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Abstract

In a series of four studies, we examined whether and how negotiators’ task-related self-efficacy affects their performance. In the first two studies, we identified two theoretically meaningful self-efficacy constructs—distributive self-efficacy (DSE) and integrative self-efficacy (ISE)—and provided evidence of construct validity. In the third study, task-congruent self-efficacy was positively associated with negotiators’ self-reports of tactical decision-making. In the fourth study, we measured negotiators’ tactics and found that ISE and DSE affected negotiators’ initial choice of tactics. We conclude that ISE and DSE predisposes negotiators to select certain tactics, which then guide the course of the negotiation, and, ultimately, affect the quality of deals.

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... L. Lu su kolegomis (2011) nurodo, kad aukštesniu saviveiksmingumu pasižymintys asmenys bus linkę naudoti aktyvias ar į problemą nukreiptas sprendimo strategijas. Aukštesnis saviveiksmingumas teikia prioritetą tiems kon ikto sprendimo stiliams, kuriems būdingas rūpinimasis savais interesais, -dominavimo, integruotam ir kompromiso paieškos (Sullivan, O'Connor, Burris, 2006, Ergeneli et al., 2010. ...
... Ergeneli et al., 2010. Be to, jie vengia veiklų, kuriomis užsiimti, jų manymu, reikia aukštesnės kompetencijos nei turi (Sullivan et al., 2006). Žemas saviveiksmingumas gali apriboti žmogaus tikėjimą, kad jam pavyks pasiekti norimų rezultatų. ...
... Tikėtina, kad žmonės, kon iktinėje situacijoje taikantys vengimo stilių, gali pradėti abejoti savo gebėjimais bei galimybėmis ir pasitraukti iš kon iktinės situacijos net nebandydami jos spręsti. Panašiai elgtųsi ir tie, kurie naudoja prisitaikymo stilių: jie nekreiptų dėmesio į savo interesus, kad tik būtų visiškai patenkinti partnerio poreikiai (Sullivan et al., 2006). ...
... Looking beyond economic outcome variables, growing interest over time has focused on psychological performance measures (Bendersky & McGinn, 2010). Large and active research literatures have focused on perceptions of justice and fairness (Brockner & Wiesenfeld, 1996;Colquitt, Conlon, Wesson, Porter, & Ng, 2001;Lind & Tyler, 1988), interpersonal trust, respect, and liking for the counterparty (e.g., Kong, Dirks, & Ferrin, in press;Lewicki, McAllister, & Bies, 1998;Naquin & Paulson, 2003;Pruitt & Rubin, 1986), self-confidence and maintaining face (Sullivan, O'Connor, & Burris, 2006;White, Tynan, Galinsky, & Thompson, 2004), the building of relational capital between counterparts as a tangible future resource (Gelfand, Major, Raver, Nishi, & O'Brien, 2006), and subjective beliefs about one's performance regardless of how well one actually performed (Loewenstein, Thompson, & Bazerman, 1989;Messick & Sentis, 1985). Integrating these psychological measures into a unified framework, Curhan, Elfenbein, and Xu (2006) defined subjective value (SV) as the ''social, perceptual, and emotional consequences of a negotiation'' (p. ...
... Negotiation self-efficacy reflects confidence in successfully using various negotiation tactics (Sullivan et al., 2006). Distributive self-efficacy refers to tactics such as preventing the other negotiator from exploiting weaknesses and convincing the other party to make concessions. ...
... Such beliefs affect behavior because negotiators base their choices of tactics on their perceived chances of success. That, in turn, guides negotiation process and outcomes (Sullivan et al., 2006). Confidence feeds into higher aspirations and, consequently, better outcomes (Stevens, Bavetta, & Gist, 1993) so distributive self-efficacy and integrative self-efficacy are likely to improve individual and joint gain, respectively. ...
Article
There has been a longstanding consensus among researchers that individual differences play a limited role in predicting negotiation outcomes. However, this consensus results historically from early reviews that relied on limited data and problematic research designs. Questioning this consensus, a meta-analysis of negotiation studies revealed a significant role for individual difference variables. The analysis demonstrated predictive validity for numerous personality traits, cognitive ability, and emotional intelligence. Multiple outcome measures were examined, namely economic individual value, economic joint value, and psychological subjective value for both the negotiator and counterpart. Each individual difference measure had predictive validity for at least one outcome measure, with the exception of conscientiousness. Characteristics of research design moderated some associations. Field data showed stronger effects than did laboratory studies. Implications for theory and practice are considered.
... Although high self-confidence has many benefits, our findings reveal that high self-confidence can also promote unethical behavior. For decades, academic and popular press writers have enjoined individuals to build self-confidence and praised its benefits (e.g., Bandura 1977Bandura , 1993Gist and Mitchell 1992;Hannah et al. 2011;MacNab and Worthley 2008;O'Connor and Arnold 2001;Sullivan et al. 2006;Walumbwa et al. 2011). As Bandura (1993) asserted, "Once formed, [self-] efficacy beliefs contribute significantly to the level and quality of human functioning" (145). ...
... In this article, we focus on a particular type of self-confidence that is likely to matter in a domain that is a "breeding ground" for self-interested deception: negotiator selfefficacy. Following prior research, we define negotiator self-efficacy as a negotiator's belief in his or her ability to perform well in a negotiation (Brooks and Schweitzer 2011;Sullivan et al. 2006). ...
... Compared to individuals low in negotiator self-efficacy, individuals high in negotiator self-efficacy are more likely to feel that they can persuade their counterparts to make concessions, convince their counterparts to take their perspective, and prevent their counterpart from exploiting their weaknesses (Sullivan et al. 2006). Individuals high in negotiator self-efficacy are also more likely to feel that they can find mutually beneficial trade-offs, maximize joint interests, and establish rapport with their counterparts (Sullivan et al. 2006). ...
Article
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Self-confidence is associated with many positive outcomes, and training programs routinely seek to build participants’ self-efficacy. In this article, however, we consider whether self-confidence increases unethical behavior. In a series of studies, we explore the relationship between negotiator self-efficacy—an individual’s confidence in his or her negotiation ability—and the use of deception. We find that individuals high in negotiator self-efficacy are more likely to use deception than individuals low in negotiator self-efficacy. We also find that perceptions of the risk of deception mediate this relationship. By identifying negotiator self-efficacy as an antecedent to unethical behavior, our findings offer important theoretical and empirical insights into the use of deception, the role of individual differences in ethical decision making, and the broader consequences of self-confidence in business and society.
... Compared to those with low self-efficacy, individuals with high self-efficacy select more challenging tasks (Bandura & Schunk, 1981), set more challenging goals (Brown, Jones, & Leigh, 2005;Tolli & Schmidt, 2008), exert more effort (Schunk & Hanson, 1985;Schunk, Hanson, & Cox, 1987), work more persistently when faced with difficulties (Multon, Brown, & Lent, 1991), and eventually achieve higher performance (Bandura & Locke, 2003;Brown et al., 2005;Stajkovic & Luthans, 1998). Self-efficacy also affects task selection: people tend to avoid tasks for which they have a low level of self-efficacy and favor those for which they have high self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997;Sullivan, O'Connor, & Burris, 2006). Combining the positive relationship between self-efficacy, motivation, and future performance with the arguments in the previous section, I propose that relative to situations without resets, performance resets can protect self-efficacy and thus boost motivation and future performance among individuals with weak past performance, but reduce self-efficacy and thus harm motivation and future performance when individuals have strong past performance. ...
... Specifically, I averaged their responses to two questions (r = .87; Bandura, 2006;Sullivan et al., 2006;Schmidt & DeShon, 2010): "How confident are you that you can do this activity daily from today on?" (1 = Not confident at all, 9 = Very confident) and "How likely do you think you are to do this activity daily from today on?" (1 = Not likely at all, 9 = Very likely). 2 I also included measures of other potential explanations. First, past research has shown that people desire to improve sequences of outcomes (Loewenstein & Prelec, 1993) and are motivated by symbols of progress (Kivetz, Urminsky, & Zheng, 2006;Nunes & Drèze, 2006). ...
... For example, Schmidt and DeShon (2010) studied the moderating effects of performance ambiguity on the relationship between self-efficacy and performance, and asked participants to rate their confidence to reach a performance level on a 10-point scale. Sullivan et al. (2006) studied the relationship between self-efficacy and uses of negotiation tactics, and asked participants to rate their confidence that they could use a negotiation tactic successfully on a 100-point scale (0 = No confidence; 100 = Full confidence). The first item of my self-efficacy measure captured participants' confidence in performing the focal activity well and was consistent with past research (Bandura, 2006;Sullivan et al., 2006;Schmidt & DeShon, 2010). ...
... Compared to those with low self-efficacy, individuals with high self-efficacy select more challenging tasks (Bandura & Schunk, 1981), set more challenging goals (Brown, Jones, & Leigh, 2005;Tolli & Schmidt, 2008), exert more effort (Schunk & Hanson, 1985;Schunk, Hanson, & Cox, 1987), work more persistently when faced with difficulties (Multon, Brown, & Lent, 1991), and eventually achieve higher performance (Bandura & Locke, 2003;Brown et al., 2005;Stajkovic & Luthans, 1998). Self-efficacy also affects task selection: people tend to avoid tasks for which they have a low level of self-efficacy and favor those for which they have high self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997;Sullivan, O'Connor, & Burris, 2006). Combining the positive relationship between self-efficacy, motivation, and future performance with the arguments in the previous section, I propose that relative to situations without resets, performance resets can protect self-efficacy and thus boost motivation and future performance among individuals with weak past performance, but reduce self-efficacy and thus harm motivation and future performance when individuals have strong past performance. ...
... Specifically, I averaged their responses to two questions (r = .87; Bandura, 2006;Sullivan et al., 2006;Schmidt & DeShon, 2010): "How confident are you that you can do this activity daily from today on?" (1 = Not confident at all, 9 = Very confident) and "How likely do you think you are to do this activity daily from today on?" (1 = Not likely at all, 9 = Very likely). 2 I also included measures of other potential explanations. First, past research has shown that people desire to improve sequences of outcomes (Loewenstein & Prelec, 1993) and are motivated by symbols of progress (Kivetz, Urminsky, & Zheng, 2006;Nunes & Drèze, 2006). ...
