Article

Drunk Driving after the Passage of Smoking Bans in Bars

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Abstract

Using geographic variation in local and state smoke-free bar laws in the US, we observe an increase in fatal accidents involving alcohol following bans on smoking in bars that is not observed in places without bans. Although an increased accident risk might seem surprising at first, two strands of literature on consumer behavior suggest potential explanations — smokers driving longer distances to a bordering jurisdiction that allows smoking in bars and smokers driving longer distances within their jurisdiction to bars that still allow smoking, perhaps through non-compliance or outdoor seating. We find evidence consistent with both explanations. The increased miles driven by drivers wishing to smoke and drink offsets any reduction in driving from smokers choosing to stay home following a ban, resulting in increased alcohol-related accidents. This result proves durable, as we subject it to an extensive battery of robustness checks.

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... 2011) and might therefore influence (excessive) drinking behavior, hospital admissions due to alcohol intoxication, and traffic injuries. Adams and Cotti (2008), for instance, find an increase in fatal accidents involving alcohol following smoking bans in the U.S. because smokers drive longer distances to bars without smoking restrictions. Therefore, we also study (e) alcohol poising (code T51) and (f) injuries (codes V01-X59). ...
... [Insert Table 3 about here] Adams and Cotti, 2008). However, our results in Table 3 do not suggest a significant decline of alcohol poisonings or an increase in the number of injuries as a result of more car accidents. ...
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This paper studies the short‐term impact of public smoking bans on hospitalizations in Germany. It exploits the staggered implementation of smoking bans over time and across the 16 federal states along with the universe of hospitalizations from 2000 to 2008 and daily county‐level weather and pollution data. Smoking bans in bars and restaurants have been effective in preventing 1.9 hospital admissions (−2.1%) due to cardiovascular diseases per day, per 1 million population. We also find a decrease by 0.5 admissions (−6.5%) due to asthma per day, per 1 million population. The health prevention effects are more pronounced on sunny days and days with higher ambient pollution levels.
... From this perspective, anti-smoking campaigns can be considered harmful to individuals and the economy as a whole. An other Unintended counterproductive consequence of smoking restrictions are an increase of fatal traffic accidents involving alcohol following bans on smoking that is not observed in places without bans (Adams & Cotti, 2008). The increased distances driven by drivers wishing to smoke and drink offsets any reduction in driving from smokers choosing to stay home following a ban, resulting in increased alcohol-related accidents. ...
... The increased distances driven by drivers wishing to smoke and drink offsets any reduction in driving from smokers choosing to stay home following a ban, resulting in increased alcohol-related accidents. This result remained even after subjecting to an extensive battery of robustness checks (Adams & Cotti, 2008). As for europe, since the ban on smoking on january 1, 2008, Germans who smoke who buy their gasoline in Austria combine it with visiting an Austrian bar or reasturant. ...
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- Pleasure, also from smoking, contributes to the quality of life and to our health - Feelings of guilt diminish the contribution of pleasure to the quality of life and to health - The person who truely loves life enjoys his pleasures without feelings of guilt - Pure enjoyment, that is without feelings of guilt, improves health and quality of life even more - We are autonomous in the decisions whether, in what way and from what we enjoy - Abstaining from pleasure is a risk for our well-being and health
... Smoking bans can have other unintended side effects. They can increase restaurant alcohol consumption (Koksal & Wohlgenant, 2016) and the risk of alcohol-related car accidents (Adams & Cotti, 2008). Adda and Cornaglia (2010) find that tobacco control policies displace smokers from public to private places, where particularly non-smokers and children of smoking families suffer from the higher exposure to second-hand smoke. 2 Considering those previous studies suggests that not only smoking status but also individuals' time use is an important channel when analyzing the effects of public-place smoking laws on well-being, as the strength of the impact depends on how much time individuals spend in public buildings. ...
Article
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During 2007 and 2008 smoking bans were gradually implemented in all of Germany’s sixteen federal states to prohibit smoking in bars, restaurants, and dance clubs. Aimed at reducing smoking and improving health, tobacco control policies are often controversially discussed as they entail potential side effects. We exploit regional variation to identify effects of smoking bans on life satisfaction and leisure time satisfaction. Difference-in-differences estimates reveal that predicted smokers who used to visit bars regularly are less satisfied with life and leisure time, following the enforcement of a smoking ban. We show that changes in use of leisure time likely explain these findings. On the contrary, predicted non-smokers who did not visit bars and restaurants frequently benefit from the smoking bans, as their satisfaction with leisure time increases. They show an increase in hours spent on free-time activities and are more likely to go out with smoking bans in effect.
... Finally, our study also contributes to research examining the determinants of traffic fatalities and public policies which may intentionally or unintentionally affect traffic fatalities. Previous research in this literature has examined the relationship between traffic fatalities and smoking bans (Adams & Cotti, 2008), the minimum wage (Adams et al., 2012), macroeconomic conditions (Cotti & Tefft, 2011), casinos (Cotti & Walker, 2010), and cell phones (Abouk & Adams, 2013;Cheng, 2015). ...
Article
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We examine the effects of policies aimed at restricting the use of false identification to purchase alcohol on traffic fatalities involving alcohol‐impaired underage drivers. We find that the implementation of policies that incentivize alcohol retailers to adopt ID scanners reduces traffic fatalities from accidents involving 16–18 year old drivers with a BAC >0, but we do not find that similar policies like vertical ID laws lead to statistically significant changes in traffic fatalities involving underage impaired drivers. A back‐of‐the‐envelope calculation suggests that if all remaining states passed ID scanner laws, the reduction in underage alcohol‐related fatal accidents would generate over $400 million in annual economic benefits.
... However, progress in terms of reductions in road fatalities, as compared to the EU policy target formulated by the European Commission, began to diverge and stagnate in 2013, even after accounting for vehicle kilometres travelled. 2 Despite regulations that forbid car drivers from using mobile phones while driving, effective regulation has proved to be difficult, and technological progress in recent years 1 Other notable contributions include: Levitt and Porter (2001b), Adams and Cotti (2008), Jacobsen (2011), andDeAngelo andHansen (2014). ...
Article
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We provide novel evidence on the effect of smart phone use on road accidents. We exploit variation in phone usage fees in the Netherlands following a change in European Union (EU) roaming regulations implemented in 2017. The growth rate of mobile data roaming increased substantially after the change, which allows us to estimate a difference-in-differences model where non-Dutch drivers from the EU are treated, while Dutch drivers serve as control group. Our results suggest that around 10% of vehicles involved in accidents can be explained by the use of smart phones, and that these accidents mainly happen on urban roads.
... They may also spend less time at bars and restaurants and more time at home where they can smoke freely (Adda and Cornaglia, 2010). They may even be more willing to travel farther to areas without bans to go to bars and restaurants (Adams and Cotti, 2008). Thus, enacting a smoking ban may not increase the opportunity cost of smoking enough to significantly deter smokers from smoking. ...
... Brodeur (2013) employed US data and found that smokers who do not quit smoking after 1 For a comprehensive review of studies on the effects of partial and total smoking bans on second-hand smoke (in both public and private places such as cars and private homes), tobacco consumption and a number of health conditions, see Callinan et al. (2010). 2 A related strand of research has focused on the potential unintended consequences of anti-smoking interventions. Adams and Cotti (2008) found that in the US local and state public smoking bans may increase the risk of fatal car accidents due to drunk driving by leading smokers to drive longer distances to reach bars in neighbouring jurisdictions allowing them to smoke. Using biomarkers (cotinine) for tobacco intake, Adda and Cornaglia (2010) showed that by displacing smokers from public to private places, public smoking bans may increase the exposure to passive smoking of young children living with smokers. ...
