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Abstract

Eudaimonic theories of well-being assert the importance of achieving one’s full potential through engaging in inherently meaningful endeavors. In two daily diary studies, we assessed whether reports of engagement in behaviors representative of eudaimonic theories were associated with well-being. We also examined whether eudaimonic behaviors were more strongly related to well-being than behaviors directed toward obtaining pleasure or material goods. In both studies, eudaimonic behaviors had consistently stronger relations to well-being than hedonic behaviors. Data also provided support for a temporal sequence in which eudaimonic behaviors were related to greater well-being the next day. Overall, our results suggest that “doing good” may be an important avenue by which people create meaningful and satisfying lives.

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... Afterward, Steger et al. [29] argued that, when people understand themselves and the world around them and when they understand where they fit in the world and identify what they want to achieve in their lives, then they theoretically experience the presence of meaning (POM). This POM in turn motivates them to search for meaning (SFM) in life. ...
... By the same token, sense of life fulfillment exerted a positive effect on the SWB of dying patients. A study by Steger et al. [29] demonstrated that people are generally happy when they have led a meaningful life. Based on the review of the previ- Generally, the empirical results of previous studies regarding the effects of holidaytaking and tourism are inconsistent. ...
... By the same token, sense of life fulfillment exerted a positive effect on the SWB of dying patients. A study by Steger et al. [29] demonstrated that people are generally happy when they have led a meaningful life. Based on the review of the previous literature, the following hypotheses are formulated: ...
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Searching and finding meaning and happiness in life is the ultimate quest for humans. Pilgrimages embody special meanings and values. This research delves into the effects of pilgrimage experiences on meaning and life satisfaction via structure equation modeling (SEM) based on a bottom-up approach to life satisfaction. Moreover, the moderating role that faith maturity plays between experience and meaning life is noteworthy, which was assessed based on Ping’s two-step procedure. For data collection, an on-line survey was conducted for those who had visited overseas Christian pilgrimage sites. A total of 257 responses were analyzed via SEM for hypothesis tests. The results of this study identified (1) the effect of the pilgrimage experience on meaning in life and life satisfaction, (2) the effect of the search for meaning on the construction of meaning in life, and (3) the effect of meaning in life on perceived life satisfaction, suggesting that the bottom-up approach holds true in the context of religious trips. It was also found that faith maturity had a significant moderating effect on the relationship between the experience of the pilgrimage and the presence of meaning in one’s life. This study contributes to the existing literature by incorporating travel experience into QOL domains and also taps on the possibility to expand the research topic into more contemporary modes of travel, including meditation travel and various forms of new travel linked to spirituality. Practical and theoretical implications of the findings to the tourism research are discussed.
... Based on their unique analyses, Steger et al.'s (2008) study is worth singling out. The researchers conducted a daily diary study of U.S. college students regarding eudaimonic behaviors (e.g., volunteering) and hedonic behaviors (e.g., attending a sport event). ...
... Thus, we hypothesized sport club membership as a moderator of the above relationships: H 7 : The relationships in H 1 to H 4 are moderated by student's membership in a sport club. (Studies 1 & 2) Lastly, inspired by Steger et al.'s (2008) time-lagged analyses, we were interested in examining whether sports participation on a given day would positively predict HWB and EWB on the next day: H 8 : Engaging in sports experience on a given day predicts the next day's shiawase level. (Study 2) H 9 : Engaging in sports experience on a given day predicts the next day's ikigai level. ...
... We believe that testing these hypotheses could make important contributions to the literature because the relationship between sports/active leisure participation and EWB remains underexplored (Inoue et al., 2020). Moreover, there were only a few studies that examined HWB and EWB simultaneously, but these studies did not focus on sports or active leisure (Choi et al., 2017;Steger et al., 2008). Furthermore, this would be one of the first studies focused on non-Western well-being concepts within this area. ...
Article
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Leisure engagement, especially sports experiences, has been identified as a robust predictor of subjective well-being (SWB). Two aspects of SWB are hedonic well-being (HWB) and eudaimonic well-being (EWB). HWB emphasizes pleasure and positive affect, whereas EWB involves meaning, purpose, and virtue. The majority of empirical leisure and sports studies, however, have focused on HWB, underexploring leisure’s and sports’ relevance to EWB. Moreover, most studies are limited to Western well-being concepts, whereas people across cultures may conceptualize and experience well-being somewhat differently. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to examine how sports experiences relate to Japanese well-being concepts, shiawase (happiness, HWB) and ikigai (life worthiness, EWB) among Japanese university students, and how these relationships differ between sport club members and non-members. In Study 1, we analyzed online survey data from 672 students, using partial least squares structural equation modeling. Sports satisfaction had direct links to shiawase and/or ikigai, whereas the effects of sports participation and commitment were mediated by diverse valuable experiences such as enjoyment, stimulation, and comfort. Sports commitment appeared particularly important for sport club members, while sports participation sufficed for non-members. In Study 2, we collected data through a smartphone-based experience sampling method with 83 students for one week. Hierarchical linear modeling results showed that sports participation was associated with greater daily ikigai, while it was unrelated to shiawase. The association between sports participation and daily ikigai was stronger among sport club non-members. We discuss overall findings in relation to student mental health and campus recreation administration.
... Meaning in life has been associated with many positive life outcomes such as positive emotions Park et al., 2010;Steger et al., 2008b), self-esteem, self-acceptance (Steger et al., 2008b), hope (Feldman & Snyder, 2005), mental and physical health Steger, 2017). Research has also supported the role of meaning in life in life satisfaction Pan et al., 2008;Park et al., 2010;Karatas et al. 2021, Steger et al. 2008a, wellbeing (Alandete et al., 2013;Damasio et al., 2013;Yıldırım, Arslan, & Wong, 2021) and happiness (Nasiri & Bahram, 2008;Park et al., 2010;Shin et al., 2005). Park et al. (2010) found that not only the presence of meaning in life but also search for meaning is positively related to life satisfaction and happiness, and negatively related to depression. ...
... Given the adverse effects of pandemic on mental health (Campos-Garzon et al., 2021;Lopez-Morales et al., 2021;Mortazavi et al.,2020), limited opportunities to seek social support, previous evidence about the role of meaning in life in life satisfaction and happiness (Karatas et al. 2021;Nasiri & Bahram, 2008;Pan et al., 2008;Park et al., 2010;Steger et al. 2008a) and the absence of research on positive indicators of mental health in pregnancy during the pandemic, the present study examined relationships between meaning in life, life satisfaction and happiness in a sample of pregnant women. The main objective of the study was to investigate the relationships between meaning in life, life satisfaction and happiness. ...
... Results demonstrated that meaning in life was positively associated with life satisfaction and happiness and also that meaning in life was a significant predictor of life satisfaction and happiness. These findings are in line with previous research on associations between meaning in life and life satisfaction (Karatas et al. 2021;Pan et al., 2008;Park et al., 2010;Steger et al. 2008a) and happiness (Nasiri & Bahram, 2008;Park et al., 2010;Shin et al., 2005), however they also advance this line of research on findings specific to pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. It appears that pregnancy is a time when meaning in life is an important contributor to positive mental health indicators such as life satisfaction and happiness and that these relationships are not diminished by environmental threats of COVID-19. ...
Article
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While it was established that COVID-19 pandemic had negative consequences on several aspects of mental health, little is known about the role of positive mental health indicators in pregnant women during this period. The purpose of the present study was to examine relationships between meaning in life, life satisfaction and happiness and the extent to which meaning in life predicts life satisfaction and happiness. The sample consisted of 161 pregnant women from Slovakia. Data were collecting using Life Meaningfulness Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale and Subjective Happiness Scale. As predicted, results showed that meaning in life is a predictor of life satisfaction and happiness. Higher happiness was related to increasing degree of meaning in life and absence of pregnancy-related health problems. 65% of participants reported high level of satisfaction with life and 48% of participants reported higher happiness than average person. These findings provide evidence for associations between meaning in life, life satisfaction and happiness in Slovak pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic and indicate that despite negative consequences of the pandemic, positive indicators of mental health in pregnancy play a significant role.
... We will refer to different aspects and features used to describe HWB as facets of HWB. Previous studies showed that actual levels of well-being were differentially associated with different facets of HWB that people endorse (i.e., view as relevant definitions of HWB) and pursue (i.e., intentions and activities related to specific HWB facets) (Huta & Ryan, 2010;McMahan & Estes, 2011a, 2011bOrtner et al., 2018;Steger et al., 2008;Zeng & Chen, 2020). For example, one study found that eudaimonic behaviors were more strongly related to well-being than hedonic behaviors (Steger et al., 2008). ...
... Previous studies showed that actual levels of well-being were differentially associated with different facets of HWB that people endorse (i.e., view as relevant definitions of HWB) and pursue (i.e., intentions and activities related to specific HWB facets) (Huta & Ryan, 2010;McMahan & Estes, 2011a, 2011bOrtner et al., 2018;Steger et al., 2008;Zeng & Chen, 2020). For example, one study found that eudaimonic behaviors were more strongly related to well-being than hedonic behaviors (Steger et al., 2008). In these studies, however, more than one path to HWB was positively associated with well-being, and differences in associations were often not large enough to justify this emphasis of the superiority of pursuing certain HWB facets (Huta & Ryan, 2010;McMahan & Estes, 2011b;Ortner et al., 2018). ...
Preprint
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Can people choose to be happy? To date we have no definite answer to this very old question. In this paper, we introduced and tested a new theoretical model of the pursuit of happiness and well-being (HWB) in which we integrated individual HWB definitions, HWB-related intentions, and HWB-enhancing activities. Further, we tested different characteristics of HWB-enhancing activities that have previously been discussed in the literature as potentially relevant for the successful pursuit of HWB: the breath (i.e., how many different facets of HWB are positively affected by one single activity), variety (i.e., how many different HWB-enhancing activities people conduct in daily life), and frequency (i.e., overall number of HWB-enhancing activities) of HWB-enhancing activities. The results of an experience sampling study support our preregistered hypotheses: Individual definitions of HWB were predictive of intentions and well-being related behaviors in everyday life. Further, the engagement in broader and a higher number of HWB-enhancing activities was associated with higher levels of daily well-being. The variety of HWB-enhancing activities, however, did not predict daily well-being. Overall, we demonstrated that defining and pursuing HWB in a multifaceted manner is related to higher levels of well-being.
... In addition, by using a longitudinal design we meet at least one prerequisite of causality, namely chronological order (Bolger & Laurenceau, 2013). Finally, by focusing on daily life experiences we can avoid biases that are introduced by retrospective or global judgments (Steger et al., 2008). ...
... At the end of each day, we measured daily meaning in life using The Daily Meaning Scale (DMS, Steger et al., 2008). The scale consists of two items: "How meaningful does your life feel today?" and "How much do you feel your life has purpose today?" ...
