Article

A multi-method examination of the effects of mindfulness on stress attribution, coping, and emotional well-being

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  • Australian Catholic University North Sydney
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Abstract

Mindful individuals orient to ongoing events and experiences in a receptive, attentive manner. This experiential mode of processing suggests implications for the perception of and response to stress situations. Using laboratory-based, longitudinal, and daily diary designs, four studies examined the role of mindfulness on appraisals of and coping with stress experiences in college students, and the consequences of such stress processing for well-being. Across the four studies (n’s = 65 − 141), results demonstrated that mindful individuals made more benign stress appraisals, reported less frequent use of avoidant coping strategies, and in two studies, reported higher use of approach coping. In turn, more adaptive stress responses and coping partially or fully mediated the relation between mindfulness and well-being. Implications for the role of mindfulness in stress and well-being are discussed.

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... According to some authors, trait mindfulness is present in all individuals and can be enhanced by meditation training (Brown & Ryan, 2003;Weinstein et al., 2009). However, few studies have investigated its impact on psychological health at work in a French cultural context, hence the originality of the present study. ...
... According to the model developed by Lazarus and Folkman (1984), the assessment of the situation influences emotional experience. Feelings of positive affects and the use of problem-focused coping strategies contribute to the positive reassessment of situations (Pavani et al., 2016;Weinstein et al., 2009). There is empirical evidence of causal relationships between trait mindfulness and affects, with mindfulness preceding an increase in positive affects (Brown & Ryan, 2003;Keng & Tong, 2016;McLaughlin et al., 2019;Weinstein et al., 2009), in both clinical and nonclinical adult populations (Erisman & Roemer, 2012;Giluk, 2009;Quoidbach et al., 2010;Zeng & Gu, 2017). ...
... Feelings of positive affects and the use of problem-focused coping strategies contribute to the positive reassessment of situations (Pavani et al., 2016;Weinstein et al., 2009). There is empirical evidence of causal relationships between trait mindfulness and affects, with mindfulness preceding an increase in positive affects (Brown & Ryan, 2003;Keng & Tong, 2016;McLaughlin et al., 2019;Weinstein et al., 2009), in both clinical and nonclinical adult populations (Erisman & Roemer, 2012;Giluk, 2009;Quoidbach et al., 2010;Zeng & Gu, 2017). Accordingly, positive and negative affects probably influence the relationship between trait mindfulness and burnout, with positive affectivity constituting a protective factor for individuals, and negative affectivity a vulnerability factor. ...
Article
The current study explored the mediating roles of affects and coping strategies in the relationship between mindfulness and burnout among a sample of French healthcare professionals. A total of 180 professionals (mean age = 30.10 years) from various health and social care centers in different parts of France completed a questionnaire that contained measures of mindfulness, emotional experience (positive vs. negative affects), coping strategies, and the three dimensions of burnout. Results indicated that trait mindfulness protects healthcare professionals from burnout (especially the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization dimensions). In addition, coping strategies and affects mediate the link between trait mindfulness and emotional exhaustion. More specifically, participants with a low degree of mindfulness reported more negative affects and greater use of emotion-focused coping strategies. These findings suggest that trait mindfulness and positive affects help these professionals maintain a high level of personal accomplishment through the use of problem-focused coping strategies. Based on our results, recommendations could be drawn up to protect healthcare professionals from burnout and enhance their personal accomplishment. Keywords: Trait mindfulness; burnout; positive affects; negative affects; coping strategies
... As a result, individuals tend to accept them as they are rather than attempting to change their emotional experiences (Lutz et al., 2008). A high level of mindfulness contributes positively to individuals' mental health, relationship satisfaction, and coping with stress (Brown et al., 2009). Mindfulness is also related to psychological well-being (Deniz et al., 2017). ...
... As a result of the "Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction" program applied by Miller et al. (1995) to patients with anxiety disorders, it was found that individuals' stress levels and anxiety symptoms significantly decreased. Furthermore, it is stated that students with high level of mindfulness are more successful in coping with stress (Weinstein et al., 2009) and experience less depression and anxiety issues (Allen et al., 2017;Egan & Mantzios, 2018). Mindfulness also has a positive influence on one's well-being both physically and mentally (Horan & Taylor, 2018). ...
... In other words, as higher education students' perceived stress levels increased, their mindfulness levels decreased. Similar findings were observed in other studies as well (Cash & Whittingham, 2010;Cenkseven-Önder & Utkan, 2018;De Lissnyder et al., 2012;Weinstein et al., 2009). In line with the study results, the perceived stress levels can be seen as a cause or as a result of the decrease in mindfulness. ...
Article
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This study examines the relationship between higher education students' perceived stress levels, and their problem solving skills, awareness levels and academic achievement. Also, the mediating role of mindfulness levels and problem-solving skills on the association between perceived stress level and academic achievement was investigated. The research was designed according to the correlational research design, one of the quantitative research methods. The participants of the study consisted of 938 higher education students. For data collection, three different questionnaires were administered to the participants. In addition, the personal information form prepared by the researcher was used to obtain the students' demographic characteristics and grade point averages (GPA). The results showed that there was a significant negative relationship between perceived stress levels of higher education students and their mindfulness, problem solving skills, and academic achievement. Also, it was found that mindfulness and problem-solving skills had a mediating role in the association between perceived stress level and academic achievement. Based on the findings of the study, it was concluded that mindfulness-based approaches and problem-solving skills are important for higher education students to reduce their stress levels and increase academic success. The limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed.
... Pour ces derniers, la mindfulness est alors considérée comme une disposition stable à être attentif et conscient de ce qui se déroule dans le moment présent. La mindfulness renvoie ainsi à une capacité (capacity) ou une caractéristique naturelle (naturally occurring characteristic) qu'il est possible de développer, car il existerait des variabilités intra-individuelles dans le maintien de l'attention (Brown & Ryan, 2003;Brown & Ryan, 2004;Weinstein & al., 2009). ...
... Elle joue un rôle important dans les facteurs de maladie chronique en réduisant la détresse émotionnelle (Bishop & al., 2004), les symptômes psychologiques et l'incapacité fonctionnelle (Kabat-Zinn & al., 1985). Elle diminue les réponses cognitives négatives (Segal & al., 2002), la vulnérabilité au stress (Bishop & al., 2004) et elle permet une évaluation plus bénigne des situations stressantes (Weinstein & al., 2009). Elle permet aux individus de réagir avec des stratégies de coping centrées sur l'approche et le problème plutôt que par évitement (Weinstein & al., 2009). ...
... Elle diminue les réponses cognitives négatives (Segal & al., 2002), la vulnérabilité au stress (Bishop & al., 2004) et elle permet une évaluation plus bénigne des situations stressantes (Weinstein & al., 2009). Elle permet aux individus de réagir avec des stratégies de coping centrées sur l'approche et le problème plutôt que par évitement (Weinstein & al., 2009). ...
Thesis
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Au cours des vingt dernières années, le concept de mindfulness a été largement investigué dans les recherches scientifiques. De multiples définitions de la mindfulness émanent des études publiées. L’une d’entre elles a particulièrement retenue notre attention, il s’agit de celle de Brown & Ryan (2003). Ces auteurs définissent la mindfulness comme une disposition à être attentif et conscient de ce qui se déroule dans le moment présent. Pour ces auteurs, la mindfulness est une capacité innée ou une ressource psychologique qu’il est possible de développer (Brown & Ryan, 2003; Brown, & Ryan, 2004; Weinstein & al., 2009). Même si quelques études ont établi un lien entre mindfulness et différentes variables liées au travail comme la performance, l’équilibre de vie professionnelle et personnelle ou encore le burnout, trop peu d’études sont menées pour étudier ces effets dans le milieu professionnel (Hülsheger & al., 2013). Cette thèse a pour ambition de répondre à ce constat en étudiant la mindfulness en lien avec la santé au travail. Nous avons souhaité mettre en évidence le rôle de la mindfulness comme une ressource psychologique potentielle pour les individus au travail pouvant leur permettre d’accroître leur bien-être professionnel et les protéger du burnout. Pour cela, nous avons mis en oeuvre quatre études (par questionnaire) permettant de répondre à cet objectif. En conclusion de ces études, les résultats permettent d’enrichir les connaissances, la compréhension du concept et de proposer des pistes d’actions pour élargir son utilisation.
... Rights reserved. approach coping styles, as well as a negative correlation between mindfulness and avoiding and maladaptive emotional coping styles in university students (Palmer & Rodger, 2009;Thomas, 2011;Weinstein et al., 2009). Additionally, university students with high levels of mindfulness had a high level of emotional distress tolerance (Ozcan, 2019;Pearson et al., 2015). ...
... On the other hand, mindfulness is based on non-judgmental observation without quick and automatic appraisals (Feldman et al., 2007;Palmer & Rodger, 2009;Thomas, 2011). Weinstein et al. (2009) also reported mindfulness and the approach coping style had a positive relation in their comprehensive research with university students, but according to another finding of the research, mindfulness did not predict approach coping style. ...
... So indeed, emotional distress tolerance may be the most determining factor behind avoidance behaviors (Leyro et al., 2010). Also, studies showed that high level of mindfulness in university students had negatively significant relations with avoidance coping styles (Palmer & Rodger, 2009;Thomas, 2011;Weinstein et al., 2009). Thus, as emotional distress tolerance was found to be a very strong predictor of avoidance coping, it may have suppressed the possible influence of mindfulness. ...
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the mediating role of mindfulness in the relationship between emotional distress tolerance and coping styles of Turkish university students. The sample of the study included 453 undergraduate students from a public university in Turkey. Participants completed the R-COPE, Distress Tolerance Scale, Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised and a demographic data form. In the analysis of the data, a regression-oriented mediatory macro technique was performed, and the bootstrap procedure was employed for the mediation effect analysis. The results showed that emotional distress tolerance was associated to self-help, approach, accommodation, and self-punishment coping style with the mediating role of mindfulness. However, avoidance coping style directly predicted emotional distress tolerance without the mediation role of mindfulness. Implications for researchers and college counsellors are discussed.
... Research has shown that mindfulness, while varying between individuals, has characteristics with similar characteristics that can be reliably assessed using a number of self-reported measures designed for untrained respondents (Walach et al., 2006;Feldman et al., 2007;Brown et al., 2011). In a growing number of studies, researchers are using these self-reported measures to show a meaningful association between individual naturally occurring trait mindfulness and mental health in non-clinical samples with no experience of meditation or mindfulness training (Weinstein et al., 2009;Niemiec et al., 2010;Bowlin and Baer, 2012;Kiken and Shook, 2012). In the workplace, trait mindfulness is also gaining a lot of attention among organizational scientists (Reb et al., 2014). ...
... The basic purpose of mindfulness training is to improve the trainees positive emotion and produce ideal results. Studies have shown that trait mindfulness can predict lower levels of daily negative effects (Brown and Ryan, 2003;Weinstein et al., 2009), more effective emotional regulation (Baer et al., 2006), and higher happiness (Weinstein et al., 2009). ...