Article
Recent studies on the effects of anti-smoking policies on subjective well-being present mixed results and do not account for potential externalities, especially among couples. We contribute to the literature by evaluating the impact of smoking bans on well-being externalities among smokers and non-smokers as well as couples of different types of smokers. We exploit the policy experiment provided by the timing of the UK public smoking bans and measure well-being via the GHQ. We employ matching techniques combined with flexible difference-in-differences fixed effects panel data models on data from the British Household Panel Survey. The joint use of matching with fixed effects specifications allows building more comparable treatment and control groups, producing less model-dependent results and accounting for individual-level unobserved heterogeneity. We find that public smoking bans appear to have a statistically significant short-term positive impact on the well-being of married individuals, especially among women with dependent children. These effects appear to be robust to alternative specifications and placebo tests and are discussed in the light of the economic theory and recent evidence.
... Ironically, as public expectations increase along with scientific progression, our pursuit of safety (Perrow 1999b;Wildavsky 1988) and regulation of risk sometimes lead to new and unforeseen risks (Perrow 1999a;Sagan 1993;1996). These new risks range from the global (climate change as a consequence of technological progress) to the very local: two economists recently found that when some American state and local governments banned smoking in bars, the number of fatal car accidents involving drunk drivers rose by about 13 percent (Adams and Cotti 2008). In a similar vein, a county in Virginia banned giving food to the homeless unless it was prepared in a county-approved kitchen, in an attempt to prevent food poisoning. ...
Article
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Globalization and technology have altered public fears and changed expectations of how government should make people safer. This book analyzes how Europeans and Americans perceive and regulate risk. The authors show how public fears about risk are filtered through political systems to pressure governments to insure against risk. © Lina M. Svedin, Adam Luedtke, and Thad E. Hall, 2010. All rights reserved.
... To test this hypothesis and identify the causal effect of marriage on the demand for mortgage credit we exploit the sporadic implementation of state same-sex marriage laws prior to the Obergefell v. Hodges ruling, often through court order in which the outcome and timing of ruling was unknown. Variation in timing is commonly used in the literature to estimate the causal impact of policy on economic outcomes (Autor et al. 2006;Adams and Cotti 2008). More specifically, recent work has used plausibly exogenous implementation to separately identify the causal effect of same-sex marriage on risky behavior (Dee 2008) and household dynamics like marriage, divorce, and extramarital births (Langbein and Yost 2009;Dillender 2014;Trandafir 2015). ...
Article
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Marriage for same-sex couples was only permitted in a limited number of states prior to the U.S. Supreme Court’s 2015 decision in Obergefell v. Hodges. We exploit panel variation across states prior to the Supreme Court decision to investigate the effect of marriage laws on demand for mortgage credit. Identification relies on the fact that states permitted same-sex marriage at different points in time, often through court order whereby the outcome and timing of ruling was unknown. We estimate that states permitting same-sex marriage experienced a 6–16% increase in same-sex mortgage applications after the policy was implemented. Federal recognition of marriage is associated with a stronger effect than state same-sex marriage prior to the repeal of the Defense of Marriage Act, but the effect of state-recognized marriage is also stronger than anti-discrimination policies in housing. Our findings provide important insight not only to the housing choices of same-sex households but the impact of marriage on all households.
... The non-alcohol-related fatal crashes are included to summarize time-varying attributes that influence overall crash risk across locations, e.g., gas prices, miles driven, general economic activity, highway construction, and weather patterns. This is an important independent variable, as it parsimoniously controls for both observed and unobserved characteristics that influence crash risk, and thus is expected to be positively related to fluctuations in the alcohol-impaired fatal crash rate (Adams & Cotti, 2008). ...
Article
The dissertation examines three empirical questions in the U.S. beer industry. The effect of large container consumption has been well explored in other food categories. However, its effect has been ignored in the U.S. beer industry. Although authorities have been imposing different public policies to lower negative externality of excessive alcohol consumption, statistics still clearly provide evidence related to severity of this problem. Therefore, first manuscript studies the impact of large container beer purchases on alcohol-related accidents. The study finds a statistically significant and positive relationship between large container beer purchases and alcohol-related accidents. Approximately 90% of the alcohol consumption by youth is in the form of binge drinking. Thus, second manuscript examines the impact of an unanticipated determinate of binge drinking behavior, minimum wage laws. The study finds a statistically significant and positive relationship between minimum wage increases and binge drinking among youth population. Third manuscript focuses on industry structure of the beer industry. There are many studies focusing on the impact of product variety on different outcome variables. Nonetheless, there is no study aiming to explore the impact of product depth on demand or supply side. In particular, the study examines the effect of product depth on market demand. Results suggest that an optimal product line depth for beer firms might be to provide more package size options than container size options.
... Ironically, as public expectations increase along with scientific progression, our pursuit of safety (Perrow 1999b;Wildavsky 1988) and regulation of risk sometimes lead to new and unforeseen risks (Perrow 1999a;Sagan 1993;1996). These new risks range from the global (climate change as a consequence of technological progress) to the very local: two economists recently found that when some American state and local governments banned smoking in bars, the number of fatal car accidents involving drunk drivers rose by about 13 percent (Adams and Cotti 2008). In a similar vein, a county in Virginia banned giving food to the homeless unless it was prepared in a county-approved kitchen, in an attempt to prevent food poisoning. ...
Chapter
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The previous chapter highlighted differences in perception and culture regarding risk regulation between Europeans and Americans. This chapter demonstrates how the desire to mitigate risks has been mediated by other differences between the EU and the United States—namely, differences in federalism, institutions, and interest groups—leading to divergent policy outcomes in some cases. The different institutional, federal, and lobbying schemes utilized have their roots in the general design of the political and economic systems, and, in this sense, decisions made far into the past have a great deal of influence on the specific responses to risk generated. Our focus in this chapter will be to outline some of the path-dependent outcomes and to contrast the polities of the United States and EU on three of our six hypothesized factors that influence risk regulation: federalism, institutions, and interest groups (the other three being perception, culture, and globalization). The specific cases of immigration policy, food safety, flooding, and election fraud will be examined in chapters 4–7. This chapter focuses on comparing the general institutional framework of risk regulation involving interest groups and governmental actors at the federal level.
... Ironically, as public expectations increase along with scientific progression, our pursuit of safety (Perrow 1999b;Wildavsky 1988) and regulation of risk sometimes lead to new and unforeseen risks (Perrow 1999a;Sagan 1993;1996). These new risks range from the global (climate change as a consequence of technological progress) to the very local: two economists recently found that when some American state and local governments banned smoking in bars, the number of fatal car accidents involving drunk drivers rose by about 13 percent (Adams and Cotti 2008). In a similar vein, a county in Virginia banned giving food to the homeless unless it was prepared in a county-approved kitchen, in an attempt to prevent food poisoning. ...
Chapter
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This chapter will compare European and American views of immigration, and link these views to public policy choices on both continents. It will be shown that although immigration triggers apparently universal dynamics of risk and insecurity, governing institutions in the EU and the United States mitigate these dynamics differently in producing highly divergent policy outcomes. After a brief introduction, the chapter analyzes why immigration poses a risk for publics, weighing the relative impact of instrumental (“rational”) and affective (”emotional”) factors in stoking public insecurity toward outsiders. Since both types of factors appear to drive public opinion toward “the other,” we agree with Kaufman (2001) that a synthetic theory of ethnicity and risk is needed. After laying out this theory, we then analyze the linkage between public opinion and risk regulation by officials, showing how the particular institutions of federalism in both the United States and EU shape policy responses to migratory pressures and xenophobia, often in ways that challenge the conventional wisdom.