Article
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Older adults (60+) spend a considerable amount of time watching TV. This can have important implica-tions in terms of their daily sense of meaning in their life. Applying the selection, optimization, and com-pensation (SOC) model, we argue that the impact of the daily amount of time spent watching TV on daily perceptions of meaning in life is moderated by whether TV is generally used in a compensatory or selective manner. We present data from an intensive longitudinal study with N = 101 healthy older (60+) adults. Data were collected over five consecutive days. Compensatory and selective TV use were trea-ted as a general strategy and thus as a trait-like variable measured in a baseline survey. Results show that the effect of the amount of daily television use on daily perceptions of meaning in life depends on the extent to which TV is generally used in a compensatory fashion as indicated by a cross- level interaction between compensatory TV use (between-person level 2) and daily self-reported TV use (within-person level 1) on daily perceptions of meaning in life. We discuss these findings in terms of both theoretical and methodological considerations.
... The eudaiomonic view of well-being focuses on the experience of meaning and the realisation of one's true potential [30,31]. Eudaiomonic well-being is driven by challenge and related to activities which encourage personal development, growth, and long-term well-being [32]. It has been suggested that the pursuit of happiness (hedonic) alone is not a worthwhile goal since psychological wellbeing (eudaiomonic) is achieved through pursuing meaningful and valuable lives [33]. ...
... In addition, PERMA has been extensively used in a range of other settings such as healthcare, education, sport and in the workplace [44][45][46][47]59]. Some PPIs were delivered over a 1-week timeframe [27,31,32], however, this short timeframe limited the variety of components that could be included, and length of time for individuals to learn, apply, and reap the benefits from engaging with a range of PPIs. PPIs with a longer duration reported greater gains in well-being [33][34][35]. ...
Preprint
Background: Community pharmacies are well-placed to deliver well-being interventions; however, to date, nothing has been produced specifically for this setting. The aim of this study was to develop a positive psychology intervention suitable for a community pharmacy setting with the goal of increasing the well-being of community members. Methods: Intervention development consisted of three steps: Step 1- identify the evidence-base and well-being model to underpin the basis of the intervention (Version 1); Step 2 - model the intervention and gather user feedback to produce Version 2, and Step 3 - revisit the evidence-base and refine the intervention to produce Version 3. Results: Findings from nine studies (seven RCTs, one cross-sectional, one N-1 design plus user feedback were applied to model a 6-week ‘Prescribing Happiness (P-Hap)’ intervention, underpinned by the PERMA model plus four other components from the positive psychology literature (Three Good Things, Utilising Your Signature Strengths in New Ways, Best Possible Selves and Character Strengths). A PERMA-based diary was designed to be completed 3-days a week as part of the intervention. Conclusions: This work is an important development which will direct the future implementation of interventions to support well-being in this novel setting. The next stage is to gain the perspectives of external stakeholders on the feasibility of delivering the P-Hap for its adoption into community pharmacy services in the future.
... Third, this study explored only the hedonic dimension of well-being, but it is still unclear about the relationships between happiness motives and EWB. It must be noted that individuals with high levels of EWB are more likely to engage in activities that are intrinsically beneficial and achieve long-term and enduring happiness (McMahan & Estes, 2011;Steger et al., 2008). Thus, it is necessary to test the association between happiness motives and EWB in order to have a more comprehensive understanding of the relationships between happiness motives and well-being. ...
... Previous studies on the adolescents have found that both HWB and EWB tend to fluctuate over a short period of time, such as a day (Fosco et al., 2021;Vandeleur et al., 2009;Wang et al., 2015), a week (Tashjian et al., 2021), and several months (Barendregt et al., 2016;Costa et al., 2020;Efstathopoulou & Bungay, 2021;Galla, 2016;Jia et al., 2021;King & Datu, 2017). Besides, hedonic and eudaimonic motives also tend to fluctuate daily (McMahan et al., 2013;Steger et al., 2008;Toncic & Anic, 2015), over one month (Asano et al., 2021), and over three months (Kinoshita et al., 2021). Thus, we hypothesized that happiness motives and well-being would change during an interval of eight months. ...
Article
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Hedonic and eudaimonic motives have been shown to have different effects on well-being, but most prior studies concentrated on hedonic well-being. To further verify the predictive associations between happiness motives (i.e., hedonic and eudaimonic motives) and well-being, especially eudaimonic well-being, we used a two-wave cross-lagged longitudinal design in a sample of 419 teenagers (mean age = 15.17 years, SD = 0.43 years) with an interval of eight months. The results showed that eudaimonic motives significantly predicted later hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, while only eudaimonic well-being, in turn, predicted later eudaimonic motives. There were no predictive associations between hedonic motives and two dimensions of well-being. After controlling the effects of age, gender, and subjective socioeconomic status, these results remained significant. Furthermore, after adding the lagged paths between two types of well-being, only eudaimonic well-being predicted eudaimonic motives, while eudaimonic motives could not predict hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Besides, eudaimonic well-being significantly predicted hedonic well-being, while negative affect rather than positive affect of hedonic well-being could predict eudaimonic well-being. These results provide further evidence for the directionality of the links between happiness motives and well-being, especially eudaimonic well-being in adolescents.
... Despite the significance of eudaimonic behavior, limited research has explored the association between eudaimonic behaviors and well-being. Steger et al. (2008) conducted two diary studies on the relationship. Eudaimonic behaviors rather than hedonic behaviors were more likely to relate to general well-being. ...
... From the perspective of eudaimonia, people can be considered as being good by fulfilling their potential to pursue intrinsically meaningful goals rather than by obtaining simple pleasure or removing immediate pain. Previous studies have demonstrated that engaging in meaningful pursuits is more conducive to well-being than pleasure-seeking behaviors (Steger et al., 2008). ...
Article
This study explored how different types of daily experiences (leisure activity, eudaimonic behaviors) and select habits and dispositions (neuroticism, dispositional depression, physical activity level), are related to situational well-being (situational depression, immediate positive affect) among older adults from a community center. Six hundred thirty-eight situational experience sampling observations were provided by 19 participants ranging in age from 59 to 81 years (M = 68.68, SD = 7.17). Each participant was signaled on five randomly selected occasions each day for seven consecutive days. Upon receiving a signal, participants completed questionnaires measuring their activity participation and situational well-being at the time of the signal. Significant predictors of situational depression included leisure activity, neuroticism, and physical activity level. For immediate positive affect, leisure activity, eudaimonic behaviors, and dispositional depression were significant predictors. These findings suggest that active leisure participation and engaging in eudaimonic behaviors can promote situational well-being of older adults.
... Leading a meaningful life is one of the main components of subjective wellbeing (Steger et al., 2008). It is possible that individuals who perceive their lives as less meaningful (Gross & John, 2003;Kashdan & Breen, 2008;Machell et al., 2015) also experience high negative affect and less positive affect which subsequently may be associated with low general wellbeing and specific job satisfaction aspects (e.g., burnout, PL). ...
... errors of indirect effects in the modified model. | 11 considered as one of the main sources of positive affectivity and subjective wellbeing (Fredrickson & Joiner, 2002;Jacob et al., 2013;Machell et al., 2015;Pierson et al., 2019;Steger et al., 2008). As expected, burnout was significantly associated with decreased wellbeing. ...
Article
Objectives: The current study aims to investigate the indirect associations between experiential avoidance (EA) and burnout, wellbeing, and productivity loss (PL) via the mediating role of positive and negative emotions among police officers. Methods: Data were collected on 187 officers (84% male) aged 21-64 years between 2019 and 2020. Participants completed online self-report measures. Results: EA was indirectly associated with burnout via positive and negative affect. EA was indirectly associated with wellbeing through positive affect, positive affect and burnout, and negative affect and burnout. Finally, EA was indirectly associated with PL via positive affect and burnout, and negative affect and burnout. Conclusion: Results provide support for the role of EA in officers' wellbeing and job performance via increasing negative affect and decreasing positive affect. This highlights the importance of interventions, such as acceptance and commitment therapy that target acceptance and psychological flexibility.
... Momentary feelings of MIL were measured using the two-item Daily Meaning Scale (Steger et al., 2008): "How meaningful do you feel your life is right now?" and "How much do you feel your life has purpose right now?" (r = .92, p < .001). ...
... As research shows that longer ESM questionnaires increase participant burden, compromise data quantity and quality (Eisele et al., 2020), and lead to lower response rates (Rolstad et al., 2011), we chose to follow ESM measurement conventions by assessing some variables of interest with brief and sometimes single-item measures, potentially compromising the internal reliability of these assessments compared with longer assessments. There are some indications that single-item measures of well-being can have reliabilities comparable with multiple item measures (Cheung & Lucas, 2014;Jovanović & Lazić, 2020;Steger et al., 2008), yet considerations of the limitations of this measurement strategy are still warranted. ...
Article
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People feel that their lives are more meaningful while engaging in behaviors more closely aligned with their routines. Does the behavioral content of these routines and the contextual factors surrounding their enactment matter for this relationship? In two experience sampling studies ( N = 93, 1,512 episodes; N = 97, 1,629 episodes), we test whether the relationship between routines and meaning in life (MIL) depends on the content of the activities. We found that the degree to which one’s current activity is a routine positively related to momentary MIL beyond other meaningful features (e.g., relationships, goals, prosociality) of that activity. We conducted Study 2 in the context of mass routine disruptions of the COVID-19 pandemic. We found even stronger relationships between routine enactment and concurrent MIL in this context which held controlling for factors, including perceived chaos, mood, and anxiety. These findings suggest that routines uniquely relate to MIL, beyond the meaningfulness of their content and across contexts.
... Konsep tentang kesejahteraan eudaimonic sering kali dikaitkan dengan penerimaan diri, hubungan positif dengan orang lain, otonomi, penguasaan lingkungan, tujuan hidup, pertumbuhan pribadi, makna dalam hidup, dan vitalitas dan aktualisasi diri (Newman & Graham, 2018;Ryan & Deci, 2001;Steger et al., 2008). Terlepas dari banyak ukuran berbeda yang digunakan untuk menangkap kesejahteraan eudaimonic, para peneliti cenderung percaya bahwa kesejahteraan eudaimonic adalah beberapa bentuk kesejahteraan yang melampaui emosi dan perasaan yang menyenangkan. ...
Book
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Buku tentang kesejahteraan pada guru agama di Indonesia ini, merupakan bagian dari kepedulian penulis untuk membantu peningkatan kesejahteraan hidup guru agama, baik dari sisi fisik, psikologis, finansial, sosial maupun spiritual. Tujuan pembahasan tema ini adalah berusaha menemukan metode yang tepat untuk dijadikan pedoman dan pola intervensi dalam peningkatan kesejahteraan guru agama.
... Sometimes, however, a person who is focused on immediate pleasure might cause harm to others, either inadvertently or for personal advantage. Indeed, research has found that hedonic goals relate to delinquency (Bilsky & Hermann, 2016) and selfish behaviours (Steger et al., 2008). Furthermore, hedonic values are negatively connected with prosocial activities (Sagiv et al., 2011), and self-transcendence goals (e.g., benevolence -protecting the welfare of others; Rechter & Sverdlik, 2016). ...