... The basic purpose of mindfulness training is to improve the trainees positive emotion and produce ideal results. Studies have shown that trait mindfulness can predict lower levels of daily negative effects (Brown and Ryan, 2003;Weinstein et al., 2009), more effective emotional regulation (Baer et al., 2006), and higher happiness (Weinstein et al., 2009). ...
Article
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Objective: This study aims to explore the relationship between basic psychological needs and positive emotions of preschool teachers between trait mindfulness and job satisfaction. Methods: Three hundred and ninety-eight preschool teachers were tested with mindfulness attention awareness scale, basic psychological needs scale, positive emotion scale, and job satisfaction scale. Results: Preschool teachers trait mindfulness can predict job satisfaction ( β = 0.265, p < 0. 001). Preschool teachers trait mindfulness has an indirect impact on job satisfaction through basic psychological needs ( β = 0.059, p = 0.002), and preschool teachers trait mindfulness has an indirect impact on job satisfaction through positive emotions ( β = 0.123, p < 0. 001). In addition, basic psychological needs and positive emotions play a sequential intermediary role between preschool teachers trait mindfulness and job satisfaction ( β = 0.017, p < 0. 001). Conclusion: Basic psychological needs and positive emotions play a sequential mediating role between preschool teachers trait mindfulness and job satisfaction, and this sequential mediating effect accounts for a high proportion of the total effect.
... The primary outcome of this study was a statistically significant reduction in stress perception scores upon completion of the mindfulness-based intervention programme. Mindfulness-based interventions provide benefits by increasing the capacity of participants to be mindful of present-moment experiences and enabling them to be consciously aware of stressful adverse events (24). Mindful attention can promote more adaptation for stress feeling and cognitive change by 'turning down' negative appraisal of adverse events (24). ...
... Mindfulness-based interventions provide benefits by increasing the capacity of participants to be mindful of present-moment experiences and enabling them to be consciously aware of stressful adverse events (24). Mindful attention can promote more adaptation for stress feeling and cognitive change by 'turning down' negative appraisal of adverse events (24). In this way, it can enable individuals to interpret circumstances as less distressing, thereby reducing perceived stress (10,(24)(25)(26). ...
... Mindful attention can promote more adaptation for stress feeling and cognitive change by 'turning down' negative appraisal of adverse events (24). In this way, it can enable individuals to interpret circumstances as less distressing, thereby reducing perceived stress (10,(24)(25)(26). The results of the present study are consistent with those of Gauthier et al. (17), who applied a shortened version of a mindfulness-based intervention to paediatric nurses. ...
Article
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Background: Among healthcare workers, nurses have a particularly high risk of stress. Stressful conditions in the workplace increase the possibility of burnout and psychological distress. Short mindfulness-based interventions can help to decrease stress, anxiety and depression. This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention in reducing perceived stress, anxiety and depression among public teaching hospital staff nurses. Methods: Thirty-five nurses from various specialities were recruited from Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM). The intervention comprised a 1-day brief mindfulness-based intervention workshop and 1 h group practice session each month for 3 months together with daily follow-up via WhatsApp group. All the participants completed a self-administered sociodemographic questionnaire validated for use in a Malay population. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 (DASS 21) and Perceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS 10) were used to measure perceived stress, anxiety and depression before the intervention, and 3 months later upon completion of the intervention. Results: There was a statistically significant reduction in the scores for stress perception (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.06, 2.92; P = 0.04) and anxiety (95% CI: 0.06, 2.34; P = 0.04) post-intervention. Conclusion: A brief mindfulness-based intervention was effective in reducing perceived stress and anxiety among nurses.
... In other words, SDT forecasts that independence to a certain degree arbitrates the connections between mindfulness and wellbeing results. This is in line with results by Weinstein et al. (2009) that more mindful individuals both handle anxiety more successfully when they face it and have a lower level of anxiety by making more self-endorsed and well-combined decisions. Mindfulness coaching exercises are successful in enhancing educators' mental health (like educators' wellbeing) and lowering educators' anxiety and burnout, and these influences have been mainly explored through individual first-person measures (Hue and Lau, 2015). ...
... Such connection enables the individuals to recognize why they do what they do. Because mindfulness calls for higher awareness regarding the moment and thus greater attention regarding the current moment, it lets individuals become into their real selves and turn into what they really are (Weinstein et al., 2009). If such selfconsciousness is taken into consideration in the working context, people can be instructed to make decisions consciously to have higher engagement in their activities about their work and consequently build more sense in their actions while they enhance their awareness. ...
Article
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Teaching is a career with great instances of anxiety and exhaustion in all stages of education with particular difficulties associated with the attribute of language instruction. The notion of motivation might be a significant fundamental mechanism since demotivated educators are distressed due to the anxious feature of the instructing career. Moreover, educators’ wellbeing has been demonstrated to have a pivotal function in the path of instruction and learners’ success. On the other hand, to mitigate both motivation and wellbeing among teachers, one of the mental traits in this filed, namely, mindfulness can be effective as it is a technique that link to positive effects when used as an administrative strategy for alleviating stress and concern that bring about motivation and wellbeing. As a result, the purpose of the study is to investigate the predictor role of mindfulness on teachers’ motivation and wellbeing. In this study, 577 teachers (235 males and 342 females) Chinese English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers at different colleges, universities, and institutes in 13 provinces among which Jiangsu and Zhejiang province accounted for 26.69%, while other provinces made up 65.86% and 2 municipalities directly under the central government (Beijing and Chongqing; 7.45%). were kindly accepted to participate in the present study, and they answered the three questionnaires, namely, motivation, mindfulness, and wellbeing. The results of the study through a linear regression analysis indicated that teachers’ mindfulness could significantly predict both teachers’ wellbeing and motivation. According to the results, some pedagogical suggestions for the policymakers, educator trainers, materials developers, and language educators are offered. Ultimately, guidance for further studies is proposed to L2 scholars who are interested.
... Many studies have shown that attention interventions reliably reduce both general psychological stress [16][17][18] and occupational distress [19]. Furthermore, other evidence suggests that mindfulness is associated with coping success during stressful events [20]. ...
... In Proceedings of the 8th international conference on tangible, embedded and embodied interaction (pp. [13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20]. ...
Article
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Stress has been designated the “Health Epidemic of the 21st Century” by the World Health Organization and negatively affects the quality of individuals’ lives by detracting most body systems. In today’s world, different methods are used to track and measure various types of stress. Among these techniques, experience sampling is a unique method for studying everyday stress, which can affect employees’ performance and even their health by threatening them emotionally and physically. The main advantage of experience sampling is that evaluating instantaneous experiences causes less memory bias than traditional retroactive measures. Further, it allows the exploration of temporal relationships in subjective experiences. The objective of this paper is to structure, analyze, and characterize the state of the art of available literature in the field of surveillance of work stress via the experience sampling method. We used the formal research methodology of systematic mapping to conduct a breadth-first review. We found 358 papers between 2010 and 2021 that are classified with respect to focus, research type, and contribution type. The resulting research landscape summarizes the opportunities and challenges of utilizing the experience sampling method on stress detection for practitioners and academics.
... Mindfulness fosters more effective stress processing (Weinstein et al., 2009) by directly reducing work stress (Grover et al., 2016) while recent evidence also suggests that mindfulness results in lower levels of perceived technostress (Pflügner et al., 2021). A more mindful individual can cope more effectively with stressful situations by choosing fewer avoidance strategies and more adaptive ways of coping (Weinstein et al., 2009). ...
... Mindfulness fosters more effective stress processing (Weinstein et al., 2009) by directly reducing work stress (Grover et al., 2016) while recent evidence also suggests that mindfulness results in lower levels of perceived technostress (Pflügner et al., 2021). A more mindful individual can cope more effectively with stressful situations by choosing fewer avoidance strategies and more adaptive ways of coping (Weinstein et al., 2009). Previous studies have shown that mindfulness can mitigate the negative consequences arising from information overload (Wolf et al., 2011) and multitasking (Levy et al., 2012) thus decreasing techno overload. ...
Article
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IT offers significant benefits both to individuals and organisations, such as during the Covid-19 pandemic where technology played a primary role in aiding remote working environments; however, IT use comes with consequences such as ‘technostress’ – stress arising from extended use of technology. Addressing the paucity of research related to this topic, in this study, we examine the role of mindfulness and IT mindfulness to both mitigate the impact of technostress and alleviate its negative consequences; revealing that mindfulness can reduce technostress and increase job satisfaction, while IT mindfulness can enhance user satisfaction and improve task performance. Moreover, our work sheds light on the under-researched relationship between mindfulness and IT mindfulness; showing that the latter has a stronger influence on IT related outcomes; revealing the valuable role of mindfulness and IT mindfulness in the workplace and offering important implications to theory and practice.
... Stress, namely psychological distress, is conceptualized as a consequence of an imbalance between demands and coping resources for events that are significant for a person (e.g., Lazarus, 1966), resulting in psychological or physical consequences (Hede, 2010). Studies show that higher levels of mindfulness correlate with a lower experience of daily stress (Nyklíček & Kuijpers, 2008;Weinstein et al., 2009). Building on Folkman and Moskowitz' (2000) claim that positive reappraisal, problem-focused coping and infusing ordinary events with positive meaning facilitate positive affect in individuals in stressful situations, mindfulness appears to promote a decrease in stress levels in multiple ways. ...
Article
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Objectives: Mindfulness has become a main topic in Positive Psychology, as well as other disciplines, due to its effect on numerous positive outcomes, such as wellbeing and stress reduction. Many different mindfulness-based interventions have emerged in the last decades, however, to this point there is limited literature available for brief mindfulness-based practices that can be easily integrated into people's daily life. To address this gap in research, this study is going to examine the Mindfulness Bell, which offers individuals an opportunity to focus on the present through an audible notification at random moments during the day. Methodology: The study made use of an existing smartphone application, instructing participants to bring their attention to the sound of the bell, their breath, and their current activity at six random times each day. A two-week repeated-measures design was applied to measure effects of the Mindfulness Bell on participants' (N = 21) levels of mindfulness, both subjective and psychological wellbeing, and stress. Results: A statistically significant correlation was found between the Mindfulness Bell intervention and levels of mindfulness, subjective wellbeing and psychological wellbeing. No significant correlation was found for stress. Discussion: As a mediator of positive wellbeing outcomes, mindfulness is related to environmental mastery, purpose in life, and self-acceptance. Research shows that the length of the study and the level of mindfulness experience affected the success of the intervention. Conclusion: This paper reveals insight on the importance of engaging with the mindfulness concept and outlines what scholars need to consider when creating mindfulness-based interventions.
... This could be explained by the program successfully broadening parents' attentional focus and acceptance regarding their child, so they become more receptive to experience (Bishop et al., 2004). This would allow for less threatening evaluations of particular situations, and therefore lowered stress appraisals (Weinstein et al., 2009) and less need for avoidant, overprotective, or other unhelpful parenting behavior (Tiwari et al., 2008). ...