... Ironically, as public expectations increase along with scientific progression, our pursuit of safety (Perrow 1999b;Wildavsky 1988) and regulation of risk sometimes lead to new and unforeseen risks (Perrow 1999a;Sagan 1993;1996). These new risks range from the global (climate change as a consequence of technological progress) to the very local: two economists recently found that when some American state and local governments banned smoking in bars, the number of fatal car accidents involving drunk drivers rose by about 13 percent (Adams and Cotti 2008). In a similar vein, a county in Virginia banned giving food to the homeless unless it was prepared in a county-approved kitchen, in an attempt to prevent food poisoning. ...
Chapter
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This chapter compares and contrasts European and American perceptions of risk and risk regulation. We first lay out the theoretical basis of the “risk society,” or how risk and views about risk have changed with modernity and the advancement of technology. We then highlight the importance of framing, showing how the media and other actors shape the public’s views on risk. Finally, we break down empirical data on risk perceptions in Europe and America, comparing identical questions on surveys conducted on both sides of the Atlantic. These results highlight the role of culture and framing in shaping the public’s perceptions of risk in some surprising ways.
... Ironically, as public expectations increase along with scientific progression, our pursuit of safety (Perrow 1999b;Wildavsky 1988) and regulation of risk sometimes lead to new and unforeseen risks (Perrow 1999a;Sagan 1993;1996). These new risks range from the global (climate change as a consequence of technological progress) to the very local: two economists recently found that when some American state and local governments banned smoking in bars, the number of fatal car accidents involving drunk drivers rose by about 13 percent (Adams and Cotti 2008). In a similar vein, a county in Virginia banned giving food to the homeless unless it was prepared in a county-approved kitchen, in an attempt to prevent food poisoning. ...
Chapter
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This chapter explores differing perceptions of health risks, as well as the role of experts and the state in mitigating such risks. Looking at food safety as a particular form of health risk management, this chapter examines diverging and converging trends in the EU and United States with regard to food regulation and the introduction of genetically modified (GM) foods. Food safety in America and the European Union is greatly influenced by global trade in food commodities putting pressure on governments to adapt policies that will grant consumers cheap and immediate access to exotic foods.1 Both the EU and the United States utilize their federal structures to control product access to their domestic or internal markets, but, as noted in chapter 1, considerable experimentation and testing of new food products and methods of food production is taking place at the state and member state levels. Consumer protection and the power that food producers have in the United States and the EU present different venues and conditions for monitoring food production and for consumers to make informed choices about the risks they expose themselves to.
... Ironically, as public expectations increase along with scientific progression, our pursuit of safety (Perrow 1999b;Wildavsky 1988) and regulation of risk sometimes lead to new and unforeseen risks (Perrow 1999a;Sagan 1993;1996). These new risks range from the global (climate change as a consequence of technological progress) to the very local: two economists recently found that when some American state and local governments banned smoking in bars, the number of fatal car accidents involving drunk drivers rose by about 13 percent (Adams and Cotti 2008). In a similar vein, a county in Virginia banned giving food to the homeless unless it was prepared in a county-approved kitchen, in an attempt to prevent food poisoning. ...
Chapter
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In this chapter we take a look at flooding and the management of floods as a type of environmental risk management. Floods constitute the single most frequent source of natural disasters, and the costliest type of natural disaster in the world (Center for Research on Epidemiology of Disasters 2009). As mentioned in chapter 1, the United States and the EU share many of the same societal challenges, yet they often go about managing them quite differently. Flood risks and achieving early warning across borders are two things that EU countries and the United States struggle with relatively frequently. The countries in Europe that commonly face spring runoff and flash floods have set up a rather advanced, so-called early warning system among governmental agencies tasked with water management, weather services, or disaster response in these countries. Most of the coastal United States is also flood prone, especially the southern coasts that are hit by hurricanes coming in from the Atlantic every year. Much of the Midwest in the United States is also prone to spring flooding when consistent warm temperatures create fast melting snow.
... Ironically, as public expectations increase along with scientific progression, our pursuit of safety (Perrow 1999b;Wildavsky 1988) and regulation of risk sometimes lead to new and unforeseen risks (Perrow 1999a;Sagan 1993;1996). These new risks range from the global (climate change as a consequence of technological progress) to the very local: two economists recently found that when some American state and local governments banned smoking in bars, the number of fatal car accidents involving drunk drivers rose by about 13 percent (Adams and Cotti 2008). In a similar vein, a county in Virginia banned giving food to the homeless unless it was prepared in a county-approved kitchen, in an attempt to prevent food poisoning. ...
Chapter
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This chapter demonstrates how governments take divergent paths in managing technologies and innovations that have risk associated with them. We shall see that federalism is a key factor here in pushing policy divergence, in contrast to some of the other policy areas examined in the book. In the United States, the implementation of new voting technologies and election reforms that followed the 2000 election were implemented largely in a haphazard process. States and localities often adopted new voting equipment and new election reforms without carefully testing or evaluating the implementation of these reforms. This approach contrasts with the model of reform in Europe regarding the implementation of new voting technologies and the evaluation of election reforms generally. In Europe, greater consideration is given to regulating risk through pilot testing and third-party evaluations of elections.
... Any intervention into the system of control that determines the fate of firms is likely to result in a mixed set of outcomes; such is the nature of economic regulation. For example, one unintended consequence of regulating smoking in bars has been an increase in drunk driving, as the obstinate smoker-drinker drives further to jurisdictions where bars continue to allow smoking (Adams and Cotti 2008). One of the unintended consequences of destroying harmful firms is the likelihood that the same deviant behavior that fostered them will foster new firms in their stead. ...
Article
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Organizational failure is an incomplete process because routines and norms persist through employee careers. Qualitative interviews with former employees from four newspapers and two investment banks, all of which are bankrupt or disbanded, demonstrate ongoing utilization of routines and ongoing compliance to norms despite severed connections to the failed firm. Routines are most likely to persist when they relate to low-volatility processes that do not require maintenance to ensure ongoing accessibility. Characteristics that make norms transferable are also identified. Adherence to aesthetic and pragmatic norms depends on how well they fit into new occupational contexts: uptake varies in proportion to the similarity between the failed firm and the new occupational setting of a failure survivor. Justice-oriented norms are not context-dependent; they persist regardless of post-failure employment outcomes. In fact, justice-oriented norms are found to drive the selection of new occupations as journalists seek normative consistency in their careers and some investment bankers change careers to reclaim a sense of purpose lost in banking. These observations hold whether survivors find employment in incumbent firms, entrepreneurial projects, or as freelancers. As survivors adapt work practices, their efforts constitute a form of inter-organizational innovation that generates organizational heterogeneity within unstable industries. Post-failure continuity provides an important and largely undocumented mechanism for the preservation of organizational attributes and the diversification of organizational form amidst crisis, an adaptive process that reconsiders the normative environment of a business and selectively discards assumptions about how firms ought to be. Survivors of failure often face a dilemma in deciding whether to attempt to re-create an occupational setting similar to the firm that failed or to go a different direction. This work takes up this dilemma, asking what insight business ethics research can provide for those who might wonder about the purpose of their firms. A theory of property is used to articulate a normative argument: firms should fail when they are unable to cover their debts and externalities, and firms should survive when they generate surplus value. The dissertation contributes to organizational theories of evolution, to the study of career trajectories, and to a life-cycle approach to business ethics.