Article
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This study (N = 491) examined how hedonic orientation (prioritizing pleasure, comfort/painlessness) and eudaimonic orientation (prioritizing authenticity, excellence, growth) relate to behaviours that help or hinder others and to willingness to help others in different situations. We found that eudaimonic orientation related positively to helping others and negatively to hindering others, whereas hedonic orientation related positively to hindering others. Differences were found across helping situations such that eudaimonic orientation related to willingness to help others even when the results are in the future, the recipient cannot be seen, and the helping is personally costly, whereas hedonic orientation related to a preference to help others when the results are immediate, the recipient can be seen, and the helping is not personally costly. These findings support a characterization of eudaimonia as a focus on long-term, abstract, and big-picture concerns, and hedonia as a focus on immediate, concrete, and self-focused concerns.
... The eudaiomonic view of well-being focuses on the experience of meaning and the realisation of one's true potential [29,30]. Eudaiomonic well-being is driven by challenges and related to activities which encourage personal development, growth, and long-term well-being [31]. It has been suggested that the pursuit of happiness (hedonic) alone is not a worthwhile goal since psychological wellbeing (eudaiomonic) is achieved through pursuing meaningful and valuable lives [32]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Community pharmacies are well‐placed to deliver well‐being interventions;however, to date, nothing has been produced specifically for this setting. The aim of this study was to develop a positive psychology intervention suitable for a community pharmacy setting with the goal of increasing the well‐being of community members. Methods: Intervention development consisted of three steps: Step 1—identify the evidence-base and well-being model to underpin the basis of the intervention (Version 1); Step 2—model the intervention and gather user feedback to produce Version 2, and Step 3—revisit the evidence-base and refine the intervention to produce Version 3. Results: Findings from nine studies (seven RCTs, one cross-sectional, one N-1 design plus user feedback were applied to model a 6-week ‘Prescribing Happiness (P-Hap)’ intervention, underpinned by the PERMA model plus four other components from the positive psychology literature (Three Good Things, Utilising Your Signature Strengths in New Ways, Best Possible Selves and Character Strengths). A PERMA-based diary was designed to be completed 3 days a week as part of the intervention. Conclusions: This work is an important development which will direct the future implementation of interventions to support well-being in this novel setting. The next stage is to gain the perspectives of external stakeholders on the feasibility of delivering the P-Hap for its adoption into community pharmacy services in the future.
... Another one is using the skills to organize or participate in volunteering events for contributing to society as noted by some participants. Both activities serve for finding purpose in life and have positive eudaimonic outcomes (Ryff, 2014;Steger et al., 2008). I can give many to charities which I could not even think about in England. ...
Article
Lifestyle migration studies have gained increasing attention from various disciplines, yet the eudaimonic well-being approach is a neglected research area in the relevant field. This study examines international lifestyle migrants’ eudaimonic motivations and experiences, thus focusing on beyond the widely investigated external factors such as climate and economic conditions. To this end, using a qualitative approach, interviews were conducted with lifestyle migrants who permanently live in Alanya, a resort town on the Mediterranean coast in Turkey, to reveal their everyday life practices. The findings indicate that lifestyle migrants benefit from the new living condition in various ways to fulfill their eudaimonic well-being including its dimensions such as autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, purpose in life, positive relations, and self-acceptance. Thus, the study reveals that migration to Mediterranean coastal regions includes not just enjoying better economic and weather conditions but also existential issues as well. Therefore, the research uncovers the eudaimonic aspect of questing well-being through lifestyle migration, hence, offers a new perspective. The study provides theoretical and managerial implications and contributes to the tourism and migration field.
... Although mixed findings have been reported, the bulk of the evidence indicate that being compassionate towards others results in greater social connectedness, improved physical health, and better psychological well-being (Crocker et al., 2017;Curry et al., 2018;Neff & Seppälä, 2016). Recently, a handful of ESM studies have provided further support for the benefits of other-compassion (and its related constructs such as empathy) on well-being (Steger et al., 2008;Runyan et al., 2019;Depow et al., 2021). These ESM studies have also provided further insight into the complexities of the association. ...
Preprint
Compassion towards oneself and others is generally regarded as conducive for well-being. We hypothesized that self-compassion may conflict with compassion for others, at least in some people, which might weaken the link between self/other-compassion and well-being for those individuals. In an experience sampling study with transdiagnostic patients (N=154), measurements were sampled six times daily for a total of 42 time points. Measures included self-compassion, other-compassion, life-satisfaction, current mood, and contextual variables. On average, and for most participants, self-compassion was positively associated with other-compassion, suggesting the two forms of compassion to be complementary. However, there was substantial heterogeneity in this effect. The degree of complementarity of self- and other-compassion moderated the link between self/other-compassion and the well-being variables of life-satisfaction and mood. Higher levels of self/other-compassion were associated with higher levels of the well-being outcomes, but only for those who generally experienced compassion towards self and others as complementary. For those who experienced the two forms of compassion in conflict, levels of self/other-compassion were largely unrelated to well-being outcomes. The results argue against a ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach of promoting self/other-compassion in everyone and hint at the value of a personalized approach to compassion interventions. For the majority of people for whom self- and other-compassion are complementary, teaching them either self- or other-compassion is likely to benefit their well-being; but for a minority who experience the two as conflicting, it might be essential to explore this conflict first, before promoting self- or other-compassion.
... The 3GT intervention is one of a family of positive psychology interventions (PPIs) that are aimed at cultivating positive feelings, positive behaviors, and positive cognitions. These interventions often include meditating (Fredrickson et al., 2008), helping others (Steger et al., 2008), or focusing on positive events (Seligman et al., 2005). A meta-analysis by Sin and Lyubomirsky (2009), involving 51 studies, reported that PPIs significantly enhanced well-being (r = .29) ...
Thesis
Due to the current tightness in several labor markets around the globe there are more jobs available than ever before. This brings about countless employment opportunities, but also uncertainty and higher risks. Limited knowledge about the available job opportunities often results in considerable uncertainty for job seekers, especially for recent graduates. Since the risks of landing a low-quality job are similar to being unemployed and can hinder future career success, it is of utmost importance that job seekers find a fitting job. Although the ability to find a fitting job depends on a variety of factors, a key determinant that is controllable by individuals is job search behavior. Research has generally focused on the quantitative aspects of job search behaviors, operationalized as the time and effort that people spend on a number of job search activities. Research shows that job seekers who spend more time looking for a job receive more job offers, are more likely to find a job, and find a job faster. However, the effects are rather small, and job search quantity seems to be unrelated to employment quality. Thus, spending a lot of time on job search activities does not necessarily mean that the search is done effectively. Along these lines, several leading scholars have called for more research looking at job search quality. Many of these studies start from the idea that job seekers should search smarter, not harder. Although this seems obvious, empirical research is still scarce and fragmented. In this dissertation, we conceptualize job search quality as a multidimensional model consisting of four dimensions: goal establishment, planning, goal striving, and reflection. We set out to investigate the added value of job search quality, the outcomes of job search quality, the antecedents of job search quality, and how job search quality can be facilitated. To address these objectives, four empirical studies were conducted. Our studies show that (a) the four dimensions of job search quality show added value beyond job search intensity and metacognitive activities, (b) job search quality is positively related to several job search outcomes, including employment quality, (c) personality, attitudinal factors, and contextual factors were identified as antecedents for job search quality, and (d) job search quality can be facilitated by conducting a positive psychology intervention.
... Therefore, we assume that employees who feel more satisfied with their job and less emotionally exhausted on one day will also keep their level of job satisfaction or emotional exhaustion until the next morning. Events and behaviors on one day potentially enhance employees' psychological functioning and their pool of resources (Steger et al., 2008). Additionally, this resource-rich state can signal to individuals that the working environment allows them to acquire resources and is associated with beneficial outcomes. ...
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Job characteristics play an essential role for the well-being of employees. When job characteristics are unfavorable, the experienced exchange relationship with one’s supervisor (i.e., leader-member exchange, LMX) may become relevant to weaken negative consequences. We conducted a diary study over ten consecutive working days with 112 academics. Based on conservation of resources theory, we assumed that daily LMX constitutes a resource for employees that moderates the link between job characteristics (job control and time pressure) and job satisfaction as well as emotional exhaustion. Additionally, we proposed lagged-effects of morning job characteristics and LMX on next-day morning job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Findings from hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) demonstrated that on the day-level higher perceived levels of job control in the morning were associated with higher perceived job satisfaction and lower perceived emotional exhaustion in the afternoon. The experience of increased time pressure in the morning was negatively related to perceived day-level afternoon job satisfaction and positively to perceived day-level afternoon emotional exhaustion. Within one day, perceived LMX moderated the relationship between perceived job control and perceived job satisfaction in the afternoon. We only found lagged effects of the interaction between afternoon job control and afternoon LMX on next-day morning job satisfaction. We discuss daily LMX as a resource for employees both within one day and from day-to day, along with future research directions on the buffering role of LMX.
... For example, the ESM reduces the bias associated with the recovery of memories and those involved in the development of global judgments (])[]kahneman1999. In addition, the ESM provides time series that can permit inferences regarding temporal relationships (e.g., Steger et al., 2008). This technique also has good ecological validity since it is administered within the everyday life of individuals (Scollon et al., 2003). ...
Thesis
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L'objectif de ce travail était d'étudier le rôle des ressources psychologiques et de la construction du soi dans l'expérience du bien-être et de la résilience en temps de crise, particulièrement pendant le premier confinement français lié à la crise du coronavirus. Cette thèse sur articles se divise en quatre parties. La Partie I fait un état de l’art à propos des notions de bien-être, de résilience et de ressources psychologiques, et développe la problématique et les hypothèses de recherche de la thèse. La Partie II présente deux études longitudinales en panel qui ont été lancées durant le premier confinement français et qui évaluent le rôle des ressources psychologiques dans la protection du bien-être (Chapitre 4, N = 470) et le maintien de la résilience psychologique (Chapitre 5, N = 1144). Ensemble, les résultats de ces deux études montrent que la majorité des individus ont été résilients face à l’expérience du confinement et que leurs ressources psychologiques ont effectivement protégé leur bien-être et favorisé leur résilience. De plus, la flexibilité psychologique a été identifiée comme potentiel médiateur de ces effets. La Partie III présente deux études du rôle de l’expérience du soi décentré dans l’expérience momentanée du bonheur dans la vie quotidienne à l’aide de la méthode d’échantillonnage des expériences. L’étude présentée au Chapitre 6 (N = 67) a montré que l’expérience d’un soi décentré était relié à l’expérience du bonheur, et que cet effet peut s’expliquer par le sentiment d’être en harmonie. L’étude présentée au Chapitre 7 (N = 74) a confirmé leur lien aux niveaux intra- et inter-individus. De plus, cette étude a montré que l’expérience du soi comme décentré était relié à une stabilisation du bien-être. La Partie IV discute les résultats des études précédentes et conclut sur l’apport de ce travail et les perspectives en termes de recherche et d’application sur le terrain.