Article
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Objectives This study sought to establish four aspects of feasibility for a mindful parenting program: demand for the program from parents with concerns regarding their child’s internalizing problems, acceptability of the program to those parents, preliminary efficacy, and the likelihood of successful expansion of the program to the intended population. Methods The study was a pilot, randomized controlled trial comparing a mindful parenting program to waitlist. Participants were parents (N = 25) of children aged 3–18 years, with self-reported concerns regarding their child’s internalizing problems, recruited from the community. Demand was assessed using recruitment and adherence rates. Acceptability was assessed using parent-reported usefulness. Preliminary efficacy was assessed using parent reports of child internalizing problems, mindful parenting, parenting stress, cognitive emotion regulation, parental experiential avoidance, and parent beliefs about child anxiety. Intervention group parents also provided weekly in-session data on coping in stressful parenting situations. The likelihood of successful expansion was assessed using qualitative feedback on whether and how the program had helped parents manage child internalizing problems, particularly anxiety. Results Feasibility was established for the four aspects assessed. The program was well-attended and acceptable to parents. Moderate to large effects were found in favor of the intervention group for most parent and child outcomes. Weekly data showed improved coping in difficult parenting situations. Qualitative feedback suggested that parents believed that increased acceptance and empathy had helped them cope with child internalizing problems. Conclusions Mindful parenting programs may assist parents of children with internalizing problems to manage parenting stress and emotionally regulate themselves, even in difficult parenting moments. They may also reduce child internalizing problems, through improved parental emotion regulation, and greater acceptance of and empathy for their child. Trial Registration Australian Clinical Trials Registry, registration number ACTRN12620000690954
... Thus, these emotion-focused 'survival sessions' would definitely go a long way towards helping students get over their emotional struggles. Previous personality research has also shown that students who are taught mindfulness and stress coping strategies tend to experience satisfactory levels of well-being, which can help them succeed academically (Weinstein et al., 2009). Such vital support, unfortunately, seems to have been completely ignored in the heat of rapid conversion to remote modes of learning in the aftermath of the Covid-19 pandemic. ...
Article
Although boredom has been the subject of increasing scrutiny in second language (L2) learning recently, very little is known about how this emotion can affect teachers and students involved in Covid-19 prompted online English education. To address this gap, through maximum variation sampling, this qualitative study surveyed the opinions of 34 teachers and 256 students from universities across Iran to find out which class mode (online versus physical classes) and course type (content-based versus skills-based courses) were more boring, and what – if any – coping strategies these individuals used to get over boredom. The majority of teachers and students deemed online classes more boring than traditional, in-person classes. While teachers regarded skills-based and content-based courses as equally boring, most students believed that content-based online courses were more boredom-inducing due to their lecture-type nature. Moreover, whereas the teachers had a variety of useful coping strategies in their toolbox, an alarming number of students reported either not knowing how to deal with boredom or resorting to debilitative strategies, such as playing games or leaving class altogether when boredom reached an unbearable level. The findings are discussed in light of existing evidence from boredom and personality research, and practical suggestions are made. Keywords content-based courses, coping strategies, Covid-19, emergency-prompted remote teaching, L2 boredom, online L2 education, skills-based courses
... Mindful Leadership and Turnover Intention. With a mindful leader, who shows attention to, and awareness of, external and internal events and recognizes when employees are faced with stressful conditions due to an unexpected crisis, people can cope with challenging or stressful situations proactively and adaptively (Dane & Brummel, 2013;Weinstein et al., 2009). This type of leader stays focused on what's happening at the moment, is careful and systematic, and pays proper attention to the ongoing activities. ...
Article
This study investigates the impact of mindful and empathetic leadership on resilience and turnover intention, with self-regulation as a mediating variable. A quantitative survey was administered to 188 nurses dealing with COVID-19’s patients in Indonesia. Data were analyzed using Process v3.5 Andrew F. Hayes in SPSS. This study revealed that mindful leadership reduces turnover intention, and empathetic leadership increases resilience, while mindful leadership does not increase resilience, and empathetic leadership does not lessen turnover intention. We also conclude that self-regulation mediates the relationship between mindful leadership/empathetic leadership and turnover intention/resilience. Despite being limited to the Indonesian context, this research offers several contributions from both theoretical and practical perspectives. First, this research established the importance of mindful and empathetic leadership to promote resilience and reduce the turnover intention of nurses in the time of crisis. Second, we confirmed self-regulation as the mediating variable for those relationships. Practically, we suggest that having empathetic and mindful leaders is effective in supporting nurses to deal with COVID-19 patients.
... Among studies on college undergraduate learners, Weinstein et al. (2009) discovered that mindfulness indicated adjustive anxiety evaluations which indicated emotive health. Their outcome further proposed that the greater degree of emotive health of more mindful people could be because of their evaluative future inconveniences in non-jeopardizing ways and their fewer utilization of avoidant managing techniques. ...
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To manage the undesirable effect of anxiety on students, a wide scope of research has been dedicated to determining the triggers of anxiety and pedagogical interferences that can assist students with mitigating anxiety. Mindfulness is a relaxation strategy that has been related to constructive impacts when utilized as a managing technique for stress and anxiety. Originating from the construct of mindfulness, there is a multidimensional conception acknowledged as resilience as one of the notions in the Positive Psychology (PP) literature, which highlights the organizations and individuals’ strengths and self-control to comply with accidental states. Given the eminence of mindfulness and resilience in learning situations, the present study sets forth to examine the role of these constructs in alleviating English as a foreign language (EFL) learners’ anxiety. To meet this objective, 502 Chinese EFL learners took part in this research. They were asked to respond to the three questionnaires, namely resilience, mindfulness, and anxiety. To answer the research question of the study, a linear multiple regression was run and the findings demonstrated that mindfulness and resilience together could significantly predict anxiety. Consistent with the findings, some recommendations are presented concerning the implications of the present research.
... Bu konuda yapılan araştırmalarda bilinçli farkındalığı yüksek olan bireylerin uyumlu başa çıkma stratejilerini daha çok, kaçıngan başa çıkma becerilerini daha az ve stres veren yaşantılarla başa çıkma becerilerini daha yüksek seviyede kullandıkları (Weinstein, Brown ve Ryan, 2009), genel anksiyete bozukluğu olan kişilerin, bilinçli farkındalık ve özanlayış düzeylerinin düşük olduğu (Roemer, Lee, Salters-Pedneault, Erisman, Orsillo, ve Menin, 2009), bilinçli farkındalık temelli stres azaltma programının, öznel iyi oluş, duygusal iyi oluş, mental iyi oluş, sosyal aktivite düzeyi gibi bireyin yaşam kalitesini yükselten birçok alanda anlamlı düzeyde gelişme sağladığı (Flugel-Colle, Vincent, Cha, Laura, Bauer, ve Wahner-Roedler, 2009), bilinçli farkındalığın iyi olma hali ile olumlu yönde ilişkili olduğunu (Falkenström, 2010), bilinçli farkındalık becerilerinin psikolojik uyumla ilişkili olduğu, uzun süreli meditasyon uygulayıcılarının günlük yaşamda daha yüksek bilinçli farkındalık düzeyine sahip olduklarını ve özanlayışı da içine alan birçok psikolojik uyum özelliklerinden yüksek puanlar aldıkları (Lykins ve Baer, 2009), bilinçli farkındalığın özdüzenleme davranışlarının ve olumlu duygusal durumların bir yordayıcısı olduğu (Brown ve Ryan, 2003) ve bilinçli farkındalık temelli stres azaltma programı sonucunda, katılımcıların bilinçli farkındalık ve öznel iyi oluş düzeylerinde artış, stres semptomlarında ise azalma olduğu (Carmody ve Baer, 2008) sonuçlarına ulaşmışlardır. ...
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Brown ve Ryan (2003) tarafından geliştirilen Bilinçli Farkındalık Ölçeği (BİFÖ)'nin, üniversite öğrencilerinden oluşan bir grup üzerinde Türkçeye uyarlanma çalışması yapılmıştır. Ölçeğin dil eşdeğerliğini test etmek için İngilizce öğretmenliği anabilim dalındaki öğrencilere karşılıklı olarak (İngilizce-Türkçe; Türkçe-İngilizce) çeviriler uygulanmış, İngilizce ve Türkçe formlardan elde edilen puanlar arasında pozitif ve anlamlı korelasyonlar saptanmıştır. BİFÖ' nün faktör yapısını belirlemek amacıyla uygulanan açımlayıcı ve doğrulayıcı faktör analizleri sonuçlarına göre ölçek tek boyutlu bir yapı göstermektedir. BİFÖ için yapılan madde toplam korelasyonu sonucunda ölçeğin bütün maddeleri için .40'ın üzerinde ilişki ortaya çıkmıştır. BİFÖ'nün her bir madde için madde faktör yükleri .48 ile .81 arasında değişmektedir. Ölçeğin Cronbach Alpha iç tutarlılık katsayısı .80 ve test-tekrar test korelasyon .86 olarak hesaplanmıştır. BİFÖ ölçüt-bağıntılı geçerliği için yapılan korelasyon analizleri sonucunda da anlamlı ilişkiler saptanmıştır. Anahtar Sözcükler: Bilinçli Farkındalık Ölçeği, geçerlik ve güvenirlik Abstract The purpose of this study was to adapt Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) developed Brown & Ryan (2003) into Turkish on a group of university students. The original and Turkish versions of the scale were administered to English language teaching students and significant positive correlations between Turkish and English version scores were found. To determine the construct validity of MAAS, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were employed and analyses showed a strong single factor solution. The relation for all items of the scale was calculated above .40 as a result of item total correlations. The factor loading was between .48 and .81 for each item of the MAAS. The Cronbach's Alpha internal consistency of the scale was .80 and test-retest correlation was .86. There were significant positive relationships with respect to the correlation analysis employed for the Discriminated Validity of MAAS.
... Stress, namely psychological distress, is conceptualized as a consequence of an imbalance between demands and coping resources for events that are significant for a person (e.g., Lazarus, 1966), resulting in psychological or physical consequences (Hede, 2010). Studies show that higher levels of mindfulness correlate with a lower experience of daily stress (Nyklíček & Kuijpers, 2008;Weinstein et al., 2009). Building on Folkman and Moskowitz' (2000) claim that positive reappraisal, problem-focused coping and infusing ordinary events with positive meaning facilitate positive affect in individuals in stressful situations, mindfulness appears to promote a decrease in stress levels in multiple ways. ...
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Objectives: Mindfulness has become a main topic in Positive Psychology, as well as other disciplines, due to its effect on numerous positive outcomes, such as wellbeing and stress reduction. Many different mindfulness-based interventions have emerged in the last decades, however, to this point there is limited literature available for brief mindfulness-based practices that can be easily integrated into people's daily life. To address this gap in research, this study is going to examine the Mindfulness Bell, which offers individuals an opportunity to focus on the present through an audible notification at random moments during the day. Methodology: The study made use of an existing smartphone application, instructing participants to bring their attention to the sound of the bell, their breath, and their current activity at six random times each day. A two-week repeated-measures design was applied to measure effects of the Mindfulness Bell on participants' (N = 21) levels of mindfulness, both subjective and psychological wellbeing, and stress. Results: A statistically significant correlation was found between the Mindfulness Bell intervention and levels of mindfulness, subjective wellbeing and psychological wellbeing. No significant correlation was found for stress. Discussion: As a mediator of positive wellbeing outcomes, mindfulness is related to environmental mastery, purpose in life, and self-acceptance. Research shows that the length of the study and the level of mindfulness experience affected the success of the intervention. Conclusion: This paper reveals insight on the importance of engaging with the mindfulness concept and outlines what scholars need to consider when creating mindfulness-based interventions.