... For example, Schmidt and DeShon (2010) studied the moderating effects of performance ambiguity on the relationship between self-efficacy and performance, and asked participants to rate their confidence to reach a performance level on a 10-point scale. Sullivan et al. (2006) studied the relationship between self-efficacy and uses of negotiation tactics, and asked participants to rate their confidence that they could use a negotiation tactic successfully on a 100-point scale (0 = No confidence; 100 = Full confidence). The first item of my self-efficacy measure captured participants' confidence in performing the focal activity well and was consistent with past research (Bandura, 2006;Sullivan et al., 2006;Schmidt & DeShon, 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
Inside and outside of workplaces, individuals’ performance on a metric (e.g., sales) is often decoupled from past performance (rather than being tracked as a continuation of past performance). How do people respond to such performance resets, a type of fresh start on performance records, particularly when resets are not anticipated? Three laboratory experiments and one field study analyzing 40 years of data from professional baseball players demonstrate their impact. Specifically, unanticipated resets increase self-efficacy and thus boost motivation and future performance when they follow weak performance. However, such resets decrease self-efficacy and thus harm motivation and future performance when they follow strong performance. By identifying the conditions that determine whether performance resets improve or harm motivation, and highlighting the role of self-efficacy, this paper provides novel insights into how different ways of tracking performance influence motivation, as well as how fresh starts change behavior.
... The stable individual difference factors associated with performance mentioned earlier, such as self-efficacy (Sullivan, O'Connor, & Burris, 2006), self-esteem (Rosenberg, 1965), and conscientiousness (Barry & Friendman, 1998) may also serve as a contender for an association between identity integration and performance. As such, we will also examine the role of these individual difference factors in tandem with identity integration. ...
... Individual Difference Measures. The following measures were administered: the IPIP Big Five measure (50 items, Goldberg, 1999), self-esteem (10 items, Rosenberg, 1965), general selfefficacy ( eight items, Chen, Gully, & Eden, 2004), gender and professional identification (four items, Luhtanen & Crocker, 1992), self-perceived femininity ("I am feminine"; 1= never or almost never true) and self-perceived masculinity ("I am masculine"; 1= never or almost never true), identity interference (17 items, Settles, 2014), stereotype threat (five items, Von Hippel, 2015), and self-efficacy in distributive and integrative negotiations (eight items, 1= 0%, 11=100%; Sullivan, O'Connor, & Burris, 2006). ...
... The positive effect of GPII with general self-efficacy is consistent with prior work finding greater positive experiences at work among high-GPII women (Sacharin, Lee, & Gonzalez, 2009) and a positive association between negotiation self-efficacy and prior experience (Sullivan, O'Connor, & Burris, 2006). Interestingly, GPII was associated with self-efficacy only in negotiations among men, and not women, suggesting identity integration is dissociated from domain-specific self-efficacy among professional women. ...
... Compared to those with low self-efficacy, individuals with high self-efficacy select more challenging tasks (Bandura & Schunk, 1981), set more challenging goals (Brown, Jones, & Leigh, 2005;Tolli & Schmidt, 2008), exert more effort (Schunk & Hanson, 1985;Schunk, Hanson, & Cox, 1987), work more persistently when faced with difficulties (Multon, Brown, & Lent, 1991), and eventually achieve higher performance (Bandura & Locke, 2003;Brown et al., 2005;Stajkovic & Luthans, 1998). Self-efficacy also affects task selection: people tend to avoid tasks for which they have a low level of self-efficacy and favor those for which they have high self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997;Sullivan, O'Connor, & Burris, 2006). Combining the positive relationship between self-efficacy, motivation, and future performance with the arguments in the previous section, I propose that relative to situations without resets, performance resets can protect self-efficacy and thus boost motivation and future performance among individuals with weak past performance, but reduce self-efficacy and thus harm motivation and future performance when individuals have strong past performance. ...
... Specifically, I averaged their responses to two questions (r = .87; Bandura, 2006;Sullivan et al., 2006;Schmidt & DeShon, 2010): "How confident are you that you can do this activity daily from today on?" (1 = Not confident at all, 9 = Very confident) and "How likely do you think you are to do this activity daily from today on?" (1 = Not likely at all, 9 = Very likely). 2 I also included measures of other potential explanations. First, past research has shown that people desire to improve sequences of outcomes (Loewenstein & Prelec, 1993) and are motivated by symbols of progress (Kivetz, Urminsky, & Zheng, 2006;Nunes & Drèze, 2006). ...
... For example, Schmidt and DeShon (2010) studied the moderating effects of performance ambiguity on the relationship between self-efficacy and performance, and asked participants to rate their confidence to reach a performance level on a 10-point scale. Sullivan et al. (2006) studied the relationship between self-efficacy and uses of negotiation tactics, and asked participants to rate their confidence that they could use a negotiation tactic successfully on a 100-point scale (0 = No confidence; 100 = Full confidence). The first item of my self-efficacy measure captured participants' confidence in performing the focal activity well and was consistent with past research (Bandura, 2006;Sullivan et al., 2006;Schmidt & DeShon, 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
Inside and outside of workplaces, individuals’ performance on a metric (e.g., sales) is often decoupled from past performance (rather than being tracked as a continuation of past performance). How do people respond to such performance resets, a type of fresh start on performance records, particularly when resets are not anticipated? Three laboratory experiments and one field study analyzing 40 years of data from professional baseball players demonstrate their impact. Specifically, unanticipated resets increase self-efficacy and thus boost motivation and future performance when they follow weak performance. However, such resets decrease self-efficacy and thus harm motivation and future performance when they follow strong performance. By identifying the conditions that determine whether performance resets improve or harm motivation, and highlighting the role of self-efficacy, this paper provides novel insights into how different ways of tracking performance influence motivation, as well as how fresh starts change behavior.
... Looking beyond economic outcome variables, growing interest over time has focused on psychological performance measures (Bendersky & McGinn, 2010). Large and active research literatures have focused on perceptions of justice and fairness (Brockner & Wiesenfeld, 1996;Colquitt, Conlon, Wesson, Porter, & Ng, 2001;Lind & Tyler, 1988), interpersonal trust, respect, and liking for the counterparty (e.g., Kong, Dirks, & Ferrin, in press;Lewicki, McAllister, & Bies, 1998;Naquin & Paulson, 2003;Pruitt & Rubin, 1986), self-confidence and maintaining face (Sullivan, O'Connor, & Burris, 2006;White, Tynan, Galinsky, & Thompson, 2004), the building of relational capital between counterparts as a tangible future resource (Gelfand, Major, Raver, Nishi, & O'Brien, 2006), and subjective beliefs about one's performance regardless of how well one actually performed (Loewenstein, Thompson, & Bazerman, 1989;Messick & Sentis, 1985). Integrating these psychological measures into a unified framework, Curhan, Elfenbein, and Xu (2006) defined subjective value (SV) as the ''social, perceptual, and emotional consequences of a negotiation'' (p. ...
... Negotiation self-efficacy reflects confidence in successfully using various negotiation tactics (Sullivan et al., 2006). Distributive self-efficacy refers to tactics such as preventing the other negotiator from exploiting weaknesses and convincing the other party to make concessions. ...
... Such beliefs affect behavior because negotiators base their choices of tactics on their perceived chances of success. That, in turn, guides negotiation process and outcomes (Sullivan et al., 2006). Confidence feeds into higher aspirations and, consequently, better outcomes (Stevens, Bavetta, & Gist, 1993) so distributive self-efficacy and integrative self-efficacy are likely to improve individual and joint gain, respectively. ...
Article
Full-text available
According to a longstanding consensus among researchers, individual differences play a limited role in predicting negotiation outcomes. This consensus stemmed from an early narrative review based on limited data. Testing the validity of this consensus, a meta-analysis of negotiation studies revealed a significant role for a wide range of individual difference variables. Cognitive ability, emotional intelligence, and numerous personality traits demonstrated predictive validity over multiple outcome measures. Relevant criteria included individual economic value, joint economic value, and psychological subjective value for both the negotiator and counterpart. Each of the Big 5 personality traits predicted at least one outcome measure, with the exception of conscientiousness. Characteristics of research design moderated some associations. Field data showed stronger effects than did laboratory studies. The authors conclude that the irrelevance consensus was misguided, and consider implications for theory, education, and practice.
... A key expectancy relevant in this setting is negotiation self-efficacy, or a sense of confidence in being able to use specific tactics successfully (Sullivan et al., 2006). Distributive self-efficacy involves confidence in using tactics such as gaining the upper hand, preventing the other negotiator from exploiting weaknesses, and convincing the other party to make most of the concessions. ...
... Integrative self-efficacy involves confidence in exchanging concessions, finding trade-offs that benefit both parties, establishing a high level of rapport, and looking for agreements that maximize both parties' interests. Such beliefs matter because negotiators base their choices of tactics on their perceived chances of success that, in turn, can guide negotiation process and outcomes (Sullivan et al., 2006). Confidence feeds into higher aspirations and, consequently, negotiation outcomes (Galinsky et al., 2002;Stevens et al., 1993). ...
... We also attempted to address the third concern, namely that researchers often use existing traits rather than traits specific to negotiation. In doing so, we supplemented the standard items in the battery with several negotiation-specific traits that had recently been developed-that is, negotiation self-efficacy (Sullivan et al., 2006) and implicit negotiation beliefs (Kray and Haselhuhn, 2007)-as well as Curhan's (2005) "Appropriateness of Price Negotiation" scale under development, which addresses the extent to which people believe that they are behaving appropriately if they initiate negotiations in various real-world settings. Overall, we found cause for optimism in a r=.30 (p<.01) association of performance with "positive negotiation expectation and beliefs"-that is, a composite consisting of these and several other related factors: self-efficacy, appropriateness of price negotiation, implicit negotiation beliefs, endorsement of traditional bargaining tactics (from Robinson et al.'s 2000 SINS scale), and self-rated formal negotiation experience. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Some negotiators simply seem well suited for the task of extracting a good deal for themselves, some seem well suited to manage a sticky situation with everyone feeling good in the end, and others seem ill suited for either. Although researchers’ focus on individual differences in negotiation tended to decrease in the wake of the pessimistic reviews quoted above (Neale and Northcraft, 1991), it never disappeared entirely. After reviewing the existing body of work, this chapter discusses new approaches that my colleagues and I have taken in the hope of reconciling the mystery whereby intuition and conventional wisdom have tended to clash with inconsistent empirical findings (Elfenbein et al., 2008; Elfenbein et al., 2010; Sharma et al., 2012). The chapter concludes with a research agenda for the field to move forward.
