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Identity motives and cultural priming: Cultural (dis)identification in assimilative and contrastive responses

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Abstract

The present article explores whether effects of cultural primes are influenced by identity motives as well as by construct accessibility. The authors hypothesized that assimilative responses (shifting one’s judgments toward the norm of the primed culture) are driven by identification motives, whereas contrastive responses (shifting away from this norm) are driven by disidentification motives. Evidence for this claim was attained in reanalyzes of past data sets and a new study of Chinese American biculturals, using improved measures of identification and disidentification motives. Consistent with the identity-motive hypotheses, assimilative responses to American-culture primes occurred for high (but not low) identifiers with American culture, and contrastive responses to Chinese-culture primes occurred for high (but not low) disidentifiers with Chinese culture. Results disconfirmed an alternative account predicting that contrast effects hinge on trait self-consciousness. Consistent with an accessibility saturation account, judgment patterns already heightened in accessibility by the task structure were not made more likely by priming.

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... For instance, Hong et al.'s (1997) study using a sample of Westernized Chinese Biculturals in Hong Kong revealed that participants made more external attributions (a characteristically Chinese behavior) under Chinese culture priming and made more internal attributions (a characteristically Western behavior) under American culture priming. On the other hand, culture priming may also elicit a "contrast effect", in which individuals shift away from the primed culture (Benet-Martinez, Leu, Lee, & Morris, 2002;Higgins, 1996;Zou, Morris, & Benet-Martinez, 2008). For instance, the study by Zou et al. (2008) using a sample of Chinese Americans showed that those participants who disidentified with Chinese culture contrasted against Chinese culture primes by making more internal attributions (a characteristically Western behavior). ...
... On the other hand, culture priming may also elicit a "contrast effect", in which individuals shift away from the primed culture (Benet-Martinez, Leu, Lee, & Morris, 2002;Higgins, 1996;Zou, Morris, & Benet-Martinez, 2008). For instance, the study by Zou et al. (2008) using a sample of Chinese Americans showed that those participants who disidentified with Chinese culture contrasted against Chinese culture primes by making more internal attributions (a characteristically Western behavior). ...
... Culture priming studies have identified factors that may lead to qualitatively different consequences of culture priming (Benet-Martinez et al., 2002;Zou et al., 2008). proposed that the effects of culture priming may depend on the strengths of dual cultural selves. ...
Article
Cross-cultural experiences are increasingly common in people’s daily lives. To better understand the process of acculturation, this study examined how people with different cultural identities changed their personal values under different culturally primed contexts and the impact on their subjective well-being. A sample of Hong Kong university students (n = 179) who varied in their bicultural selves were randomly assigned to one of two culture priming conditions (i.e., Chinese and Western), before and after which their personal values and subjective well-being were assessed. Results showed that the values of Biculturals assimilated to both Chinese and Western culture primes, whereas the values of monoculturals became more in line with their own cultural identities by either assimilating to the primed culture that they identified with or contrasting against the primed culture that they did not. Consistent with our hypotheses, the value changes based on cultural identities were significantly related to the changes in subjective well-being. The implications of the findings for research on personal values and cross-cultural psychology are discussed.
... For example, people who view their ingroups negatively show active defiance in ingroup situations (Kibria, 2000). Zou et al. (2008) found that low BII individuals evaluate their cultures negatively and a negative orientation engendered contrast responses to cultural cues. In this sense, culturally contrastive responses can reflect cultural deviance or reactance. ...
... explicit) response measures are more receptive to cultural biases in judgment (Morris & Peng, 1994), which raises the possibility that measures of cleansing desire are impacted by cultural notions of authenticity. Considering that high BII individuals have a positive conforming orientation in cultural situations (Zou et al., 2008), their felt authenticity assessed by cleansing desires could reflect cultural beliefs about authenticity more than actual experiences, particularly after conformity priming. To avoid culturally biased responding, Study 4 assessed felt authenticity explicitly. ...
... Then, participants completed a four-item measure of Bicultural Identity Integration (BIIS-1, Cultural Conflict Scale; Benet-Martínez & Haritatos, 2005) ("I feel conflicted between the American and Asian ways of doing things," "I feel like someone moving between two cultures," I feel caught between the Asian and American cultures," "I don't feel trapped between the Asian and American cultures") on a scale of 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree). This measure is used extensively in research on the moderating effect of BII in cultural situations (Mok & Morris, 2009, 2012aZou et al., 2008). We reverse-scored the first three items and computed the average of all items to form a BII score (α = .63; ...
Article
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Bicultural individuals navigate and identify with two cultures. Biculturals differ in levels of Bicultural Identity Integration (BII)—how much their two cultural identities are combined and compatible (high BII) versus divided and conflicting (low BII). We hypothesized that during conformity in cultural ingroup contexts, biculturals with low BII feel inauthentic (being untrue to themselves), whereas biculturals with high BII feel authentic (being true to themselves). Across four experiments with Asian-Americans, expressing cultural conformity (vs. non-conformity) in Asian or American contexts produced felt inauthenticity among participants with low BII but not high BII (Studies 1–3). Felt inauthenticity was due to cultural identity threat (perceived identity exclusion) (Study 2). Activating self-kindness counteracted felt inauthenticity for low BII participants during cultural conformity (Study 3) and produced felt authenticity (Study 4). Our findings imply that responding kindly to the self makes biculturals at ease in their cultural homes, at least temporarily.
... While most culture priming studies have shown behavioral shift toward the primed cultural norm (Oyserman & Lee, 2008), the assimilation effect may give way to or co-exist with the opposite contrast effect in which behavior shifts away from the primed cultural norm (Benet-Martinez, Leu, Lee, & Morris, 2002;Bond & Cheung, 1984;Chen & Bond, 2007;C. Y. Cheng, Lee, & Benet-Martinez, 2006;Yang & Bond, 1980;Zou, Morris, & Benet-Martinez, 2008). These intriguing and apparently contradictory results call for a more nuanced appreciation of just who are the individuals that have been lumped together as "Biculturals" in the culture priming literature and, following on from this, a more comprehensive theoretical understanding covering both assimilation and contrast. ...
... Apart from bicultural identity integration, cultural identification and disidentification may also moderate the effects of culture priming (Zou et al., 2008). According to social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1986) and self-categorization theory (Turner, Hogg, Oakes, Reicher, & Wetherell, 1987), members in a social group vary in the degree of identification with that group. ...
... To test the moderating roles of cultural identification and disidentification in the effects of culture priming, Zou et al. (2008) conducted a study using Chinese American participants with varying levels of identification and disidentification with Chinese and American cultures. It was revealed that strong identifiers with American culture assimilated to American primes and made less external causal attributions, whereas strong disidentifiers with Chinese culture contrasted against Chinese primes and made less external (i.e., less Chinese like) causal attributions. ...
Article
Although culture priming research has established consistently that individuals from a bicultural background shift toward one or the other culture that has been primed (assimilation effect), the opposite contrast effect is less clear. We postulated a general explanation covering both effects in terms of the moderation due to the strength of dual cultural selves, and tested it on a sample of Westernized Chinese in Hong Kong (N = 416), whose Chinese and Western cultural selves varied in strength. To test the effects, we measured self-esteem as the dependent variable under three conditions: Chinese, Western, and neutral priming. The general expectation was that strong Chinese and Western selves would, respectively, engender assimilation to Chinese and Western priming, whereas weak Chinese and Western selves would engender contrast. The results showed that under Chinese priming, participants assimilated (lowered their self-esteem) or contrasted (raised their self-esteem) depending on their Chinese self as predicted. Similarly, Western self moderated the impact of Western priming, but only when Chinese self was strong. Implications of the current study and possible explanations for the unexpected findings are discussed.
... This known contrast between Chinese and Western cultures is useful for clearly identifying frame-switching in this study. Furthermore, numerous cultural priming studies have used samples of Chinese-American and Chinese-Canadian multiculturals (e.g., Ross, Xun, & Wilson, 2002;Zou, Morris, & Benet-Martínez, 2008) but none that we know of has used a Chinese-Australian sample. Chinese-Australians are an important and relevant demographic to study, as China is the third leading country of birth for Australian's overseas-born population (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2012). ...
... By focusing on a possible fundamental reason why some multiculturals are different to others, both cognitively and in cultural identity, we dig deeper than most prior research on multiculturals. The extant literature primarily views variation among multiculturals as being driven by cultural identity-based differences, a downstream psychological factor (e.g., Cheng et al., 2014;Cheng & Lee, 2009;Phinney & Devich-Navarro, 1997;Zou et al., 2008). This includes categorizing multiculturals by their degree of identity integration (Haritatos & Benet-Martínez, 2002), an approach that has been taken in numerous empirical studies (e.g., Cheng, Lee, & Benet-Martínez, 2006;Friedman et al., 2012;Mok & Morris, 2010). ...
... Our findings suggest that currently accepted measures of cultural orientation and identification, which derive from an acculturation view of multiculturals (e.g., Ryder, Alden, & Paulhus, 2000), may have some limitations, particularly when they are used for innate multiculturals. For instance, existing measures of cultural orientation aim to assess on a bidimensional scale the extent to which an individual is oriented to an ethnic culture and a mainstream culture respectively (e.g., Tsai et al., 2000;Zou et al., 2008). This means that existing measures reflect an a priori assumption that a multicultural individual embodies multiple distinct cultures rather than a hybrid of those cultures. ...
Article
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Why some multicultural individuals think and identify differently to others is a question that is yet to be clearly answered. We suggest that a key antecedent to psychological differences among multiculturals is early immersive culture mixing, or experiencing multiple cultures simultaneously at home while growing up. We propose that innate multiculturals (defined as individuals who have experienced early immersive culture mixing) are cognitively guided by a single hybrid cultural schema and have a hybrid cultural identity. This would make them fundamentally different from achieved multiculturals (individuals who have become multicultural in other ways), who should possess multiple distinct cultural schemas and cultural identities. A quasi-experiment indicated that, as predicted, innate multiculturals were guided by a single cultural frame with respect to attribution and locus of attention, whereas achieved multiculturals switched between different cultural frames. Innate multiculturals also reported a more integrated cultural identity than did achieved multiculturals. These findings open a new avenue in multiculturalism research, with important potential implications of early immersive culture mixing for a range of individual outcomes such as creativity.
... Bicultural identity integration (BII) refers to the degree to which people experience their two cultural identities as close and compatible versus distant and conflicting (Benet-Martínez, Leu, Lee, & Morris, 2002). Empirical evidence has shown that the cultural priming effect is contingent on the level of BII (Benet-Martínez et al., 2002;Cheng, Lee, & Benet-Martínez, 2006;Friedman, Liu, Chi, Hong, & Sung, 2012;Mok & Morris, 2009, 2013Zou, Morris, & Benet-Martinez, 2008). Bicultural individuals, such as Chinese Americans, high in BII ("compatible biculturals") are more likely to respond to cultural priming in a convergent way-showing characteristically Chinese (American) responses when primed with cues from the Chinese (American) culture. ...