... Trait mindfulness plays an important moderating role in predicting self-regulation and well-being (e.g., Bowlin & Baer, 2012;Brown et al., 2007). Previous studies suggested that more mindful people tended to perceive less stress in response to threatening states and in their daily lives in general and that they recovered better from stressful experiences than less mindful people (Guidetti et al., 2019;Weinstein et al., 2009). ...
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Using mobile media can be both detrimental and beneficial for well-being. Thus, explaining how and when they elicit such effects is of crucial importance. To explicate boundary conditions and processes for digital well-being, this article introduces the Integrative Model of Mobile Media Use and Need Experiences (IM³UNE). Instead of assuming mobile media to be pathogenic, the IM³UNE offers a salutogenic perspective—it focuses on how we can stay healthy when using mobile media ubiquitously in daily life. More specifically, the model assumes that both the satisfaction and the frustration of basic psychological needs are key underlying mechanisms linking demanding mobile media use to well-being. However, the impact of these mechanisms is contingent on how users perceive, appraise, act on, and make sense of mobile media demands according to their global orientation to life (i.e., their sense of coherence, SOC). Integrating prior work, we theoretically link mindfulness, self-control, and meaningfulness to SOC's central facets, arguing that they represent crucial personal resources required to cope with mobile media demands. Thus, the IM³UNE offers an integrative framework, guiding further research towards a more nuanced study of mobile media’s effect on well-being.
... Mindfulness has been shown to positively impact self-determined behavior (behavior that is consistent with an individual's needs and values), goal accomplishment, and persistence, which in turn can have positive implications for job satisfaction and organizational commitment (Glomb, Duffy, Bono, & Yang, 2011;Hülsheger, Alberts, Feinholdt, & Lang, 2013). Additionally, mindfulness allows for more adaptive coping strategies when employees are faced with particularly challenging situations at work (Gold et al., 2010;Meiklejohn et al., 2012;Weinstein, Brown, & Ryan, 2009), perhaps including the experience of misalignment in the kindergarten classroom. These strategies may help teachers maintain intrinsic motivation and internal rewards when facing a lack of extrinsic incentives, like financial compensation or external support. ...
Article
Instructional priority misalignment—the difference between how much time teachers would ideally spend on certain subjects/skills compared with how much time teachers actually spend on certain subjects/skills—is a novel measure addressing aspects of teacher autonomy that could have implications for job satisfaction. This misalignment may be particularly salient for kindergarten teachers, who have experienced recent shifts in instructional priorities as standards-based academic learning has been increasingly integrated into the classrooms of our youngest students. Thus, misalignment in teachers’ instructional priorities regarding Common Core academic topics (math, English) and socio-emotional learning skills may be especially important for kindergarten teachers’ job satisfaction.
... More anxious individuals are theorized to become more secure (or at least operate in more secure-functioning ways) when they experience situations that strengthen self-worth and/or when strategies offer moments of calm in response to relational threats (Arriaga et al., 2018). Because mindfulness, in general, is associated with greater and more robust self-esteem (Heppner & Kernis, 2007;Pepping, O'Donovan, & Davis, 2013;Randal, Pratt, & Bucci, 2015), a greater ability to distinguish between threatening and neutral stimuli (Im, Marder, Imbriano, Sussman, & Mohanty, 2021), and better emotion regulation when threats are perceived (e.g., Britton, Shahar, Szepsenwol, Jacobs, & Jacobs, 2012;Teper, Segal, & Inzlicht, 2013;Weinstein, Brown, & Ryan, 2009), mindfulness may reduce the activation of attachment concerns among more anxiously attached individuals or give them skills to cope when attachment concerns do arise. More specifically, mindfulness may alleviate immediate distress, and-over time-build inner resources that lessen the degree to which their insecurities flow through into motivations and behaviors that are not conducive to personal and relationship wellbeing. ...
Article
Insecurely attached individuals are more likely to report more maladaptive sexual motivations that predict worse personal and interpersonal outcomes. Given that mindfulness has been linked with improved relationship and sexual experiences, and that these effects may be moderated by attachment, the current study examined the possible buffering role of trait mindfulness on the links between attachment insecurity and daily sexual motives. Participants from New Zealand (N = 70) took part in a daily diary study that overcame limitations associated with previous cross-sectional research in the area (e.g., recall and aggregation biases). Online measures of trait mindfulness and attachment were completed, before participants reported their sexual motivations on each day they had sex for the next 14 days. Results provided some evidence that trait mindfulness has a therapeutic effect among more anxiously attached persons insofar as it reduced the degree to which attachment concerns manifested in maladaptive daily sexual motivations. In contrast, trait mindfulness did not buffer (and in some cases intensified) the links between attachment avoidance and maladaptive sexual motives. No significant interactions were detected between attachment insecurity and mindfulness in the prediction of adaptive daily sexual motivations. These findings suggest that mindfulness may differentially affect the manifestations of anxious and avoidant attachment. Practical and theoretical implications of the findings are discussed.
... Additionally, a comprehensive review of the literature indicates that trait mindfulness is associated with fewer symptoms of depression and more adaptive cognitive processes and emotion regulation skills in response to stress (Tomlinson et al., 2018). Collectively, these findings suggest that trait mindfulness might serve to create a buffer between stressful events that allows the individual to distance themselves from negative perceptions and thoughts (Ivanovski & Malhi, 2007;Weinstein et al., 2009). ...
Article
Objectives: The current study investigated trait mindfulness associations with distinct aspects of executive function. We also aimed to characterize relationships between trait mindfulness with measures of psychological risk and resilience within adults aged 55-87 years. Method: In this cross-sectional study, 121 adults completed neuropsychological measures of working memory, mental set-shifting, and inhibition, as well as a battery of well-validated psychological self-report measures. The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) measured trait mindfulness. Results: Trait mindfulness was associated with greater age, years of education and self-efficacy, and less perceived stress, depression, anxiety, and subjective cognitive concerns. Hierarchal multiple regression analyses showed that trait mindfulness was a significant predictor of inhibitory control, even after adjusting for age, education, and global cognition in the model. Trait mindfulness was not significantly associated with working memory or mental set-shifting. Follow-up analyses using the PROCESS macro revealed that trait mindfulness mediated the relationship between perceived stress and inhibitory control. Conclusion: Trait mindfulness was associated with measures of greater well-being and mental health. Our results also indicate that trait mindfulness may provide psychological resilience by attenuating perceived stress and enhancing the capacity to intentionally suppress irrelevant information and automatic responses. 50 free online copies available here: https://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/UV7VNH7UA9QVCFT5PNHJ/full?target=10.1080/13607863.2021.1998352
... Mindfulness can be defined as "paying attention in a particular way on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally" (Kabat-Zinn, 1994, p.4). Research has linked individual differences in dispositional mindfulness (DM) to fewer symptoms of anxiety and depression (Gómez-Odriozola, & Calvete, 2020), better emotion regulation and adaptive responses to stress (Ramasubramanian, 2017;Tomlinson et al., 2018;Weinstein, Brown, & Ryan, 2009), and better compliance with medication regimes (Fanning et al., 2018). Mediating processes such as improved attention and emotion regulation and changes in perspective on the self have been postulated to explain these mindfulness-wellbeing outcome linkages (e.g., Holzel et al., 2011). ...
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Objective: The present study examined whether mindfulness and empathic concern prospectively predict coping and compliance during the COVID-19 pandemic, and tested several theorized mediators of these prospective relationships. Participants: Participants were N = 736 young adults from a three-wave longitudinal study on mindfulness that took place over a year. The third assessment wave took place in May, 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic.Methods: Participants completed self-report measures of trait mindfulness, compassion, well-being, internalized distress, coping, and compliance. Results: Results of autoregressive cross-lagged panel mediation models revealed the mindfulness predicted better coping via greater well-being and lower internalized distress. Greater compassion was linked with greater adherence to CDC guidelines through greater well-being.Conclusions: Findings suggest that trait mindfulness and compassion play an important role in college students’ coping and compliance during the pandemic, and point to potential intervention targets.
... For example, college students higher in mindfulness displayed lower emotional reactivity to aversive experiences (Beshai et al., 2020), lower rates of reaction to threatening emotional stimuli, greater emotional acceptance and awareness, and improved recovery following a stressful situation (Brown et al., 2007;Pearson et al., 2015). Furthermore, dispositional mindfulness longitudinally predicted more benign appraisals of stressors and higher use of adaptive coping strategies (Weinstein et al., 2009). ...
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Objectives Many studies document the high prevalence of burnout among medical students. This syndrome may lead to depression, suicidal ideation, and increased academic dropout. However, there is a scarcity of evidence-based interventions to prevent it. The aim of this longitudinal study was to identify factors that may reduce students’ burnout and foster their well-being, and upon which effective interventions can be developed.MethodsA total of 1,117 medical students from eight Chilean universities were asked to complete a set of validated scales in 2015 and 2 years later, in 2017. The measures included distress, burnout, positive mental health, academic engagement, and dispositional mindfulness. Using logistic regressions and a two-wave latent change score model, the predictive power of these variables on burnout and flourishing (an optimal state of mental health) was studied, as well as their covariance across time.ResultsIn total, 639 (57.2%) students answered the questionnaires in T1 and T2; 54.4% reported burnout in T1 and 56.2% in T2. Levels of dispositional mindfulness (the ability to pay attention to one’s sensations, thoughts, and emotions in everyday life) predicted lower probabilities of burning out at 2 years, whereas having experienced burnout in T1 doubled these odds. Dispositional mindfulness, academic engagement, and flourishing at T1 predicted greater odds of flourishing 2 years later, while depression decreased these odds.Conclusions Dispositional mindfulness was the most powerful predictive factor of students’ burnout and flourishing. As dispositional mindfulness can be nurtured through practice, incorporating mindfulness training into undergraduate medical programs may help reduce burnout and promote students’ well-being as health professionals.
... Higher mindfulness may lead to lowered stress due to decreased negative cognitive appraisals of threatening events and experiences. Individuals having high mindfulness levels are less likely to appraise their day-to-day experiences as stressful (Weinstein et al., 2009;Arlt Mutch et al., 2021). Their ability to regulate their emotions may make them more adaptable to various stressors in their environment as they behave in ways that are consistent with their values (Brown and Ryan, 2004;Palmer and Rodger, 2009). ...
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The aim of the present study was to examine the mediation effects of resilience and stress, two perceived opposite constructs, in the relationship between mindfulness and happiness. Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Subjective Happiness Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales short version-21 were administered to 523 undergraduate university students in India. Structural Equation Modeling with bootstrapping was applied to test the mediating effects of resilience and stress. Results showed that resilience and stress partially mediated the mindfulness-happiness relationship. In addition, resilience partially mediated the relationship of mindfulness to stress. Findings suggest that mindfulness may play an influential role in enhancing happiness through the mediating effects of resilience and stress.