... People who have high degrees of both hedonia and eudaimonia experience higher levels of well-being and mental health than those who pursue only one type (Keyes et al., 2002;Huta and Ryan, 2010;Anic and Tončić, 2013). Even though hedonic well-being is associated with higher levels of well-being than EWB in the short-term (Huta, 2017), EWB has been shown to be more important than hedonia (happiness) for long-term well-being (Steger et al., 2008;Huta and Ryan, 2010), potentially because EWB has been found to influence happiness, while the inverse is not true (Joshanloo, 2018). ...
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Previous research in human-robot interaction has explored using robots to increase objective and hedonic aspects of well-being and quality of life, but there is no literature on how robots might be used to support eudaimonic aspects of well-being (such as meaning in life). A sense of meaning has been shown to positively affect health and longevity. We frame our study around the Japanese concept of ikigai , which is widely used with Japanese older adults to enhance their everyday lives, and is closely related to the concept of eudaimonic well-being (EWB) known in Western countries. Using a mixed-methods and exploratory approach, including interviews with 17 older adults and the collection of 100 survey responses, we explored how older adults in the US experience a sense of meaning, and if and how a social robot could be used to help foster this sense. We find that meaning for older adults is often obtained by helping others, through family connections, and/or through activities of daily life, and that sources of meaning often differ based on the older adults’ living situation. Assessing how meaning compares to happiness and social connection, we highlight general similarities and differences, and also find that living situation influences older adults’ sources of happiness, desire for social connection, and barriers to well-being., in addition to companionship and happiness having a weaker correlation with meaning for those who live alone than for those who live with others. Additionally, we evaluated initial perceptions of a social robot (QT) meant to enhance ikigai and overall well-being. Finding mostly positive perceptions, though those who live alone also reported being less willing to adopt a social robot into their homes. Using both data collected on older adults’ meaning and the potential use of QT to support meaning, we make several design recommendations with regards to using robots to enhance ikigai , such as by prompting daily reflecting, enhancing family bonds, and suggesting new experiences and volunteer opportunities.
... Researchers also have included single items for purpose in inventories of daily meaning (e.g. Machell et al., 2015;Newman et al., 2018;Steger et al., 2008). These studies also found meaningful within-person fluctuations for the meaning composite; however, none examined the single purpose items. ...
Article
Purposefulness may facilitate self-regulation; however, little is known about the self-regulatory strategies that are implemented by purposeful individuals. Given the multiple regulatory challenges students face in their social and academic lives, a central aim of the current work was to consider how purposefulness and self-regulation are linked during the first semester of university. This 13-week-long study was conducted with first-semester college students (N = 256) in the United States of America to examine whether weekly fluctuations in purposefulness may be connected to the use of traditionally adaptive (problem-solving) and maladaptive (rumination and experiential avoidance) self-regulation strategies. Consistent with our hypothesis , at the within-and between-person level, higher purposefulness was associated with greater use of problem-solving, lower rumination, and lower experi-ential avoidance at the weekly level. The findings imply purposefulness is an important individual difference that may explain better or worse self-regulatory abilities.
... Prosocial behaviour is the notion of giving to others beyond religious commandments and perceptions of social and moral justice, providing life with meaning and provoking deep feelings of satisfaction and purpose (Penner et al., 2005;Snippe et al., 2017). 'Giving to others' is considered a human strength, characterized by being kind and generous to others, being empathic and showing compassion in regards to others, having a sense of social purpose, exhibiting helpful behaviors towards others, and treating them well (Steger et al., 2008). The ability to be of help to others and devote time and resources to advancing universal social values operates as an empowering factor in one's personal identity, sense of meaning in life, sense of coherence, self-discovery and experiencing life fully (Diener et al., 2018;Klein, 2017;Roxas et al., 2019;Seligman, 2002;Weinstein & Ryan, 2010). ...
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The study focuses on the subjective well-being (SWB) of school counsellors in Israel and its relationship with environmental and personal resources. School counsellors work within a stressful organizational high-pressure high-touch environment, characterized by crises and involving complex tasks related directly and indirectly to their emotional world. Therefore, counsellors’ SWB is an essential condition for them to fulfil their roles in an optimal manner. The research population comprised 216 school counsellors. The data collection included six questionnaires describing the participants’ SWB and personal and environmental resources. Research findings demonstrated a high level of SWB among participants, self-control being the strongest explaining variable regarding the variance in SWB levels. The study offers both practical implications and theoretical contributions by identifying personal and environmental resources related to counsellors’ SWB essential for the implementation of the counsellors’ role.
... Practising fiercely shifts and expands the ways we consider fulfilment, combining being well with doing well (Steger, Kashdan & Oishi, 2008) and positions well-being as a by-product of a life well lived (Friend, in Holley-Boen, 2017, p. 202). As Hannah emphasised, "Well-being isn't always taking the easy choices, but taking the choices that feel right, that you believe to be right" (in Holley-Boen, 2017, p. 202). ...
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Teachers’ lives are multi-faceted and their practice is influenced by personal and contextual enablers and barriers to their well-being and identity. Current initiatives, including the focus on teacher wellbeing, pose new tensions. This research is timely as it investigates an emerging group of professionals, specialist teachers in Aotearoa New Zealand. From their own perspectives, sought through participatory narrative inquiry, we come to better understand how teachers experience and position themselves within and against pressures posed by an increasingly complex world. Research findings informed the development of a framework for teacher fulfilment through fierce practice comprised of stance, supports and stamina. This framework has utility at the individual level, supporting the fulfilment of individual teachers. At the systems level, the framework may be of interest to tertiary teachers and institutions wishing to help teachers to develop and sustain meaningful and satisfying lives.
... Participants responded to three separate weeks of daily diary surveys, each six months a part (Pfund, Hofer, et al., 2021). When asked "How much do you think your life has a purpose today?" (Steger, Kashdan, & Oishi, 2008), about 40% of the variability in sense of purpose occurred within-person at the daily level, and 60% at the between-person level. ...
Thesis
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Sense of purpose can be understood as the extent to which one feels that they have personally meaningful goals and directions guiding them through life. Though the predictive value of this construct is well-established based on the robust research illustrating that it predicts a host of desirable cognitive, physical, and well-being benefits, the nature of sense of purpose is still under-researched. In particular, little is known regarding the extent to which this construct fluctuates within an individual and what is tied to those fluctuations. The current study addresses this gap by utilizing data from four separate studies (total N = 3,390) with lag variability to explore three primary questions. First, how much within-person variability do people exhibit in sense of purpose at the hourly, daily, weekly, and monthly level? Second, how does sense of purpose variability compare to positive and negative affect variability? Third, does dispositional sense of purpose predict short-term sense of purpose variability, and does age have a linear and/or quadratic association with sense of purpose variability? The current project finds that approximately 50-70% of the variability in sense of purpose scores occurs between-person, with the monthly reports exhibiting the least amount of within-person variability. Furthermore, the within-person variability of sense of purpose is often comparable to positive and negative affect depending on the time between measurement occasions. Finally, higher levels of dispositional sense of purpose do not appear to be strongly tied to how much variability an individual experiences in their purposefulness from one time period to next. However, depending on the amount of time between measurement occasions, higher age may be tied to experiences of variability. The discussion focuses on what these findings mean for the trait-like nature of sense of purpose, short-term sense of purpose measurement, lifespan development, and intervention efforts. https://openscholarship.wustl.edu/art_sci_etds/2724
... The results suggested that no lasting personal bond led to a lowered sense of meaning in life. Therefore, as one aspect of social relationships, social support has been confirmed to be positively related to meaning in life (60). According to our results, hypothesis H3 is clearly established. ...
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Identifying which factors influence depressive symptom during the COVID-19 pandemic is highly significant for psychological crisis interventions among adolescents. Social support is likely to be one of the main factors. However, the underlying mechanism is still not well understood in the context of COVID-19. The current study examines whether loneliness and meaning in life mediate the association between social support and depressive symptoms in adolescents. A sample of 1,317 high school students in China were surveyed using the Perceived Social Support Scale, the Chinese Child Loneliness Scale, the Meaning in Life Questionnaire, and the Beck Depression Inventory-II. The results showed that social support predicted depressive symptoms directly and indirectly by enhancing loneliness and diminishing the sense of meaning in life. These findings help in providing new entry points in the design of effective depression prevention and intervention for adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic.
... One of the cognitive traits of the individuals satisfied with their life is to pursue a meaningful life, seeking for purposes higher than the mere individual's materialistic gain (Seligman, 2002). The aim is to maintain high life satisfaction by engaging in actions that promote a more positive social and institutional environment where to live and that contribute to the enhancement of a better society and of other peoples' quality of life (Peterson et al., 2005;Steger et al., 2008). ...
Article
Fighting corruption cannot lie exclusively on appropriate formal institutions. It also requires social support and public engagement. Particularly in countries under institutional and economic transition. We embrace the recent perspective arguing that higher quality of life conditions makes people better citizens, more civically committed and more conformed to institutional rules. Accordingly, we study whether life satisfaction is a predictor of individuals' corruption aversion across 28 former socialist countries from Eastern Europe and Central Asia. We use data from the third wave of the Life in Transition Survey (2015–2016). 2SLS estimations suggest that individuals reporting higher scores of life satisfaction are more averse to corruption. Our results are robust to a series of sensitivity analyses. Additionally, we estimate predicted values of corruption aversion for different levels of institutional trust across low and high life satisfaction groups. We find that when institutional trust is very low, its impact on corruption aversion does not differ between life satisfaction groups. As institutional trust increases so does corruption aversion and this occurs even more amongst the group of respondents with high life satisfaction.
... There are occasions in which they are simultaneously present, such as in the case of spending time with friends or relatives. But an antagonistic side also exists, such as in the case of caring for someone who is sick, which improves eudaimonic well-being while decreasing its hedonic counterpart (Becchetti et al., 2017;Edwards et al., 2016;Steger et al., 2008;Venhoeven et al., 2013). It is of interest to note that in the study of Xu et al. (2017) these aspects were combined to achieve a state of happiness referred to as 'total well-being' (Xu et al., 2017). ...
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Sustainable development is a well-known and much studied topic, the application of many different approaches to which has led to continual debate about its true meaning and feasibility. A eudaimonic well-being approach might offer a new perspective to these discussions. This research aimed to understand the current state of the relationship between eudaimonic well-being and nature to establish whether sustainability can be conceptualized based on this perspective. In order to accomplish this aim, the study carried out a systematic literature review, using the ‘Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis’ method. The available literature was screened and the 50 articles selected through this process were mapped by means of bibliometric, methodological, and content analyses. This threefold analysis identified, for each article, the region where the empirical investigation took place; the main method used; key information about the relationship between eudaimonic well-being and nature; and the theories presented with the aim of explaining the reasons for the positive or negative relationships identified. The findings indicated that contact with nature, preservation behavior and nature interdependency were the three main aspects studied in the literature, in terms of the interactive relationship between eudaimonic well-being and nature. Considering that several studies identified a positive outcome from the contact with, preservation, and interdependence of nature, the research concluded that eudaimonic well-being is an important approach in support of the promotion of sustainable development.