... In addition to economic outcomes, negotiators are concerned about how they feel about themselves, including their negotiation skills, social representation and self-image (Curhan et al., 2006). Even though enduring self-perceptions, such as self-concept clarity (Bechtoldt, De Dreu, Nijstad, & Zapf, 2010;De Dreu & van Knippenberg, 2005), selfefficacy (Sullivan, O'Connor, & Burris, 2006), and self-esteem (Hermann & Kogan, 1977;Kramer, Newton, & Pommerenke, 1993) have been examined in negotiation research, the study of self-related psychological states, such as state based global self-esteem, has largely been neglected in negotiation research. This omission is problematic as momentary psychological states are important in shaping negotiator behavior (e.g., Elfenbein, 2015). ...
... Identifying the mediating role of performance self-esteem is a noteworthy contribution to negotiation research. Whereas self-related traits such as self-concept clarity (Bechtoldt et al., 2010;De Dreu & van Knippenberg, 2005) and self-efficacy (Sullivan et al., 2006) have been examined in negotiation research, the effects of self-related transient states, such as state-based global self-esteem, on negotiator cognition and behavior are under-examined. This lack of research is in stark contrast to a vast amount of research on state selfesteem in other interpersonal contexts (e.g., Leary, Tambor, Terdal, & Downs, 1995;Leary, Haupt, Strausser, & Chokel, 1998). ...
Article
Face threat sensitivity (FTS) is defined as reactive sensitivity to threats to one's social self-worth. In negotiations, such threats may come from a counterpart's competitive behavior. We developed and tested the argument that individuals high in face threat sensitivity, when negotiating with a competitive (vs. cooperative) counterpart, exhibit psychological responses that inhibit them from claiming value in distributive negotiations. Employing a face-to-face interaction paradigm, Study 1 revealed that higher counterpart competitiveness was negatively associated with high (but not low) FTS negotiators' global self-esteem, which in turn led them to be less demanding and obtain worse negotiation outcomes. In Study 2, employing a simulated on-line interaction paradigm, we manipulated counterpart's behavior (cooperative vs. competitive) to establish causality and examined specific aspects of negotiator global self-esteem that may account for the effect. We found that the effect of counterpart's competitiveness on high FTS negotiators' demand levels was mediated by their performance self-esteem, but not by their social self-esteem. In Study 3, we manipulated performance self-esteem to establish it as a causal underlying psychological mechanism. For high FTS negotiators, when performance self-esteem was low, demand levels were significantly lower with a competitive (vs. cooperative) counterpart. However, when performance self-esteem was high, there was no significant difference in demand levels depending on counterpart's behavior. This finding suggests that negotiating with a competitive (vs. cooperative) counterpart reduces high FTS negotiators' performance self-esteem, which in turn leads them to make lower demands. The implications of these findings are discussed.
... From an inferential processing perspective, negotiators who interact with anxious counterparts may infer that their counterparts are inexperienced, incompetent, and incapable of negotiating effectively. In particular, negotiators may infer that these counterparts are likely to make concessions, select poor negotiation tactics, and accept low offers (Brooks & Schweitzer, 2011;Sullivan, O'Connor, & Burris, 2006). These inferences may influence negotiators' decision to use deception, such that negotiators who interact with anxious counterparts may feel that they can negotiate more effectively than their counterparts, can persuade their counterparts to make concessions, and can effectively use strategic negotiation tactics to realize an "upper hand" in the negotiation (Sullivan et al., 2006). ...
... In particular, negotiators may infer that these counterparts are likely to make concessions, select poor negotiation tactics, and accept low offers (Brooks & Schweitzer, 2011;Sullivan, O'Connor, & Burris, 2006). These inferences may influence negotiators' decision to use deception, such that negotiators who interact with anxious counterparts may feel that they can negotiate more effectively than their counterparts, can persuade their counterparts to make concessions, and can effectively use strategic negotiation tactics to realize an "upper hand" in the negotiation (Sullivan et al., 2006). For these reasons, negotiators who interact with anxious counterparts may feel that deception is unnecessary Lundquist et al., 2009). ...
Article
Deception is pervasive in negotiation, and emotions are integral to the deception process. In this article, we review the theoretical and empirical research on emotions and deception in negotiation and introduce a theoretical model. In our review of the research, we find that emotions profoundly influence the decision to use deception. We also find that although negotiation is inherently interpersonal, theoretical and empirical research on deception has focused on the intrapersonal effects of emotion. For this reason, we integrate theory and research on the interpersonal effects of emotions into research on deception and propose a model—the Interpersonal Emotion Deception Model—that relates the emotions of a counterpart to the deception decisions of a negotiator. Our review and model expands our understanding of the important role of emotions in the deception decision process and provides a theoretical foundation for future research in the intrapersonal and interpersonal perspectives.
... In theory (Walton & McKersie, 1965) and in empirical research, individual gains in negotiation are a function of the use of influence strategy (Liu & Wilson, 2011;Olekalns, Smith, & Walsh, 1996;Sullivan, O'Connor, & Burris, 2006; see also (Geiger, 2012) where aspirations predicted individual profit). Sullivan et al. (2006) also found that studying individual gains in multi-issue negotiations with integrative potential is complicated not only by interdependence between negotiators but also by the fact that the more value negotiators create, the more they have to claim (c.f,, Exhibit 1. 2 Brett, 2014). ...
... In theory (Walton & McKersie, 1965) and in empirical research, individual gains in negotiation are a function of the use of influence strategy (Liu & Wilson, 2011;Olekalns, Smith, & Walsh, 1996;Sullivan, O'Connor, & Burris, 2006; see also (Geiger, 2012) where aspirations predicted individual profit). Sullivan et al. (2006) also found that studying individual gains in multi-issue negotiations with integrative potential is complicated not only by interdependence between negotiators but also by the fact that the more value negotiators create, the more they have to claim (c.f,, Exhibit 1. 2 Brett, 2014). Nevertheless, the evidence that individual gains are related to the use of influence in negotiations suggests that if there are cultural differences in the use of influence, there may also be cultural implications regarding the equal versus unequal distribution of gains. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study compares negotiation strategy and outcomes in countries illustrating dignity, face, and honor cultures. Hypotheses predict cultural differences in negotiators' aspirations, use of strategy, and outcomes based on the implications of differences in self-worth and social structures in dignity, face, and honor cultures. Data were from a face-to-face negotiation simulation; participants were intra-cultural samples from the USA (dignity), China (face), and Qatar (honor). The empirical results provide strong evidence for the predictions concerning the reliance on more competitive negotiation strategies in honor and face cultures relative to dignity cultures in this context of negotiating a new business relationship. The study makes two important theoretical contributions. First, it proposes how and why people in a previously understudied part of the world, that is, the Middle East, use negotiation strategy. Second, it addresses a conundrum in the East Asian literature on negotiation: the theory and research that emphasize the norms of harmony and cooperation in social interaction versus empirical evidence that negotiations in East Asia are highly competitive. Copyright
... We randomly assigned participants to one of two conditions (High self-efficacy vs. Average self-efficacy). Participants completed the Negotiation Aptitude Test, received false performance feedback, and then completed a 10-item measure of negotiator self-efficacy (Sullivan, O'Connor, & Burris, 2005). The 10 items included statements such as ''I am certain that I can persuade the other negotiator to make most of the concessions'' and ''I feel confident in my ability to negotiate effectively'' (rated on a 5-point scale). ...
... Future work remains, however, with respect to understanding negotiator self-efficacy itself. Prior research has measured negotiator self-efficacy and linked self-efficacy with tactics and outcomes (Sullivan, O'Connor, & Burris, 2005), but no prior work has induced negotiator self-efficacy. In this paper, we introduce a tool for inducing negotiator self-efficacy (see Appendix A), and we find that negotiator self-efficacy is both labile and consequential. ...
Article
Across three studies, we demonstrate that anxiety is both commonly associated with negotiations and harmful to negotiator performance. In our experiments, we induced either low anxiety or high anxiety. Compared to negotiators experiencing low levels of anxiety, negotiators who experience high levels of anxiety make steeper concessions and exit bargaining situations earlier. The relationship between anxiety and negotiator behavior is moderated by negotiator self-efficacy; high self-efficacy mitigates the harmful effects of anxiety.
... For exploratory reasons, we included measures of participants' emotional states and their social-value orientation (Van Lange, Otten, De Bruin, & Joireman, 1997) in Study 1a, and a measure of personality (Gosling, Rentfrow, & Swann, 2003) in Study 1d. 3. We analyzed the results for all studies using a repeated measures logistic regression and replicated the finding that condition was a significant predictor of participant choices. 4. Controlling for participants' gender, age, and education also did not change the pattern of results in Studies 1b to 2b. 5. We also measured expertise as a negotiator (five items adapted from O'Connor & Arnold, 2001), confidence as a negotiator (five items adapted from Sullivan, O'Connor, & Burris, 2006), and propensity to negotiate (four items adapted from ...
Article
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In the present studies, we examined the positive value of agreement and the negative value of impasse. Participants chose to give up real value and sacrifice economic efficiency in order to attain an agreement outcome and avoid an impasse outcome. A personally disadvantageous option was selected significantly more often when it was labeled "Agreement" rather than "Option A," and a personally advantageous option was avoided significantly more often when it was labeled "Impasse" rather than "Option B." In a face-to-face negotiation, a substantial proportion of individuals reached an agreement that was inferior to their best alternative to agreement. We showed that the appeal of agreement and the aversion to impasse both contribute to this effect, yet the aversion to impasse is the stronger of the two motivations. These findings have important implications for negotiators.
... Because of such attitudes generated from lack of self-efficacy, they are anxious and disturbed. These people expect failure in their jobs, and withdraw against the challenges or even completely give up (10). In addition, self-efficacy plays the key role in development of critical thinking. ...
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Nursing students' self-efficacy is a predictor for their educational progress. Students, who believe that they can be successful in their studies, are more confident. Therefore, many universities have focused on life skills training programs to improve the mental health of their students. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare self-efficacy in two groups of nursing students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). One group of students was trained on life skill programs, and the second group was not trained on the issue. A case-control study was conducted on two groups of nursing students in TUMS in the late 2012. The case group (n = 112) had passed life skills training course, and the control group (n = 139) was not trained on the issue. Data was collected using a questionnaire containing 12 questions about demographic features, and the Sherer's general self-efficacy questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using independent sample t-test, Chi-square, odds ratio, and Fisher's exact test. In the untrained and trained groups, 23% and 8% of the students had very high self-efficacy, respectively. The overall mean scores of self-efficacy were 41.99 ± 9.31 and 38.99 ± 10.48 in the trained and untrained groups, respectively (P = 0.015), and the higher mean score indicates lower level of self-efficacy. A significant difference was also found between the self-efficacy and family income (P = 0.029). The present study showed that life skills training program did not affect self-efficacy of nursing students. Perhaps, the methods used in education were influencing and then, more effective techniques such as role-play and group discussion should be substituted in life skills training.