... Bicultural individuals, such as Chinese Americans, high in BII ("compatible biculturals") are more likely to respond to cultural priming in a convergent way-showing characteristically Chinese (American) responses when primed with cues from the Chinese (American) culture. This is because high identification with the primed culture motivates the individual to exhibit group-prototypical behaviors and conform to the cultural norms (Zou et al., 2008). In contrast, those low in BII ("conflicted biculturals") are more likely to respond to cultural priming in a divergent manner-showing characteristically American (Chinese) responses when primed with cues from the Chinese (American) culture. ...
... In contrast, those low in BII ("conflicted biculturals") are more likely to respond to cultural priming in a divergent manner-showing characteristically American (Chinese) responses when primed with cues from the Chinese (American) culture. This is because disidentification or felt-dissimilarity with the primed culture motivates individuals to distance themselves from the culture, avoid being associated with the culture, and defy the cued norms (Mok & Morris, 2013;Zou et al., 2008). ...
Article
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The Chinese government is making unprecedented efforts to curb corruption resulting in several high-profile prosecutions involving local and foreign businesses. Accordingly, we examined the influence of national culture on the intolerance of bribery, based on the premise that bribery is more intolerable when it is committed by the actor seen as more agentic in a given culture. As predicted, Studies 1a, 1b, and 2 found that the Chinese were more intolerant of organizational bribery than individual bribery, whereas just the opposite was true among Americans. Further supporting our reasoning, Study 2 showed that these cross-cultural differences were mediated by participants’ tendencies to make internal attributions for the bribe payers’ behavior. Study 3 found that when Chinese or American culture was primed, bicultural participants showed analogous reactions, but only when they believed their two cultural identities to be compatible (rather than conflicting) with each other. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... In addition to Mael and Ashforth's (1992) scale, various unidimensional group identification measures with various social groups are developed. Examples include OI (Cheney, 1982), sports fan identification (Wann and Branscombe, 1993), national identification (Verkuyten, Yildiz, 2007), cultural identification (Zou, Morris & Benet-Martínez, 2008), and brand identification (Wolter, Brach, Cronin Jr, & Bonn, 2016). In Voelkl's (1997) study, the overall goodness of fit for the two-factor model that consisted of separate measures of belonging and valuing is not significantly better than that of the unidimensional model. ...
... 393). Several other researchers also developed unidimensional scales to measure disidentification (e.g., Silver, 2001;Ikegami, Ishida, 2007;Verkuyten, and Yildiz, 2007;Zou et al., 2008). ...
Article
This study is to test whether social identity theory can be applied to employees in the foodservice industry. Modified measures of OI and ODI using a mixed-method developed and tested and presented empirical evidence for the reliability and validity of the scales. To specify the domain of construct, the existing measures of social identification varied across studies were reviewed. A preliminary list of OI and ODI measurement scales were generated based on previous measures and data from personal interviews with foodservice workers. An expert group reviewed items and removed irrelevant and redundant ones. Also, two online surveys were conducted to validate the measurements and identify the underlying structures of the constructs. The findings of this study suggest that the final measures of OI and ODI using the categorical dimension approach are one-dimensional, reliable, and valid.
... Values and significance of certain cultural heritage are built upon common values in societies, which result in the formation of cultural identity for a community (Ferret, 1996;Zou, Morris, & Benet-Martínez, 2008). Traditional societies in traditional settlements within cultural landscapes carry their own cultural identity (Rossler, 2008). ...
... Traditional sociocultural authenticity justifies the continuation of traditional ways of life and traditional treatment of built structures (Jokilehto, 2006;Zou et al., 2008). Therefore, any society that has long-lasting traditional activities produces specific cultural settings, including landscapes, buildings, and material culture, with sociocultural values. ...
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Heritage tourism, if planned based on the needs and values of communities, can benefit both tourists and residents. In coastal areas especially, urban and industrial developments may create negative impacts on historic coastal communities and their traditional way of life. This research attempts to identify and highlight the value of coastal cultural heritage, in particular commercial fishing heritage, for the promotion of cultural tourism. This study investigates whether commercial fishing heritage can provide an authentic cultural tourism to benefit local fishing communities. Fishing communities in southeastern North Carolina are in decline due to different factors including the shortage of fish, new fishing legislation and restrictions and urban development. Therefore, their traditional environment is fading away. This research attempts to highlight the important role of fishing cultural heritage in promoting cultural tourism for sociocultural benefits. The present study examines the level of tourist interest in fishing heritage and cultural places in the four fishing towns of Varnamtown, Shallotte, Holden Beach, and Southport in Brunswick County, North Carolina.
... Given the importance of competent communication, a service employee may draw automatically on shared cultural knowledge to adapt interpersonal behaviors, making this type of service customization behavior natural and relatively effortless to enact. Shared ethnicity service encounters increase an employee's ethnic identity awareness (Stayman & Deshpandé, 1989), which increases the accessibility of the employee's knowledge of cultural norms (Zou et al., 2008) and the likelihood of behaving in culturally congruent ways. Culturally congruent behavior improves the interpersonal interaction between members of the same ethnic group through competent communication-that is, effective conduct for the group's shared cultural identity (Collier, 1988;Collier et al., 1986). ...
... Seven-point, Likert-type, multiple-item scales were used to form summative estimates of the constructs. We adapted Zou et al. (2008) four-item "American identification scale" to measure Hispanic identification strength with items such as "My Hispanic culture is important to me" and "My Hispanic cultural identity is important in reflecting who I am" (α = .88; M = 22.1, SD = 4.9). ...
Article
This research applies a service adaptation framework to examine how the interplay of employee service adaptive behaviors and customer cultural factors influence customer satisfaction. The results show that stronger ethnic identification increased the positive effect of interpersonal adaptive service (but not service offering-adaptive) behaviors and customer satisfaction. Additionally, stronger in-group favoritism expectations strengthened the positive relationship between service-offering adaptive behaviors (but not interpersonal-adaptive behavior) and satisfaction. These findings contribute to the ethnic services marketing literature by shedding light on the factors that impact customer satisfaction in shared ethnicity service encounters. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
... In another word, those who see their Chinese and American cultures as separated and conflicted (low BII) are more likely to be impacted by current events revolving around anti-Chinese sentiments. In contrast, previous studies have demonstrated how bicultural integration is responsive to priming effect and frame switching (Cheng et al., 2006;Zou et al., 2008). Therefore, students who see their Chinese and American cultures as blended and harmonious are less likely to be impacted by these events, as they can move in between the two sides more fluidly. ...
... Aside from the Sino-American political tension that this sample experienced within the given year, this study also took place in a diverse campus and a metropolitan area. Previous studies have found that BII responds to frame switching (Zou et al., 2008) and geographic location leads to different identity forming experience (Chan, 2019), individuals from a homogeneous or rural area will experience bicultural integration differently than those presented in the study. Different school settings and demographics can also induce varying effects on students' identity development and college experience. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study aimed to examine how Chinese bicultural students adjust to college using the Bicultural Integration Identity (BII) framework and the ways BII interact with other variables. Seventy-five Chinese bicultural students between the age of 18 through 35 completed an online survey assessing their BII levels, social capital, acculturative stress, and college adjustments. Using regression analysis, participants’ BII levels were a positive indicator for their college adjustment, (p = .02, r² = .13), bridging social capitals (p = .01, r² = .11), and a negative indicator for acculturative stress related to discrimination (p = .03, r² = .12). Additionally, there was a significant interaction effect between BII levels and participants’ age of arrivals in the United States. BII levels were only a positive indicator of dependent variables for participants who arrived in the United States between the ages of 6 through 17. However, BII acted as a negative indicator for participants who arrived after 18 years old. This study revealed that BII levels improve students’ adjustment to college, but only for those who arrived in the United States during middle childhood and adolescence. Possible limitations and implications on students’ identity development and college transition were discussed.
... In another word, those who see their Chinese and American cultures as separated and conflicted (low BII) are more likely to be impacted by current events revolving around anti Chinese sentiments. In contrast, previous studies have demonstrated how bicultural integration is responsive to priming effect and frame switching (Cheng et al., 2006;Zou et al., 2008). Therefore, students who see their Chinese and American cultures as blended and harmonious are less likely to be impacted by these events, as they can move in between the two sides more fluidly. ...
... Aside from the SinoAmerican political tension that this sample experienced within the given year, this study also took place in a diverse campus and a metropolitan area. Previous studies have found that BII responds to frame switching (Zou et al., 2008) and geographic location leads to different identity forming experience (Chan, 2019), individuals from a homogeneous or rural area will experience bicultural integration differently than those presented in the study. Different school settings and demographics can also induce varying effects on students' identity development and college experience. ...
Article
One hundred three students from a small liberal arts college rated statements about potential stigma associated with unmarried teen parents. After reading a scenario describing an unmarried teen couple’s pregnancy and early parenting experiences, participants indicated their level of agreement with 11 statements for either the mother or the father. Multivariate analysis of variance comparisons of the items indicated that the focus of attention was on the mother, in both positive and negative ways. Compared to unmarried teen fathers, unmarried teen mothers were seen as more sexually promiscuous, and too young to be a parent. On the other hand, mothers were also rated significantly as spending more time with their child, and assumed as more responsible. Unmarried teen fathers were seen as significantly more ambitious, whereas respondents thought it was more important for mothers to continue their education. Results reinforce the idea that unmarried teen mothers are expected to bear a disproportionate amount of the burden of care for their child. Knowledge of these results could lead to greater sensitivity toward unmarried teen parents and lend to more helpful support, which could assist them, and their children, to succeed despite their circumstances.
... This is because prior research has shown that the priming effect is stronger among individuals who value or endorse the primed concept or identity (see Hogg, 2016 for a review). For example, the research of Zou and her colleagues (Zou, Morris, & Benet-Martínez, 2008) showed that Chinese-American biculturals' personal identification with Chinese vs. American cultures determined the extent to which cultural primes (i.e., Chinese vs. ...
... However, they found that the selected principles and behavioral repertoire can vary significantly across different cultural groups. By adopting both the emic and etic perspectives, Morris et al. (2008) demonstrated that synergy may be generated to account for cultural influence on justice judgment, which could generate a better framework for capturing justice concerns in diverse organizations. The merits of using both etic and emic approaches became apparent through a research study involving an indigenous Chinese personality construct (Cheung et al., 2001). ...