... This may arise in a factory from the individual's short-term positive evaluations of its standards versus their expectations. Defining well-being in hedonic terms is therefore less likely to facilitate long-term meaning or to support the sustainable achievement of workers' well-being (Steger et al., 2008;McMahan et al., 2010). ...
Thesis
Capturing the psychological well-being of Chinese workers and understanding its relationship with factory performance Media reports of workers losing their lives in factory disasters indicate the failure of audit-based regimes to protect even physical well-being in global supply chains, while distress has been seen to lead to workers’ suicides, yet there is neither clear guidance nor even consensus on how factories should be monitored to facilitate the urgently needed change. Workers themselves are excluded from the social sustainability debate. The lack of knowledge about what impacts Chinese factory workers’ well-being led to a first research question: What are the factors that influence well-being for Chinese factory workers? To persuade stakeholders of the value of making changes, evidence of how that may affect factory performance was also sought. A link would provide an extra incentive for businesses to prioritise these workers’ well-being. This led to the formulation of a second research question: How does workers’ well-being influence factory performance? Going to the heart of the matter by asking the workers, fieldwork set out to discover what life is really like for workers in these factories. A novel research method using workers’ daily digital diaries was developed. A brief pilot in 2017 was followed by a 12-month study across four factories in 2019. Potential well-being interventions were also designed and tested in an operating factory environment to produce the empirical data required. The fieldwork identified three interdependent aggregate dimensions impacting these workers’ well-being: 1) social displacement, struggles with factory life and the trade-offs with long-term life goals; 2) frustration and demotivation due to operational problems and 3) work relationships impacting self-worth. Operational problems causing loss of remuneration were understood to impact workers’ life goals, which in turn undermined working relationships. The first research question was answered: Workers’ inability to influence operational issues led them to lose all hope of achieving their longer-term goals, damaging their eudaimonic and social well-being in the factories. This suggested two training interventions to address some identified operational and interpersonal problems in the work environment. Comparing pre- and post-intervention data indicated that these interventions had influenced both well-being and performance. Most significantly, post-intervention diaries indicated a reduction in negative sentiment. Factory-level metrics, supplied by factory management, indicated that the training had improved factory performance. Worker attrition also appeared significantly reduced after training. The second research question was answered: There were indications that interventions had positively impacted both workers’ sentiment and some aspects of factory performance. This work achieves transparency for the first time into the concerns of workers in Chinese factories, indicating that eudaimonic factors impact their well-being more than the hedonic factors now typically monitored. Unlike most Sustainable Supply Chain Management (SSCM) literature, which focuses on physical conditions, it highlights workers’ complex relationships with colleagues and line leaders. This brings empirical evidence and detail to a discussion long overdue, creating a basis for further theory development in supply-chain social sustainability, specifically around workers and impacts on their well-being. It also contributes to the Psychological Capital (PsyCap) literature, which had mainly focused on western workplaces and relied on surveys, by allowing for a more reliable well-being assessment. By measuring these workers’ well-being longitudinally over an extended period it allowed the researcher to infer causality, while using the factory’s performance metrics avoided data-integrity issues. This novel research connects SSCM with workplace well-being theory. It advances the knowledge with both an understanding of the well-being of workers in Chinese factories, hitherto missing from SSCM literature, and a more nuanced approach to the theory on workers’ well-being. It changes how these factories and their workers are seen by presenting the picture from a new and more relevant perspective.
... Positive affect is considered to be a feature in the experience of MiL itself (Reker, 2000). Empirical studies generally report moderately positive correlations between global ratings of MiL and positive affect (e.g., King, Hicks, Krull, & Del Gaiso, 2006;Steger, Kashdan, & Oishi, 2008a). Previous research indicates that although positive affect and MiL overlap, they are separate constructs (Hicks & King, 2007, 2008, 2009Hicks, Trent, Davis, & King, 2012), with different predictors Baumeister, Vohs, Aaker, & Garbinsky, 2013). ...
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A growing body of evidence suggests that meaning in life (MiL) is a predictor of health behaviors and outcomes. However, previous research has relied on self-report ratings of a global sense of MiL (i.e., how meaningful individuals perceive their lives to be in general or overall) to study the relationships between MiL and health. Meaning salience is a recently introduced construct in the literature that allows for more nuanced investigation of the ways in which MiL may influence individuals on a day-to-day or moment-to-moment basis. The purpose of the present study was to continue the development of a measure of meaning salience, the Meaning Awareness Scale (MAS), which assesses for phenomenological salience of MiL in everyday life. Using a cross-sectional design, this study included a nationwide sample of adults (N = 342) to: (a) explore the factor structure of the MAS, (b) conduct item reduction of the MAS, (c) assess the internal consistency of the MAS, and (d) conduct a preliminary analysis of the criterion-related validity of the MAS. Results indicate that the 6-item MAS represents one factor and demonstrates strong internal consistency. Findings provide preliminary evidence in support of the criterion-related validity of the MAS. This study offers a means to measure a new and innovative construct related to MiL (i.e., meaning salience) that may lend itself well to intensive longitudinal methods and a more precise investigation of the relationships between MiL, health behaviors, and outcomes.
... Meaning in life. Clarifying values, find meaning in adversity (Steger et al., 2008;Manco and Hamby, 2021) I x ...
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Since 2000, research within positive psychology has exploded, as reflected in dozens of meta-analyses of different interventions and targeted processes, including strength spotting, positive affect, meaning in life, mindfulness, gratitude, hope, and passion. Frequently, researchers treat positive psychology processes of change as distinct from each other and unrelated to processes in clinical psychology. This paper presents a comprehensive framework for positive psychology processes that crosses theoretical orientation, links coherently to clinical psychology and its more dominantly “negative” processes, and supports practitioners in their efforts to personalize positive psychological interventions. We argue that a multi-dimensional and multi-level extended evolutionary approach can organize effective processes of change in psychosocial interventions, by focusing interventions on context-appropriate variation, selection, and retention of processes, arranged in terms of key biopsychosocial dimensions across psychological, biophysiological, and sociocultural levels of analysis. We review widely studied positive psychology constructs and programs and show how this evolutionary approach can readily accommodate them and provide a common language and framework for improving human and community flourishing. We conclude that Interventions should start with the person, not the protocol.
... Empirical research has started to examine cultural differences related to MIL. For example, while the search for meaning was found to be negatively related to the presence of meaning among US participants, it was positively related to the presence of meaning among Japanese individuals (Steger, Kashdan, & Oishi, 2008). This suggests that the search for meaning may evoke different understandings in different cultures (Steger, Kawabata, Shimai & Otake, 2008). ...
Chapter
This chapter summarizes the unique perspectives and contributions in this volume, to offer insights regarding search for meaning in life in a post-modern socio-cultural context. We suggest that instead of major overarching cultural schemes, institutions or narratives for meaning in life which were prominent and dominant in the past, such as religion, contemporary societies in the post-modern era offer a large variety of narratives, termed here 'master narratives of meaning'. Individuals adopt and adapt such narratives to fulfil their need for meaning in life and to have clarity and stability, and specifically to satisfy their need for comprehension, purpose and mattering. Exploring illustrative case studies within the Israeli scene, we identified several broad dimensions of the search for meaning that might be relevant in other cultures as well, such as, the mix and match quality of the narratives, the centrality of spirituality both within and outside established religions, the centrality of legitimation of a variety of narratives versus their de-legitimation and adoption of a rigid dogma, and a self-focused process versus the focus on belonging to a community or becoming a 'citizen of the world' with responsibility to make it a better place. These master narratives of meaning weave cultural characteristics and contextual imperatives with personal processes of meaning-making and appear to also highlight broader processes of search for meaning around the globe.
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The role of teachers in shaping youth's worldview is widely acknowledged. While exposure to stress and burnout were thoroughly investigated among these professionals, scientific evidence concerning their wellbeing is still limited. Grounded in the positive psychology framework, the present study is aimed at investigating teachers' wellbeing in a crosscultural perspective. To this purpose, primary and secondary school teachers from Brazil (N=187; Mean age = 36,01; 89,94% women) and Italy (N=267; Mean age = 47,42; 85,39% women) completed the Eudaimonic and Hedonic Happiness Investigation Inventory. The instrument includes openended questions exploring participants' happiness definitions, future goals, and current sources of meaning. Relationships between participants' distribution across answer categories and demographic features were analyzed through chisquare statistics and logistic regression. Substantial group similarities emerged: happiness was primarily defined as an experience of inner harmony and balance; family and work were prominent future goals and sources of meaning. As for group differences, a higher percentage of Brazilians reported education as a future goal and spirituality/religion as a source of meaning, whereas significantly more Italians indicated health and interpersonal relations as future goals. The importance attributed to work by both groups attests to the potential of educational professions in supporting workers' wellbeing and pupils' psychosocial development.
Article
We review recent evidence of nostalgia’s ability to enhance and buffer different types of wellbeing. Nostalgia has been associated with increased hedonic wellbeing (e.g., life satisfaction, happiness) in various contexts. Nostalgia is triggered by and can mitigate against threats to hedonic wellbeing. Nostalgia also increases eudaimonic wellbeing (e.g., perceptions of vitality, environmental mastery, positive relationships) and mitigates threats to eudaimonic wellbeing through varying mechanisms. Two applications of these wellbeing benefits are being explored in recent research: nostalgia can help understand how people buffer negative psychological effects of the COVID-19 pandemic; and is being harnessed for wellbeing interventions. More experimental and longitudinal research is needed to establish and maximize the potential of nostalgia for bolstering resilience.
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The study presented in this article was conducted on a sample of 59 recidivist (men). The results indicate that both Machiavellianism and the sense of meaning of life are intrapsychic properties determining the functioning of convicts on the level of quality of life approached from the perspective of eudaimonistic dimensions. In addition, the study introduced an exploratory element showing the mediating role of the sense of meaning in life in terms of the relationship between quality of life and Machiavellianism. The obtained results, taking into account the theoretical connections between eudaimonistic areas of quality of life and areas of change important for the process of rehabilitation within the cognitive and phenomenological approach, have important implications in the design of rehabilitation programs. In the light of the results obtained, it seems reasonable that penitentiary activities should be aimed at undermining and modifying attitudes related to manipulative inclinations and falsifying negative beliefs about the social environment, as well as increasing existential orientation aimed at searching for life meaning leading to the ability of constructively assessing the reality and obtaining a sense of fulfillment.
