–356). Tilburg University Press.
Adaptació catalana del qü estionari revisat de personalitat
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Ortet, G., Roglà, R. M., & Ibáñ ez, M. I. (2001). Adaptació catalana del qü estionari revisat de personalitat. In H. J. Eysenck & S. B. G. Eysenck (Dirs.), EPQ-R. Cuestionario revisado de personalidad de Eysenck [Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised]. Madrid: TEA.
Construct and concurrent validity of the personality types of Grossarth-Maticek and Eysenck Personality psychology in Europe
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Ranchor, A. V., Sanderman, R., & Bouma, J. (1994). Construct and concurrent validity of the personality types of Grossarth-Maticek and Eysenck. In B. De Raad, W. K. B. Hofstee, & G. L. Van Heck (Eds.). Personality psychology in Europe (Vol. 5, pp. 294–300). Tilburg University Press. Sandí, B., Chorot, P., Navas, M. J., & Santed, M. A. (1992). Estré y enfermedad: Inventario de Reacciones Interpersonales de Grossarth-Maticek y Eysenck [Stress and disease: Grossarth-Maticek and EysenckÕs Interper-sonal Reactions Inventory]. Revista de Psicologia General y Aplicada, 45, 391–396.
Smoking, personality, and stress: Psychosocial factors in the prevention of cancer and coronary heart disease
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Eysenck, H. J. (1991). Smoking, personality, and stress: Psychosocial factors in the prevention of cancer and coronary heart disease. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Optimismo inteligente [Intelligent optimism]. Madrid: Alianza Editorial Personality and health-protective behaviour
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Avia, M. D., & Vá, C. (1998). Optimismo inteligente [Intelligent optimism]. Madrid: Alianza Editorial. Bermudez, J. (1999). Personality and health-protective behaviour. European Journal of Personality, 13, 83–103.
The Type C connection: The behavioral links to cancer and your health
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Temoshok, L., & Dreher, H. (1992). The Type C connection: The behavioral links to cancer and your health. New York: Random House.
Construct and concurrent validity of the personality types of Grossarth-Maticek and Eysenck
  • A V Ranchor
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Ranchor, A. V., Sanderman, R., & Bouma, J. (1994). Construct and concurrent validity of the personality types of Grossarth-Maticek and Eysenck. In B. De Raad, W. K. B. Hofstee, & G. L. Van Heck (Eds.). Personality psychology in Europe (Vol. 5, pp. 294–300). Tilburg University Press.
Independent empirical evidence on the estudies from Crvenka and Heidelberg
  • Amelang
Adaptació catalana del qüestionari revisat de personalitat
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Construct and concurrent validity of the personality types of Grossarth-Maticek and Eysenck
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