... Studies show that mindfulness is negatively related to stress (Chan and Lam, 2017;Cillessen et al., 2017;Palmer and Rodger, 2009;Valikhani et al., 2019). They investigated the impact of mindfulness interventions on stress showing that mindfulness interventions and exercises reduced stress perception and response to stress (Valikhani et al., 2020;Cillessen et al., 2017;Krejtz et al., 2016;Weinstein et al. 2009) describe in their study that mindfulness helps individuals handle stress proactively and spontaneously adjusted accordingly, therefore hypothetical. ...
Conference Paper
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This study is conducted mainly to test the relationship of mindfulness, stress, work-life balance and work attitude. Mindfulness is measured using a scale (SMS) of Tanay and Bernstein (2013). Work - life balance is measured using a scale of Brough et al. (2014). Stress is measured using the stress scale of Cohen et al. (1994). Job satisfaction is measured by the scale of Judge et al. (2000). Job commitment is measured by the scale “Job commitment” of Mowday et al. (1979). Turnover intention is measured by the scale of Kelloway et al. (1999). The research model and hypotheses were qualified tested using SPSS and SmarkPLS 3.2 with a survey sample of 595 workers in Viet Nam, which come to a conclusive result that mindfulness is positively related to the work-life balance. On the other hand, it is negatively related to stress, of which role is intermediate in the relationship between mindfulness and work-life balance. The work-life balance has a positive correlation between job satisfaction and job commitment. However, it has not negative impacts on turnover intentions. The results of this research suggest some managerial implications and the future directions for research.
... Therefore, it can be said that mindfulness has a positive effect on students' achievement. Although research on mindfulness in the academic context is limited (Howell & Buro, 2011;Shapiro, Brown, Thoresen, & Plante, 2011), the findings of the existing studies on the subject differ (Hall, 1999;Weinstein, Brown & Ryan 2009). In contrast to the results mentioned above Grodd and Cameron (2013) did not find a relationship between mindfulness and achievement. ...
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In this study the relationships between the Music Performance Anxiety (MPA) levels and mindfulness levels of Music Teacher Candidates (MTC) were investigated. A large sample of undergraduate students (N = 524) from seven different universities from around Turkey took place in the study. The data was collected with both Kenny’s MPA inventory and the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire. The Pearson Moments Correlation Coefficient was used in determining the relationships between the MPA and mindfulness levels of the MTC. To determine whether the MPA of students and mindfulness differ in terms of piano lesson achievement and daily piano practice time (DPPT) variables, a variance analysis (ANOVA) and a Kruskal Wallis H test analyses were used. Students’ mindfulness levels were negatively correlated with their MPA levels. Their piano lesson achievement levels had positive relationship with mindfulness and a negative relationship with their MPA. Similarly, their DPPT had a positive relationship with mindfulness and a negative relationship with MPA.
... Norsworthy et al. (2017) found that flow requires unconscious attention to specific tasks in the present moment. Some scholars have suggested that being present is an effective strategy for achieving flow (Rogatko, 2009;Weinstein et al., 2009;Landhäußer and Keller, 2012). Mindfulness helps people maintain awareness of the present moment, and thus may be the basis of flow (Kaufman et al., 2009;Aherne et al., 2011;Briegel-Jones et al., 2013). ...
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Creativity is so important for social and technological development that people are eager to find an easy way to enhance it. Previous studies have shown that mindfulness has significant effects on positive affect (PA), working memory capacity, cognitive flexibility and many other aspects, which are the key to promoting creativity. However, there are few studies on the relationship between mindfulness and creativity. The mechanism between mindfulness and creativity is still uncertain. Meditation is an important method of mindfulness training, but for most people who do not have the basic training, it’s difficult to master how to get into a state of mindfulness. Animation has been shown by many studies to help improve cognition and is often used as a guiding tool. Using animation as the guiding carrier of meditation is more convenient and easier to accept. Therefore, this study adopted the intervention method of animation-guided meditation, aiming to explore: (1) the effect of animation-guided meditation on enhancing creativity; (2) the role of flow and emotion in the influence of mindfulness on creativity. We advertised recruitment through the internal network of a creative industrial park, and the final 95 eligible participants were divided into two groups: animation ( n = 48) and audio ( n = 47) guided meditation. The animation group was given an animated meditation intervention, and the audio group was given an audio meditation intervention, both interventions were performed 3 times a week and last for 8 weeks. Results: (1) Animation-guided meditation significantly increased participants’ mindfulness and creativity levels; Significantly reduced their cognitive load compared to audio-guided meditation. (2) Mindfulness has a significant direct effect on creativity, and significant indirect effects on creativity; Flow and PA act as the mediating variable. Conclusion: (1) Mindfulness, flow, and PA all helped to improve the subjects’ work creativity. In addition to the direct positive impact of mindfulness on creativity, mindfulness can also have an indirect positive impact on creativity through flow and PA. (2) Compared with audio, animation can significantly reduce cognitive load and help improve users’ cognitive ability, which is more suitable for the guidance materials of mindfulness meditation to enhance the effect of meditation.
... As a result, mindful individuals may cope with problems maturely rather than avoiding them or becoming emotional. Prior studies have also shown that trait mindfulness is positively associated with the use of adaptive coping strategies, including cognitive reappraisals, and problemsolving, and negatively related to worry, suppression of thought, and experience avoidance (Feldman et al., 2007;Weinstein et al., 2009). Moreover, the stress-attenuation model of coping (Billings & Moos, 1981) posits that good coping skills can reduce the negative effects of stress and maintain relationship satisfaction (Papp & Witt, 2010). ...
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The purpose of the current study was to explore the influence of coping styles and trait mindfulness on the satisfaction of romantic relationships (RRS) among college students. Of the 305 participants, 258 (males: 115, 44.6%) had previously been in, or were presently in a romantic relationship. All participants completed the MAAS, CSQ, and questions about RRS. There was a significant meditating role of mature coping styles in the relationship between trait mindfulness and RRS (indirect effect [95% CI] = 0.021 [0.001, 0.052]). However, the mediating effect of immature coping styles was not significant (indirect effect [95% CI] = 0.038 [-0.020, 0.097]). Mature coping style plays an important mediating role in the relationship between mindfulness and relationship satisfaction.
... If mindfulness is to de-automatize thinking (Kang et al., 2013) regarding others, it will achieve this most probably through a promotion of nonjudgmental thinking of others rather than of the self. This is in support of the idealizations made regarding mindfulness and its potential to reduce prejudice (Kang, et al., 2013;Weinstein, et al., 2009) While our studies represent a substantial contribution to our understanding of the link between mindfulness and prejudice, they were not without limitations. Given the number of correlations, there is the possibility of Type I error as alpha level was not adjusted. ...
Article
Although researchers predict that experiencing greater trait mindfulness should be related to less prejudiced attitudes towards others, the evidence has been inconsistent. We suggest that this is due to the narrow operationalizations of mindfulness that have been utilized thus far. Specifically, research to date has relied solely on mindfulness as it pertains to the self. We therefore examined an expanded definition of mindfulness to study the role of nonjudgmental attitudes towards others and its relation with prejudice. Using a new measure of Nonjudgmental Regard towards Others (NRO), the current study found that Ideological Acceptance, or judgments of another’s actions, ideas, and personality, and Emotion Acceptance, or acceptance of another’s emotions and emotional expressions, were independently associated with prejudiced attitudes towards numerous different outgroups such as drug users, people who are overweight, homosexuals, and people with disabilities. Furthermore, they were able to explain variance over and above the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, Social Dominance Orientation and Right-Wing Authoritarianism. Having a nonjudgmental regard towards others, not just the self, may be an important component of mindfulness that has not yet been explored.
... Awareness and self-compassion programs with elderly individuals are beneficial in developing coping strategies and reducing resilience, anxiety and stress levels (Perez-Blasco et al., 2016;Imtiaz, 2016). Mindfulness-based practices are used to manage stress and develop appropriate coping strategies (Weinstein et al., 2009). Difficulties experienced in old age can reduce life satisfaction in the elderly. ...
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The aim of this study is to examine the effects of art therapy practices on self-compassion, positive-negative mood and cognitive function levels in elderly individuals. In the research, a quasi-experimental design with pretest-posttest control group was used. The sample of the study consists of 50 elderly individuals who are in the study (n=25) and comparison (n=25) groups. The entire sample lives in a long-term care home and is male. Sociodemographic Information Form, Positive-Negative Affect Scale, Self-Compassion Scale and Standardized Mini-Mental Test were administered to the participants. The Art Therapy Program was applied to the study group by the researchers once a week for a total of 10 sessions (each session 90 minutes). The comparison group was not included in any application. The analysis of the data obtained in this study was made with SPSS 25.0 and Dependent Groups T test and Independent Groups T test were used. As a result of the research findings, it was determined that there were statistically significant differences (p<.05) between the post-test scores of the study and comparison groups. After the Art Therapy Program, the positive affect and self-compassion levels of the elderly individuals participating in the study group increased. No statistically significant difference was found in the cognitive function levels of the participants. There are few quantitative studies on Art Therapy conducted with elderly individuals. The study is important in terms of giving the opportunity to examine the application of Art Therapy on experimental research to improve the lives of elderly individuals. Keywords: Cognitive function, self-compassion, positive-negative affect, art therapy, elderly
... Documents which appeared among the most cited papers in China but not the US focused around adaptation of scales (Deng et al., 2012), methodological and statistical questions (A. F. Hayes, 2013;Hu & Bentler, 1999;Podsakoff et al., 2003), wellbeing (Coffey & Hartman, 2008;Weinstein et al., 2009), resilience to trauma (Thompson et al., 2011), social anxiety (Goldin & Gross, 2010), and mindfulness theory (Garland et al., 2015). Documents which appeared among the most cited papers in the USA but not China were focused on mindfulness scale development (Baer et al., 2004), cognitive neuroscience Creswell et al., 2007), mechanisms of meditation (Hölzel et al., 2011), romantic relationships (Barnes et al., 2007), well-being (Grossman et al., 2004;Kabat-Zinn, 1982), measurement of stress (Cohen et al., 1983), and emotion regulation (Feldman et al., 2007). ...
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Objectives We present a bibliometric review of research on trait mindfulness published from 2003 until 2021 to determine the current state of the field and identify research trajectories. Methods A search conducted on Aug 25, 2021, using the search terms “trait mindfulness” OR “dispositional mindfulness” in the Web of Science Core Collection identified 1405 documents. Results Using keyword-based network analyses, the various clusters suggested two major approaches in the field, one focusing on cognitive attentional processes, and a second approach that encompasses a wider field of well-being and clinical research topics. We also documented increasing consolidation of research fields over time, with research on wider individual differences such as personality being subsumed into clinically and well-being-oriented research topics. More recently, a distinct theme focused on the validity of measurement of mindfulness emerged. In addition to general patterns in the field, we examined the global distribution of trait mindfulness research. Research output was substantially skewed towards North American-based researchers with less international collaborations. Chinese researchers nevertheless also produced research at significant rates. Comparing the difference in research topics between China and the US-based researchers, we found substantial differences with US research emphasizing meditation and substance abuse issues, whereas researchers from China focused on methodological questions and concerns around phone addiction. Conclusions Overall, our review indicates that research on trait mindfulness might profit from conceptual and cultural realignment, with greater focus on individual differences research as well as stronger focus on cross-cultural and comparative studies to complement the strong clinical and cognitive focus in the current literature.