... According to our study, individuals with higher levels of self-efficacy may engage in more knowledge sharing activities because they feel less time pressure. Prior research has already identified several positive outcomes of raising employees' task self-efficacy, such as improved teamwork behaviours (Sonnentag & Volmer, 2009), the use of better negotiation tactics (Sullivan et al, 2006), reduced intra-group conflict (Desivilya & Eizen, 2005), and improved task performance (Bouffard-Bouchard, 1990). Our research contributes to this field by identifying knowledge sharing as an important interpersonal consequence of task self-efficacy. ...
Article
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This study considers the dilemma faced by employees every time a colleague requests knowledge: should they share their knowledge? We use adaptive cost theory and self-efficacy theory to examine how individual characteristics (i.e., self-efficacy and trait competitiveness) and situational perceptions (i.e., ‘busyness’ and perceived competition) affect knowledge sharing behaviours. A study was conducted with 403 students who completed a problem-solving exercise and who were permitted (but not required) to respond to requests for knowledge from people who were doing the same activity. Our results suggest that people who perceive significant time pressure are less likely to share knowledge. Trait competitiveness predicted perceived competition. This and low task self-efficacy created a sense of time pressure, which in turn led to people feeling ‘too busy’ to share their knowledge when it was requested. Perceived competition was not directly related to knowledge sharing. Implications for research and practitioners are discussed.
... This is true both for the SV that one experiences as well as the SV that one provides to others. For oneself, those who feel that they have succeeded instrumentally in past negotiations may experience greater confidence and self-efficacy (Sullivan, O'Connor, & Burris, 2006)-rather than feeling complacent. Many negotiators would benefit from the corresponding increase in their motivation, perseverance, and aspirations going forward-although confidence can be a drawback when taken to the extreme of overconfidence (e.g., Hayward, Shepherd, & Griffin, 2006). ...
Chapter
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The present chapter’s purpose is fourfold. First, we review theory and recent evidence documenting that SV not only matters to negotiators, but also that it can matter in some cases more than objective value. Second, we describe some specific negotiator actions, or tactics, that existing research suggests are associated with promoting or depleting a negotiation counterpart’s subjective value. Third, we identify two trends in the 21st century workplace that seem likely to strengthen the need for negotiators to pay attention to SV. These trends are: (1) the so-called ‘flattening’ of hierarchical organizations, and (2) the increased frequency of communication via ‘lean’ channels such as email and other text-only formats. We refer to these formats as ‘lean’ because text-based communication limits participants from accessing the range of nonverbal cues, which carry additional affective meaning to enhance the appropriate regulation of social interaction (for a review, see Elfenbein, 2007). While describing each of these trends, we attempt to explain why they are likely to strengthen the need for the negotiation process to enhance counterparts’ SV. Fourth, and last, we identify research questions about Subjective Value that would be valuable to examine in future work, as guided by these dynamics of the 21st century workplace.
... For exploratory reasons, we included measures of participants' emotional states and their social-value orientation (Van Lange, Otten, De Bruin, & Joireman, 1997) in Study 1a, and a measure of personality (Gosling, Rentfrow, & Swann, 2003) in Study 1d. 3. We analyzed the results for all studies using a repeated measures logistic regression and replicated the finding that condition was a significant predictor of participant choices. 4. Controlling for participants' gender, age, and education also did not change the pattern of results in Studies 1b to 2b. 5. We also measured expertise as a negotiator (five items adapted from O'Connor & Arnold, 2001), confidence as a negotiator (five items adapted from Sullivan, O'Connor, & Burris, 2006), and propensity to negotiate (four items adapted from ...
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In the present studies, we examined the positive value of agreement and the negative value of impasse. Participants chose to give up real value and sacrifice economic efficiency in order to attain an agreement outcome and avoid an impasse outcome. A personally disadvantageous option was selected significantly more often when it was labeled “Agreement” rather than “Option A,” and a personally advantageous option was avoided significantly more often when it was labeled “Impasse” rather than “Option B.” In a face-to-face negotiation, a substantial proportion of individuals reached an agreement that was inferior to their best alternative to agreement. We showed that the appeal of agreement and the aversion to impasse both contribute to this effect, yet the aversion to impasse is the stronger of the two motivations. These findings have important implications for negotiators.
... Research on negotiator self-efficacy suggests that it positively predicts performance in role-play exercises (Sullivan, O'Connor, and Burris 2006). In addition, the theorized antecedents of self-efficacy clearly have direct correspondence to elements of role-play design and usage. ...
Article
Student engagement occurs when students are significantly motivated to invest in their learning behaviorally, cognitively, and emotionally. Although research has shown that higher engagement leads to deeper learning, the importance of student engagement in role plays has been underestimated in negotiation pedagogy. More specifically, role plays that fail to provide authentic experiences or to capture students' interest may lead to suboptimal learning due to a lack of engagement. To help foster learning from role plays, we propose two frames of reference for improving their design: ecological validity and vested interest. Using these frameworks, we suggest strategies to create more authentic and interesting role plays and thus promote richer learning for students.
... O"Connor & Arnold, 2001;Sullivan, O"Connor, & Burris, 2006). Items from this scale include "I am confident in my ability to establish high rapport with the other negotiator", and "I am confident in my ability to reach an agreement that would maximize both negotiators" ...
... In the spyware context, those with greater self-efficacy are more likely to protect themselves against spyware. The relationship between selfefficacy and confidence constructs has been widely acknowledged in contexts ranging from career decision making (Borgen and Betz 2008;Paulsen and Betz 2004), alcohol abuse (Demmel, Nicolai and Jenko 2006), and negotiations (Sullivan, O'Connor and Burris 2006). Bandura (1997) defines selfefficacy as one's ability to organize and execute a specific course of action. ...
... Socially efficacious individuals are less likely to yield to the influence of others and are confident in exercising social and political influence in social encounters (i.e. direct and covert persuasion and social coercion modes of influence) (see, for example, Sullivan et al., 2003). This involves the effortful application of verbal resources to explore, gather and analyse relevant information for rational deliberation and persuasion in order to advance, influence and gain compliance in a manner that promotes rationality in decisions (see, for example, Ferris et al., 2007). ...
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Orientation: Self-efficacy beliefs, given their task-specific nature, are likely to influence managers’ perceived decision-making competence depending on fluctuations in their nature and strength as non-ability contributors. Research purpose: The present research describes the conceptualisation, design and measurement of managerial decision-making self-efficacy. Motivation for the study: The absence of a domain-specific measure of the decision-making self-efficacy of managers was the motivation for the development of the Managerial Decisionmaking Self-efficacy Questionnaire (MDMSEQ). Research approach, design and method: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a nonprobability convenience sample of managers from various organisations in South Africa. Statistical analysis focused on the construct validity and reliability of items through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to test the factorial validity of the measure. Main findings: The research offers confirmatory validation of the factorial structure of the MDMSEQ. The results of two studies involving 455 (Study 1, n = 193; Study 2, n = 292) experienced managers evidenced a multidimensional structure and demonstrated respectable subscale internal consistencies. Findings also demonstrated that the MDMSEQ shared little common variance with confidence and problem-solving self-efficacy beliefs. In addition, several model fit indices suggested a reasonable to good model fit for the measurement model. Practical/managerial implications: The findings have implications for practical applications in employment selection and development with regard to managerial decision-making. Absence of the assessment of self-efficacy beliefs may introduce systematic, non-performance related variance into managerial decision-making outcomes in spite of abilities that managers possess. Contribution/value-add: Research on the volition-undermining effect of self-efficacy beliefs has been remarkably prominent, but despite this there are few appropriate measures that can be applied to managers as decision makers in organisations.
... ). d'autres études utilisent plutôt des questionnaires qui invitent le sujet à estimer, sur une échelle de likert, soit leur perception de leurs comportements de négociation, soit ceux de leurs partenaires(Beersma & de dreu, 1999 ; de dreu, Beersma, stroebe & euwema, 2006 ;sullivan, o'connor & Burris, 2006). Parmi ces questionnaires, on trouve notamment le « dutch test for conflict handling » (de dreu, evers, Beersma, Kluwer & nauta, 2001 ; van de vliert, 1997) qui se base sur la théorie de coopération et de compétition de deutsh (1973) et comprend 20 items. ...
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Cet article presente les resultats d’une etude ayant pour objectif la construction et la validation d’une nouvelle echelle de mesure des negociations percues entre le professeur et ses eleves en education physique (ENPEP). La fidelite et la validite de cette echelle ont ete verifiees aupres d’un echantillon de 549 eleves de l’enseignement secondaire superieur en Belgique francophone. Les resultats revelent que l’echelle possede une bonne coherence interne et une structure factorielle conforme au cadre conceptuel postule. Ce dernier distingue trois formes de negociation : la negociation distributive en faveur du professeur, la negociation distributive en faveur des eleves et la negociation integrative. Cette echelle constitue un instrument pouvant etre utilise pour etudier l’activite de negociation en education physique, ses determinants et ses effets.
... Whether the result of one's disposition or a simple situational factor like negotiating in a familiar environment, confidence can help negotiators achieve favorable outcomes by alleviating their anxiety (Brooks & Schweitzer, 2011;Gino, Brooks, & Schweitzer, 2012), predisposing them to select effective tactics (Brown & Baer, 2011;Sullivan, O'Connor, & Burris, 2006), and persisting through a difficult negotiation to improve their outcome (Arnold & O'Connor, 2006). However, when it manifests itself in the form of overconfidence, it can become problematic. ...
Chapter
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The behavioral decision research (BDR) perspective has been instrumental in uncovering erroneous assumptions and biases that prevent negotiators from achieving optimal solutions. This chapter examines negotiations through the BDR lens. After articulating signature characteristics of this approach and identifying cognitive research that has adopted it, the chapter explores how a consideration of affect and motivation further elucidate negotiations. It then considers the utility of the BDR approach in light of research highlighting the importance of relational performance measures to negotiators. The chapter also considers how BDR paradigm's emphasis on drawing comparisons to a normative economic standard can be leveraged to bring relational aspects of performance further into the negotiation landscape. The primary objective is to illustrate the BDR perspective by juxtaposing it with alternate theoretical perspectives. In so doing, it takes stock of behavioral negotiation theory, identifies its strengths and weaknesses, and suggests promising directions for future research.