Article
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This article investigates how Singaporeans’ creativity is influenced by Kiasu , an indigenous construct corresponding to fear of losing out. We examine the impact of Kiasu on creativity, both as a personal value and a shared cultural norm in four studies. Study 1 showed that Singaporeans’ Kiasu value endorsement predicts lower individual creativity. Study 2 demonstrated that this negative relationship is mediated by a self-regulatory focus on prevention. Study 3 further showed the impact of Kiasu as a personal value and a cultural norm by finding a significant three-way interaction effect of Kiasu prime, personal Kiasu value endorsement, and need for cognitive closure on participants’ creativity. Study 4 addressed the Singaporean paradox and found that Singaporeans exhibit higher creativity when primed with their multi-ethnic culture than under control conditions. However, those who associated Singapore with Kiasu lost this advantage. These findings support the situated dynamics framework of cultural influence on behavior such that values, norms, and situational cues play a role in producing a cultural pattern of creative performance. This research also has implications for how to incubate creative performance in Asian countries.
... Within biculturalism research, certain results may be understood more clearly by using a transformative rather than additive conceptualization of biculturalism. For example, biculturals differ in the way they cognitively and behaviorally react to the same cultural context, with some biculturals assimilating themselves to the salient culture and others contrasting away from that culture by adopting culturally atypical thoughts and behavior (Benet-Martínez et al., 2002;Friedman, Liu, Chi, Hong, & Sung, 2012;Mok & Morris, 2009, 2013Zou, Morris, & Benet-Martínez, 2008). This moderation effect is partly driven by individual differences in bicultural identity integration (BII), biculturals' understanding of how their two cultural identities relate (Benet-Martínez & Haritatos, 2005;Mok & Morris, 2013). ...
... In particular, low (vs. high) BII biculturals respond to cultural cues in a contrastive manner, suggesting that different identity motives underlie switching behaviors depending on the level of BII (Mok & Morris, 2013;Zou et al., 2008). BII might also influence the extent of lasting changes that result from repeated frame switching. ...
Article
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With the rise of globalization, culture mixing increasingly occurs not only between groups and individuals belonging to different cultures but also within individuals. Biculturals, or people who are part of two cultures, are a growing population that has been studied in recent years; yet, there is still much to learn about exactly how their unique experiences of negotiating their cultures affect the way they think and behave. Past research has at times relied on models of biculturalism that conceptualize biculturals’ characteristics and experiences as simply the sum of their cultures’ influences. Yet, the way biculturals negotiate their cultures may result in unique psychological and social products that go beyond the additive contributions of each culture, suggesting the need for a new transformative theory of biculturalism. In this theoretical contribution, our aims are threefold: to (a) establish the need for a transformative theory of biculturalism, (b) discuss how our new transformative theory unifies existing research on biculturals’ lived experiences, and (c) present novel hypotheses linking specific negotiation processes (i.e., hybridizing, integrating, and frame switching) to unique products within the basic psychological domains of self, motivation, and cognition.
... On the other hand, high-VI individuals can relate to either value system (modern or traditional), and contextual cues do not help them make a choice between value-related behaviors. Specifically, when high VIs are presented with value related cues (modern or classic), they will not have a clear preference for either value-related (modern vs. classic) brand (Benet-Martinez et al., 2002;Zou, Morris, & Benet-Martinez, 2008). Taken together, we expect to replicate the effect of VI in the domain of brands under different levels of contextual (modern versus traditional) cues. ...
... The results of this study support H1 and show that consumers' purchase intentions are a function of the interaction effect of VI and situational cues in the environment. The expected contrast effect was present for low-VI consumers, suggesting that the priming task deactivated the cognitive network related to a given value and increased the likelihood of purchasing a brand that is context value incongruent (Zou et al., 2008). Low-VI consumers in the context of modernism-traditionalism exerted effort to negotiate between their identities and the primes used to guide their decisions. ...
Article
In light of a growing interest in the use of retro brands, which blend modern and traditional values, this study examines the relationship between value integration (VI) of consumers (perceived degree of overlap between conflicting values) on brand related outcomes such as brand choice and brand evaluations. Three controlled experiments demonstrate that VI influences brand choice and this effect is moderated by contextual cues. Moreover, high VI consumers compared to low VI consumers evaluate retro brands more favorably. This process is explained by processing fluency. The findings of this study provide novel insights to marketers for creating successful retro brands.
... Thus, it is expected that identified group members act in the interest of the group (i.e., share more information) in information exchange. Disidentified group members, on the other hand, demonstrate anti-normative behaviour [21,30,31], and even negative behaviour that harms the group interest directly [22,23]. Therefore, it is expected that disidentified group members would be motivated to undermine the process of information exchange. ...
Article
Information exchange is a crucial process in groups, but to date, no one has systematically examined how a group member’s relationship with a group can undermine this process. The current research examined whether disidentified group members (i.e., members who have a negative relationship with their group) strategically undermine the group outcome in information exchange. Disidentification has been found to predict negative group-directed behaviour, but at the same time disidentified members run the risk of being punished or excluded from the group when displaying destructive behaviour. In three studies we expected and found that disidentified group members subtly act against the interest of the group by withholding important private information, while at the same time they keep up appearances by sharing important information that is already known by the other group members. These findings stress the importance of taking a group member’s relationship with a group into account when considering the process of information exchange.
... Disidentification has been studied from diverse fields, such as ethnic identification for first and second generations [21,[23][24][25][26][27], ethnocentrism [23,28] and gender and sexuality [29]. Literature regarding disidentification in SNS, produced few results which was a motivation for this article to contribute to the theory by extending the application of the disidentification process to the SNS context. ...
Conference Paper
The importance of the users for the survival of a social networking site is vital. For this reason, most of the research about this topic is focused about how to make the user to participate on the network. However, little has been researched about the reasons why a user would decide to close its account and leave the network for good. This research is aimed to study this phenomenon based on the Social Identity Theory, specifically the disidentification concept. The research implemented the means-end chain methodology using the data collected from in-depth interviews to 26 adults who have closed an SNS account. This data was analyzed through content analysis and using Social Network Analysis as an alternative to map the chains suggested by the means end chain methodology, as well as providing more information based on the centrality measures. The findings suggest that impression management, friendship, time management and emotional stability play a central role to take the withdrawal decision.
... Cheryan and Monin (2005) found that Asian Americans expressed greater American cultural identification when their American identities were threatened. Additionally, while bilinguals primed with a particular language or culture often exhibit culturally-congruent behaviors and judgments (i.e., assimilation), there are also cases in which bilinguals instead respond in culturally-incongruent ways, particularly if they perceive their cultural identities to be threatened or in conflict with one another (Benet-Martínez et al., 2002;Cheng et al., 2006;Zou et al., 2008). The fact that a positive association between English identification and HL experience was found for Spanish bilinguals, but not for the non-Spanish bilinguals may potentially stem from differences in Frontiers in Communication frontiersin.org . ...
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According to the 2020 U.S. Census Bureau, more than 66 million residents over the age of 5 in the United States speak a language other than English at home. Some bilinguals become dominant in the majority language that is spoken in the community as opposed to their native “heritage” language acquired at home. The objective of the current study was to uncover the predictors of language proficiency and cultural identification in different groups of heritage speakers. In our sample, heritage speakers acquired their heritage language first and English second and rated their proficiency in their heritage language lower than in English. We found that English proficiency was most reliably predicted by the duration of heritage language immersion, while heritage language proficiency was most reliably predicted by contexts of acquisition and exposure to both languages. Higher heritage language proficiency was associated with greater heritage language experience through friends and reading, less English experience through family, and later age of English acquisition. The trade-off between heritage language and English language experience was more pronounced for non-Spanish than Spanish heritage speakers. Finally, despite higher proficiency in English, cultural identification was higher with the heritage language, and was predicted by heritage language receptive proficiency and heritage language experience through family and reading. We conclude that self-reported proficiency and cultural identification differ depending on heritage speakers' native languages, as well as how the heritage language and majority language are acquired and used. Our findings highlight the importance of taking individual language history into consideration when combining different groups of heritage speakers.
... So the effects of affect could have been more consistent, had cross-role consistency been assessed in the form of feeling good vs. bad across contexts. In support of this reasoning, because affect can signal identity motives (Zou et al., 2008), it is identity conflict that predicted why some biculturals reacted contrastively to cultural primes (e.g., Mok and Morris, 2009). Similarly, the effects of cognitive representation are most likely to be observed with outcomes more tied to identity structure (Miramontez et al., 2008; Saad et al., 2013;). ...
Article
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Prior research differentiates dialectical (e.g., East Asian) from non-dialectical cultures (e.g., North American and Latino) and attributes cultural differences in self-concept consistency to naïve dialecticism. In this research, we explored the effects of managing two cultural identities on consistency within the bicultural self-concept via the role of dialectical beliefs. Because the challenge of integrating more than one culture within the self is common to biculturals of various heritage backgrounds, the effects of bicultural identity integration should not depend on whether the heritage culture is dialectical or not. In four studies across diverse groups of bicultural Canadians, we showed that having an integrated bicultural identity was associated with being more consistent across roles (Studies 1–3) and making less ambiguous self-evaluations (Study 4). Furthermore, dialectical self-beliefs mediated the effect of bicultural identity integration on self-consistency (Studies 2–4). Finally, Latino biculturals reported being more consistent across roles than did East Asian biculturals (Study 2), revealing the ethnic heritage difference between the two groups. We conclude that both the content of heritage culture and the process of integrating cultural identities influence the extent of self-consistency among biculturals. Thus, consistency within the bicultural self-concept can be understood, in part, to be a unique psychological product of bicultural experience.
... In other settings, such as, for example, Russian immigrants attending a symphony performance, a home country identity will be a positively distinct rather than threatened. This calls into question approaches that aim to measure global cultural (dis)identification assuming it is a stable individual characteristic (e.g., Zou et al., 2008). Our work also questions the use of 'cosmopolitan' in relation to managers with diverse cultural experiences as specific cultural identities became more or less salient in the context in which they were asked to play boundary-spanning roles (Doz and Wilson, 2012). ...
Article
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We examine the practice of nominating bicultural immigrants to manage knowledge-intensive projects sourced from their host to their home countries. We focus on their actions vis-à-vis global collaborators and unpack psychological processes involved. Managers in these positions have to navigate the workplace social identity threat that arises from being associated with the home country group – a lower status group in this context. How they navigate this threat shapes the way they use their bicultural competencies and authority as managers. When they embrace their home country identity, immigrant managers tend to enable knowledge-based boundary spanning through actions empowering home country collaborators, such as teaching missing competencies, connecting to important stakeholders, and soliciting input. Instead, when distancing from their home country identity, they tend to hinder collaborators by micromanaging, narrowing communication channels, and suppressing input. We develop theoretical implications for the study of global boundary spanning, bicultural managers, and workplace social identity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Participants in this study were overall more acculturated with Chinese culture (M = 3.78, SD = 0.43) than American culture (M = 3.25, SD = 0.42), t (136) = −10.31, p < 0.05, Cohen's d = −0.88, in line with past studies on biculturals that have also shown similar acculturation patterns (Tsai et al., 2000;Benet-Martínez et al., 2002;Benet-Martínez and Haritatos, 2005;Cheng et al., 2006;Miramontez et al., 2008;Zou et al., 2008). Therefore, despite the differences found in the levels of acculturation in American and Chinese cultures, the sample was bicultural due to being acculturated with both cultures to some extent. ...