... Particularly for women, the authors find that compliance with WSB's by smoking outside bars can constitute a threat to their physical safety and public image. In a related study, Adams and Cotti [14] observe an increase in accidents due to drunk driving because individuals drive long distances to bars with no smoking restrictions. WSB's may also lead to the accumulation of smoking trash, like cigarette butts and dead matches at the entrance to a workplace. ...
Article
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Background: There is substantial empirical evidence on the benefits of smoking bans; however, the unintended consequences of this anti-smoking measure have received little attention. This paper examines whether workplace smoking bans (WSB's) are associated with higher self-perceived, work-related stress among smoking workers.
... Additionally, they do not find evidence of displacement of smoking to private homes and cars. Adams and Cotti (2008) find bar smoking bans increase the rate of vehicular deaths; they attribute this effect to drivers responding to smoking bans by crossing county lines to find a bar where smoking is allowed. Using longitudinal data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study, Anger, Kvasnicka, and Siedler (2011) find no evidence that the introduction of smoke-free legislation in 2007-2008 in Germany (a country with higher smoking rates than in the United States) changed average smoking behavior within the population. ...
Article
Research objective: To estimate the effects of smoking bans on neonatal health outcomes and maternal smoking behavior during pregnancy. Data sources: Restricted-use 1991-2009 Natality Detail Files, a Clean Air Dates Table Report, and the Tax Burden of Tobacco. Study design: A quasi-experimental study using difference-in-differences estimation based on legislative history of smoking restrictions or bans by type/place/county/state level. Dependent variables included average monthly percentage of healthy neonates, of term neonates born with low and very low birth weight, of premature births, of maternal smokers, and average number of cigarettes smoked daily during pregnancy. The analyses were restricted to singleton births and those that occurred in the same county as mother's county of residence. Data collection/extraction methods: The data from three data sources were combined using Federal Information Processing Standard codes. Principal findings: Results of the overall and stratified by maternal smoking status, educational level, and age regression analyses suggested no appreciable effect of smoking bans on neonatal health. Smoking bans had also no effect on maternal smoking behavior. Conclusion: While there are health benefits to the general population from smoking bans, their effects on neonatal health outcomes and maternal smoking during pregnancy seem to be limited.
... 11 Coupling the fact that previous actual values of driver BAC's have been misreported along with the recent report Subramania (2002), which assures the accuracy of the imputation process, there should be no concern in using imputed values to determine the counts of alcohol involved fatal accidents. Additionally, this practice has become very common in the drunk driving literature (Cummings et al., 2006;Adams and Cotti, 2008;Romano et al., 2008;Williams et al., 2012). In order to ensure that IID laws are not affecting predictors of BAC, I also estimated results using previous techniques of drunk driving related research. ...
Article
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Alcohol-related fatal crashes are a costly public safety concern. Using vehicular fatality data and geographical variations across the USA, I examine the effectiveness of mandatory Ignition Interlock Programs for first time offenders in preventing fatal alcohol-related accidents. I observe that the program is most effective when it is applied to a broader cross-section of first time offenders. Specifically, states that adopt ignition interlock laws that require participation of first time offenders, with blood alcohol levels of.08 or higher, see fatal accidents involving a drunk driver decrease by 9%. The results provide evidence in support of current and future policy legislation that first time offenders should participate in ignition interlock programs, which will reduce alcohol-related fatal accidents and generate large benefits to society.
... An unintended counterproductive consequence of smoking restrictions is an increase of fatal traffic accidents involving alcohol, following bans on smoking that is not observed in places without bans. The increased distances driven by drivers who wish to smoke and drink, offsets any reduction in driving from smokers choosing to stay home following a ban, resulting in increased alcohol-related accidents (Adams & Cotti, 2008). Many Germans who smoke, buy their gasoline in Austria and combine it with visiting Austrian bars or restaurants. ...
Conference Paper
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... However, in a large-scale analysis on workplace smoking bans for the U.S., Shetty et al. (2009) do neither find any statistically significant short-term effects on mortality nor on hospital admissions for myocardial infarction. 6 Moreover, Adams and Cotti (2008) report a negative side effect of smoking bans in bars. In the U.S. where counties and states enact smoke-free bar laws, a ban in one jurisdiction led to more driving to bars in neighboring jurisdictions that allow smoking. ...
Article
Smoking bans have been prominent in recent health policy with consequences for individual welfare that are controversially discussed. According to traditional economics, bans constrain smokers in their habits what makes them worse off, while non-smoker are better off due to the protection from second-hand smoke. However, insights from psychology suggest time inconsistent smoking behavior so that bans may serve as a self-control device and benefit smokers as well. We evaluate the impact of smoking bans on subjective well-being analyzing data from the Eurobarometer for 38 European countries and regions since 2000 by applying a differences-in-differences approach. Our preliminary findings indicate that people with a low propensity to smoke report higher life satisfaction after bans are introduced.
... Ironically, as public expectations increase along with scientific progression, our pursuit of safety (Perrow 1999b;Wildavsky 1988) and regulation of risk sometimes lead to new and unforeseen risks (Perrow 1999a;Sagan 1993;1996). These new risks range from the global (climate change as a consequence of technological progress) to the very local: two economists recently found that when some American state and local governments banned smoking in bars, the number of fatal car accidents involving drunk drivers rose by about 13 percent (Adams and Cotti 2008). In a similar vein, a county in Virginia banned giving food to the homeless unless it was prepared in a county-approved kitchen, in an attempt to prevent food poisoning. ...
Book
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Globalization and technology have altered public fears and changed expectations of how government should make people safer. This book analyzes how Europeans and Americans perceive and regulate risk. The authors show how public fears about risk are filtered through political systems and subjective lenses of perception to pressure governments to insure against risk. Globalization and federalism are two forces that promote convergence between Europe and America, while culture and politics often push governments down different roads. This tension is explored in case studies dealing with four cutting-edge risk frontiers: immigration, flood control, food safety and voting technology.
Article
The effectiveness of command-and-control policies related to tobacco use has been studied in high-income countries. Still, there is limited evidence of their effects in low and middle-income countries. We explore the case of Colombia, a country that introduced a business-supported smoking ban in bars and restaurants and all public indoor spaces in 2010. This paper investigates the effect of smoking bans in bars and restaurants on smoking prevalence in Bogotá, Colombia. In this paper, we use the matching with triple-differences technique in analyzing household consumption data from the 2007 and 2011 quality of life surveys. This is done by exploiting their geographical proximity and variation in the density of commercial areas. We found that after the smoking ban implementation, smoking prevalence reduced in households near high-density commercial blocks compared to households near low-density commercial blocks (−10.8 pp.). The impact is larger for households with children and older household heads. Since households near high-density commercial blocks are more frequently exposed to smoking than households near low-density commercial blocks, the former would be more willing to internalize the smoking de-normalization process. Data availability The data underlying this article are publicly available in the Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadistica (DANE) at https://www.dane.gov.co/index.php. The required scripts can be accessed at https://github.com/androdri1/Denormalizing-smoking
Chapter
We summarize the economic research regarding the effects of tobacco control policies on smoking-related outcomes in the United States. We examine four main outcomes: (1) adult smoking behavior, (2) youth smoking behavior, (3) environmental tobacco smoke exposure, and (4) health effects from smoke exposure. We describe research advances and challenges inherent in identifying a relationship between tobacco control policies and that outcome. We end with possible directions for future research.