... The mechanisms that have been proposed to explain the link between mindfulness and psychological resilience include stress appraisal, selection of coping method, and emotion regulation. Individuals higher in mindfulness experience lower stress levels in the face of challenges and are more likely to cope effectively with stressors (Weinstein et al., 2009). Fletcher and Sarkar (2013) propose that resilience influences one's initial appraisal of stressors, metacognitions in response to one's emotions, and selection of coping strategies. ...
Article
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Background Adolescents’ psychological stress has become an important problem. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) are proven to be effective in school settings in the Western world, and so expanding MBIs further is a particularly important consideration. Objective This study addresses the effectiveness of MBI in reducing psychological stress in Chinese school settings and the mediating role of resilience between trait mindfulness and psychological stress. Methods This study conducts a cluster randomized controlled trial. Ninety-two middle school students in the experimental group received 10 weeks of MBI, with 10 sessions of a mindfulness course, while 97 students in the control group followed their regular school program without intervention. Results Psychological stress, trait mindfulness, and psychological resilience were measured by the Psycho-Somatic-Tension-Relaxation Inventory (PSTRI), Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), and Resilience Scale for Chinese Adolescents (RSCA). The results showed that (1) compared with the pretest scores of the experimental group, and the pre- and post-test scores of the control group, the post-test scores of trait mindfulness and psychological resilience in the experimental group were significantly increased, while psychological stress was significantly decreased. (2) Trait mindfulness was positively associated with psychological resilience. Trait mindfulness and psychological resilience were negatively associated with psychological stress. (3) The mediating effect of psychological resilience accounted for 43.58% of the overall effect of trait mindfulness on psychological stress. Conclusions These findings provide encouraging evidence for MBI’s effectiveness in reducing adolescents’ psychological stress and the possible mediating role of psychological resilience; thus, MBI is worthy of expanding to Chinese school settings.
... Nevertheless, the significant reduction in perceived stress experienced by the Trial and Active engagement groups is consistent with a trial conducted during COVID-19 where participants anxiety decreased after a mindfulness-based intervention (Simonsson et al., 2021;Sun et al., 2021). Greater trait mindfulness (how an individual expresses their everyday mindful attitudes and behaviours) is associated with increased stress resilience and increased wellbeing through facilitating greater psychological flexibility (Weinstein et al., 2009;Pidgeon and Keye, 2014;Bajaj and Pande, 2016). This psychological mechanism potentially explains the findings of this study where participants who engaged with mindfulness showed greater wellbeing and decreased stress (at the end of the semester) due to increased adaptability following the COVID-19 general and educational impacts, as well as general university stresses. ...
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The efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions in randomised-controlled trials and large experimental studies has been demonstrated in university student populations. Whilst these investigations have provided insight into the nature of the delivery of mindfulness-based practices, there has been little research in the implementation of self-managed online student wellbeing and mindfulness programs at university. This ecological validation study conducted in 2020 evaluated a real-world implementation of a large, university-wide, online mindfulness-based program that was accessible fully online via the tertiary institutions’ Learning Management System (LMS) student orientation site. The total sample included 833 participants from a range of disciplines and faculties at Monash University, Australia. At the end of the study, 236 (28.3%) participants were retained and completed the follow-up survey. Participants had the option to engage with the fully self-managed online mindfulness program for a 12-week semester. The mindfulness practices were pre-recorded, audio-guided sessions, and 10–15 min in length. Baseline and end of semester questionnaires included the 14-item Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale, 10-item Perceived Stress Scale and the 18-item Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. Participants who engaged with the mindfulness program over 3 or more weeks showed significant improvements in all three outcome measures, and all participants showed significant improvements in wellbeing at the end of semester. Learning analytics obtained via the LMS revealed that 58.6% (n = 489) had not logged into the mindfulness program at all, almost a third (31.0%, n = 259) logged into the program materials once or twice, and 10.2% (n = 85) of the whole sample engaged with the program actively, having logged in three or more times. The total number of student logins peaked in week 2, reduced between week 2 and week 7 and thereafter activity remained stable until the end of the semester. We hypothesise that the changes in wellbeing, stress and mindfulness at the end of the semester seen in the low engagement participants may partly be explained by the circumstances of COVID-19 restrictions improving. This study has revealed and discusses the complexities of student behaviour and implications for implementing an online mindfulness program in the real- world setting of a university.
Article
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It is clear from the international social work literature that social workers experience high levels of stress and burnout due to the cognitive, emotional and physical demands of the profession. There are however no integrative theories, developed by social workers, on how this stress, burnout and its impact on the emotional and psychological well-being of social workers can be ameliorated and then improved. This article makes an original contribution to this literature by proposing the use of the clinically modified Buddhist psychological model, as a beneficial lens for understanding how to improve reflective practice in social work along with the feelings of stress, burnout, anxiety, low mood and well-being deficits that can result from social work practice. This paper will outline the rationale for the development of the clinically modified Buddhist psychological model, before outlining the theory itself and how it might support stress coping processes and reflective social work practice. This paper has significance for all social workers, social work students and social work educators, as it provides a theory which could help to inform improved reflective social work practice and self-care.
Preschool teachers’ job burnout has many adverse effects on their career development; although some studies have examined the influencing factors of teachers’ burnout, less were explored from the perspective of individual factors. This study aimed to examine the relationship between mindfulness and job burnout of preschool teachers, and the mediating effects of emotional intelligence and coping style. A total of 394 preschool teachers in China filled in questionnaires measuring mindfulness, emotional intelligence, coping style, and job burnout. The findings suggested that: (1) mindfulness was negatively related to job burnout; (2) emotional intelligence and negative coping style played independent mediating effects between mindfulness and job burnout; and (3) emotional intelligence and positive coping style played a chain mediating effect between mindfulness and job burnout. The results revealed the mechanism of mindfulness on preschool teachers’ job burnout, which is of great significance for the psychological intervention of preschool teachers in the future.
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Introduction Adolescents higher in the trait of dispositional mindfulness report fewer socioemotional problems. Focusing on the domain of peer stressors, we tested a model of adolescents’ mindfulness as a resource that undergirds more constructive stress coping responses, in turn resulting in fewer socioemotional problems. Method The participants were 361 Australian secondary school students (40% boys; ages 11 to 18; M = 14.9 years; SD = 1.4). Each completed a questionnaire to report four facets of dispositional mindfulness; engagement and disengagement coping and involuntary stress responses to recent peer interpersonal stressful events; and socioemotional problems of loneliness, social anxiety, and depression. Results Adolescents who reported more dispositional mindfulness, including facets of awareness, describing, non-judgement and non-reactivity, were lower in involuntary peer stress responses, disengagement coping, loneliness, social anxiety, and depression; associations of mindfulness facets with engagement coping were mixed. Mediational path models showed that almost all the significant negative associations of dispositional mindfulness with loneliness, social anxiety and depression were fully indirect via peer stress coping responses. Further, an alternative model, which tested whether loneliness, social anxiety and depression were the instigators of stress coping responses via mindfulness, had an adequate but poorer fit. Conclusion As hypothesized, the benefit of adolescents' dispositional mindfulness for reducing loneliness, social anxiety and depression seems to be indirect, with positive peer stress coping responses key mediators in these indirect pathways. It is less likely that the alternative occurs, whereby adolescents’ socioemotional problems are the foundation for mindfulness and peer stress coping responses.
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The COVID‐19 pandemic has had an unprecedented psychological impact, revealing immense emotional disturbances among the general population. This study examined the extent to which social connectedness, dispositional mindfulness, and coping moderate symptoms of anxiety and depression in 1242 adults under the same government‐issued COVID‐19 stay‐at‐home mandate. Participants completed measures of anxiety, depression, dispositional mindfulness, social connectedness, and coping, and regression analyses were used to examine associations and interaction effects. Results indicated that social connectedness and dispositional mindfulness were associated with reduced symptoms. For individuals living with a partner, decreased mindfulness and avoidant coping were associated with anxious symptoms. In households with children, overutilization of approach coping served to increase symptoms of depression. Results indicate the importance of considering social connectedness, mindfulness, and coping in counseling to enhance factors serving to protect clients during a public health crisis. Implications for professional counselors and areas of future research are discussed.
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In the theoretical construct developed here, mindfulness and meaningfulness are introduced as valuable antecedents for managing knowledge at work. A comprehensive module to practice knowledge management (KM) through mindfulness and meaningfulness is developed through an extensive literature review. Individuals who are the source of all knowledge can draw on mindfulness and meaningfulness in order to facilitate their knowledge creation and knowledge sharing abilities. Integrating mindfulness and meaningfulness into the development of KM initiatives at work further amplifies individuals' mindful and meaningful creation and share of knowledge. This study is the first of its kind to shed light on the theoretical foundations of the positive impact of mindfulness on knowledge processing, and in accord with meaningfulness, this is the first study to address the importance of mindful and meaningful KM practices to enable knowledge sharing and creation. Suggestions for practitioners seeking to establish mindful and meaningful KM practices are discussed and further research proposed.
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Individuals reporting greater insecure attachment are more likely to report maladaptive sexual motivations, such as sex to avoid negative relational and personal outcomes (e.g., conflict). Despite the costs of such sexual motivations, research is less clear regarding what might buffer the extent to which attachment insecurities manifest in such motives. The current study examined whether trait mindfulness moderates the links between attachment insecurity and maladaptive sexual motives. Participants (N = 194) completed measures of trait mindfulness, general sexual motivations, and attachment. As predicted, the links between attachment anxiety and having sex to cope and affirm the self were eliminated among individuals reporting higher levels of the acting with awareness facet of trait mindfulness. No such buffering effects were seen for attachment avoidance. Instead, acting with awareness mindfulness appeared to increase the extent to which more avoidantly attached individuals reported coping and self-affirmation-based sexual motives. These findings contribute to knowledge regarding the potential utility and limits of mindfulness in relational and sexual contexts, perhaps suggesting that mindfulness may help anxiously attached individuals manage the extent to which attachment concerns manifest in maladaptive sexual motivations. Findings of the study may inform both theory regarding mindfulness in interpersonal functioning and how mindfulness interventions might be deployed in sex therapy contexts.
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هدفت الدراسة إلى التعرف على العلاقة بين اليقظة العقلية وأساليب مواجهة الوضعيات المجهدة لدى الطالب الجامعي في ظل جائحة كورونا كوفيد 19، حيث تكونت عينة الدراسة من (55) طالب وطالبة، منهم (17) طالب و (38) طالبة، تم اختيارهم بطريقة عشوائية من كلية العلوم الإنسانية والاجتماعية بجامعة مستغانم للسنة الجامعية 2020-2021، ولتحقيق أهداف الدراسة تم استخدام مقياس اليقظة الذهنية من إعداد بير وآخرون (Baer et Al,2004). واختبار الوضعيات المجهدة ((CISS. أظهرت نتائج الدراسة وجود علاقة بين اليقظة الذهنية وأساليب مواجهة الوضعيات المجهدة لدى الطالب الجامعي، ووجود فروق في اليقظة الذهنية لدى الطالب الجامعي تعزى لمتغير الجنس لصالح الذكور.