... The single best predictor of negotiation performance is positive expectations. Self-efficacy, or confidence that one can succeed (Bandura, 2001;Sullivan, O'Connor, & Burris, 2006), has the strongest effect of any single variable tested across all types of individual differences (Sharma et al., 2013). Likewise, negotiators do better when they believe that it is appropriate to engage in negotiation and use traditional negotiation tactics (Elfenbein et al., 2008;Robinson, Lewicki, & Donahue, 2000) or that negotiation skills can be learned (Kray & Haselhuhn, 2007). ...
Article
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The commonsense notion that personal characteristics influence how effectively we negotiate has presented researchers with a mystery: Throughout the decades, scholars have concluded that there are few reliable findings to support it. In this article, I review existing research as well as new research in which my colleagues and I join a growing minority revisiting this nearly abandoned topic. The categories of individual differences previously studied include background characteristics, abilities, personality traits, motivations, and expectations and beliefs. Reviewing this work presents an optimistic conclusion: The strongest and most reliable predictors of negotiation performance are also the most open to personal change. Namely, positive expectations and comfort with negotiation consistently predict better performance. Another consistent finding is that abilities such as cognitive intelligence and creativity help for win-win agreements. Results suggest promise for a topic that is important to researchers, educators, organizations, and the public alike.
... α = .83, respectively; Sullivan, O'Connor, & Burris, 2006) prior to the negotiation session. Participants were then randomly assigned to a mixed-gender negotiation dyad, and a simulation role, and dyads were randomly assigned to a stereotype activation condition (implicit or explicit) using activation materials adapted from Kray et al. (2001). ...
Article
Past research shows gender stereotype threat effect negatively affects women¡¯s economic negotiation outcomes, but little is known about moderators of this effect. The present research investigated self-esteem (SE) level and social contingent self-esteem (SCSE) as potential buffers to the gender stereotype threat effect. Based on the contingencies of self-worth model (Crocker & Wolfe, 2001), we hypothesized that SE level interacts with SCSE to determine women¡¯s outcomes at the bargaining table such that high SE women with low SCSE do not confirm gender stereotypes and achieve higher performance in mixed-gender negotiations. Drawing on the integrated process model of stereotype threat effects (Schmader, Johns, & Forbes, 2008), we further hypothesized that anxiety mediates this interaction effect. Results from two experiments were generally consistent with our predictions. Our research highlights the importance of individual differences in SE level and SCSE, as well as anxiety, in understanding the stereotype threat effect in women¡¯s negotiations outcomes.
... But even highly integrative negotiations entail distributive aspects (Bottom & Studt, 1993). Ambitious negotiators are likely to claim more value through distributive tactics such as making extreme offers, issuing threats, making positional commitments to stimulate concessions from counterparts, and exploiting a counterpart's potential weakness (e.g., Sullivan, O'Connor, & Burris, 2006). In extant workplace settings, highly competitive behavior can sometimes prove counterproductive because visibly contentious behavior risks impasse and wider reputational problems (Tinsley, O'Connor, & Sullivan, 2002). ...
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Based on decades-old reviews, many negotiation researchers have expressed doubts about the effect of personality on negotiation outcomes. More recent reviews have found significant associations between traits and outcome measures. Existing research has primarily used laboratory experiments; field studies are rare. In this study, we aim to fill that important gap. Traits measured using the Hogan Personality Inventory were correlated with supervisor ratings of negotiation performance across three occupations: marketing managers, lawyers, and construction supervisors. Ambition and likability independently predicted greater negotiation performance. Results generalized across these three samples with evidence for an interaction effect in the lawyer sample. For attorneys, greater ambition was not additionally helpful for those who were relatively more likable. Results establish the importance of negotiation effectiveness as a distinct component of overall job performance. Practical implications are considered in terms of division-of-labor, person-job fit, and the state-trait distinction.
... Em negociações, sabe-se que a autoeficácia influencia diretamente na escolha das táticas usadas e, de forma indireta, nos resultados (Sullivan, O'Connor & Burris, 2006). Além disso, negociadores com crenças de autoeficácia sofrem menos os efeitos emocionais maléficos da ansiedade, são mais determinados e optam por abandonar a negociação mais tardiamente (Brooks & Schweitzer, 2011). ...
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Purpose – The purpose of this work is to evaluate the influence of self-efficacy in negotiation on ethical behavior. Additionally, this research aims to identify a mediator that justifies this effect. Design/Methodology - The research was divided into two independent experiments. Initially, self-efficacy in negotiation was manipulated, being half in high and half in low self-efficacy. After that, in these two groups, ethically questionable behavior was measured in a virtual interactive negotiation. The second study had a 2x2 experimental design. Firstly, self-efficacy was manipulated. Subsequently, moral disengagement was manipulated. So, as in the first study, ethically questionable behavior was measured in an interactive negotiation. Findings – We have shown that self-efficacy is negatively related to ethically questionable behavior in negotiations. In addition, we have identified that ethically questionable behavior in a negotiation is mediated by moral disengagement. Research limitations - The main limitation of this research is that it is based on a virtual negotiation. In addition, it is a distributive negotiation or bargain. Future research can evaluate these results in a context of real interaction between individuals and in integrative negotiations. Practical implications - From these results, organizations can identify a potential cause of ethically questionable behavior. Thus, acting in the self-efficacy of their representatives in negotiations can deactivate mechanisms involved in the moral disengagement of those with low levels of self-efficacy. Social implications - By identifying sources of unethical behavior, organizations can avoid dishonest behavior among their employees and contribute to more ethical negotiations in the society. Additionally, they can reduce the probability of corporate and social ethical scandals and, for instance, reduce the damage to their company. Originality - To our knowledge, this is the first study that relates self-efficacy in negotiations and ethics. Keywords: Self-efficacy; Negotiation; Ethics; Business Ethics Paper category: Master´s thesis/ Research paper
... For exploratory reasons, we included measures of participants' emotional states and their social-value orientation (Van Lange, Otten, De Bruin, & Joireman, 1997) in Study 1a, and a measure of personality (Gosling, Rentfrow, & Swann, 2003) in Study 1d. 3. We analyzed the results for all studies using a repeated measures logistic regression and replicated the finding that condition was a significant predictor of participant choices. 4. Controlling for participants' gender, age, and education also did not change the pattern of results in Studies 1b to 2b. 5. We also measured expertise as a negotiator (five items adapted from O'Connor & Arnold, 2001), confidence as a negotiator (five items adapted from Sullivan, O'Connor, & Burris, 2006), and propensity to negotiate (four items adapted from ...
... Process SV together with relationship SV form the broader construct of rapport (Curhan, Elfenbein, & Xu, 2006) that describes the mutual positivity and interest (Tickle-Degnen & Rosenthal, 1990). Studies have shown that negotiators who have succeeded instrumentality in a past negotiation feel more confident and motivated to repeat it in the future (Sullivan, O'Connor, & Burris, 2006). In addition, individuals who feel satisfied with the process and the relationship can evoke same in others and are more willing to compromise with counterparts they know (Druckman & Broome, 1991;O'Connor et al., 2005). ...
... Other types of role play simulations are designed and used to replicate the realworld and used to study the process and/or outcomes of negotiations (Butler, 1991;Curhan et al., 2009;Curhan and Pentland, 2007;Ducrot et al., 2014;Elfenbein et al., 2008). Such studies are interested in the procedural components of the negotiations, such as the trust among the parties (Butler, 1999;1991;Marwan Sinaceur, 2010); the length of the negotiations (De Dreu, 2003;Simonelli, 2011); the impact of different actions and the timing of those actions (Harinck and De Dreu, 2008;Sinaceur et al., 2013); negotiator characteristics and psychology (Imai and Gelfand, 2010;Sullivan et al., 2006); and the different kinds of outcomes reached (De Dreu et al., 2000). Herbst and Schwarz (2011) demonstrate that using students to represent professional negotiators in the role-play simulation yields results similar to using professionals as participants (Herbst and Schwarz, 2011). ...
Thesis
Sustainability negotiations and decisions require the integration of scientific information with stakeholder interests. Mathematical models help elucidate the physical world and therefore may orient the negotiators in a shared understanding of the physical world. Many researchers suggest collaborative modeling to facilitate integrating scientific information and stakeholder interests. In this thesis, I use methods that enable repeated instances of the same decision; the exploration of alternatives to model use (e.g. learning of a model's logic, relevant information, or irrelevant information); and the exploration of alternatives to collaborative modeling (e.g. using an expert model or not using a model). This thesis comprises two studies that use serious game role-play simulations. The first study is a computer-driven role-play simulation of governmental policy creation and the second is a five-party role-play simulation to negotiate a more sustainable end-of-life for used paper coffee cups. In the first study, model users reached the Pareto Frontier-the set of non-dominated points-more readily (13%) than non-model-users (2.5%) and model users discovered the win-win nature of electricity access with higher frequency (63%) than non-model users (9%). Participants who learned of the model's logic through presentation performed nearly as well as model users. In the second study, model use shortened the (mean) duration of the negotiation from 55 minutes to 45 minutes. Negotiating tables that co-created a model had a higher likelihood of reaching favorable agreements (44% compared to 25%). Model use did not significantly alter the value distribution among parties. Tables of negotiators used the model in two predominant manners: to test alternatives as they generated potential agreements and to verify a tentative agreement. The former resulted in higher mean table values than the latter. Together, these studies demonstrate: that mathematical models can be used in sustainability negotiations and decisions with good effect; that learning about the insights of a model is beneficial in decision making-but using a model is more beneficial; and that collaborative model building can provide better negotiation outcomes than using an expert model and can be faster than not using a model.
... The single best predictor of negotiation performance is positive expectations. Self-efficacy, or confidence that one can succeed (Bandura, 2001;Sullivan, O'Connor, & Burris, 2006), has the strongest effect of any single variable tested across all types of individual differences (Sharma et al., 2013). Likewise, negotiators do better when they believe that it is appropriate to engage in negotiation and use traditional negotiation tactics (Elfenbein et al., 2008;Robinson, Lewicki, & Donahue, 2000) or that negotiation skills can be learned (Kray & Haselhuhn, 2007). ...