Article
We provide novel evidence on the effect of smartphone use on road accidents. We exploit variation in phone usage fees in the Netherlands following a change in European Union (EU) roaming regulations implemented in 2017. The growth rate of mobile data roaming increased substantially after the change, while vehicle kilometres travelled remained stable. This allows us to estimate a difference-in-differences model where non-Dutch drivers from the EU are treated, while Dutch drivers serve as control group. Our results suggest that around 10% of vehicles involved in accidents can be explained by the use of smartphones, and that these accidents mainly happen on urban roads.
Article
Using the staggered introduction of smoking bans in the German hospitality industry over 2007–2008, I find a robust 2.4 percent decline in the daily earnings of workers in bars and restaurants associated with the most comprehensive smoking ban. This effect is unlikely to be driven by a decline in hospitality revenues or hours worked but is consistent with a simple model of compensating differentials. (JEL I12, I18, J22, J31, J81, L83)
Article
Road traffic accidents mean lost productivity and medical expenditures. We explain trends in traffic accidents as a function of the political cycle using municipal data from Italy. We show that during municipal election years, the accident rate increases by 1.5%, with a 2% increase in the injury rate but no effect on the fatality rate. The effects are stronger in the quarter prior to the election quarter, when the electoral campaign is at its zenith, and in the second quarter after the election for the new elected mayor. We show that this is the result of a decrease in tickets for traffic violations (rate and revenues) during election years. Our results are robustly driven by the municipal political cycle defined in different ways, and their magnitude and direction are not explained by the spillover effects between municipalities. Proximity to a national police station reduces the impact of local elections on injury rates.
Chapter
Smoking—and increasingly, vaping—is accused of imposing unnecessary healthcare costs on society that justify a tobacco tax. But tobacco’s societal impact is more complicated than what the conventional wisdom dictates. Many of the health risks from tobacco use are overstated. While they have undeniably shorter life expectancies, tobacco users save governments money—a lot of it. Research is also clear that tobacco taxes have little to no effect on smoking. But thanks to experts and interest groups, tobacco taxes aren’t likely going away. Too many government programs cannot afford fewer smokers, nor can experts and special interest groups funded with grants from tobacco tax revenue.
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Does the tax pass-through effect go beyond borders? We use firm-level prices to analyze the incidence of a tax change on firms on different sides of a border in an industry with differentiated firms selling a homogeneous product. By using a difference-in-differences strategy, we find that firms' tax responses are consistent with predicted firms' best-responses. We show that the effect of the tax change was even greater after a politician publicly asked his fellow citizens to avoid crossing the border to buy. Besides suggesting that politicians should be more prudent, these findings highlight the importance of fiscal harmonization in areas without economic borders.
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Although there are certainly economic benefits of casinos in many jurisdictions, the growth of the industry is not without controversy. Casino opponents argue that casinos bring a variety of social problems, including increases in crime, bankruptcy, and divorce. Recently claims of casinos leading to higher drunk driving prevalence have also been noted. For example, newspaper reports often link DUI arrests and/or alcohol-related traffic fatalities to casinos that serve alcohol (e.g., Cornfield 2009; Smith 2010). Many casinos follow a “destination resort” model; they include restaurants, bars, shows, shops, and a hotel. Other casinos cater more to a local clientele. At a minimum, both types of casino typically include a bar service and casino customers often enjoy drinking alcohol while they socialize and play casino games. The fact that alcohol is readily available at many casinos suggests that casinos may, in fact, be a catalyst for increased drunk driving and hence, increased alcohol-related traffic fatalities. However, a more detailed look at the possible impact of casinos on drunken driving behavior demonstrates that there could be an inverse relationship between casinos and drunk driving under the right circumstances. Regardless, we are aware of no previous study that rigorously examines the possibility of such a link.
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This paper uses unconditional quantile regression to estimate whether smokers' responses to tobacco control policies change across the distribution of smoking levels. I measure smoking behavior with the number of cigarettes smoked per day and also with serum cotinine levels, a continuous biomarker of nicotine exposure, using individual-level repeated cross-section data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. I find that the cigarette taxes lead to reductions in both the number of cigarettes smoked per day and in smokers' cotinine levels. These reductions are most pronounced in the middle quantiles of both distributions in terms of marginal effects, but most pronounced in the lower quantiles in terms of tax elasticities. I do not find that higher cigarette taxes lead to statistically significant changes in the amount of nicotine smokers ingest from each cigarette. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The Turkey Urbanization Review chronicles Turkey's remarkable experience in managing rapid urbanization over the past several decades. It delves into the policy and institutional measures adopted and adjustments made to promote urbanization in ways that promoted agglomeration economies. Notable in the findings is the emergence of secondary cities within a broader system of cities and the factors that figured into their rise demographically and economically. The report also frames a second generation urban development agenda that anticipates the need to manage urban growth, assures adequate financing for municipalities, and explores different institutional mechanisms to support policy coordination.
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Snel, J. (2009). Effect van drooglegging?. AdFundum, Vakblad voor de Drankenbranche, 17(3):18-19, maart. Effect van drooglegging Nederlanders zijn goed in het droogleggen van poelen, plassen en watertjes. Tegelijkertijd zijn het nathalzen. Wat heel lang drooggemaakt is wordt tegenwoordig weer onder water gezet. Boeren, burgers en buitenlui protesteren wel, maar de overheid beschikt en beslist; Nederland moet natter. Zoals het met de strijd tegen water is gegaan en gaat zo gaat het ook met de strijd tegen alcohol. Na de grote drooglegging van 1923 tot 1930 werd van overheidswege besloten dat alcohol weer toegestaan moest worden. De droog staande nathalzen kwamen weer aan hun trekken. Overeenkomstige maatregelen om de alcoholconsumptie in te beperken of te bemoeilijken worden aangetroffen in landen die alcohol weliswaar mondjesmaat toestaan, maar toch het liefst zouden zien dat alcohol achter slot en grendel wordt gezet. Wel erg hypocriet, omdat de alcoholaccijnzen en de BTW toch een aardige duit in het overheidszakje moeten opleveren. Staatsdrankwinkels, zoals Vinmonopoliet in Noorwegen en Systembolaget in Zweden zijn de bekende voorbeelden van het monopolie op drank. In Noorwegen is de verkoop van alcoholische dranken met meer dan 4,75% alcohol exclusief voorbehouden aan Vinmonopoliet. Bier kan in andere winkels verkocht worden, mits ze een gemeentelijke licentie hebben. Daarnaast zijn er beperkingen wat betreft de uren en dagen waarop alcoholische drankje kunnen worden verkocht (niet buiten schooltijd), zijn er leeftijdsbeperkingen en voorwaarden aan de manier waarop alcohol geschonken wordt. Niet in het openbaar en altijd verborgen in kleurloze verpakkingen, zoals de Amerikanen met hun fles in bruine zakken. Alcoholreclames zijn verboden. Volgens de overheidsstatistieken werkt het systeem