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Background The spread of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) led many countries to implement lockdown measures, which resulted in changes in dietary behaviours that could persist over the long term and have associated health consequences. Psychological traits may impact these changes given their known association with dietary behaviours. We aimed to investigate in a population-based study, whether positive psychological traits were associated with changes of snacking behaviour and food consumption observed during the first COVID-19 lockdown period. Design In 2016, levels of optimism, resilience, self-esteem, satisfaction with life, mindfulness and mastery were assessed in 33,766 adults of the French NutriNet-Santé cohort. Snacking and food group consumption were assessed in April–May 202. Association between psychological traits and changes (no change, increase, decrease) in snacking and food group consumption were assessed using logistic regressions. Multiple correspondence analysis followed by ascending hierarchical classification were used to derive clusters of dietary behaviours. Covariance analyses were used to compare mean scores of psychological traits between clusters. Analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics, anxiety and depressive symptomatology. Results Participants with higher levels of optimism, resilience, self-esteem, satisfaction with life, mindfulness or mastery were less likely to change their snacking behaviour and food group consumption of various food groups. Individuals with lower levels were more likely to make changes, with either unhealthy (e.g.,less fruits and vegetables, more processed meat) or healthy (e.g., more pasta/rice (whole-grain)) changes. Overall, individuals showed higher levels of positive psychological traits in the “no change” cluster, followed by the “healthy” and the “unhealthy” cluster (all P < 0.05). Conclusions Individuals with higher levels of optimism, resilience, self-esteem, satisfaction with life, mindfulness or mastery were less impacted by the lockdown in terms of dietary behaviours.
Chapter
Mindfulness is popular, and popularity can provide challenges as well as opportunities. An important challenge that is emerging from the enormous popularity of mindfulness is that in its path to popularity it could be losing as well as gaining something of value. It could even be contended that what mindfulness is popularly seen and practiced as is not necessarily what it really is. Modern mindfulness and its relationship with Positive Psychology has emerged from ancient principles and practices that were set within life wisdom traditions including Buddhism. This deep connection with something deeper and more enduring than a modern psychological technique, or a fad, is not as popularly well known as mindfulness is. Mindfulness as practiced within ancient life wisdom traditions wasn’t a quick mind fix or even a slow one, it was a life practice within a life wisdom system—enabling full awareness of reality as it is, now, and full acceptance of this reality. This wasn’t a method for imagining waterfalls or otherwise attempting to improve on reality as it is, whatever it is, and this wasn’t presented within a positive psychological paradigm that can inspire an unrealistic belief in the power of positivity. This chapter will explore what mindfulness really was and is and how real mindfulness can be far more life helpful than its distortions are, even though extracting mindfulness from its enduring context and presenting it as a new and independent panacea has made it enormously popular. A key aim of this chapter is to help develop or return understanding of what real mindfulness is, how this is different from what most people think it is, and how it can be fully benefitted from—practically as well as theoretically.
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This study explores whether, and how, mindfulness mediates the relationship between spiritual leadership and human engineering. Based on data from a sample of 335 members of faculty and administrative staff from Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University in Saudi Arabia, the paper provides insights into how mindfulness affects the relationship between spiritual leadership and human engineering. The authors believe that it is the first time that mindfulness as a mediator in this relationship has been studied. They also believe that it is the first time such a study has been conducted in an Arab environment. By studying the relationship between spiritual leadership and human engineering, and by studying mindfulness as a mediating variable in this relationship in a non‐Western environment, the study expands the external validity of the notions of spiritual leadership and human engineering. The results indicate a significant relationship between spiritual leadership and human engineering, and show that mindfulness has an indirect effect on this relationship. The article highlights the implications for dealing with stress in the work environment by using mindfulness as a driver for developing spiritual leadership, as well as understanding and practicing the values of spiritual leadership in promoting spirituality.
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Perceptions of organizational politics and innovation have been widely studied. However, their relationship is not well understood. Drawing on the social exchange and conservation of resources theories, this study examined their relationship and explored the mediating role of knowledge-sharing hostility and the moderating role of mindfulness. Data were collected through a time-lagged and multi-source survey that included 239 employees and their supervisors. Hierarchical multiple regression and bootstrap analyses were performed to test our hypotheses. The results showed that knowledge-sharing hostility mediated the relationship between the perception of organizational politics and innovative behavior. Moreover, mindfulness moderated both processes with which perception of organizational politics directly and, through knowledge-sharing hostility, indirectly related to innovative behavior. Managers are advised to formulate and adhere to clear regulations and policies to reduce their perception of organizational politics. They can also offer mindfulness training programs to buffer the detrimental effect of the perception of organizational politics.
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Objectives : Emotion dysregulation plays a role in the development and maintenance of psychopathology. Given the higher rates of mood disturbances in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), there is a need to explore the relationships between metrics of emotion dysregulation and potential protective traits. Mindfulness, a multi-faceted trait characteristic reflecting present moment awareness, is one such trait showing promise for positive associations with affective health. The current project assessed the relationship between trait mindfulness, the use of emotion regulation strategies during an emotionally evocative task, and depression in PwMS. Methods : Sixty-one PwMS completed a worry/rumination induction task that examined emotion regulation strategy use in response to emotionally evocative stimuli. Results : Higher trait mindfulness was associated with both lower symptoms of depression and greater employment of acceptance-based strategies following worry and rumination inductions. Acceptance use mediated the relationship between trait mindfulness and symptoms of depression. Conclusions : Our results suggest that the association between trait mindfulness and emotion dysregulation extends to the use of emotion regulation strategies during an emotionally evocative task. Additionally, emotion regulation strategy use, and acceptance in particular, may play a role in the relationship between trait mindfulness and depression. These findings suggest that increasing levels of mindfulness through clinical interventions may present a path toward improving emotion regulation, and by extension, reducing the symptoms of depression in PwMS.
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A Monte Carlo study compared 14 methods to test the statistical significance of the intervening variable effect. An intervening variable (mediator) transmits the effect of an independent variable to a dependent variable. The commonly used R. M. Baron and D. A. Kenny (1986) approach has low statistical power. Two methods based on the distribution of the product and 2 difference-in-coefficients methods have the most accurate Type I error rates and greatest statistical power except in 1 important case in which Type I error rates are too high. The best balance of Type I error and statistical power across all cases is the test of the joint significance of the two effects comprising the intervening variable effect.
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators. (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Preparation for the role of therapist can occur on both professional and personal levels. Research has found that therapists are at risk for occupationally related psychological problems. It follows that self-care may be a useful complement to the professional training of future therapists. The present study examined the effects of one approach to self-care, Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), for therapists in training. Using a prospective, cohort-controlled design, the study found participants in the MBSR program reported significant declines in stress, negative affect, rumination, state and trait anxiety, and significant increases in positive affect and self-compassion. Further, MBSR participation was associated with increases in mindfulness, and this enhancement was related to several of the beneficial effects of MBSR participation. Discussion highlights the potential for future research addressing the mental health needs of therapists and therapist trainees. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The primary purpose of this paper is to review recent research examining the beneficial effects of optimism on psychological and physical well-being. The review focuses on research that is longitudinal or prospective in design. Potential mechanisms are also identified whereby the beneficial effects of optimism are produced, focusing in particular on how optimism may lead a person to cope more adaptively with stress. The paper closes with a brief consideration of the similarities and differences between our own theoretical approach and several related approaches that have been taken by others.
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The present paper offers a re-analysis of the COPE questionnaire [Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F. & Weintraub, J. J. (1989). Assessing coping strategies: a theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 267–283], based on analyses of the responses of 587 National Health Service employees. The data were analysed both by items and by sub-scales, and used more appropriate factoring techniques. Results showed a clear three-factor structure involving rational, emotion-focused and avoidance coping, which was similar to other recent coping scales such as the Multidimensional Coping Inventory [MCI — Endler, N. S. & Parker, D. A. (1990). Multidimensional assessment of coping: a critical evaluation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 844–854] and the Coping Styles Questionnaire [CSQ — Roger, D., Jarvis, G. & Najarian, B. (1993). Detachment and coping: the construction and validation of a new scale for measuring coping strategies. Personality and Individual Differences, 15, 619–626]. However, the analyses also showed that the apparent similarities between the COPE, MCI and CSQ may mask significant underlying differences, which have important implications for the way in which coping is assessed. In a further analysis, radial parcel analysis [Cattell, R. B. & Burdsal, C. A. (1975). The radial parcel double factoring design: a solution to the item-vs-parcel controversy. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 10, 165–191] was used in an attempt to force the COPE questions into the original 13 four-item sub-scales, but this failed. A new scoring key is proposed.
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We developed a multidimensional coping inventory to assess the different ways in which people respond to stress. Five scales (of four items each) measure conceptually distinct aspects of problem-focused coping (active coping, planning, suppression of competing activities, restraint coping, seeking of instrumental social support); five scales measure aspects of what might be viewed as emotional-focused coping (seeking of emotional social support, positive reinterpretation, acceptance, denial, turning to religion); and three scales measure coping responses that arguably are less useful (focus on and venting of emotions, behavioral disengagement, mental disengagement). Study 1 reports the development of scale items. Study 2 reports correlations between the various coping scales and several theoretically relevant personality measures in an effort to provide preliminary information about the inventory's convergent and discriminant validity. Study 3 uses the inventory to assess coping responses among a group of undergraduates who were attempting to cope with a specific stressful episode. This study also allowed an initial examination of associations between dispositional and situational coping tendencies.
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In this study we examined the relation between personality factors (mastery and interpersonal trust), primary appraisal (the stakes a person has in a stressful encounter), secondary appraisal (options for coping), eight forms of problem- and emotion-focused coping, and somatic health status and psychological symptoms in a sample of 150 community-residing adults. Appraisal and coping processes should be characterized by a moderate degree of stability across stressful encounters for them to have an effect on somatic health status and psychological symptoms. These processes were assessed in five different stressful situations that subjects experienced in their day-to-day lives. Certain processes (e.g., secondary appraisal) were highly variable, whereas others (e.g., emotion-focused forms of coping) were moderately stable. We entered mastery and interpersonal trust, and primary appraisal and coping variables (aggregated over five occasions), into regression analyses of somatic health status and psychological symptoms. The variables did not explain a significant amount of the variance in somatic health status, but they did explain a significant amount of the variance in psychological symptoms. The pattern of relations indicated that certain variables were positively associated and others negatively associated with symptoms.
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators.
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Discriminative facility was proposed as a cognitive process and need for closure was proposed as a motivational process underlying coping flexibility. The dual-process model posits that need for closure influences discriminative facility, which in turn modifies coping flexibility and psychological adjustment. In Study 1, results of structural equation modeling provided support for the dual-process model. This model was further examined using experimental methods (Study 2) and a prospective design (Study 3). Consistent with the dual-process model, results from all 3 studies showed that participants who were more motivated to seek alternative coping strategies tended to encode stressful situations in a more differentiated way. These individuals used a greater variety of strategies to fit different situational demands and were better adjusted.