... Along these lines, an individual differences approach (see Elfenbein, 2015;Sharma, Bottom, & Elfenbein, 2013) that explores the characteristics of people who seek out or avoid different elements of planning behavior could yield useful insights about strategies to tailor negotiation training. Of particular use would be those studies that aim to extend existing theories of individual differences in bargaining, such as cognitive ability, conflict styles (Kilmann & Thomas, 1977;Ruble & Thomas, 1976), social value orientation, (Messick & McClintock, 1968), and negotiation self-efficacy (Sullivan, O'Connor, & Burris, 2006) for their relevance to behaviors in the planning phase. To take one example, studies could aim to understand how people with different approaches to conflict resolution (i.e., competing, compromising, avoiding, accommodating, or collaborating;Kilmann & Thomas, 1977) approach information gathering and relationship building before the conflict occurs. ...
... Along these lines, an individual differences approach (see Elfenbein, 2015;Sharma, Bottom, & Elfenbein, 2013) that explores the characteristics of people who seek out or avoid different elements of planning behavior could yield useful insights about strategies to tailor negotiation training. Of particular use would be those studies that aim to extend existing theories of individual differences in bargaining, such as cognitive ability, conflict styles (Kilmann & Thomas, 1977;Ruble & Thomas, 1976), social value orientation, (Messick & McClintock, 1968), and negotiation self-efficacy (Sullivan, O'Connor, & Burris, 2006) for their relevance to behaviors in the planning phase. To take one example, studies could aim to understand how people with different approaches to conflict resolution (i.e., competing, compromising, avoiding, accommodating, or collaborating;Kilmann & Thomas, 1977) approach information gathering and relationship building before the conflict occurs. ...
Article
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Organizational scholars have systematically studied the negotiation process to guide the development of general descriptive and prescriptive theory. Descriptive research conducted by scholars from anthropology, law, and international relations converge on the features required for a general theory. This includes a multiphase process comprising planning, bargaining, and implementation, as well as multiparty process between actors organized within a multilevel structure. We examine to what extent negotiation scholars in management have incorporated such complexities into their empirical work. In a survey of empirical studies, we observe concentrated efforts to model and measure dyadic interactions in just one phase—bargaining—and the near exclusive use of experimental methods. By contrast, we survey prescriptive theory generated by specialized experts from various negotiation contexts and find that they place greater focus on the preparation and implementation phases. From this review, we recommend that scholars (a) theorize and measure negotiation as a multiphase process with possibilities for recursion, (b) incorporate a multiparty and multilevel structure in which actors beyond negotiating parties can influence the process, and (c) consider agreements as action commitments separate from actually realizing outcomes. In doing so, we discuss the value of integrating analogous work to furnish negotiation theory. We also provide recommendations for novel empirical approaches that move beyond experimental designs of multi-issue bargaining.
... From a social cognitive theoretical perspective, self-efficacy (SE), defined as 'people's beliefs in their capability to exercise some measure of control over their own functioning and over environmental events' (Bandura, 2001, p. 10), is a key variable to study how O'Connor, & Burris, 2006), others have examined it in relation to broader tasks relevant across occupations (e.g. Parker, 1998;Rigotti, Schyns, & Mohr, 2008). ...
Article
Self-efficacy (SE) has been recognised as a pervasive mechanism of human agency influencing motivation, performance and well-being. In the organisational literature, it has been mainly assessed in relation to job tasks, leaving the emotional and interpersonal domains quite unexplored, despite their relevance. We aim to fill this gap by presenting a multidimensional work self-efficacy (W-SE) scale that assesses employees' perceived capability to manage tasks (task SE), negative emotions in stressful situations (negative emotional SE), and their conduct in social interactions, in terms of both defending their own point of view (assertive SE) and understanding others' states and needs (empathic SE). Results from two independent studies (Study 1, N = 2192 employees; Study 2, N = 700 employees) adopting both variable- and person-centred approaches support the validity of the scale. Findings of factor analyses suggest a bi-factor model positing a global W-SE factor and four specific W-SEs, which are invariant across gender and career stages. Multiple regressions show that global W-SE is associated with all considered criteria, task SE is associated positively with in-role behaviours and negatively with counterproductive behaviours; negative emotional SE is negatively associated with negative emotions and health-related symptoms; empathic SE is positively associated with extra-role behaviour; and, unexpectedly, assertive SE is positively associated with counterproductive work behaviour. However, results from a Latent Profile Analysis showed that the relationship between the SEs and criteria is complex, and that W-SE dimensions combine into different patterns, identifying four SE configurations associated with different levels of adjustment.
... Negotiation Self-efficacy Participants completed an 8-item, 2subscale measure of negotiation self-efficacy (Sullivan, O'Connor, & Burris, 2006). Participants rated their ability to use 4 distributive (α = 0.927) and 4 integrative negotiation techniques (α = 0.922). ...
Article
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In this paper, we extend the literature on psychological entitlement to the domain of negotiation. Psychological entitlement describes a tendency to demand excessive and unearned rewards. For negotiators, entitlement is associated with individually beneficial attitudes like aspirations, first offer intentions, and self-efficacy, but also with contentious and unethical approaches to bargaining. As such, we argue that entitlement in negotiation may function as a social trap: The functional negotiation attitudes it engenders are likely to result in personally favourable outcomes for the entitled negotiator, reinforcing and exacerbating those attitudes. But these advantages are simultaneously accompanied by a suite of dysfunctional attitudes (unethicality, a "zero-sum" mindset, and a contentious style) that lead the entitled to seek advantage at others' cost. In three cross-sectional studies of recalled, hypothetical, and planned future negotiations (n=615), we show both the functional and dysfunctional consequences of entitlement in negotiation. Importantly, we establish the ability of entitlement to predict these consequences above and beyond traits robustly situated in the personality literature (e.g., narcissism, low agreeableness, neuroticism). Our findings indicate entitlement may have pernicious effects for negotiation ethics. We close by addressing the methodological limitations of our study, and by proposing a research agenda for management, personality, and negotiation researchers interested in mitigating the effects of entitlement in negotiating.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to test how individuals’ emotion reactions (fear vs anger) to expressed anger influence their intended conflict management styles. It investigates two interventions for managing their reactions: hot vs cold processing and enhancing conflict self-efficacy. Design/methodology/approach Hypotheses were tested in two experiments using an online simulation. After receiving an angry or a neutral message from a coworker, participants either completed a cognitive processing task (E1) or a conflict self-efficacy task (E2), and then self-reported their emotions, behavioral activation/inhibition and intended conflict management styles. Findings Fear is associated with enhanced behavioral inhibition, which results in greater intentions to avoid and oblige and lower intentions to dominate. Anger is associated with enhanced behavioral activation, which results in greater intentions to integrate and dominate, as well as lower intentions to avoid and oblige. Cold (vs hot) processing does not reduce fear or reciprocal anger but increasing individuals’ conflict self-efficacy does. Research limitations/implications The studies measured intended reactions rather than behavior. The hot/cold manipulation effect was small, potentially limiting its ability to diminish emotional responses. Practical implications These results suggest that increasing employees’ conflict self-efficacy can be an effective intervention for helping them manage the natural fear and reciprocal anger responses when confronted by others expressing anger. Originality/value Enhancing self-efficacy beliefs is more effective than cold processing (stepping back) for managing others’ anger expressions. By reducing fear, enhanced self-efficacy diminishes unproductive responses (avoiding, obliging) to a conflict.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to use agent-based modeling to simulate the negotiation and cooperation between agents working on tasks in an organization and to study the effects that gender differences might have on the outcome of the process. Design/methodology/approach The model used herein allows for idiosyncratic differences in terms of the propensity to negotiate/cooperate. The model also allows for multi-round negotiations/cooperation and incorporates subjective value into the negotiation process. The model is implemented in NetLogo. Findings The results clearly show that it is always beneficial to negotiate, even when backlash might result from the request. The study then extends this analysis by allowing for gender differences in both negotiation and cooperation. The results provide strong support for the hypothesis that agentic characteristics are beneficial for negotiators, while communal characteristics can be detrimental. Research limitations/implications Like all models, the model used herein made some simplifying assumptions about the negotiation and cooperation processes. In addition, the utilized model assumes that agents work individually on tasks and that negotiation takes place between two individual agents, even though negotiation can be a team-based endeavor in many cases. Practical implications The results of this study indicate that individuals need to adopt characteristics that are more agentic; this finding is particularly true for females who aim to be on a level playing field with their male counterparts. The results also indicate that negotiation is beneficial whether there is an abundance of resources or not, while cooperation is only beneficial when resources are abundant. Originality/value While past negotiation research has used simple choice games, laboratory studies and field studies, this study provides computational support for the hypothesis that higher levels of negotiation are beneficial to individuals. Additionally, unlike recent agent-based studies that have studied negotiation as a taken-for-granted automated computational process that is done by software on behalf of individuals, the present study simulates agents that have yet to decide whether they will engage in negotiation or not.
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URL: http://www.managementsite.nl/content/uploads/downloads/2014/03/PTO_28jan13_Syllabus_Onderhandelen_13686_.pdf URL PDF version: http://www.managementsite.nl/download/9 URL E-book version: http://www.managementsite.nl/download/8 _ _ _ Onderhandelen is al 30 jaar een onderwerp van studie aan de Erasmus Universiteit. Het is geintroduceerd op aandringen van de toenmalige rector magnificus Rinnooy Kan. In het Parttime Master Bedrijfskunde programma van Rotterdam School of Management krijgt de vaardigheid van het onderhandelen de nodige aandacht. Een deelnemer aan dit programma, Herman Belgraver, heeft zich grondig in onderhandelen verdiept. Hij vervaardigde de syllabus Excelleren in onderhandelen met een overzicht van de beschikbare kennis. De Parttime Master Bedrijfskunde/RSM heeft van deze syllabus een E-boek laten vervaardigen en gratis beschikbaar gesteld aan alle belangstellenden. De indeling van het E-boek Excelleren in onderhandelen is als volgt: 1.Voorbereiding 2.Bronnen van onderhandelingsmacht 3.De fasering van het onderhandelingsgesprek 4.Compromis of Escalatie 5.De uitvoering van het compromis 6.De Evaluatie Als u snel kennis wilt nemen van de beschikbare kennis en ervaring komt dit E-boek van pas. U komt de vuistregels tegen van Karrass, de dirty tricks van Van Houtem, het model van Mastenbroek en de methode die Harvard aanbeveelt. De talrijke verwijzingen helpen u desgewenst verder. De cartoons houden het vrolijk en opgewekt; ook niet onbelangrijk bij het onderhandelen! (The cartoons in this publication are supplied by Negotiation skills training, all rights reserved. http://www.negotiations.com ) In het e-boek staat de fasering van het onderhandelen centraal. Een verstandige keus omdat dit perspectief meteen praktisch… http://www.managementsite.nl/42911/persoonlijke-effectiviteit/excelleren-onderhandelen.html
Article
According to social role theory, women are less likely to initiate negotiations and have lower expectancies about negotiation success because the feminine gender role is inconsistent with the negotiator role. However, gender differences should be amplified in masculine contexts (with even more inconsistency between the negotiator role and the feminine gender role) and reduced in feminine contexts (with more consistency between the negotiator role and the feminine gender role). We showed in Study 1 (N = 1,306 students) that negotiators’ expectancies about being successful in negotiations mediated the effect of gender on real retrospective negotiation behavior. In Study 2, an online scenario experiment (N = 167 students and employees), we found that the framing of the negotiation context (feminine vs. masculine) moderated the mediation effect. We provide implications for theory, practice, and research methods by unearthing mechanisms and moderators of gender differences in the area of negotiations.