prima. Officieel wort per hoofd van de bevolking ongeveer 4,4 liter alcohol per jaar geconsumeerd tegen 9,4 per persoon in de Europese unie. Ook zegt men dat de Noorse burger gezonder en verstandiger met alcohol omgaat.Volgens de voorstanders van het staatsdrankmonopolie is er een trend naar meer wijn en minder sterke drank, is er sprake van meer gematigd drinken en zijn er minder zuipfeesten in het weekeinde. Of het allemaal zo rooskleurig is valt te bezien. Volgens statistici wordt in de officiële consumptiecijfers die gebaseerd zijn op de verkoop in de staatsdrankwinkels geen rekening gehouden met thuis gebrouwen drankjes en de forse hoeveelheden drank die illegaal het land in worden gesmokkeld. Die drank komt met name uit de buurlanden Zweden e Denemarken waar de alcoholprijzen voor de Noorse innemers relatief laag zijn. Het Zweedse staatsdrankmonopolie is evenmin wars van hypocrisie. De enige reden van bestaan zou zijn alcohol te verkopen op verantwoordelijke wijze, zonder winstoogmerk. Het BTW-tarief is 25% met Denemarken en Hongarije het hoogste in europa. De Accijnzen per 100 liter alcohol uit drank liggen in Zweden op 13.000 €, in Noorwegen op een kleine 20.000 € en in Nederland op een kleine 3500 €. Geen kattenpis, maar zal het opleggen van beperkingen nu echt van invloed zijn op de alcoholconsumptie? Recentelijk nog heeft het Zweedse conservatieve parlementslid Anderson als roepende in de droge woestijn opgeroepen om het Zweedse alcoholbeleid te herzien. Zijn argument is dat veel van de maatregelen om misbruik van alcohol tegen te gaan niet werken. Als de Zweden toch al meer alcohol consumeren door goedkopere ingevoerde sterke drank en in de keukenkast hun eigen drankjes maken kunnen net zo goed de accijnzen op alcohol verlaagd worden om de Zweden te overreden hun drankje alleen van Systembolaget te betrekken. Die oproep kost de schatkist geld en zal dus niet plaatsvinden. Droog Het Amerikaanse Nationaal Economisch Onderzoeksbureau onderzocht welke invloed de Grote Drooglegging uit de jaren 30 had op de alcohol consumptie. De grote conclusie is dat rekening houdend met een aantal factoren zoals leeftijdsopbouw van de bevolking, het aantal mensen met leverziekten, accijnzen, de mate van bestraffing, verboden op drugs de Drooglegging maar heel weinig effect had op de alcoholconsumptie en zelfs mogelijk stimuleerde. Dat de strikte Drooglegging praktisch geen effect had op de alcoholconsumptie zal daarom minder gelden voor minder drastische beperkingen zoals in Zweden en Noorwegen en nog minder voor de beperkingen die we in Nederland kennen. Voor de conclusie dat restricties op alcoholconsumptie zo weinig effect sorteren worden een paar verklaringen aangevoerd. De vraag naar alcohol zou betrekkelijk constant zijn, hoewel veel onderzoeken dat niet vonden. Er zou sprake kunnen zijn van het verboden vruchteffect, waardoor de voorkeur voor alcohol juist toeneemt wat de verminderde vraag door hogere prijzen of andere restricties meer dan compenseert. Een andere verklaring is dat totale Drooglegging of andere restricties de alcoholprijs niet doen toenemen omdat liefhebbers van een natje kiezen voor andere en goedkopere drankjes, deze betrekken van handelaren die accijnzen weten te omzeilen, geen advertentiekosten en dure winkels hebben, thuis hun eigen brouwseltjes maken of de grens overwippen om alcohol in te slaan of daar te verorberen. Wat het laatste betreft een kleine 40.000 verkeersongevallen waar alcohol bij betrokken is werden onderzocht tussen 1991 en 1997 in Kentucky in de VS. Deze staat is verdeeld in districten (counties) met hun eigen alcoholwetgeving. Er zijn districten met een stringente alcoholwetgeving ('droge' districten) en een lossere wetgeving ('natte' districten). Het bleek dat meer inwoners uit droge districten waren betrokken bij deze ongevallen dan die uit natte districten. De reden was dat ze meer reden (naar natte districten) om van een glaasje te genieten en dus een grotere kans hadden betrokken te raken bij verkeersongevallen. Drooglegging of andere beperkingen van alcoholconsumptie bevorderen niet vanzelfsprekend de verkeersveiligheid Roken en alcohol Ook kunnen maatregelen gericht op het veranderen van de vraag naar een bepaald product onverwachte gevolgen hebben voor de consumptie van andere producten. Meer concreet: nu het roken afneemt, neemt het alcoholgebruik toe. Marketing mensen zouden zeggen de behoefte aan genotmiddelen is door de markt gedekt. De druk op een bepaald genotmiddel leidt tot verschuiving van de vraag naar een ander genotmiddel. Van de jonge mensen rookt 18% tegen 28% in 2001. Het binge drinken onder jongeren in Engeland neemt echter fors toe. In Duitsland hetzelfde beeld. Een op de vier Duitse teenagers drinkt regelmatig overmatig. in vergelijking met een paar jaar geleden komen er twee maal zoveel tieners vanwege alcoholvergiftiging in het ziekenhuis. Nederlandse cijfers zijn overeenkomstig. Nieuwe informatie over gezondheid wordt het eerst opgepikt door de hogere sociale klassen door hun in het algemeen hogere opleiding en de makkelijker toegang tot deze informatie. Dat deze informatie de lagere klassen bereikt duurt ongeveer 10 jaar. Het
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Although such prohibitions are becoming more common, generalizations can't be made about their impact because they still are too new and too few. Scrutiny of the ban in Maryville, Mo., shows that the issues remain hazy.
Article
Nineteen states have established Za ws that make it illegal per se to drive with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.08. The controversy over extending this stricter definition throughout the nation has focused largely on whether the state Za ws have been effective at saving lives. Prior evidence on this question has been mixed as well as criticized on several methodological grounds. This study presents novel, panel-based evaluations of 0.08 BAC laws, which address the potential methodological limitations of previous studies. The results of this study indicate that 0.08 BAC laws have been effective in reducing the number of traffic fatalities, particularly among younger adults. These estimates suggest that the nationwide adoption of 0.08 BAC laws would generate substantial gains, reducing the annual count of traffic fatalities by at least 1200. (C) 2001 by the Association of Public Policy Analysis and Management.
Article
ABSTRACT ,,This paper demonstrates that the conditional negative binomial model for panel data, proposed by Hausman, Hall and Griliches (1984), is not a true fixed-effects method. This method—which has been implemented in both Stata and LIMDEP—does not, in fact, control for all stable covariates. Three alternative methods,are explored. A negative multinomial model yields the same estimator as the conditional Poisson estimator and, hence, does not provide any additional leverage for dealing with overdispersion. On the other hand, a simulation study yields good results from applying an unconditionalnegative binomial regression estimator with dummy variables to represent the fixed effects. There is no evidence for any incidental parameters bias in the coefficients, and downward bias in the standard error estimates can be easily and effectively corrected using the deviance statistic. Finally, an approximate conditional method is found to perform at about the same level as the unconditional estimator. 3
Article
New findings are presented on the effectiveness (in terms of fatal crash reductions) of state-level public policies related to drunk driving. Conventional estimates of policy effects might be biased because of the endogeneity of policies; this concern is addressed by analyzing the time pattern of policy effects with respect to the date of adoption. For the 0.08 BAC law, the results suggest that a bias upward exists, but the policy is still somewhat effective. Graduated licensing programs for young drivers and the Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) organization are also evaluated for the first time in this type of analysis. The estimated time pattern of effects for graduated licensing suggest that its effects are also overstated in conventional analyses, but the policy is still effective for young drivers. The estimates for MADD do not imply an effect, but this result could be due to the crudeness of the variable used. © 2003 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management.