Article
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Biculturals are individuals who are acculturated in two cultures and have dual identities. Due to this, many early discussions on biculturalism argued that biculturals may have divided loyalties between their two cultural backgrounds and the identities derived from these backgrounds. This view is further highlighted given historical and contemporary debate regarding immigrants in the European and American political arenas. These concerns illustrate two possibilities. First, that biculturals have a preference for their home or host culture, identifying one as the in-group to express loyalty toward and the other as the out-group. Second, biculturals may alternate between who they identify as their in-group depending upon the circumstances. In a particular cultural environment, a given bicultural may feel greater degrees of loyalty toward that culture, while feeling different loyalties when immersed in a different cultural environment. To-date, few empirical studies have examined these two questions in detail. We proposed two hypotheses: First, biculturals will express higher levels of loyalty for a specific culture if they have been exposed to a prime congruent with that culture than if they have been exposed to a prime associated with a different culture. Second, the magnitude of preferences expressed for the two cultures will differ depending on the cultural prime. We experimentally investigated this phenomenon in a sample of Chinese-Americans (N = 136) using a computer simulated soccer game between the United States and China. This simulation was selected in order to avoid the controversial nature of an immigration or cultural conflict scenario. Past research has shown that support for the sports team of a given country is a form of expressing loyalty. Participants were randomly exposed to one cultural priming condition (American, Neutral, Chinese) using commentaries recorded in different languages: English, no commentary, and Chinese. Participants were then asked to what degree they would cheer for each team. Participants expressed more likelihood to cheer for the Chinese team than for the American team. However, our results indicate that cultural priming does influence the degree to which the participants express loyalty for the Chinese team over the American team in the form of rooting behaviors.
... For example, they exhibit American behaviors when exposed to an American prime. By contrast, biculturals with low BII, motivated by disidentification, exhibit a contrast or prime-resistant pattern, shifting their behaviors and judgment away from the primed culture norms (Benet-Martínez et al., 2002;Zou, Morris, & Benet-Martínez, 2008). Thus, biculturals with high BII feel more comfortable switching between cultural contexts than biculturals with low BII. ...
Article
Today’s globalized environment exposes people to culture mixing—mixing of iconic symbols of different cultures in the same space at the same time. Findings on individuals’ exposure to culture mixing provide evidence for both exclusionary and inclusionary responses. In this article, we focus on the growing phenomenon of culture mixing of global and local symbols and artifacts. We generate a conceptual model to identify who is likely to respond in what way to the mixed cultural environment and why. To answer these questions, we build on the global acculturation model, which aims to explain individuals’ adaptation to the global environment by considering the relative strength of their local and global identities. We extend this model by considering not only the two entities’ relative strength but also their balance—the degree of symmetry between the identities’ strength. We propose that individuals with dominant (unbalanced) identity types (global or local) will exhibit negative and exclusionary responses to culture mixing, whereas individuals with balanced identity types (glocal or marginal) will exhibit positive and inclusionary responses to culture mixing. We also incorporate the concept of bicultural identity integration (BII) to suggest that individuals with high identification with both cultures (glocals) and with high BII will exhibit more inclusive responses than glocals with low BII. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... Y. Hong et al., 2000) have suggested that cultural cues, such as language, prime the activation of specific meaning systems or interpretative frames (e.g., values or identities rooted in a particular culture) and the concomitant deactivation of others. Social-psychological research suggests that at least some of this activation and deactivation of different cultural frames occurs outside of conscious awareness, although the extent of activation and deactivation can be moderated by the extent of identification or disidentification with each of the cultures involved (Zou, Morris, & Benet-Martínez, 2008). For example, presenting Chinese primes to Chinese Americans who identify with being Chinese tends to activate Chinese-based cultural responses. ...
Chapter
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This chapter reviews the construct of biculturalism, focusing on individuals with multiple cultural backgrounds. The chapter focuses on biculturalism as a heterogeneous label, and it covers several variants of biculturalism that have been studied. A number of biculturalism-related constructs are discussed, including endorsement of two or more cultural streams, cultural frame switching, bicultural identity integration, globalization based biculturalism, and triculturalism (endorsement of three or more cultural streams). Distinctions between biculturalism and triculturalism are discussed, along with consideration of situations in which more than three cultural streams may be intersecting. The chapter concludes with a section on practical implications of biculturalism and on interventions to promote biculturalism in individuals and families. Keywords: Biculturalism, acculturation, immigration, globalization, bicultural identity integration, cultural frame switching, triculturalism, multiculturalism, intervention, family
... McDonald's restaurant is a situational cue that is imbued with American cultural meaning (Chiu, Wan, Cheng, Kim, & Yang, 2010). When "culture" is experienced through such external cues rather than personally meaningful activities, people resist the cues' influence in conscious and unconscious ways (Cheng & Lee, 2009;Glaser & Banaji, 1999;Zou et al., 2008). They may be driven to disassociate from these cues to show their independence and autonomy from situational influences. ...
Article
Culture shapes the context in which body image is formed, and hence it is a critical component to consider when understanding how body image fluctuates. In this dissertation, I examine two ways culture is relevant to bicultural women. In particular I examine how culture can be experienced internally through identification and externally through cultural cues in the immediate context. With this conception of culture, I explored the relationship between culture and body image in two studies. Study 1a and Study 1b looked at the cognitive aspect of body image by examining body ideals among two types of bicultural groups, Asian American and Black American women respectively. Results from the two studies showed that cultural identity and cultural cues had opposite effects on body ideals. Cultural identification assimilated with culturally-normative body ideals. In contrast, the opposite was true for external cultural cues, exhibiting a contrast effect. Among Asian American women, identification with Asian culture was related to a thinner body ideal, but exposure to Asian cultural cues (relative to American cultural cues) was related to a thicker body ideal. Among Black American women, identification with Black culture was related to a thicker body ideal, but exposure to Black cultural cues (relative to American cultural cues) was related to a thinner body ideal. Study 2 used food as a cultural cue and examined effects of culture on an affective component of body image among Asian American women. Results showed that bicultural identity integration (BII), or perceived compatibility between two cultural identities, moderated the effects of cultural cues. Specifically, those with high BII exhibited contrasting effects, and those with low BII exhibited assimilation effects. Findings showed that the influence of culture on body ideals and body image is complex. These results have important implications both for future research on biculturalism and body image, as well as for creating interventions to improve body image among ethnic minority women in the U.S.
... Even if there is no motive of distancing with regard to an audience in the situation, it may involve mental distancing. Bicultural individuals who feel dis-identified with one of the cultures they are affiliated with are more likely to react contrastively when that culture is primed (Zou, Morris, & Benet-Martinez, 2008). Assimilative responses to primes depend on feeling "ownership" of the construct accessibility that the prime induces (i.e., feeling that it comes from their consideration of the task, Loersch & Payne, 2011). ...
Article
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This article considers the social and psychological functions that norm-based thinking and behavior provide for the individual and the collectivity. We differentiate between two types of reference groups that provide norms: peer groups versus aspirational groups. We integrate functionalist accounts by distinguishing the functions served by the norms of different reference groups, different degrees of norm moralization, and different directions of responses to norm activation.
... Complementary to cross-cultural research, scholars should engage in comparative philosophical research and analyze both Western and Eastern traditions of virtue ethics. Using cultural priming approaches (Zou et al. 2008), researchers could investigate culture-specific behaviors in specific consumption scenarios. ...
Conference Paper
This literature review systematically synthesizes studies that link consumer research to differences and similarities in virtue ethics between the East and the West, with a focus on early Chinese and ancient Greek virtue ethics. These two major traditions of virtue ethics provide principles that guide consumer behavior, and thus, they provide a background to comparatively explain and evaluate the ethical nature of consumer behavior in the East and the West. The paper first covers Eastern and Western theoretical and normative approaches of virtue ethics in the field of consumer research. The subsequent systematic literature review then synthesizes empirical works in this field. Since only a few papers take a cross-cultural consumer research perspective, one major objective of this review is to encourage scholars to pursue both theoretical and empirical cross-cultural consumer research on virtue ethics. The paper suggests fruitful directions for future research to stimulate this relatively under-researched area.
... and for har-mony between .71 and .82; Benet-Martínez & Haritatos, 2005;Chen et al., 2008;Cheng, Lee, & Benet-Martínez, 2006;Miller, Kim, & Benet-Martínez, 2011;Miramontez et al., 2008;Zou, Morris, & Benet-Martínez, 2008), the reliability of scores yielded by this instrument is not ideal. In addition, the few items assessing each component of BII likely do not adequately cover all relevant content domains of BII. 2 Thus, we sought to improve BII measurement by developing and validating a longer instrument, the Bicultural Identity Integration Scale-Version 2 (BIIS-2), in the present study. ...
Article
Full-text available
Bicultural Identity Integration (BII) is an individual difference construct that captures variations in the experience of biculturalism. Using multiple samples in a series of steps, we refined BII measurement and then tested the construct in a diverse sample of bicultural individuals. Specifically, we wrote new BII items based on qualitative data ( n = 108), examined the quality of the new measure using subject-matter experts ( n = 23) and bicultural individuals ( n = 5), and then collected validation data from bicultural college students ( n = 1049). We used exploratory factor analyses to select items and explore BIIS-2 structure with a random subset of the larger sample ( n = 600), confirmatory factor analyses to show that the factor structure fit the data well ( n = 449), and multigroup confirmatory factor analyses to demonstrate measurement invariance in two ethnic and two generational groups. Results showed that the Bicultural Identity Integration Scale—Version 2 (BIIS-2) yielded reliable and stable scores. The data also revealed interesting and important patterns of associations with theoretically relevant constructs: personality, acculturation, and psychological well-being. Additionally, structural equation models confirmed that in general, personality and acculturation variables influence individuals’ experiences with their dual cultural identities, which in turn influence adjustment, but there were interesting and important generational differences in how these variables were related. These findings lend support for the validity of BIIS-2 score interpretations; add to our understanding of the sociocultural, personality, and adjustment correlates of the bicultural experience; and have important implications for understanding the well-being of bicultural individuals.