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Although self-efficacy can exist at multiple levels of specificity (e.g., general self-efficacy, domain-level self-efficacy, and task-specific self-efficacy), the negotiation literature has not explicitly dealt with negotiation self-efficacy at the domain level. We introduce the conceptual background for domain-level negotiation self-efficacy and – in two contrasting studies – demonstrate the construct's ability to predict objective negotiated outcomes. Interestingly, domain-level negotiation self-efficacy predicted negotiation outcomes while task-specific negotiation self-efficacy did not. Implications of this counter-intuitive finding are discussed.
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Negotiation and conflict management skills have been identified as critical skills for students as part of their business education. In this paper, we have combined research on negotiation self-efficacy and pedagogical tools previously developed to support educational experiences for students in the classroom. Utilizing negotiation cases, we are able to test a student’s ability to create and claim value, maximize goals, and avoid leaving unclaimed value on the bargaining table. The results demonstrate how the negotiation exercise in the marketing context is able to increase confidence and student negotiation skills through the testing of a negotiation self-efficacy scale. Pre-and-post survey results are compared and analyzed.
Article
Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to identify the antecedents of the transformational learning process associated with early international experiences. Secondarily, this research aimed to explain how the antecedent "transformational triggers" may contribute to developing intercultural competencies. Design/methodology/approach ‐ A qualitative study was conducted using open-ended survey response data regarding the transformational triggers that occurred during a study abroad program. The data were collected from a sample of 82 participants from a Midwestern university in the USA. Findings ‐ Four categories of transformational triggers were identified: immersing with local customs and people, experiencing the novelty of "normality," communicating in a new language, and finding time for self-reflection. Research limitations/implications ‐ For a qualitative study, the sample size was sufficient for exploring the types of transformational triggers associated with early international experiences. One limitation of this study is that the sample studied were undergraduate students, or young sojourners, experiencing early, and for some even their first, international experience. Future research can replicate the findings to confirm the same typology of transformational triggers exists for older managers during their early or first international assignment. Practical implications ‐ The transformational triggers identified from this study provide managers with an understanding of the type of experiences that are important to developing intercultural competencies. With these triggers, they can design global leader development programs or expatriate assignments to include time and tools to reflect and provide support specific to each type of transformational trigger. Originality/value ‐ This study offers the first field study of the transformational triggers associated with developing intercultural competencies from early international experiences.
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Purpose After a hiatus in the research on individual differences in negotiation, there has been a surge of renewed interest in recent years followed by several new findings. The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects that personality, as structured by the five-factor model, have over negotiation behavior and decision making in order to create new knowledge and prescribe advice to negotiators. Design/methodology/approach This study replicates observations from earlier studies but with the innovation of using a different methodology, as data from a sample of volunteer participants were collected in regard to their personality and behavior during two computerized negotiation simulations, one with the potential for joint gains and the other following a more traditional bargaining scenario. Findings Significant results for both settings were found, with the personality dimensions of agreeableness, conscientiousness, and extraversion systematically reoccurring as the most statistically relevant, although expressing different roles according to the type of negotiation and measure being registered. The findings thus suggest a multidimensional relationship between personality and situational variables in which specific traits can either become liabilities or assets depending upon whether the potential for value creation is present or not. Originality/value The new findings on the impacts of personality traits on both distributive and integrative negotiations allow negotiators to improve their performance and to adapt to specific distributive or integrative negotiation situations.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this work is to examine the negotiation tactics used in B2B negotiations in creative sectors, and to shed light on some of the characteristics of creative sectors that might drive these behaviors. Design/methodology/approach Multiple case study involving interviews with 18 creative sector negotiators involved in B2B negotiations. Findings The findings suggest that negotiators in B2B firms in creative sectors use a variety of negotiation tactics to reach agreement, but that there are some differences compared with other sectors. One group of tactics, not represented in existing taxonomies, is identified and termed closure seeking tactics, referring to tactics intended to speed up the negotiation process and reach agreement as quickly as possible. The reasons for creative sector negotiators’ choice of closure-seeking tactics might stem from their desire to expedite the start of new projects to enable them to fulfill their creative drive. Research limitations/implications In addition to the identification of group of tactics observed in creative sectors, but not anticipated by existing research, the findings indicate that negotiators in creative sectors seem to lack interest in, and expertise for, negotiating and might be driven more by the desire to get on with the creative process than by concerns over monetary gains when negotiating. This could reflect unique characteristics of creative sectors and the people who work in these sectors. Practical implications This work offers new insights and understanding about tactics used in B2B negotiations in creative sectors. These findings have important implications for practitioners—both for practitioners in creative sectors, who might be too eager to reach closure quickly, and for practitioners negotiating with firms in creative sectors, who need to understand the unique characteristics of these firms. Originality/value The originality of this work lies in its consideration of tactics used in B2B negotiations in the under-studied context of creative sectors and investigation of the reasons that drive the choice of tactics.
Article
The appropriate use of tactics can have a significant effect on dispute negotiation. This study aimed to investigate the confidence of negotiators in their own ability to successfully use tactics to achieve desired outcomes-a concept defined as negotiation-efficacy that underpins Bandura's self-efficacy theory. A questionnaire survey was used to measure the frequency of and confidence with which negotiators used negotiating tactics and the achievement of negotiation outcomes. With the collected data, confidence indices were created to reflect the strength of negotiation-efficacy for each negotiating tactic. Relationships of negotiation-efficacy and the achievement of negotiation outcomes were then examined by multiple regression analyses. The findings show that the strength of negotiation-efficacy is significantly related to the achievement of certain negotiation outcomes. In general, for negotiators who have negotiation-efficacy in executing distributive (integrative) tactics, negative (positive) negotiation outcomes are likely. One of the key implications of these findings is that the study of negotiation-efficacy can serve as a test of reality to prevent negotiators from under-or overestimating the entire negotiation situation and, most importantly, to increase the prospect of negotiation success. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000403. (C) 2012 American Society of Civil Engineers.
Article
Purpose Resilience is a meta-theory for traits and resources that enhance coping with life difficulties. Spector (2006) first introduced the concept of Negotiation Resilience, as a host of inner and outer resources that help in negotiation. We concentrated on negotiators' dispositional NR, developing, over four studies, a measurable multidimensional construct, Trait Negotiation Resilience (TNR). Methodology and findings In Study 1, we developed TNR's measurement, Negotiation Resilience Inventory (NRI) and validated its factorial construct. Study 2 demonstrated NRI's reliability. Study 3 demonstrated NRI's construct validity by testing its correlations with relevant measures. Finally, Study 4 demonstrated NRI's predictive validity; NRI scores predicted negotiators' objective outcomes in a mixed-motive business negotiation. Implications and value The research expands the study of Negotiation Resilience; a concept which we believe was not researched since its introduction. Specifically, our studies produced a measurable construct for quantitative research of negotiators' dispositional resilience. They also suggested its applicability to various challenging interpersonal situations, and that contributes to resilience literature altogether.
Article
This study investigates the confidence of negotiators in their own ability to successfully use tactics to achieve desired outcomes-a concept defined as negotiation-efficacy that underpins Bandura's self-efficacy theory. A questionnaire survey was used to measure the frequency of and confidence with which negotiators used negotiating tactics and the achievement of negotiation outcomes. With the collected data, confidence indices were created to reflect the strength of negotiation-efficacy for each negotiating tactic. Relationships of negotiation-efficacy and the achievement of negotiation outcomes were then examined by multiple regression analyses. The findings show that the strength of negotiation-efficacy is significantly related to the achievement of certain negotiation outcomes. In general, for negotiators who have negotiation-efficacy in executing distributive (integrative) tactics, negative (positive) negotiation outcomes are likely. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014. All rights reserved.
Article
The purpose of this study is to gain insight into the question of whether the phenomenon of self-fulfilling prophecy present in face-to-face interactions can also be identified in electronic negotiation processes. In a 2x2 experiment with 116 subjects the authors found that beliefs about both the climate (conflict intensity and social relationship) and the individual negotiation style with their particular impact on negotiation outcomes came true – irrespective of the controlled context variables or negotiation partner. They confirmed the dynamics of self-fulfilling prophecy in computer-based communication. Based on the authors’ results they recommend that negotiators create a pleasant ambiance in order to support positive expectations and try to understand the partner’s negotiation style in order to (re-)act appropriately.
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A Monte Carlo study compared 14 methods to test the statistical significance of the intervening variable effect. An intervening variable (mediator) transmits the effect of an independent variable to a dependent variable. The commonly used R. M. Baron and D. A. Kenny (1986) approach has low statistical power. Two methods based on the distribution of the product and 2 difference-in-coefficients methods have the most accurate Type I error rates and greatest statistical power except in 1 important case in which Type I error rates are too high. The best balance of Type I error and statistical power across all cases is the test of the joint significance of the two effects comprising the intervening variable effect.
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The impact of tactical knowledge on negotiator behaviors and joint outcomes was examined. It was hypothesized that the availability of written descriptions of negotiation tactics would provide negotiators with the knowledge necessary to apply in a mixed-motive negotiation and that, as a result, these negotiators would engage in different behaviors leading to higher joint outcomes than would negotiators without this knowledge. Ninety dyads engaged in a multi-issue joint venture negotiation: 45 dyads were provided tactical descriptions, and the other 45 were not. Dyads with tactical knowledge engaged in more integrative behaviors and achieved higher joint outcomes, with integrative behaviors serving as mediators of the knowledge-outcome effect. Distributive behaviors were found to be negatively related to joint outcome but were not influenced by tactical knowledge.