Article
An important issue for commodity taxation is the extent to which changes in foreign taxes affect the extent of cross-border shopping and thereby, domestic tax revenue. We use data from Swedish municipalities to estimate how responsive alcohol sales are to foreign prices, and relate the sensitivity to the location’s distance to the border. Typical results suggest that the elasticity with respect to the foreign price is around 0.3 in the border region; moving 150 (400) km inland reduces the cross-price elasticity to 0.2 (0.1). Our estimates suggest that a recent Danish cut in the spirits tax reduced Swedish tax revenues from spirits sales by more than 2%, and that an attempt by Sweden to cut taxes in response would reduce tax revenues further.
Article
Most papers that employ Differences-in-Differences estimation (DD) use many years of data and focus on serially correlated outcomes but ignore that the resulting standard errors are inconsistent. To illustrate the severity of this issue, we randomly generate placebo laws in state-level data on female wages from the Current Population Survey. For each law, we use OLS to compute the DD estimate of its "effect" as well as the standard error of this estimate. These conventional DD standard errors severely understate the standard deviation of the estimators: we find an "effect" significant at the 5 percent level for up to 45 percent of the placebo interventions. We use Monte Carlo simulations to investigate how well existing methods help solve this problem. Econometric corrections that place a specific parametric form on the time-series process do not perform well. Bootstrap (taking into account the autocorrelation of the data) works well when the number of states is large enough. Two corrections based on asymptotic approximation of the variance-covariance matrix work well for moderate numbers of states and one correction that collapses the time series information into a "pre"-and "post"-period and explicitly takes into account the effective sample size works well even for small numbers of states.
Article
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Washington, 2000 Context. Alcohol-related crashes are a leading cause of death in the United States. Many states have passed laws to reduce the likelihood that individuals will drink and drive.Objective. To use national data to estimate the effects of selected driving while drinking laws on all fatal traffic crashes, automobile crashes, motorcycle crashes, and alcohol-related crashes for each of these vehicle categories.Design. Interrupted time series study for longitudinal data.Setting. The United States from 1980 through 1997.Participants. The population of the United States.Main outcome measure. Motor vehicle and motorcycle mortality rates during periods when the laws were in effect were compared with mortality rates during periods when the laws were not in effect; our estimates were based on comparisons within states and a pooled estimate between states over a period of 18 years.Results. There were 792,184 deaths due to traffic crashes; rate 17.4 per 100,000 person-years. During this period, an estimated 26% of fatalities were attributable to alcohol use. An estimated 49% of motorcycle fatalities were attributable to alcohol use. The incidence of alcohol-related mortality due to traffic crashes was lower during periods when BAC 0.08 g/dl per se laws were in effect 0.86 (0.83--0.88) for all motor vehicles, 0.87 (0.84--0.89) for automobiles, and 0.87 (0.79--0.95) for motorcycles The incidence of alcohol-related mortality due to traffic crashes was also lower during periods when zero tolerance laws, administrative license revocation laws, and mandatory jail sentencing for first drunk driving convictions laws were in effect; 0.88 (95% CI 0.86--0.90), 0.95 (95% CI 0.94--0.96), and 0.95 (95% CI 0.93--0.98) respectively. Allowing police to conduct sobriety checkpoints was not associated with a reduction in alcohol-related traffic crashes.Conclusion. Our results support recent policy measures that set a national level of 0.08mg/dl for BAC levels. Other policies such as administrative license revocation and zero tolerance laws are useful in reducing alcohol-related traffic deaths.
Article
We present a methodology for measuring the risks posed by drinking drivers that relies solely on readily available data on fatal crashes. The key to our identification strategy is a hidden richness inherent in two-car crashes. Drivers with alcohol in their blood are seven times more likely to cause a fatal crash; legally drunk drivers pose a risk 13 times greater than sober drivers. The externality per mile driven by a drunk driver is at least 30 cents. At current enforcement rates the punishment per arrest for drunk driving that internalizes this externality would be equivalent to a fine of $8,000.
Article
Most papers that employ Differences-in-Differences estimation (DD) use many years of data and focus on serially correlated outcomes but ignore that the resulting standard errors are inconsistent. To illustrate the severity of this issue, we randomly generate placebo laws in state-level data on female wages from the Current Population Survey. For each law, we use OLS to compute the DD estimate of its "effect" as well as the standard error of this estimate. These conventional DD standard errors severely understate the standard deviation of the estimators: we find an "effect" significant at the 5 percent level for up to 45 percent of the placebo interventions. We use Monte Carlo simulations to investigate how well existing methods help solve this problem. Econometric corrections that place a specific parametric form on the time-series process do not perform well. Bootstrap (taking into account the autocorrelation of the data) works well when the number of states is large enough. Two corrections based on asymptotic approximation of the variance-covariance matrix work well for moderate numbers of states and one correction that collapses the time series information into a "pre"- and "post"-period and explicitly takes into account the effective sample size works well even for small numbers of states. © 2004 the President and Fellows of Harvard College and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Article
A case-control study compared the natural history of cigarette smoking in alcoholic and nonalcoholic populations to determine why alcoholism and smoking are closely associated. Eighty-three percent of alcoholics were smokers compared to 34% of the nonalcoholic subjects. Compared to other children, children who later became alcoholic were more likely to become regular users of tobacco once they had tried it. Only 7% of alcoholic smokers were successful in their attempts to quit smoking compared to 49% of the nonalcoholic smokers. More research comparing the smoking cessation efforts of alcoholics and nonalcoholics is needed to confirm these findings. Alcoholism is estimated to be 10 times more common among smokers than among nonsmokers. Possible explanations for this include a susceptibility on the part of some individuals to addictive drugs in general, and/or for some individuals tobacco smoking and alcoholism are both sequelae of a propensity to behave irresponsibly.
Article
This study investigates the impact of beer taxes and a variety of alcohol-control policies on motor vehicle fatality rates. Special attention is paid to omitted variables biases resulting from failing to adequately control for grassroots efforts to reduce drunk driving, the enactment of other laws which simultaneously operate to reduce highway fatalities, and the economic conditions existing at the time the legislation is passed. In the preferred models, most of the regulations have little or no impact on traffic mortality. By contrast, higher beer taxes are associated with reductions in crash deaths and this result is relatively robust across specifications.
Article
Teen drinkers are over twice as likely as abstainers to smoke cigarettes. This empirical study provides evidence of a robust complementarity between these health behaviors by exploiting the "cross-price" effects. The results indicate that the movement away from minimum legal drinking ages of 18 reduced teen smoking participation by 3 to 5%. The corresponding instrumental variable estimates suggest that teen drinking roughly doubles the mean probability of smoking participation. Similarly, higher cigarette taxes and reductions in teen smoking are associated with a lower prevalence of teen drinking. However, the results which rely on cigarette taxes for identification are estimated imprecisely.