... On the one hand, academics usually have an academic identity (Sahaym 2013), oriented to the long-term, and with the aim of publishing high-quality articles. On the other hand, they also possess an entrepreneurial identity, where short-term profitability clash with the objectives of the aforementioned academic identity (Zou et al. 2008). ...
Article
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Academic spin-offs (ASOs) are companies with a strong international vocation for two main reasons: first, they market their products and services in global market niches to profit from their high investment in R&D, characteristic of the sectors in which ASOs operate; and second, as a consequence of the international training and experience and of the international networks that the founding academic entrepreneurs of these companies tend to enjoy, derived from their scientific activity. Despite this natural tendency to internationalize, ASOs and specifically the founding academic entrepreneurs of these companies present certain difficulties in accessing resources for internationalization and in achieving credibility in foreign markets due to their university origins. Based on the resource-based view (RBV), and network theory (NT), this work proposes that the human capital, the social capital, and the psychological capital of the academic entrepreneur could compensate for these obstacles, providing key resources for the internationalization of their companies. The results contribute to the RBV, NT, and academic entrepreneurship and internationalization literature since they show that human capital, in terms of the international experience and training of the academic entrepreneur, their networks of relationships with international academic agents, and their psychological capital, are all antecedents of the internationalization of ASOs. However, the networks of academic entrepreneur relationships with international market agents appear to be irrelevant in the process of international expansion of ASOs.
... This may be especially true when the participants are bicultural or multicultural persons such as immigrants or Hong Kong Chinese (Hong et al., 2000;Hong, 2009). Furthermore, past work with the cultural priming paradigm has demonstrated that subtle but powerful cultural cues can successfully shift people's psychological processes and behavioral patterns (Hong et al., 2000;Hong and Chiu, 2001;Sui et al., 2007;Zou et al., 2008). It is thus interesting and plausible to examine the dynamic interplay of cultural change and moral concerns among Chinese young adults who are construed as traditional-modern bicultural individuals. ...
Article
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Dramatic cultural change has occurred in Mainland China over the past four decades, yet little is known about how this cultural shift impacts Chinese peoples’ moral values. The present research aims to fill this gap by examining whether Chinese traditional and modern cultures influence young adults’ moral judgments. Study 1 investigated the relation between psychological traditionality/modernity and moral concerns. Results indicated that participants who strongly endorsed Chinese traditional culture prioritize relationship concern rather than justice concern. Study 2 used the cultural priming method and tested the effects of traditional and modern icons on moral concerns. Results suggested that participants who were primed with traditional or modern or neutral icons did not give priority to relationship or justice concern. Together, our findings provide initial empirical evidence on whether Chinese traditional and modern cultures shift the moral mindsets of bicultural young Chinese among alternative (and even competing) moral codes.
... The cu-140 mulative effect of an individual's knowledge of (and adherence to) all these various expressions define what is collectively considered to be "normal" behavior. Group membership is contingent on conforming to those expectations, which then requires an individual to adapt their behavior within that context [42,43,44,45,46,34,18,47,48]. 145 Despite the diversity and variability of norms and normativity, they clearly serve to maintain cohesion of the group as well as to signal group membership. ...
... Cultural frame switching, the final bicultural negotiation process outlined by West et al. (2017), involves activating culturally relevant cognitive systems in response to situational and cultural cues (e.g., cultural images) (Hong, Morris, Chiu, & Benet-Martínez, 2000). Naturalistic experience-sampling has indicated not only that bicultural individuals frame switch in their daily lives (Doucerain, Dere, & Ryder, 2013), but also that frame-switching may represent both a conscious and an unconscious process (Zou, Morris, & Benet-Martínez, 2008). In addition, research has indicated that frame switching is affected by the degree to which individuals view their cultural identities as overlapping and compatible (Huynh et al., 2011). ...
Chapter
As a result of increases in international migration and advances in technology, there has been a surge in cross-cultural contact across the globe. This cross-cultural exposure has increased the number of bicultural individuals – people who have roots in at least two cultures. In contrast to traditional approaches, recent work has suggested that bicultural people’s identities are multifaceted, interrelated, and dynamic. Extending current models of biculturalism, the current chapter draws on Erikson’s conceptualization of identity development and relational developmental systems theory (RDST) to contextualize biculturalism as a developmental process. Towards this end, the authors begin by defining biculturalism and reviewing traditional and contemporary models of biculturalism. They then introduce the guiding principles of RDST and propose a relational model of bicultural systems. They then conclude their review by highlighting specific avenues for future research
... Third, complementary to cross-cultural research, scholars should engage in comparative philosophical research and analyze both Western and Eastern traditions of virtue ethics. Using cultural priming approaches (Zou et al. 2008), researchers could investigate culture-specific behaviors in specific consumption scenarios. ...
Article
Full-text available
This literature review systematically synthesizes studies that link consumer research to differences and similarities in virtue ethics between the East and the West, with a focus on early Chinese and ancient Greek virtue ethics. These two major traditions provide principles that guide consumer behavior and thus serve as a background to comparatively explain and evaluate the ethical nature of consumer behavior in the East and the West. The paper first covers Eastern and Western theoretical and normative approaches of virtue ethics in the field of consumer research. The subsequent systematic literature review then synthesizes empirical works in this field. Since only a few papers adopt a cross-cultural consumer research perspective, one of the main aims of this review is to encourage scholars to pursue both theoretical and empirical cross-cultural consumer research on virtue ethics. To this end, the paper closes by suggesting some fruitful directions for future research to stimulate this relatively under-researched area.
... Cultural frame switching, the final bicultural negotiation process outlined by West et al. (2017), involves activating culturally relevant cognitive systems in response to situational and cultural cues (e.g., cultural images) (Hong, Morris, Chiu, & Benet-Martínez, 2000). Naturalistic experience-sampling has indicated not only that bicultural individuals frame switch in their daily lives (Doucerain, Dere, & Ryder, 2013), but also that frame-switching may represent both a conscious and an unconscious process (Zou, Morris, & Benet-Martínez, 2008). In addition, research has indicated that frame switching is affected by the degree to which individuals view their cultural identities as overlapping and compatible (Huynh et al., 2011). ...
... For example, after being exposed to American cultural primes, Chinese-American biculturals with low BII made more prototypically Eastern external attributions; when exposed to Chinese cultural primes, they made more prototypically Western internal attributions Cheng, Lee, & Benet-Martínez, 2006. Low BIIs' cultural reactance has been observed in a wide range of psychological processes, including decision-making, self-perceptions, self-expressions, and cultural orientations Mok, Cheng, & Morris, 2010, 2012Zou, Morris, & Benet-Martínez, 2008). Across these studies, low BIIs appear to activate the "unprimed" cultural frame of reference, which in turn leads to culturally contrasting attitudes and behaviors (see Cheng et al., 2014 for a review). ...
Article
How do biculturals, or individuals who identify with more than one culture, manage their loyalties between two cultural ingroups? We argue that this process is moderated by Bicultural Identity Integration (BII), or individual differences in perceived conflict between two cultural identities. Two quasi-experiments examined biculturals’ preferences for two competing groups, each representing one of their cultural identities, in response to cultural primes. In Study 1, we found that Flemish-Belgian biculturals with low BII, or those who perceive their cultural identities as conflicting, favored the primed cultural group less than the unprimed cultural group. In Study 2, we found the same effect among Asian-American biculturals, but only when the cultural primes were positive. These findings show that low BIIs exhibit psychological reactance to cultural primes that are seen as threatening to the self, which in turn affect their loyalties to competing cultural ingroups.
... Thus, they would be relatively uninfluenced by situational primes consistent with this orientation, whereas they would respond more strongly to inconsistent primes, activating a 'new' self-construal or suppressing their 'default' one. More generally, situational primes may have more effects on aspects of self-construal with low baseline accessibility than on those with high accessibility (Gardner et al., 2002;Zou, Morris, & Benet-Martínez, 2008). To investigate this, it is necessary to include a control condition with no prime, which many self-construal priming studies did not include (Cross et al., 2011). ...
Article
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Self-construal priming was devised to mimic the effects of chronic cross-cultural differences. Primes designed to activate independent/interdependent self-construals have been found to affect numerous culturally relevant outcomes. However, researchers have rarely checked precisely what these primes activated, nor tested their cross-cultural equivalence. We compared two common priming tasks, Similarities vs. Differences with Family and Friends (SDFF) and Sumerian Warrior Story (SWS), across seven dimensions of independence/interdependence among 118 British and 178 Chinese participants. The two tasks activated different combinations of self-construal dimensions. SWS showed a similar pattern of effects across cultures, whereas SDFF more strongly affected Chinese participants. Neither manipulation closely mimicked the pattern of pre-existing cross-cultural differences between samples. We propose researchers should develop more precisely targeted self-construal primes.
Article
Education is not equally distributed across all people. It has often been found that students from low social class background have lower access to universities, less academic achievement and higher dropout rates compared with their peers (called the ‘achievement gap’). We investigate how the student social identity contributes to the emergence of the achievement gap and focus on student disidentification, a negative internalized relation to the in‐group. We predict that disidentification reduces academic performance (Hypothesis 1) and increases university dropout rates (Hypothesis 2). Moreover, we predict that social class background affects identity incompatibility which, in turn, increases student disidentification (Hypothesis 3). We explore whether social class background affects long‐term identity incompatibility, or whether identity incompatibility affects long‐term disidentification by comparing two mediation models. Hypotheses 1 and 3 were supported cross‐sectionally in a large sample (N = 2768), and longitudinally in a sub‐sample 1.5 years later (N = 591). The data demonstrate that social class background has a long‐term effect on incompatibility, which is related to disidentification. Hypothesis 2 was also supported in a (partly overlapping) sub‐sample (N = 1077). The current research demonstrates that students with low social class background suffer from identity‐related adaptation problems that affect their academic trajectories.
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In previous production literature, the uncertainty of human behaviour has been recognized as a source of productivity, quality, and safety problems. However, fundamental reasons for the uncertainty of human behavior have received little analysis in the production literature. Furthermore, potential for these fundamental reasons to be aligned with production technologies in order to improve production performance has not been addressed. By contrast, in this paper, fundamental reasons for the uncertainty of human behaviour are explained through a model of psychomotor characteristics that encompasses physiology, past experiences, personality, gender, culture, emotion, reasoning, and biocybernetics. Through reference to 10 action research cases, the formal model is applied to provide guidelines for planning production work that includes robots, exoskeletons, and augmented reality.