Article
The development of wellbeing during a vacation and immediately afterward is well understood. It remains unclear, however, how eudaimonia and hedonia differ across typical home and vacation contexts. Given that eudaimonia and hedonia drive behavior, understanding contextual differences can guide the development of targeted behavioral change interventions, including those that entice tourists to behave in more environmentally or socially sustainable ways. This study (1) introduces to tourism research a conceptual framework that unambiguously defines eight forms of eudaimonia and hedonia, (2) operationalizes them, and (3) investigates their context dependency empirically. State level hedonia and eudaimonia are substantially higher on vacation, suggesting they represent promising targets for behavioral change interventions. The definitions and operationalization of the eight forms of eudaimonia and hedonia offer a unifying framework that facilitates cumulative tourism knowledge development on the role of hedonia and eudaimonia in tourism by ensuring new insights relate to the exact same constructs.
Article
Individuals diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) and social phobia (SP) have difficulties in social interactions. It is unknown, however, whether such difficulties prevent them from helping others, thereby depriving them of the natural benefits of helping, such as receiving gratitude. Using event sampling methodology (ESM), individuals (MDD, n = 118; SP, n = 47; and control group, n = 119) responded to questions about the frequency of helping, in total at 5333 time points, and their well-being. Contrary to our hypothesis, individuals in the MDD, SP and control group did not differ in their helping frequency. Results did show an association between helping and well-being, such that helping is related to well-being and well-being to helping. Understanding the complex relation of helping others and well-being and how this might be used during therapy and prevention programmes are discussed.
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Obecny model rozwoju, czyli ścieżki osiągania dobrobytu, doprowadził nas do kryzysu klimatyczno-ekologicznego na bezprecedensową skalę. Skutki tego kryzysu odczuwane są także w Polsce, szczególnie dotkliwie za sprawą smogu. Na gruncie ekonomii podejmowane są próby silniejszego włączenia środowiska naturalnego do koncepcji rozwoju, równolegle rozwijają się ujęcia dobrobytu alternatywne wobec tradycyjnych mierników dochodu. Jednak badania nad korelatami poszerzonego ujęcia dobrobytu rzadko biorą pod uwagę czynniki ze sfery środowiskowej. Niniejsza praca wpisuje się w tę lukę, dążąc do zbadania związku między różnie ujmowanym dobrobytem a przestrzennie określonymi środowiskowymi efektami zewnętrznymi rozwoju, na przykładzie zanieczyszczenia powietrza w regionie metropolitalnym Warszawy. Umiejscowienie analizy na poziomie lokalnym osadza problem kosztów środowiskowych w kontekście przemian przestrzennych miasta i wsi, w tym zwłaszcza suburbanizacji. Badanie rozpoczynam od usystematyzowania roli środowiska w trzech ujęciach dobrobytu, tj. ekonomicznym, społecznym oraz subiektywnym. Pozwala to zidentyfikować koncepcje i teorie opisujące oczekiwaną relację danego ujęcia dobrobytu z degradacją środowiska, tj. hipotezę Środowiskowej Krzywej Kuznetsa, koncepcję sprawiedliwości ekologicznej oraz dorobek ekonomii szczęścia. Drugim fundamentem badania jest kompleksowa analiza zanieczyszczenia powietrza – w oparciu o schemat DPSIR uzasadniam, że jest to kluczowe wyzwanie cywilizacyjne dla Polski, mające charakter problemu splątanego. W części empirycznej badania opieram się na zaawansowanych technikach statystycznych, by prześledzić kształt relacji między zanieczyszczeniem powietrza i poszczególnymi ujęciami dobrobytu. Wykorzystując model regresji przestrzennej wskazuję, że na szczeblu gmin woj. mazowieckiego wzrost dobrobytu społecznego i ekonomicznego napędza zanieczyszczenie powietrza, choć w przypadku miary ekonomicznego dobrobytu rysuje się próg, powyżej którego ten negatywny wpływ zanika. Na tle badanego regionu zaznacza się relatywnie korzystna pozycja strefy pery-miejskiej, potwierdzając znaczenie walorów środowiska dla suburbanizacji. W dalszej części, wykorzystując autorskie badanie zrealizowane w Warszawie wykazuję negatywny wpływ krótkookresowych wahań poziomu zanieczyszczenia powietrza oraz postrzeganej jakości powietrza na deklarowane przez respondentów zadowolenie z życia. Uzyskane wyniki potwierdzają, że zależnie od przyjętego modelu dobrobytu, różne będą konsekwencje rozwoju dla środowiska. W kontekście wyzwania zrównoważonego rozwoju, szczególne znaczenie zyskuje subiektywna koncepcja dobrobytu. Pozwala ona bowiem przełamać dotychczasową separację sfery społecznej i środowiskowej, wykazując, jak degradacja środowiska – faktyczna i postrzegana – umniejsza poziom odczuwanego dobrobytu.
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Well-being is deifined as a positive condition that enables an individual, a group, or a country to become prosperous. This condition is highly essential to be achieved and improved, since everyone has a purpose to get a better life towards the prosperity. This research was aimed to investigate the relationship between sociodemographic (age, sex, marital status, occupation and income) and the well-being level measured by 3 things, they were positive and negative affection, positive and negative thoughts and psychological well-being in Ambon society, especially in RT 004/03 Kelurahan Batu Gajah, Sirimau District. This study was using quantitative method with Pearson Product Moment correlation test analysis and the data collection was using well-being questionnaires of Scale of Positive and Negative Experince (SPANE), Positive Thinking Scale (PTS), and Scale of Psychological Well-Being (PWB), which were further adapted to Indonesian Language. The obtained result showed that most respondents were those in the productive age of 17-25 years old (36%), males (52,7%), Senior High School graduates (74,1%), jobless people (37,5%), with the income Rp. 500.001- 1.500.000 (30%) and marital status (48,2%). A total of 46,4% respondents perceived that they often experienced positive affection, 69% respondents had the most positive thoughts and had the high psychological well-being were about 66% respondents. There was no relationship between positive and negative affects as well as positive and negative thoughts on sociodemography except on the work of positive and negative thinking. There was a significant association in the sociodemographic variables of age and occupation toward psychological well-being.
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We examined the effects of postural intervention using a “risshin chair” (an upright support seat assisting a zazen-like posture) on posture maintenance, classroom time perception, implicit affect, mental health, and life meaningfulness in an actual high school setting. Twenty-seven second-grade high school students (15 girls and 12 boys; Mage = 16.93 years, SD = 0.27) sat on either a conventional chair or a risshin chair in A-B-A order for approximately four weeks in total. One-way ANOVA revealed that (a) mental health score was highest in the intervention period than in the pre- or post-intervention period (p < .001; p = .002), and that (b) the living in the present moment score was higher in the intervention period than in the pre-intervention period (p < .001). Twocondition within-participant serial mediation analysis also showed that the use of the risshin chair affected mental health and daily meaning in life through a higher level of postural improvement and a faster level of classroom time perception change (indirect effect = 0.27, 95% CI [0.02, 0.74]; 0.28, 95% CI [0.04, 0.66]). The need for examining the effectiveness of longer-term postural interventions was discussed.
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In this chapter, we review studies comparing the social learning and cooperative abilities of wolves and dogs, both with conspecifics and humans. As regards social learning, their performance is similar in basic tasks involving local enhancement and observational memory. But when it comes to paying attention to the exact details of a demonstration and imitating a specific action, wolves clearly outperform dogs. Whether these differences stem from differences in cognitive abilities or rather from differences in general purpose mechanisms such as attention, working memory, inhibition or motivation still needs to be explored. As regards cooperation, the studies reviewed show that wolves and dogs share with us at least some of the abilities that seem to be important for cooperation: they show some prosocial tendencies, are inequity averse, can coordinate their actions with conspecific partners, and have a basic understanding of the role of their partner in cooperative interactions. However, the studies show that while wolves cooperate successfully with conspecifics as well as with human partners, dogs only succeeded with humans. This suggests that the dogs’ failure to cooperate with conspecifics is not due to cognitive limitations but rather due to limited tolerance towards each other in feeding contexts. While both species cooperate with humans, their behaviour revealed some remarkable differences suggesting that wolves rather lead (and perhaps just expect humans to follow), whereas dogs are more inclined to wait for the human partners to take the initiative and then follow their lead.
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Leader identity theory posits that, in addition to being positional, leadership is also a malleable state of mind. This means that even employees holding positions of authority within their organization may be nudged to identify more strongly with their leader role on some days versus others. The leadership literature, however, is silent about predictors that may prime leader identity day-to-day. We draw from leader identity theory and research on expressive writing to propose that leader identity can be activated daily via positive leader self-reflection (e.g., reflecting and writing about qualities that make one a good leader) in ways that are beneficial for the leader both at work and at home. We tested our theoretical expectations in two field experiments. In the first study, as expected, we find that leaders reported higher activated leader identity and more goal progress on intervention (vs. control) days. In turn, activated leader identity and goal progress enhanced leader well-being measured in the evening at home. Surprisingly, and contrary to expectations, the well-being enhancing effects of positive leader self-reflection were weaker for leaders who were higher (vs. lower) in identity fusion with their followers. In the second study, we demonstrate the malleable nature of leader identity by showing not only that positive leader self-reflection activates leader identity, but also that negative leader self-reflection diminishes its activation.
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The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationships among life satisfaction, meaning in life and basic psychological need satisfaction. Participants were 384 college students. Balanced Measure of Psychological Needs Scale, Meaning in Life Questionnaire, Satisfaction with Life Scale and demographic information form were utilised for data collection. Data were analysed using mixture structural equation modelling approach. Results of the study indicated that fulfilling competence and autonomy need is indirectly related to life satisfaction through meaning in life. Additionally, need for relatedness and autonomy satisfaction and meaning in life is directly associated with life satisfaction. Findings suggest two latent profiles: (a) a high satisfied and meaningful group and (b) a low satisfied and low meaningful group.