Article
Nicotine and alcohol are abused substances that are often used concurrently. Despite their combined usage, little is known about how they interact to produce changes in behavior and neural activity. Two experiments were conducted to identify interactions on both behavior and neural targets resulting from the co-administration of nicotine and alcohol. In Experiment 1, male C57BL/6J mice were administered saline, alcohol (2.4 g/kg, i.p.), nicotine (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or an alcohol/nicotine mixture and returned to their home cage. In Experiment 2, a higher dose of nicotine (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) was included and animals were exposed to a novel environment. Several behavioral measures were analysed during novelty exposure. Immunohistochemical detection of inducible transcription factors (c-Fos and Egr1) was used in both experiments to identify changes in neural activation. Behavioral results suggested that the drugs were interacting in the production of behaviors. In particular, alcohol produced locomotor stimulation while it suppressed counts of rearing and leaning. When co-administered, nicotine appeared to counteract the alcohol-enhanced locomotor activity. Several brain regions were observed to have altered transcription factor expression in response to the different drug treatments, including amygdalar, hippocampal and cortical subregions. In a subset of these brain areas, nicotine and alcohol counteracted one another in the expression of transcription factors. These results identify several interactive target sites within the hippocampus, extended amygdala and cortical regions. The interactions appear to be a result of antagonizing actions of nicotine and alcohol. Finally, the results suggest that the combined use of nicotine and alcohol may offset the effects of the drug administered independently.
Article
Using detailed panel data on local alcohol policy changes in Texas, this paper tests whether the effect of these changes on alcohol-related accidents depends on whether the policy change involves where the alcohol is consumed and the type of alcohol consumed. After controlling for both county and year fixed effects, we find evidence that: (i) the sale of beer and wine may actually decrease expected accidents; and (ii) the sale of higher alcohol-content liquor may present greater risk to highway safety than the sale of just beer and wine.
Article
A central parameter for evaluating tax policies is the price elasticity of demand for cigarettes. But in many countries this parameter is difficult to estimate reliably due to widespread smuggling, which significantly biases estimates using legal sales data. An excellent example is Canada, where widespread smuggling in the early 1990s, in response to large tax increases, biases upwards the response of legal cigarette sales to price. We surmount this problem through two approaches: excluding the provinces and years where smuggling was greatest; and using household level expenditure data on smoking. These two approaches yield a tightly estimated elasticity in the range of -0.45 to -0.47. We also show that the sensitivity of smoking to price is much larger among lower income Canadians. In the context of recent behavioral models of smoking, whereby higher taxes reduce unwanted smoking among price sensitive populations, this finding suggests that cigarette taxes may not be as regressive as previously suggested. Finally, we show that price increases on cigarettes do not increase, and may actually decrease, consumption of alcohol; as a result, smuggling of cigarettes may have raised consumption of alcohol as well.
Article
To estimate the contributions of five risk factors to changes in US traffic crash mortality: (1) alcohol use by drivers and pedestrians, (2) not wearing a seat belt, (3) lack of an air bag, (4) not wearing a motorcycle helmet, and (5) not wearing a bicycle helmet. Longitudinal study of deaths; attributable deaths were estimated using data from other studies. US traffic crashes in 1982-2001. People who died in a crash. Counts of deaths attributed to each risk factor, change in rates of deaths, and counts of lives saved by changes in risk factor prevalence. There were 858 741 traffic deaths during the 20 year period. Estimated deaths attributed to each factor were: (1) alcohol use, 366 606; (2) not wearing a seat belt, 259 239; (3) lack of an air bag, 31 377; (4) no motorcycle helmet, 12 095; (5) no bicycle helmet, 10 552. Over the 20 years, mortality rates attributed to each risk factor declined: alcohol by 53%; not wearing a seat belt by 49%; lack of an air bag by 17%; no motorcycle helmet by 74%; no bicycle helmet by 39%. There were 153 168 lives saved by decreased drinking and driving, 129 297 by increased use of seat belts, 4305 by increased air bag prevalence, 6475 by increased use of motorcycle helmets, and 239 by increased use of bicycle helmets. Decreased alcohol use and increased use of seat belts were associated with substantial reductions in crash mortality from 1982 through 2001. Increased presence of air bags, motorcycle helmets, and bicycle helmets were associated with smaller reductions.
Article
This article examines the effect of restrictive smoking laws on restaurants, bars, and taverns. Supporters of these laws often argue that they do not harm firms and may even raise profits. Opponents argue that owners cater to customer smoking preferences, and laws mandating specific policies will negatively impact profits. This article provides a framework for examining the distribution of effects that smoking laws exert on businesses, and demonstrates that changes in total sales or tax revenues do not provide a meaningful understanding of the economic implications because smoking laws exert different effects on different firms. The distribution of these effects is examined using data from a nationwide survey of 1,300 restaurant, bar and tavern owners. While some subsets of firms are predicted to suffer revenue declines, bars are predicted to be more than twice as likely to experience losses as restaurants. An important implication is that the increasing level of governmental restrictions on smoking in the hospitality sector could gradually impact the types of service available to the public. Copyright 2000 by Oxford University Press.
Article
While the tobacco industry is among the most substantial and successful economic enterprises, tobacco consumption kills more people than any other product. Economic analysis of tobacco product markets, particularly for cigarettes, has contributed considerable insight to debates about the industry's importance and appropriate public policy roles in grappling with health consequences of tobacco. The most significant example is the rapidly expanding and increasingly sophisticated body of research on the effects of price increases on cigarette consumption. Because excise tax is a component of price, the resultant literature has been prominent in legislative debates about taxation as a tool to discourage smoking, and has contributed theory and empirical evidence to the growing interest in modeling demand for addictive products. This chapter examines the research and several equity and efficiency concerns accompanying cigarette taxation debates. It includes economic analysis of other tobacco control policies, such as advertising restrictions, prominent in tobacco control debates. Research addressing the validity of tobacco-industry arguments that its contributions to employment, tax revenues, and trade balances are vital to economic health in states and nations is also considered, as it is the industry's principal weapon in the battle against policy measures to reduce tobacco consumption.
Article
Many communities and several states prohibit smoking in bars or restaurants. Using county-level data on employment from across the US, we find that communities where smoking is banned experience reductions in bar employment compared with counties that allow smoking. Smoking bans have a larger detrimental impact on bars in geographic areas with a high prevalence of smokers. The relative effect on restaurant employment is neutral or mildly positive. The positive effects are concentrated in areas with fewer smokers. We also find that bans have a positive effect on restaurant employment in warmer regions of the country, especially during the cooler winter months, and in the summer in colder regions. This suggests the prevalence of outdoor seating might influence the policy's effect.
Article
This paper focuses on developing and adapting statistical models of counts (non-negative integers) in the context of panel data and using them to analyze the relationship between patents and R&D expenditures. The model used is an application and generalization of the Poisson distribution to allow for independent variables; persistent individual (fixed or random) effects, and "noise" or randomness in the Poisson probability function. We apply our models to a data set previously analyzed by Pakes and Griliches using observations on 128 firms for seven years, 1968-74. Our statistical results indicate clearly that to rationalize the data, we need both a disturbance in the conditional within dimension and a different one, with a different variance, in the marginal (between) dimension. Adding firm specific variables, log book value and a scientific industry dummy, removes most of the positive correlation between the individual firm propensity to patent and its R&D intensity. The other new finding is that there is an interactive negative trend in the patents - R&D relationship, that is, firms are getting less patents from their more recent R&D investments, implying a decline in the "effectiveness" or productivity of R&D.
Article
The purpose of this note is to explain how to use standard packages to calculate heteroskedasticity and serial c orrelation consistent standard errors for within-groups estimators of a linear regression model from panel data. The within-groups estimat or is calculated as the least squares estimator in a transformed mult ivariate regression with cross-equation linear restrictions. The Whit e standard errors obtained in this way are the desired ones. Copyright 1987 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd
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