Article
It has often been shown that independent self-construals (emphasizing personal uniqueness) coincide with an analytic, context-independent style of information processing whereas interdependent self-construals (emphasizing relatedness with others) promote holistic, context-dependent processing. The present study suggests that these cognitive variations between different self-construals can be accounted for by higher order cognitive functions for the control of ongoing mental operations (i.e., executive functions). Using an experimental paradigm, we showed naturalistic pictures displaying a face and a place superimposed on each other. On each trial, one of these dimensions served as a target (depicted in magenta), while the other served as a distractor (depicted in gray). The results showed that independency primed participants were less affected by distractors appearing in the presence of a target (i.e., smaller interference effect) than interdependency primed participants. Importantly, the independency primed participants revealed evidence of mental inhibition of distractors, showing longer reaction times when previously ignored distractors subsequently became targets (i.e., a negatively signed priming effect). Thus, our study is the first to suggest that differences in fundamental processes of cognitive control, namely, the inhibition of automatically triggered (but inappropriate) response tendencies, are the driving force behind the many previously reported differences between individuals primed for independency versus interdependency.
Article
Bicultural individuals often must select between different responses to a task implied by their dual identities. When one identity has been situationally primed, one strategy is to assimilate to the situational demand. However, another strategy is contrastive, to express their other identity. This second strategy has been called ethnic affirmation (Yang & Bond, 1980) and cultural contrast (Mok & Morris, 2013). It has been primarily explained as a defense against perceived threat to the specific identity that is excluded. The present studies posit that contrastive responses to cultural priming also may reflect a defense of biculturals' global self-integrity. We provide the first direct test of this mechanism by examining the effect of self-affirmation on the contrastive response tendency. In two experiments that varied self-affirmation and cultural priming, non-affirmed Chinese Americans showed contrastive responses—they exhibited greater extraversion in response to Chinese primes than to American primes in Study 1 or than to neutral primes in Study 2, but this pattern was significantly attenuated among Chinese Americans who engaged in self-affirmation. Theoretical implications are discussed.
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Research suggests that customer-brand disidentification is a pertinent source for the breakdown of consumer-brand relationships and a reason why consumers turn against brands. However, practical and theoretical interest in the study of customer-brand disidentification has been hindered by the absence of a reliable scale with confirmed predictive validity. As a result, the purpose of this study is to develop, operationalize, and test a measure of customer-brand disidentification based on a theoretically valid definition. Drawing on data from six samples, as well as a thorough literature review, the authors develop and validate a scale for measuring customer-brand disidentification. Furthermore, via the application of a nomological net, the authors reveal that customer-brand disidentification is predicated on negative customer emotions after being violated by a brand in a contract breach. Various consumer-based outcomes including patronage reduction and negative word of mouth are found to be consequences of customer-brand disidentification.
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Migration flows have generally led to an increase in questions about the multiple influences on people’s cultural identity. This study aims to examine more closely the ways in which second-generation individuals of Portuguese descent juggle a two-fold cultural environment. We opted for a person-centered approach with a sample of N = 70 adults, all from Portuguese immigrant families living in the Grand-duchy of Luxembourg. Results yielded three different bicultural profiles: blended, alternating bicultural, and a new ambivalent cultural identity profile. Our results distinguish between psychological markers of identity and the behavioral aspects necessary for the transition from one cultural framework to the other. In addition, we observed different patterns of psychosocial health among the four cultural identity profiles. Our research enriches the literature by highlighting different endorsement of regulatory control strategies of second-generation adults according to their cultural identity profile, with different psychological outcomes.
Article
Purpose Workplace incivility has detrimental effects on targets of such behaviors and can lead to further conflict. This research aims to examine whether cultural differences in people’s approach to social respect and status may influence their responses to incivility displayed by superiors and subordinates. Design/methodology/approach Three studies ( n = 1043) examined how people from honor cultures (southern states of the USA; Latin America) and dignity cultures (northern states of the USA) would perceive and respond to uncivil superiors relative to uncivil subordinates. Studies 1 and 2 used scenarios; in Study 3, employed participants recalled their own incivility experiences. Findings Participants from honor cultures were more likely to perceive the mistreatment negatively if it came from a superior than a subordinate (all studies) and more likely to indicate that they would retaliate against an uncivil superior than an uncivil subordinate (Studies 1 and 3). Moreover, for participants from honor cultures (but not from dignity cultures), anger mediated the relation between the appraisal of incivility and retaliation only when the offender was a superior (all studies). Research limitations/implications This research relied on scenarios and people’s recollections, focusing on a limited range of responses to incivility. Future research should conduct laboratory experiments and examine additional responses. Nevertheless, these findings suggest that being mistreated by a superior or a subordinate has different meanings and consequences for people from diverse cultures, which can have implications for cross-cultural work interactions. Originality/value To the best of the author’s knowledge, this research is the first to compare people’s emotional and behavioral responses to uncivil superiors with their responses to uncivil subordinates in honor cultures.
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Cues in the environment can prime consumer identities, increasing adoption of behaviors consistent with the primed identity and avoidance of behaviors consistent with alternate (nonprimed) identities. Although alternate-identity avoidance is common, three studies show that priming an identity (e.g., student) can also encourage consumers to approach alternate identities (e.g., friend). When two identities are relatively easy to balance (e.g., sufficient time for both student- and friend-related activities), participants approach alternate identities that are associated with the primed identity following a cognitive process of spreading activation. However, when identities are difficult to balance, participants approach alternate identities that are dissociated from the primed identity. We argue that this reversal occurs owing to a switch from a cognitive process to a motivational process akin to that seen in multiple-goal management. Under the motivational process, priming a focal identity inhibits (activates) associated (dissociated) identities because the two are seen as (non-)substitutable with each other. The motivational process under high balance difficulty relaxes when participants can self-affirm, causing response to instead mimic the cognitive process. The resulting integrative framework introduces identity-balance difficulty and its interaction with association into identity research, uniquely highlighting the importance of multiple-identity management with implications for research and practice.
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When unethical practices occur in an organization, high-ranking individuals at the top of the hierarchy are expected to stop wrongdoing and redirect the organization to a more honorable path—this is, to engage in principled dissent. However, in three studies, we find that holding high-ranking positions makes people less likely to engage in principled dissent. Specifically, we find that high-ranking individuals identify more strongly with their organization or group, and therefore see its unethical practices as more ethical than do low-ranking individuals. High-ranking individuals thus engage less in principled dissent because they fail to see unethical practices as being wrong in the first place. Study 1 observed the relation between high-rank and principled dissent in an archival data set involving more than 11,000 employees. Studies 2 and 3 used experimental designs to establish the causal effect of rank and to show that identification is one key mechanism underlying it.
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European identity is currently facing important challenges. From the beginning, European identity has been related to the national identities of Member States with different economic strengths. The recent economic recession made these disparities salient across countries. In this research conducted in two countries with relative low status in the EU, we explored whether the perceived disparities in wealth between the countries of the EU—perceived economic inequality—predicted disidentification with Europe. We also examined the mediators of this relationship. Study 1, conducted in Spain, revealed that perceived economic inequality positively predicted disidentification with Europe; importantly, this effect remained when controlling for individuals’ subjective socioeconomic status and the perceived status of the country. The experience of fear of economic inequality in the EU mediated this relationship. The results of Study 1 were replicated comparing a Spanish sample (Study 2a) and a Greek sample (Study 2b). These studies delved deeper into the specific appraisals of fear that mediate the relationship between economic inequality and disidentification with Europe. Four categories of fear appraisals obtained in a preliminary qualitative study were measured as potential mediators: losing national sovereignty, worsening of living conditions, being negatively stereotyped, and Europe losing fundamental values. The relationship between economic inequality in the EU and disidentification with Europe was mediated by fear of losing national sovereignty and fear of Europe losing fundamental values.
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Recent years have witnessed an increase in the number of individuals who leave their nation of origin and immigrate to live in other nations. The acculturation literature has noted several issues immigrants face in their host nation. Amongst these, establishing a career is of considerable importance. However, existing career theories have been criticized for their failure to identify the antecedents and explain the mechanism which underlies immigrants' career decision making. Importantly, these theories ignore the role of social identity in this process. To this end, this paper develops an identity-centric framework to explain the manner in which immigrants' social identity influences their career decisions and provides an understanding of the psychological, sociological and cognitive mechanism that underlies this process.
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Objectives: This study aims at contrasting the effects of limited future time perspective and mortality salience on goal prioritization across adulthood. Socioemotional selectivity theory (SST) argues that people increasingly prioritize emotionally meaningful goals when they perceive future time as more limited. Terror management theory (TMT) suggests that mortality salience (i.e. the awareness of one's mortality) drives people to prioritize the goal of perpetuating own existence through affirming cultural worldview. Method: In this study, participants (N = 438) were randomly assigned to 6 conditions that primed (1) limited future time, (2) mortality salience, (3) death reflection, (4) both limited future time and mortality salience, (5) both limited future time and death reflection, or (6) none. Results: Results showed that older adults allocated significantly more resources to emotionally close recipients who supported their cultural worldviews in conditions involving future time limitation and death reflection. They also allocated less resources to emotionally not close recipients who did not support their cultural worldviews in conditions involving future time limitation. Younger adults did not show these differences. Nor did mortality salience have any effect. Discussion: These results suggest that future time perspective and death reflection shift age-related goals more than mortality salience.
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Group-based emotions are experienced as a result of group categorization and group identification. We first review the transformative idea that emotion can occur as a group-level phenomenon driven by group-level processes. We then briefly review the impact of this idea on research about intragroup processes and intergroup relations in the decades since 1998. We conclude by raising some questions whose answers would further extend the reach and predictive power of group-based emotions in both intragroup and intergroup contexts.
Thesis
Die vorliegende Dissertation analysiert das Integrationsverhalten der chinesischen Zuwanderer in Deutschland durch eine Fallstudie in einer neuen Perspektive: Die Chinesen in Deutschland rekonstruieren die chinesische Identität für ihre Kinder durch das Erlernen des Chinesischen, damit sie in Deutschland besser anerkannt wer-den und sich integrieren können. Im kurzen Wort: Die Eltern lassen ihre Kinder lernen, Chinesen zu werden, damit sie in Deutschland besser leben können. Ihre sorgfältig organisierte und rekonstruierte ethnische Identi-tät, als das Produkt der Integrationsstrategie, wirkt als der Hebel zwischen ihren beiden lebendigen Welten, damit sie ihre Chancen vor allem in Deutschland verbessern können.
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Becoming multicultural through early immersive culture mixing (EICM)—i.e., growing up with a mix of cultures that coexist and interact to form an emergent hybrid culture within one’s home—is a rapidly rising phenomenon in many parts of the world. This phenomenon calls for new research that recognizes the possibility of identification with a hybrid culture as well as the distinct cultures from which the hybrid culture derives. This article extends previous research into psychological variation among multiculturals based on the process of EICM, by investigating how EICM influences hybrid cultural identification and distinct cultural identification. In addition, we examine how EICM relates to the components of identity integration—blendedness and harmony. Across two studies of Chinese-Australian multiculturals, we found that whereas EICM was positively associated with multicultural participants’ identification with a hybrid culture and Australian culture, it was not related to their identification with Chinese culture. Findings also indicated that EICM positively predicted identity blendedness, but EICM did not show a clear link with identity harmony. We discuss the implications of our research for advancing EICM theory and helping to forge new research directions in cultural identification.