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Background This 4-year research project focuses on 6 social community enterprises (SCEs) that operate in 5 neighborhoods in a Dutch city. Residents of these neighborhoods face problems such as poor average levels of physical and mental health, high unemployment rates, and weak social cohesion. SCEs offer residents social, cultural, and work-related activities and are therefore believed to help these persons develop themselves and strengthen the social ties in the community. Because of a lack of empirical evidence; however, it is unclear whether and how SCEs benefit the health and well-being of participants. Objective This paper outlines a protocol for an evaluation study on the impact of SCEs, aiming to determine (1) to what extent SCEs affect health and well-being of participating residents, (2) what underlying processes and mechanisms can explain such impact, and (3) what assets are available to SCEs and how they can successfully mobilize these assets. Methods A mixed methods multiple-case study design including repeated measurements will be conducted. Six SCEs form the cases. An integrated model of SCE health intervention will be used as the theoretical basis. First, the impact of SCEs is measured on the individual and community level, using questionnaires and in-depth interviews conducted with participants. Second, the research focuses on the underlying processes and mechanisms and the organizational and sociopolitical factors that influence the success or failure of these enterprises in affecting the health and well-being of residents. At this organizational level, in-depth interviews are completed with SCE initiators and stakeholders, such as municipal district managers. Finally, structurally documented observations are made on the organizational and sociopolitical context of the SCEs. Results This research project received funding from the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development in 2018. Data collection takes place from 2018 until 2022. Data analysis starts after the last round of data collection in 2022 and finalizes in 2024. Expected results will be published in 2023 and 2024. Conclusions Despite the societal relevance of SCEs, little empirical research has been performed on their functioning and impact. This research applies a variety of methods and includes the perspectives of multiple stakeholders aiming to generate new empirical evidence. The results will enable us to describe how SCE activities influence intermediate and long-term health outcomes and how the organizational and sociopolitical context of SCEs may shape opportunities or barriers for health promotion. As the number of these initiatives in the Netherlands is increasing rapidly, this research can benefit many SCEs attempting to become more effective and increase their impact. The findings of this research will be shared directly with relevant stakeholders through local and national meetings and annual reports and disseminated among other researchers through scientific publications. International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID) DERR1-10.2196/37966
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Contexte : La qualité de vie (QdV) des personnes autistes devrait être la cible ultime des interventions. Cette thématique de recherche reste peu développée, particulièrement chez les enfants autistes d’âge préscolaire.Objectifs : Cette étude vise à (a) développer un module adapté aux enfants autistes d’âge préscolaire destiné à être passé avec l’échelle de QdV Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQLTM 4.0, version 2-4 ans), (b) évaluer les qualités métrologiques du PedsQLTM 4.0 (version 2-4 ans), dont la traduction française n’a pas été validée, et du module « autisme », et c) explorer les facteurs pouvant influencer la QdV des enfants autistes de ce groupe d’âge. Méthodes : Dix adultes autistes verbaux ont participé à un entretien semi-directif questionnant les critères qu’ils estimaient importants pour que leur vie soit satisfaisante lorsqu’ils étaient enfants. Une analyse de contenu thématique a fourni une première banque d’items pour le module « autisme ». Celle-ci a ensuite été évaluée par un panel d’experts et pré-testée auprès de dix parents d’enfants autistes. 279 parents d’enfants au développement typique d’âge préscolaire ont complété le PedsQLTM 4.0, et 157 parents d’enfants autistes du même âge ont rempli le PedsQLTM 4.0 ainsi que le module « autisme ». L’âge et le genre du parent participant et de leur enfant, l’état civil, le niveau d’éducation et la profession du parent, le lieu de résidence et la composition de la fratrie ont été récoltés auprès des deux échantillons. Le niveau de flexibilité psychologique des parents d’enfants autistes, ainsi que le tempérament de leur enfant ont été respectivement mesurés à l’aide du questionnaire d’acceptation et d’action (AAQ-II) et de l’outil « Émotivité, Activité et Sociabilité » (EAS).Résultats : L’analyse de contenu des entretiens a révélé quatre thèmes majeurs : intérêts, régularité de l’environnement, perception sensorielle et relations sociales. Ce dernier a été subdivisé en deux thèmes (interactions sociales et communication) et une première banque de 44 items découpés en cinq dimensions a pu être constituée. Suite à l’évaluation du panel d’experts et au pré-test, les 27 items retenus constituent le module opérationnel d’évaluation de la QdV adaptée à l’enfant autiste d’âge préscolaire perçue par le parent, et s’utilise conjointement avec le PedsQLTM 4.0 (version 2-4 ans). L’étude psychométrique (a) a montré que le PedsQLTM 4.0 pouvait être utilisé de façon fiable auprès des enfants français autistes ou ayant un développement typique, (b) a conduit à remanier la version opérationnelle du module « autisme » constitué en définitive de 24 items répartis en trois dimensions. L’analyse des facteurs a principalement révélé que la QdV des enfants autistes d’âge préscolaire est associée négativement à son émotivité, cette relation étant influencée par la flexibilité psychologique du parent.Conclusion : Cette étude renseigne sur la QdV des enfants autistes d’âge préscolaire. Elle fournit un outil de mesure de la QdV adaptée à cette population. Celui-ci pourra être utilisé par les cliniciens pour évaluer les interventions précoces qu’ils mettent en œuvre. Enfin, les résultats de cette recherche permettent de mieux comprendre les facteurs d’influence de la QdV des jeunes enfants autistes, en ouvrant notamment des pistes d’intervention auprès de leurs parents.
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The Scale of Positive and Negative Experience (SPANE) is an emerging wellbeing scale to measure the frequency of positive and negative emotions. This study explores the psycho-metric properties of SPANE on a sample from the Arab Gulf region. The Arab Gulf region shares cultural elements with the broader Muslim and Arab world, but maintains distinct features that warrants validation studies for psychological instruments. There were 1393 participants from Saudi Arabia, Oman, Kuwait and other Arab Gulf countries. The factorial structure of SPANE was examined using a principal axis factor analysis, followed up with a confirmatory factor analysis. The convergent validity was examined by correlating SPANE with the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). The findings confirmed a two-factor structure of SPANE, and demonstrated adequate psychometric properties and convergent validity. In conclusion, this study indicates that SPANE shows sufficient validity for use as a measure of wellbeing in the Arab Gulf region.
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Although moral character may be the most central and consequential facet of one’s personality, existing measures are few and suffer from shortcomings. We present the Moral Character Questionnaire (MCQ) to focus primarily on global moral character and secondarily on six moral domains – Honesty, Compassion, Fairness, Loyalty, Respect, and Purity. All subscales assess core components of personality dispositions, including behavior, motivation, cognition, and identity. Across 14 samples and >13,000 participants, MCQ subscales are generally unidimensional, have good-to-strong reliability, and are temporally stable. Based upon hypotheses regarding 21 criterion measures, analyses reveal strong convergent/discriminant validity. Finally, we found connections between the MCQ scales and core personality traits. The MCQ is an efficient and psychometrically strong measure grounded in contemporary personality theory.
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This research was initially exploring the relationship between the Authentic Happiness-The Source of Happines and Organizational Commitment. The concept of Authentic Happiness is derived from the Positive Psychology-Authentic Happiness proposed by Seligman. Meanwhile the concept of organizational commitment is taken from Meyer and Allens Organizational Commitment. The research questions are twofolds. Firstly, whether three sources of happiness are correlated with three dimensions of organizational commitment. Secondly, whether demographic factors are accounted at explaining organizational commitment. Fifty-four (54) employees of a leading retail company in Bandung were interviewed and surveyed using online instrument, as many as 48 turned out with valid responds. Collected data were processed and analyzed using simple statistics, such as descriptive statistics, Pearson's Product Moment and Alpha Cronbach to test data validity and reliability. Meanwhile to do correlation test, crosstabs-chi square and Pearsons Correlation was used. The research reveals that the Source of Happiness has strong to mild positive correlation with Organizational Commitment. This research also confirms the existing findings that demographic characteristics i.e. gender and length of work has a positive relationship with organizational commitment. Abstrak Penelitian ini mencoba mengeksplorasi hubungan antara Sumber Kebahagiaan-Authentic Happiness dan Komitmen Organisasional. Konsep Authentic Happiness berasal dari positif psikologi yang diperkenalkan oleh Seligman. Sedangkan konsep komitmen organisasional diambil dari Meyer dan Allen. Pertanyaan utama peneli-tian ini ada dua, pertama apakah dari ketiga sumber kebahagiaan berkorelasi dengan ketiga dimensi komitmen organisasional. Kedua, apakah faktor demografi responden
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The strength-based primary prevention perspective and the psychology of sustainability and sustainable development emphasize the importance of building strengths that will promote well-being and enhance the capacity to cope effectively and thrive despite challenge. In this preventive perspective, trait emotional intelligence represents a promising area of research and intervention because it is amenable to specific training and is associated with health and well-being. This study examined the contribution of trait emotional intelligence as a mediator in the relationship between both positive and negative affect and meaningful work among 222 workers from a multinational pharmaceutical company. The results confirmed the mediating role of trait emotional intelligence, highlighting the potentiality of emotional intelligence as a focus for primary prevention in contributing to the experience of meaningful work, constructing individual well-being, promoting healthy organizations, and enhancing sustainable and positive human capital development.KeywordsPositive affectNegative affectMeaningful workTrait emotional intelligencePrimary preventionHealthy organizationsSustainable human capital development
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Background Internationally, teachers are increasingly reporting elevated levels of stress, anxiety, exhaustion and burnout. Although social support has been found to be a protective buffer against stress, depression and burnout, there have been limited strength-based studies examining the relationship between social support and teacher wellbeing. There is also a need for qualitative research to facilitate in-depth understanding of teachers’ application of positive psychology strategies to improve wellbeing. Purpose Using the positive psychology PERMA wellbeing framework, this strengths-based, qualitative study aimed to address this gap in knowledge by asking: what are teachers’ experiences of consciously providing social support to their colleagues, and what are the reported effects on their wellbeing and teaching practice? Method The study employed a phenomenological approach. In-depth interviews were held at three time points with a small sample of five Australian teachers, none of whom had previous experience with applying positive psychology strategies to support their wellbeing. The study required participants consciously to use the positive psychology strategy of providing social support to their colleagues for 15 working days. In addition, the teachers completed daily written reflections. Data from the interviews and written reflections were analysed thematically. Findings The core themes emerging from the data were ‘eudaimonia and altruism’, ‘friendship’ and ‘pedagogical practice and professional development’. Teachers reported providing social support at work by engaging in eudaimonic and altruistic behaviours, supporting their own wellbeing, collegial relationships, pedagogical practices, professional development and whole school operational practices. Conclusion This study highlights the importance of understanding how teachers provide social support, and the flow-on effects of socially supportive behaviours in schools. Findings from this study may inform future research and changes to pedagogical practices and professional development that are supportive of teacher social support and teacher wellbeing.
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The present study examined affect- and self-based explanatory models of relationships between daily events and daily wellbeing. Twice a week for up to 10 weeks, participants described the events that occurred each day and provided measures of their daily affect, self-esteem, and depressogenic thinking. Participants also provided trait-level measures of affect, depression, and self-esteem. Measures of daily well-being representing each model covaried jointly and independently with daily negative and positive events. Positive events buffered the effects of negative events on daily self-esteem and daily depressogenic thinking, whereas there was no buffering effect for daily affect. More depressed people were more reactive to positive events, and those higher in trait PA were less reactive to negative events. Buffering effects for self-esteem were more pronounced for those with lower trait self-esteem, and buffering effects for daily depressogenic adjustment were more pronounced for those with higher trait negative affect. The results suggest that affect- and self-based models provide complementary perspectives on relationships between psychological well-being and daily events.