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This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.
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The SWLS consists of 5-items that require a ratingon a 7-point Likert scale. Administration is rarely morethan a minute or 2 and can be completed by interview(including phone) or paper and pencil response. The in-strumentshouldnotbecompletedbyaproxyansweringfortheperson.Itemsofthe SWLSaresummedtocreatea total score that can range from 5 to 35.The SWLS is in the public domain. Permission isnot needed to use it. Further information regardingthe use and interpretation of the SWLS can be foundat the author’s Web site http://internal.psychology.illinois.edu/∼ediener/SWLS.html. The Web site alsoincludes links to translations of the scale into 27languages.
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This research comprised 3 studies (2 prospective and 1 short-term longitudinal) designed to investigate mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals as predictors of achievement-relevant processes prior to the undergraduate examination experience. Results from across the 3 studies were supportive of the authors' hypotheses and revealed a differential predictive pattern for each of the achievement goals. Mastery goals were linked to numerous positive processes (e.g., challenge appraisals, absorption during preparation), performance-approach goals were linked to a more limited set of positive processes (e.g., challenge appraisals, grade aspirations), and performance-avoidance goals were linked to numerous negative processes (e.g., threat appraisals, anticipatory test anxiety). Implications for the trichotomous achievement goal model and educators are discussed.
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The CES-D scale is a short self-report scale designed to measure depressive symptomatology in the general population. The items of the scale are symptoms associated with depression which have been used in previously validated longer scales. The new scale was tested in household interview surveys and in psychiatric settings. It was found to have very high internal consistency and adequate test- retest repeatability. Validity was established by pat terns of correlations with other self-report measures, by correlations with clinical ratings of depression, and by relationships with other variables which support its construct validity. Reliability, validity, and factor structure were similar across a wide variety of demographic characteristics in the general population samples tested. The scale should be a useful tool for epidemiologic studies of de pression.
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Interest in mindfulness and its enhancement has burgeoned in recent years. In this article, we discuss in detail the nature of mindfulness and its relation to other, established theories of attention and awareness in day-to-day life. We then examine theory and evidence for the role of mindfulness in curtailing negative functioning and enhancing positive outcomes in several important life domains, including mental health, physical health, behavioral regulation, and interpersonal relationships. The processes through which mindfulness is theorized to have its beneficial effects are then discussed, along with proposed directions for theoretical development and empirical research.
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In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Mood is distinguished from emotion, and mood regulation is distinguished from coping. A model of mood regulation is presented which draws on principles of control theory, which distinguishes between maximizing pleasure and minimizing psychic pain, and which emphasizes individual differences in several component subprocesses. A preliminary taxonomy of strategies and behaviors for remediating unpleasant affect is presented. Important topics for future research are discussed, including the assessment of successfulness of mood-regulation strategies, affective specificity in strategies (e.g., what works for anger might not work so well for sadness), and person specificity in strategies (e.g., socializing or helping others may be more effective strategies for extraverts than introverts). The relationship of mood regulation to overall life satisfaction and global happiness is discussed.
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Previous research has shown that dispositional optimism (M. E Scheier & C. S. Carver, 1985) is linked to both coping and adjustment but has failed to consider the potential influence of appraisals in the stress and coping process (R. S. Lazarus & S. Folkman, 1984). The present study examined the influence of optimism and appraisals on coping and psychological and physical adjustment in 726 college students. Results from correlational analyses indicated that stress-related appraisals were associated with optimism, coping, and adjustment. Comparative analyses further indicated that optimists ( n = 109) and pessimists ( n = 110) differed significantly in secondary (but not primary) appraisal, coping, and adjustment. In addition, optimism was found to add significant incremental validity in predicting adjustment, beyond what was accounted for by appraisals and coping. The implications of these findings for understanding the influence of dispositional optimism are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Discusses ecological momentary assessments (EMAs), recently developed approaches for assessing behavioral and cognitive processes in their natural settings. Four qualities define EMA methods: 1) phenomena are assessed as they occur, 2) assessments are dependent upon careful timing, 3) assessments usually involve a substantial number of repeated observations, and 4) assessments are usually made in the environment that the S typically inhabits. Phenomena for which EMAs are relevant are reviewed, particularly rapidly fluctuating processes such as affect, pain perception, and coping efforts. Issues relevant to the application of EMAs are addressed, including choice of sampling scheme. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
To examine the ability of the expectancy-based personality dimensions dispositional optimism and perceived control over stress to predict the ways in which people characteristically attempt to cope with stress, 420 undergraduate students completed the Life Orientation Test (LOT; Scheier and Carver, 1985), a measure of perceived control over stress, and the dispositional version of the COPE Inventory (Carver, Scheier and Weintraub, 1989). The results revealed a modest but reliable positive correlation between optimism and the perceived control measure. Principal-components analysis of the COPE revealed a factor structure which was generally in accord with prior research. Optimism was positively correlated with active coping and positive reinterpretation, and negatively correlated with focusing on and venting of emotion. Perceived control over stress was negatively correlated with behavioural disengagement. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.
Article
ABSTRACT The assumption that there are innate integrative or actualizing tendencies underlying personality and social development is reexamined. Rather than viewing such processes as either nonexistent or as automatic, I argue that they are dynamic and dependent upon social-contextual supports Pertaining to basic human psychological needs. To develop this viewpoint, I conceptually link the notion of integrative tendencies to specific developmental processes, namely intrinsic motivation; internalization; and emotional integration. These processes are then shown to be facilitated by conditions that fulfill psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness, and forestalled within contexts that frustrate these needs. Interactions between psychological needs and contextual supports account, in part, for the domain and situational specificity of motivation, experience, and relative integration. The meaning of psychological needs (vs. wants) is directly considered, as are the relations between concepts of integration and autonomy and those of independence, individualism, efficacy, and cognitive models of “multiple selves.”
Article
Interventions based on training in mindfulness skills are becoming increasingly popular. Mindfulness involves intentionally bringing one's attention to the internal and external experiences occurring in the present moment, and is often taught through a variety of meditation exercises. This review summarizes conceptual approaches to mind-fulness and empirical research on the utility of mindfulness-based interventions. Meta-analytic techniques were incorporated to facilitate quantification of findings and comparison across studies. Although the current empirical literature includes many methodological flaws, findings suggest that mindfulness-based interventions may be helpful in the treatment of several disorders. Methodologically sound investigations are recommended in order to clarify the utility of these interventions.
Article
In this article, we argue that emotion regulation is an essential (and traditionally underemphasized) feature of mental health. To develop this idea, we first define the terms emotion, emotion regulation, and mental health. We then chart the development of emotion regulation and describe its role in various facets of normal functioning. Next, we consider what happens when emotion becomes dysregulated in a major depressive episode. We suggest that an emotion regulatory perspective integrates diverse theoretical views of depression and has implications for the assessment, treatment, and prevention of depression. We conclude by speculating about the role of emotion regulation in the broader context of public mental health.
Article
Past research has shown that rumination exacerbates dysphoric mood whereas distraction attenuates it. This research examined whether the practice of mindfulness meditation could reduce dysphoric mood even more effectively than distraction. A dysphoric mood was induced in 139 female and 38 male participants who were then randomly assigned to a rumination, distraction, or meditation condition. As predicted, participants instructed to meditate reported significantly lower levels of negative mood than those in either of the two other conditions. Distraction was associated with a lessening of dysphoric mood when compared to rumination but was not as effective as mindfulness meditation. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Article
This study examined whether and how McCrae and Costa’s Big Five personality dimensions (N, E, O, A, and C) are associated with stress and coping processes, including cognitive appraisals, subjective reactions, use of coping strategies, and task performance. Participants were 97 male and female university undergraduates who completed an abbreviated version of the NEO-PI prior to preparing and presenting a speech to an audience. Immediately after their speeches, participants reported their emotional reactions and the coping strategies used during the task. Two independent coders rated participants’ speech task performances. Correlational analyses indicated reliable associations between the five personality dimensions and many of the study’s variables. Findings generally support previous research into the association between the Big Five and stress and coping, and provide new information about the association between the Big Five and both appraisal and performance variables.
Article
When time is limited, researchers may be faced with the choice of using an extremely brief measure of the Big-Five personality dimensions or using no measure at all. To meet the need for a very brief measure, 5 and 10-item inventories were developed and evaluated. Although somewhat inferior to standard multi-item instruments, the instruments reached adequate levels in terms of: (a) convergence with widely used Big-Five measures in self, observer, and peer reports, (b) test–retest reliability, (c) patterns of predicted external correlates, and (d) convergence between self and observer ratings. On the basis of these tests, a 10-item measure of the Big-Five dimensions is offered for situations where very short measures are needed, personality is not the primary topic of interest, or researchers can tolerate the somewhat diminished psychometric properties associated with very brief measures.
Article
In 1985 Scheier and Carver set out to begin to explore the possibility that optimism, construed as a stable personality characteristic, has implications for the manner by which people regulate their actions. They developed a scale to measure optimism, the Life Orientation Test (LOT), that has been used in several studies over the years. In this meta-analysis 56 studies were included adding up to a total number of 98 effect size estimates. Three combined estimates were obtained for measures of coping (+ 0.27), symptom reporting (− 0.23) and negative affect (− 0.43). The results from combined estimates of significance were highly significant as well as homogeneous. High fail-safe n's were also found. Combined estimates of effect sizes were, however, heterogeneous in all three estimates. Analyses were therefore repeated using the Ways of Coping Checklist for coping (+ 0.20) and the Beck Depression Inventory for negative affect (− 0.46). The effect size estimate for coping did, however, remain significantly heterogeneous. Although optimism is highly significantly associated with measures of coping, symptom reporting and negative affect, it is concluded that the most reliable association is between optimism and negative affect.
Article
Self-determination theory (SDT) maintains that an understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness. We discuss the SDT concept of needs as it relates to previous need theories, emphasizing that needs specify the necessary conditions for psychological growth, integrity, and well-being. This concept of needs leads to the hypotheses that different regulatory processes underlying goal pursuits are differentially associated with effective functioning and well-being and also that different goal contents have different relations to the quality of behavior and mental health, specifically because different regulatory processes and different goal contents are associated with differing degrees of need satisfaction. Social contexts and individual differences that support satisfaction of the basic needs facilitate natural growth processes including intrinsically motivated behavior and integration of extrinsic motivations, whereas those that forestall autonomy, competence, or relatedness are associated with poorer motivation, performance, and well-being. We also discuss the relation of the psychological needs to cultural values, evolutionary processes, and other contemporary motivation theories.
Article
The relationship of dispositional optimism, daily life stress, and domestic environment to two types of coping methods was examined in a group of 94 cancer patients. As expected, dispositional optimism and domestic environment made significant contributions to the prediction of avoidance coping. Dispositional optimism contributed significantly to the prediction of active-behavioral coping. Specifically, a significant positive relationship was obtained between active-behavioral coping and optimism. A significant positive relationship also was found between avoidance coping and both daily stress and domestic environment. Avoidance coping was negatively related to dispositional optimism. In multivariate analyses, gender and disease-related variables did not make significant contributions to the prediction of coping method. Suggestions for future research were made.