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Purpose While an increasing number of global brands are of emerging country origin, research about emerging global brands remains scare. The purpose of this paper is to provide the first theoretical effort to understand how consumers in the developed regions evaluate global brands from emerging countries. Building on globalization and social identity theory, the paper aims to shed light on the effect of global identity on consumer attitude toward emerging global brands, the process of such effect, and the boundary condition for it as well. Design/methodology/approach The authors used two non-student surveys in the USA and UK in which respondents’ global identity was measured and two laboratory experiments in which respondents’ global identity was primed. The operationalization of dependent variables is also divergent, either directly measuring attitude toward the global brands from developing countries or measuring consumer relative evaluation. Convergent results were reported from four studies. Findings The results show that when consumers’ global (vs local) identity is accessible, those from developed regions will show more favorable evaluations of global brands from emerging countries. And this effect is mediated by the positive association between global identity and globalization. Further, this effect emerged when consumers view global and local cultures as compatible with each other but disappeared when consumers view global and local cultures as oppositional to each other. Practical implications The findings have practical implications for global brand marketers from emerging economies to enter developed country markets, and to make their brands real global. Specifically, global identity consumers should be targeted and the compatible view of global and local cultures should be pronounced. Originality/value Focusing on global brands from emerging countries, this paper examines the global identity effect in developed country markets for the first time. The finding add new knowledge to the literature of globalization, global branding, and assimilation effect of global identity, and help to reconcile the heated debate on whether country of origin is still relevant to the globalized world.
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International business (IB) research has predominantly relied on value constructs to account for the influence of societal culture, notably Hofstede's cultural dimensions. While parsimonious, the value approach's assumptions about the consensus of values within nations, and the generality and stability of cultural patterns of behavior are increasingly challenged. We review two promising alternatives-the constructivist approach centering on schemas and the intersubjectivist approach centering on norms-and the evidence that demonstrates their usefulness in accounting for international differences in the behavior of managers, employees, and consumers. We propose a situated dynamics framework, specifying the role of values, schemas, and norms in accounting for cultural differences, and delineating conditions under which each causal mechanism is operative. Values play a more important role in accounting for cultural differences in weak situations where fewer constraints are perceived; schemas play a more important role when situational cues increase their accessibility and relevance; and norms play a more important role when social evaluation is salient. Directions for future research based on this integrative framework and its implications for the measurement of culture and application in IB are discussed.
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators. (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Social identity theory as developed by Tajfel and Turner argues that there are two distinct aspects of the self-concept: personal identity and social identity (in American terminology, collective identity). Although many self-esteem measures are available in the literature, they allfocus on individuals'evaluation of their personal identity, whether in private or interpersonal domains. No scale currently exists that assesses the positivity of one's social, or collective, identity. A scale was constructed to assess individual differences in collective, rather than personal, self-esteem, with four subscales (Membership esteem, Public collective self-esteem, Private collective self-esteem, and Importance to Identity). Evidence for reliability and validity of the scale was provided by three studies, suggesting that the scale can be a useful research tool. Implications for research and social identity theory are discussed.
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This study examines how the valence of cultural cues in the environment moderates the way biculturals shift between multiple cultural identities. The authors found that when exposed to positive cultural cues, biculturals who perceive their cultural identities as compatible (high bicultural identity integration, or high BII) respond in culturally congruent ways, whereas biculturals who perceive their cultural identities as conflicting (low BII) respond in culturally incongruent ways. The opposite was true for negative cultural cues. These results show that both high and low BIIs can exhibit culturally congruent or incongruent behaviors, and have implications for understanding situations where high and low BIIs might adapt differently.
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The authors propose that cultural frame shifting—shifting between two culturally based interpretative lenses in response to cultural cues—is moderated by perceived compatibility (vs. opposition) between the two cultural orientations, or bicultural identity integration (BII). Three studies found that Chinese American biculturals who perceived their cultural identities as compatible (high BII) responded in culturally congruent ways to cultural cues: They made more external attributions (a characteristically Asian behavior) after being exposed to Chinese primes and more internal attributions (a characteristically Western behavior) after being exposed to American primes. However, Chinese American biculturals who perceived their cultural identities as oppositional (low BII) exhibited a reverse priming effect. This trend was not apparent for noncultural primes. The results show that individual differences in bicultural identity affect how cultural knowledge is used to interpret social events.
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Chinese bilinguals from Hong Kong responded to three different question-naires in their first or second language of Chinese or English. On some questionnaire items their answers to the English version differed from those to the Chinese version in a more "Western" direction (cross-cultural accommodation); for others, in a more Chinese direction (ethnic affirmation). These outcomes were unaffected by the respondents' level of identification with traditional Chinese culture or by their degree of anonymity vis-a-vis the experimenter conducting the research. An internal analysis of responses to the Rokeach Value Survey revealed that the more important the value to the respondent, the less likely they were to show cross-cultural accommodation. It thus appears that affirmation occurs on important issues in order to buttress the individual's of psychological distinctiveness from other groups (Tajfel, 1974a); compromise is possible on less important matters, presumably more peripheral to the individual's cultural self-concept.
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Argue that attribution patterns reflect implicit theories acquired from induction and socialization and hence differentially distributed across human cultures. In particular, the authors tested the hypothesis that dispositionalism in attribution for behavior reflects a theory of social behavior more widespread in individualist than collectivist cultures. Study 1 demonstrated that causal perceptions of social events but not physical events differed between American and Chinese students. Study 2 found English-language newspapers were more dispositional and Chinese-language newspapers were more situational in explanations of the same crimes. Study 3 found that Chinese survey respondents differed in weightings of personal dispositions and situational factors as causes of recent murders and in counterfactual judgments about how murders might have been averted by changed situations. Implications for issues in cognitive, social, and organizational psychology are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study examines cultural frame switching among bicultural Greek children between the ages of 9 and 12 living in the Netherlands. By means of experimentally primed bicultural children and the use of monocultural comparison groups in the Netherlands and Greece, it was demonstrated that social explanations, self-identification, and attitudes toward family integrity and obedience were affected by cultural identity salience. Compared to Dutch identity salience, activating Greek identity especially led to more external attributions, stronger identification with friends, a more positive evaluation of social identity, and a less positive evaluation of personal identity. Similar tendencies were found for the attitude measures. In addition, similar differences were found when comparing monocultural Dutch and monocultural Greek children. It is concluded that this kind of experimental study and its results help to improve our understanding of the experiences of bicultural individuals and the way culture influences people’s lives.
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Dans les sociétés culturellement diversifiés, les individus peuvent présenter des attitudes relatives à leurs relations avec les autres et les groupes. Ces attitudes (dites “attitudes d'acculturation”) sont liées à des prises de position sur deux problèmes généraux posés à toute personne en acculturation: la préservation culturelle de son propre groupe et le contact avec les autres groupes. On définit les attitudes d'assimilation, d'intégration, de séparation et de marginalisation, puis on les mesure dans plusieurs groupes en acculturation d'Australie et du Canada (les indigènes, les immigrants et les groupes ethniques implantés). On donne la validité et la fidélité des échelles d'attitude, puis on analyse les relations des échelles entre elles par rapport aux deux problèmes sous-jacents que sont la préservation et le contact. Enfin, quelques-unes des applications pratiques des attitudes d'acculturation sont envisagées.
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Three studies were conducted to investigate the power of group norms of individualism and collectivism to guide self-definition and group behavior for people with low and high levels of group identification. Study 1 demonstrates that in an individualist culture (North America), those who identify highly with their national identity are more individualist than low identifiers. In contrast, in a collectivist culture (Indonesia) high identifiers are less individualist than low identifiers. Study 2 manipulates group norms of individualism and collectivism, and shows a similar pattern on a self-stereotyping measure: High identifiers are more likely to incorporate salient group norms prescribing individualism or collectivism into their self-concept than low identifiers. Study 3 replicates this effect and shows that high identifiers conform more strongly to group norms, and self-stereotype themselves in line with the salient norm than low identifiers when their group is threatened. Hence, the findings suggest that when there is a group norm of individualism, high identifiers may show individualist behavior as a result of conformity to salient group norms. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Individuals nonconsciously and unintentionally pursue goals they associate with relationship partners ( [22] and [37]). Here, we demonstrate conditions under which individuals nonconsciously and unintentionally reject goals they associate with relationship partners and instead pursue opposing goals. In Experiment 1, participants were subliminally primed with the name of a controlling significant other who had a particular goal for them. Without awareness or intent, participants pursued a goal that directly opposed their significant other’s wishes. In Experiment 2, chronic reactance was shown to moderate this effect: Low-reactant individuals adopted a subliminally primed significant other’s goal, whereas high-reactant individuals pursued an opposing goal. This research suggests that in response to controlling significant others and among chronically reactant individuals, the nonconscious activation of relational representations can automatically elicit oppositional goal pursuits, even when pursuit of an oppositional goal results in a personally suboptimal outcome.
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators.
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On the basis of terror management theory, research has shown that subtle mortality salience inductions engender increased prejudice, nationalism, and intergroup bias. Study 1 replicated this effect (increased preference for a pro-U.S. author over an anti-U.S. author) and found weaker effects when Ss are led to think more deeply about mortality or about the death of a loved one. Study 2 showed that this effect is not produced by thoughts of non-death-related aversive events. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrated that this effect occurs only if Ss are distracted from mortality salience before assessment of its effects. Study 4 revealed that although the accessibility of death-related thoughts does not increase immediately after mortality salience, it does increase after Ss are distracted from mortality salience. These findings suggest that mortality salience effects are unique to thoughts of death and occur primarily when such thoughts are highly accessible but outside of consciousness.
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A vital step in the development of an equal partnership for minorities in the academic, social, and economic life of the United States involves moving away from assumptions of the linear model of cultural acquisition. In this article we review the literature on the psychological impact of being bicultural. Assimilation, acculturation, alternation, multicultural, and fusion models that have been used to describe the psychological processes, social experiences, and individual challenges and obstacles of being bicultural are reviewed and summarized for their contributions and implications for investigations of the psychological impact of biculturalism. Emphasis is given to the alternation model, which posits that an individual is able to gain competence within 2 cultures without losing his or her cultural identity or having to choose one culture over the other. Finally, a hypothetical model outlining the dimensions of bicultural competence is presented.