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The affect system refers to the functional components involved in appetitive and aversive information processing. We review evidence suggesting that affect is not a unitary faculty but rather is composed of a number of distinct processes. Physical limitations constrain behavioral expressions and incline behavioral predispositions toward a bipolar (good-bad, approach-withdraw) organization, but this organization appears to be the consequence of multiple operations, including the activation of positivity (appetition) and the activation of negativity (aversion), at earlier affective-processing stages. The partial segregation of positive and negative affective precessing afforded evolution the opportunity to sculpt distinctive activation functions for these affective components and allows their coactivation, Coactivation, in turn, cultivates the exploration of novel environments and the pursuit of seemingly hospitable events while fostering vigilance for and rapid retreats from hostile developments.
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Recent research in the United States suggests that individuals who strongly value extrinsic goals (e.g., fame, wealth, image) relative to intrinsic goals (e.g., personal growth, relatedness, community) experience less well-being. This study examines such goals in university samples from two cultures—the United States and Russia. Participants (N = 299) rated the importance, expectancies, and current attainment of 15 life goals, including 4 target intrinsic and 4 target extrinsic goals. Results confirmed the relevance of the intrinsic-extrinsic distinction for both samples and that stronger importance and expectancies regarding extrinsic goals were negatively related to well-being, although these effects were weaker for Russian women. Furthermore, for both men and women, perceived attainment of intrinsic goals was associated with greater well-being, whereas this was not the case for perceived attainment of extrinsic goals.
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Quality ties to others are universally endorsed as central to optimal living. Social scientists have extensively studied the relational world, but in somewhat separate literatures (e.g., attachment, close relationships, marital and family ties, social support). Studies of intimacy and close connection are infrequently connected to health, whereas studies of health and social support rarely intersect with literatures on relational flourishing. Efforts to probe underlying physiological processes have been disproportionately concerned with the negative (e.g., adverse effects of relational conflict). A worthy goal for the new millennium is promoting greater cross talk between these realms via a focus on the positive health implications of interpersonal flourishing. Vital venues for the future include mapping the emotional configurations of quality social relationships and elaborating their physiological substrates.
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The primary objectives of this article are (a) to put forth an explicit operational formulation of positive human health that goes beyond prevailing "absence of illness" criteria; (b) to clarify that positive human health does not derive from extant medical considerations, which are not about wellness, but necessarily require a base in philosophical accounts of the "goods" in life; (c) to provoke a change of emphasis from strong tendencies to construe human health as exclusively about the mind or the body toward an integrated and positive spiral of mind-body influences; (d) to delineate possible physiological substrates of human flourishing and offer future directions for understanding the biology of positive health; and (e) to discuss implications of positive health for diverse scientific agendas (e.g., stress, class and health, work and family life) and for practice in health fields (e.g., training, health examinations, psychotherapy, and wellness intervention programs).
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W. Wilson's (1967) review of the area of subjective well-being (SWB) advanced several conclusions regarding those who report high levels of "happiness." A number of his conclusions have been overturned: youth and modest aspirations no longer are seen as prerequisites of SWB. E. Diener's (1984) review placed greater emphasis on theories that stressed psychological factors. In the current article, the authors review current evidence for Wilson's conclusions and discuss modern theories of SWB that stress dispositional influences, adaptation, goals, and coping strategies. The next steps in the evolution of the field are to comprehend the interaction of psychological factors with life circumstances in producing SWB, to understand the causal pathways leading to happiness, understand the processes underlying adaptation to events, and develop theories that explain why certain variables differentially influence the different components of SWB (life satisfaction, pleasant affect, and unpleasant affect). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Aristotle's concept of eudaimonia and hedonic enjoyment constitute 2 philosophical conceptions of happiness. Two studies involving combined samples of undergraduate and graduate students (Study 1, n = 209; Study 2, n = 249) were undertaken to identify the convergent and divergent aspects of these constructs. As expected, there was a strong positive correlation between personal expressiveness (eudaimonia) and hedonic enjoyment. Analyses revealed significant differences between the 2 conceptions of happiness experienced in conjunction with activities for the variables of (1) opportunities for satisfaction, (2) strength of cognitive-affective components, (3) level of challenges, (4) level of skills, and (5) importance. It thus appears that the 2 conceptions of happiness are related but distinguishable and that personal expressiveness, but not hedonic enjoyment, is a signifier of success in the process of self-realization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Meaning in life has been identified as a potential mediator of the link between religiousness and psychological health. The authors tested this hypothesis in 2 studies, using multiple methods and measures of religiousness and well-being. In the studies, meaning in life mediated the relation between religiousness and life satisfaction (Study 1A), as well as self-esteem and optimism (Study 1B). In addition, using an experience sampling method, the authors found that meaning in life also mediated the relation between daily religious behaviors and well-being (Study 2). The authors discuss these findings and suggest that meaning in life may be an effective conduit through which counselors and clients can discuss "ultimate" matters, even when they do not share similar perspectives on religion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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propose a model of the intimacy process the process begins when one person expresses personally revealing feelings of information to another it continues when the listener responds supportively and empathically for an interaction to become intimate the discloser must feel understood, validated, and cared for psychodynamic building blocks / building blocks from communication and exchange research / lay and psychometric conceptions of intimacy (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Counseling psychologists often work with clients to increase their well-being as well as to decrease their distress. One important aspect of well-being, highlighted particularly in humanistic theories of the counseling process, is perceived meaning in life. However, poor measurement has hampered research on meaning in life. In 3 studies, evidence is provided for the internal consistency, temporal stability, factor structure, and validity of the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ), a new 10-item measure of the presence of, and the search for, meaning in life. A multitrait-multimethod matrix demonstrates the convergent and discriminant validity of the MLQ subscales across time and informants, in comparison with 2 other meaning scales. The MLQ offers several improvements over current meaning in life measures, including no item overlap with distress measures, a stable factor structure, better discriminant validity, a briefer format, and the ability to measure the search for meaning.
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Increasingly, social and personality psychologists are conducting studies in which data are collected simultaneously at multiple levels, with hypotheses concerning effects that involve multiple levels of analysis. In studies of naturally occurring social interaction, data describing people and their social interactions are collected simultaneously. This article discuses how to analyze such data using random coefficient modeling. Analyzing data describing day-to-day social interaction is used to illustrate the analysis of event-contingent data (when specific events trigger or organize data collection), and analyzing data describing reactions to daily events is used to illustrate the analysis of interval-contingent data (when data are collected at intervals). Different analytic strategies are presented, the shortcomings of ordinary least squares analyses are described, and the use of multilevel random coefficient modeling is discussed in detail. Different modeling techniques, the specifics of formulating and testing hypotheses, and the differences between fixed and random effects are also considered.
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This study examined the extent to which 3 dimensions of personal goals (commitment, attainability, and progress) were predictive of students' subjective well-being over 1 semester. At the beginning of a new term, 88 Ss provided a list of their personal goals. Goal attributes and subjective well-being were measured at 4 testing periods. Goal commitment was found to moderate the extent to which differences in goal attainability accounted for changes in subjective well-being. Progress in goal achievement mediated the effect of the goal commitment × goal attainability on subjective well-being interaction. Results are discussed in terms of a need for addition and refinement of assumptions linking personal goals to subjective well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Examined relations between social activity and state and trait measures of Positive and Negative Affect. In Study 1, Ss completed scales relevant to 3-factor models of personality and a weekly mood and social activity questionnaire for 13 wks. In Study 2, Ss completed measures of the 5-factor model of personality and a daily mood and social activity survey for 6–7 wks. In within- and between-Ss analyses, socializing correlated significantly with state measures of Positive Affect and with trait measures of Extraversion/Positive Emotionality. These relations were relatively general across various types of positive affect and social events; however, specific types of social events also were differentially related to affect. In contrast, social activity had no consistent association with measures of Negative Affect or the other personality dimensions. The results support a temperamental view of Extraversion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In two daily diary studies we examined the moderating role of sensation seeking in the patterns of relations between physical pleasure and life satisfaction. In study 1 (a 52-day daily diary study), daily physical pleasure was a signi®cantly stronger predictor of daily social satisfaction among high sensation seekers than among low sensation seekers. We extended the ®nding of study 1 to more general daily satisfaction in study 2 (a 23-day diary study). The present ®ndings indicate that physical pleasure is associated with daily satisfaction to the degree that one seeks for such an experience. In addition, we tested whether the association between physical pleasure and daily satisfaction would be moderated also by other facets of extraversion and extraversion as a whole. With the exception of the positive emotion facet in study 1, no facet or extraversion as a whole moderated the relation between physical pleasure and daily satisfaction. The present studies show speci®city and replicability of the role that sensation seeking plays in understanding the link between daily physical pleasure and daily satisfaction.
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daily variations may be understood in terms of the degree to which three basic needs, autonomy, competence, and related-ness, are satisfied in daily activity. Hierarchical linear models were used to examine this hypothesis across 2 weeks of daily activ-ity and well-being reports controlling for trait-level individual differences. Results strongly supported the hypothesis. The authors also examined the social activities that contribute to sat-isfaction of relatedness needs. The best predictors were meaning-ful talk and feeling understood and appreciated by interaction partners. Finally, the authors found systematic day-of-the-week variations in emotional well-being and need satisfaction. These results are discussed in terms of the importance of daily activities and the need to consider both trait and day-level determinants of well-being.
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Close interpersonal relationships are the setting in which people most frequently experience intense emotions, both the positive emotions, such as joy and love, and the negative emotions, such as anger and fear. No other context in which people customarily live their lives appears to be as fertile a breeding ground for emotional experience as close relationships are. Most emotion theorists recognize that emotions are most frequently and intensely experienced in the context of close relationships (see Ekman & Davidson, 1994). Lazarus, for example, states that "most emotions involve two people who are experiencing either a transient or stable interpersonal relationship of significance" (1994, p. 209). It is not surprising, therefore, that many of the questions people ask about close relationships concern the emotions they experience in them. When young adults are asked to list the things they wish to understand about close relationships, for example, emotional phenomena invariably figure high on their lists (Berscheid, 1998). They often ask: "Can you both love and hate your partner?"; "Is it abnormal to feel jealous?"; "How can one prevent anger at outside sources from carrying over into anger at a relationship partner?"; "How can I get my partner to feel more passion?"; "Does separation increase passion and love?"; "Can the butterflies in the stomach and other feelings of love reoccur throughout the relationship, 10 or 20 years later?"
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In two daily diary studies we examined the moderating role of sensation seeking in the patterns of relations between physical pleasure and life satisfaction. In study 1 (a 52-day daily diary study), daily physical pleasure was a significantly stronger predictor of daily social satisfaction among high sensation seekers than among low sensation seekers. We extended the finding of study 1 to more general daily satisfaction in study 2 (a 23-day diary study). The present findings indicate that physical pleasure is associated with daily satisfaction to the degree that one seeks for such an experience. In addition, we tested whether the association between physical pleasure and daily satisfaction would be moderated also by other facets of extraversion and extraversion as a whole. With the exception of the positive emotion facet in study 1, no facet or extraversion as a whole moderated the relation between physical pleasure and daily satisfaction. The present studies show specificity and replicability of the role that sensation seeking plays in understanding the link between daily physical pleasure and daily satisfaction. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.