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A 2-system framework is proposed for understanding the processes that enable--and undermine--self-control or "willpower" as exemplified in the delay of gratification paradigm. A cool, cognitive "know" system and a hot, emotional "go" system are postulated. The cool system is cognitive, emotionally neutral, contemplative, flexible, integrated, coherent, spatiotemporal, slow, episodic, and strategic. It is the seat of self-regulation and self-control. The hot system is the basis of emotionality, fears as well as passions--impulsive and reflexive--initially controlled by innate releasing stimuli (and, thus, literally under "stimulus control"): it is fundamental for emotional (classical) conditioning and undermines efforts at self-control. The balance between the hot and cool systems is determined by stress, developmental level, and the individual's self-regulatory dynamics. The interactions between these systems allow explanation of findings on willpower from 3 decades of research.
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The authors propose that need for closure (NFC) leads attributors to respond to an ambiguous social event by increasing reliance on implicit theories received from acculturation. Hence, the influence of NFC should be shaped by chronically accessible knowledge structures in a culture, and, likewise, the influence of culture should be moderated by epistemic motives such as NFC. The specific hypotheses drew on past findings that North American and Chinese attributors possess differing implicit social theories, North Americans conceiving of individuals as autonomous agents and Chinese conceiving of groups as autonomous. The present studies found the predicted pattern that among North American participants, NFC increased attributions to personal but not group dispositions. Among Chinese participants, NFC increased attributions to group but not personal dispositions. The findings are discussed in light of an emerging dynamic account of culture and cognition.
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The unidimensional model of acculturation posits that heritage and mainstream culture identifications have a strong inverse relation, whereas the bidimensional model posits that the 2 identifications are independent. The authors compared these models in 3 samples of ethnic Chinese (ns = 164, 150, and 204), 1 sample of non-Chinese East Asians (n = 70), and one diverse group of acculturating individuals (n = 140). Although the unidimensional measure showed a coherent pattern of external correlates, the bidimensional measure revealed independent dimensions corresponding to heritage and mainstream culture identification. These dimensions displayed patterns of noninverse correlations with personality, self-identity, and psychosocial adjustment. The authors conclude that the bidimensional model is a more valid and useful operationalization of acculturation.
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The authors present a new approach to culture and cognition, which focuses on the dynamics through which specific pieces of cultural knowledge (implicit theories) become operative in guiding the construction of meaning from a stimulus. Whether a construct comes to the fore in a perceiver's mind depends on the extent to which the construct is highly accessible (because of recent exposure). In a series of cognitive priming experiments, the authors simulated the experience of bicultural individuals (people who have internalized two cultures) of switching between different cultural frames in response to culturally laden symbols. The authors discuss how this dynamic, constructivist approach illuminates (a) when cultural constructs are potent drivers of behavior and (b) how bicultural individuals may control the cognitive effects of culture.
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On the basis of the idea that situational norms are mentally represented as associations between environments and normative behavior, it was proposed that an environment can automatically direct normative behavior. More specifically, when situational norms are well-established (e.g., when entering the library, one should be silent), an environment is capable of automatically activating mental representations of normative behavior and the behavior itself. In these experiments, participants were exposed to pictures of environments, and effects on accessibility of representations of normative behavior and on actual behavior were assessed. Results indicated that representations of behavior and actual behavior itself are activated automatically when (a) goals to visit the environment are active and (b) strong associations between environment and normative behavior are established.
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Three studies found support for the notion that immigrants' acculturation to the host culture is interactively determined by their need for cognitive closure (A. W. Kruglanski & D. M. Webster, 1996) and the reference group they forge on their arrival. If such reference group is fashioned by close social relations with coethnics, the higher the immigrants' need for closure, the weaker their tendency to assimilate to the new culture and the stronger their tendency to adhere to the culture of origin. By contrast, if the reference entry group is fashioned by close relations with members of the host country, the higher their need for closure, the stronger their tendency to adapt to the new culture and the weaker their tendency to maintain the culture of origin. These findings obtained consistently across 3 immigrant samples in Italy, 1 Croatian and 2 Polish, and across multiple different measures of acculturation.
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In this article, the authors report an investigation of the relationship between terror management and social identity processes by testing for the effects of social identity salience on worldview validation. Two studies, with distinct populations, were conducted to test the hypothesis that mortality salience would lead to worldview validation of values related to a salient social identity. In Study 1, reasonable support for this hypothesis was found with bicultural Aboriginal Australian participants (N = 97). It was found that thoughts of death led participants to validate ingroup and reject outgroup values depending on the social identity that had been made salient. In Study 2, when their student and Australian identities were primed, respectively, Anglo-Australian students (N = 119) validated values related to those identities, exclusively. The implications of the findings for identity-based worldview validation are discussed.
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This study tested whether priming of cultural symbols activates cultural behavioral scripts and thus the corresponding behaviors, and also whether the behaviors activated are context-specific. Specifically, to activate the cultural knowledge of Chinese-American bicultural participants, we primed them with Chinese cultural icons or American cultural icons. In the control condition, we showed them geometric figures. Then, the participants played the Prisoner's Dilemma game with friends or strangers (the context manipulation). As expected, participants showed more cooperation toward friends when Chinese cultural knowledge was activated than when American cultural knowledge was activated. By contrast, participants showed a similarly low level of cooperation toward strangers after both Chinese and American culture priming. These findings not only support previous evidence on culture priming of social judgment and self-construals, but also (a) provide the first evidence for the effects of culture priming on behaviors and (b) demonstrate the boundary condition of culture priming.
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The authors propose that automatic social behavior may result from perceivers preparing to interact with primed social group members. In Study 1, participants primed with a disliked outgroup (gay men) showed evidence of interaction preparation (aggression) rather than direct stereotypic trait expression (passivity). In Study 2, participants with implicit positive attitudes toward the elderly walked more slowly after "elderly" priming, but participants with negative attitudes walked more quickly, results consistent with a preparatory account; the reverse was found priming "youth." Study 3 demonstrated that the accessibility of a primed category follows a pattern more consistent with that of goal-related constructs (including post-goal-fulfillment inhibition) than that of semantically primed constructs. Implications for the function of stored knowledge are discussed.
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Three studies support the proposal that need for closure (NFC) involves a desire for consensual validation that leads to cultural conformity. Individual differences in NFC interact with cultural group variables to determine East Asian versus Western differences in conflict style and procedural preferences (Study 1), information gathering in disputes (Study 2), and fairness judgment in reward allocations (Study 3). Results from experimental tests indicate that the relevance of NFC to cultural conformity reflects consensus motives rather than effort minimization (Study 2) or political conservatism (Study 3). Implications for research on conflict resolution and motivated cultural cognition are discussed.
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This study tested whether priming of cultural symbols activates cultural behavioral scripts and thus the corresponding behaviors, and also whether the behaviors activated are context-specific. Specifically, to activate the cultural knowledge of Chinese-American bicultural participants, we primed them with Chinese cultural icons or American cultural icons. In the control condition, we showed them geometric figures. Then, the participants played the Prisoner's Dilemma game with friends or strangers (the context manipulation). As expected, participants showed more cooperation toward friends when Chinese cultural knowledge was activated than when American cultural knowledge was activated. By contrast, participants showed a similarly low level of cooperation toward strangers after both Chinese and American culture priming. These findings not only support previous evidence on culture priming of social judgment and self-construals, but also (a) provide the first evidence for the effects of culture priming on behaviors and (b) demonstrate the boundary condition of culture priming.
Chapter
This chapter describes the role of naïve theories of bias in bias correction in the flexible correction model. The notion of bias correction was reviewed across a variety of research domains. Corrections are often the result of people consulting their naive theories of the influence of potentially biasing factors on their perception of the target. This view differs from competing views of bias correction because a view of corrections based on perceivers' naive theories of bias allows for a more flexible set of corrections than those proposed by other current models of bias removal. The chapter illustrates that flexible correction model (FCM) principles demonstrate the relevance of the perspective to a variety of research areas (including persuasion, attribution, impression formation, stereotyping, and mood). Finally, this chapter hopes that research and theory based on flexible correction notions will help to build a unifying framework within which correction processes in many areas of psychology can be investigated and explained.
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Cultural psychologists have often sought to explain cross-cultural differences in social cognition as differences rooted in the cultures' positions on a small collection of pan-cultural dimensions (e.g., individualism-collectivism). In this paper, we argue for a paradigm shift in cultural psychology. Drawing on the arguments and data presented in the papers of this special issue, we propose to view cultures as dynamic open systems that spread across geographical boundaries and evolve through time. This alternative view links cultural differences in social cognition to cultures' axiomatic assumptions (or cultural theories) in the relevant domains, and specifies the social cognitive principles that govern the activation and application of such cultural theories in specific contexts. This new approach captures the complexity of cultural processes, paves the way for an exciting agenda for future investigations, and provides a common language for psychologists to describe how culture affects social cognition as well as how cultural influences are mediated by basic social cognitive processes.
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The distinction between relatively independent versus interdependent self-construals has been strongly associated with several important cultural differences in social behavior. The current studies examined the causal role of self-construal by investigating whether priming independent or interdependent self-construals within a culture could result in differences in psychological worldview that mirror those traditionally found between cultures. In Experiment 1, European-American participants primed with interdependence displayed shifts toward more collectivist social values and judgments that were mediated by corresponding shifts in self-construal. In Experiment 2, this effect was extended by priming students from the United States and Hong Kong with primes that were consistent and inconsistent with their predominant cultural worldview. Students who received the inconsistent primes were more strongly affected than those who received the consistent primes, and thus shifted self-construal, and corresponding values, to a greater degree.
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Two studies provided support for the proposal that the role of norms in attitude-behavior relations can be usefully reconceptualized from the perspective of social identity/self-categorization theory. The first study revealed that the perceived norms of a behaviorally relevant reference group influenced intentions to engage in regular exercise, but only for subjects who identified strongly with the group, whereas the effect of perceived behavioral control (a personal factor) was strongest for low identifiers. Similarly, Study 2 revealed that the effect of group norms on females' intentions to engage in sun-protective behavior was evident only for high identifiers and that the effects of one of the personal variables (attitude) was stronger for low than for high identifiers. Additional results revealed that the perceived group norm predicted subjects' attitude, as did the perceived consequences of performing the behavior. The latter result was evident only for low identifiers.
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Self-reports of behaviors and attitudes are strongly influenced by features of the research instrument, including question wording, format, and context. Recent research has addressed the underlying cognitive and communicative processes, which are systematic and increasingly well-understood. The author reviews what has been learned, focusing on issues of question comprehension, behavioral frequency reports, and the emergence of context effect in attitude measurement. The accumulating knowledge about the processes underlying self-reports promises to improve the questionnaire design and data quality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)