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We tested hypotheses concerning the effectiveness of three strategies for breaking conflict spirals in negotiations. We also investigated the relationship between outcomes and the relative frequency of reciprocated contentious communications. Results confirmed the hypotheses, showing that extreme distributive outcomes are related to the relative frequency of reciprocated contentious communications and that conflict spirals can be stopped by various communication strategies. Theoretical and practical implications for managing contentious negotiations are discussed.
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Prior research using experimental games has demonstrated that social value orientations affect the ways in which individuals approach and react to interdependent others; prosocials exhibit greater cooperation than individualists and competitors. This article extends these lines of research by examining the influence of social value orientations on negotiation cognition and behavior. Consistent with predictions, prosocials, relative to individualists and competitors, exhibited lower levels of demand, exhibited greater levels of concessions, and ascribed greater levels of fairness and considerateness to the other person. Moreover, prosocials as well as individualists and competitors exhibited tendencies toward logrolling, making greater concessions on low-priority rather than high-priority issues. The discussion describes several theoretical and practical implications of these findings.
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This meta-analysis (114 studies, k = 157, N = 21,616) examined the relationship between self-efficacy and work-related performance. Results of the primary meta-analysis indicated a significant weighted average correlation between self-efficacy and work-related performance, G (r+) = .38, and a significant within-group heterogeneity of individual correlations. To account for this variation, the authors conducted a 2-level theory-driven moderator analysis by partitioning the k sample of correlations first according to the level of task complexity (low, medium, and high), and then into 2 classes according to the type of study setting (simulated–lab vs. actual–field). New directions for future theory development and research are suggested, and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
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The author provides a conceptual framework for understanding differences among prosocial, individualistic, and competitive orientations. Whereas traditional models conceptualize prosocial orientation in terms of enhancing joint outcomes, the author proposes an integrative model of social value orientation in which prosocial orientation is understood in terms of enhancing both joint outcomes and equality in outcomes. Consistent with this integrative model, prosocial orientation (vs. individualistic and competitive orientations) was associated with greater tendencies to enhance both joint outcomes and equality in outcomes; in addition, both goals were positively associated (Study 1). Consistent with interaction-relevant implications of this model, prosocial orientation was strongly related to reciprocity. Relative to individualists and competitors, prosocials were more likely to engage in the same level of cooperation as the interdependent other did (Study 2) and the same level of cooperation as they anticipated from the interdependent other (Study 3). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Negotiation researchers theorize that individual differences are determinants of bargaining processes and outcomes but have yet to establish empirically the role of individual differences. In 2 studies the authors used bargaining simulations to examine the roles of personality and cognitive ability in distributive (Study 1) and integrative (Study 2) negotiation. The authors hypothesized and found evidence that Extraversion and Agreeableness are liabilities in distributive bargaining encounters. For both Extraversion and Agreeableness there were interactions between personality and negotiator aspirations such that personality effects were more pronounced in the absence of high aspirations. Contrary to predictions, Conscientiousness was generally unrelated to bargaining success. Cognitive ability played no role in distributive bargaining but was markedly related to the attainment of joint outcomes in a situation with integrative potential.
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This meta-analysis (114 studies, k = 157, N = 21.616) examined the relationship between self-efficacy and work-related performance. Results of the primary meta-analysis indicated a significant weighted average correlation between self-efficacy and work-related performance, G(r+) = .38, and a significant within-group heterogeneity of individual correlations. To account for this variation, the authors conducted a 2-level theory-driven moderator analysis by partitioning the k sample of correlations first according to the level of task complexity (low, medium, and high), and then into 2 classes according to the type of study setting (simulated-lab vs. actual-field). New directions for future theory development and research are suggested, and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
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The impact of tactical knowledge on integrative and distributive response-in-kind behavior sequences and the ability to shift from distributive to integrative behaviors were examined using data from a prior study. Ninety dyads engaged in a multi-issue joint venture negotiation. Forty-five dyads were provided tactical knowledge and the other 45 were not. Markov chain analysis was used to test the hypotheses. A second-order chain best fit the data. Results showed that negotiators responded-in-kind to both distributive and integrative tactical behavior regardless of tactical knowledge. In line with Weick's (1969) “double interact” proposition of interlocked behaviors, negotiators with tactical knowledge were more likely to respond-in-kind to integrative behavior than were those without such knowledge, but only after their previous integrative behavior had been reciprocated. In addition, negotiators with tactical knowledge engaged in longer chains of integrative behavior (regardless of the behavior of the other party) than did negotiators without tactical knowledge; however, this only occurred after two integrative behaviors had occurred previously.
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Two experiments explored actual and predicted outcomes in competitive dyadic negotiations under time pressure. Participants predicted that final deadlines would hurt their negotiation outcomes. Actually, moderate deadlines improved outcomes for negotiators who were eager to get a deal quickly because the passage of time was costly to them. Participants’ erroneous predictions may be due to oversimplified and egocentric prediction processes that focus on the effects of situational constraints (deadlines) on the self and oversimplify or ignore their effects on others. The results clarify the psychological processes by which people predict the outcomes of negotiation and select negotiation strategies.
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A key assumption underlying methods of construct validation is that constructs and their indicators are represented at the appropriate depth (i.e., the specificity versus generality of constructs and their indicators). This article presents a framework that depicts constructs and indicators at various depths and provides guidelines for choosing from among these depths. The framework is then integrated with methods of construct validation based on the confirmatory factor analysis of multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) matrices. The authors apply these methods to the measurement of work values, using the Work Aspect Preference Scale (WAPS). Results show that the WAPS performs better when used to represent relatively specific work values as opposed to more global, general values. Further analyses supported the generalizability of the WAPS factor structure for men and women, although gender differences were found on structured means for several latent value dimensions. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/68713/2/10.1177_109442819800100104.pdf
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The results of a laboratory study of 276 individuals replicate past findings for cooperative behavior as a form of contextual performance and extend past research by providing evidence that voice (constructive change-oriented communication) may be another form of contextual performance. Conscientiousness, extraversion, and agreeableness related more strongly to voice behavior and cooperative behavior than to task performance. Cognitive ability related more strongly to task performance than to voice behavior or cooperative behavior. Results also demonstrate contrasting relationships for agreeableness (positive with cooperative behavior and negative with voice behavior). This supports recent research suggesting the possibility of bidirectional relationships with personality characteristics across different dimensions of job performance.
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This study compared the negotiation behaviors of Japanese and U.S. managers in intra- and intercultural settings. Transcripts from an integrative bargaining task were coded and analyzed with logistic and linear regression. U.S. negotiators exchanged information directly and avoided influence when negotiating intra- and interculturally. Japanese negotiators exchanged information indirectly and used influence when negotiating intraculturally but adapted their behaviors when negotiating interculturally. Culturally normative negotiation behaviors partially account for the lower joint gains generated by intercultural, relative to intracultural, dyads. The behavioral data inform motivational and skill-based explanations for elusive joint gains when cultures clash.
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A Monte Carlo study compared 14 methods to test the statistical significance of the intervening variable effect. An intervening variable (mediator) transmits the effect of an independent variable to a dependent variable. The commonly used R. M. Baron and D. A. Kenny (1986) approach has low statistical power. Two methods based on the distribution of the product and 2 difference-in-coefficients methods have the most accurate Type I error rates and greatest statistical power except in 1 important case in which Type I error rates are too high. The best balance of Type I error and statistical power across all cases is the test of the joint significance of the two effects comprising the intervening variable effect.
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Using a simulated employment contract negotiation, this study examined the relationship between negotiation strategies and the quality of negotiated outcomes. A log-linear analysis showed that the frequency and sequencing of strategies was systematically related to negotiation outcomes. Impasse negotiations were characterized by the frequent use of contention and sequences that paired similar (either cooperative or competitive) strategies. Settlement was associated with decreased contention and the use of sequences that paired dissimilar strategies. Increasing joint gain was linked to the introduction of priority information and conciliation as well as to changes in the pattern of information exchange: Reciprocal and indirect (positional) information exchange led to low joint gain, whereas reciprocal and direct (priority) information exchange led to high joint gain.
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SAS PROC MIXED is a flexible program suitable for fitting multilevel models, hierarchical linear models, and individual growth models. Its position as an integrated program within the SAS statistical package makes it an ideal choice for empirical researchers and applied statisticians seeking to do data reduction, management, and analysis within a single statistical package. Because the program was developed from the perspective of a "mixed" statistical model with both random and fixed effects, its syntax and programming logic may appear unfamiliar to users in education and the social and behavioral sciences who tend to express these models as multilevel or hierarchical models. The purpose of this paper is to help users familiar with fitting multilevel models using other statistical packages (e.g., HLM, MLwiN, MIXREG) add SAS PROC MIXED to their array of analytic options. The paper is written as a step-by-step tutorial that shows how to fit the two most common multilevel models: (a) school effects models, designed for data on individuals nested within naturally occurring hierarchies (e.g., students within classes); and (b) individual growth models, designed for exploring longitudinal data (on individuals) over time. The conclusion discusses how these ideas can be extended straighforwardly to the case of three level models. An appendix presents general strategies for working with multilevel data in SAS and for creating data sets at several levels.
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This investigation examined the effects of bargainer role and sex‐role composition on the frequencies and sequences of bargaining talk. Thirty‐two male and thirty‐two female bargainers were assigned to labor‐management roles in same‐sex or mixed‐sex dyads to bargain a simulated grievance case. A modified version of the Bargaining Process Analysis (BPA) was employed to test for reciprocity of bargaining strategies. The findings demonstrated that management representatives relied on defensive tactics while labor negotiators specialized in offensive maneuvers; these strategies emerged in the interaction structure of negotiators, especially in their use of attack‐defend and offensive‐information giving patterns. Impasse dyads, as compared with agreement pairs, exhibited a tightly‐structured, reciprocal pattern of attack‐attack or defend‐defend, with management initiating this cycle.
Article
Conflicts sometimes involve issues for which both parties want the same outcome, although frequently parties fail to recognize their shared interests. These common-value issues set the stage for a nasty misrepresentation strategy: feigning opposed interest on the common-value issue to gain an advantage on other issues. In a laboratory negotiation simulation, participants used misrepresentation in 28% of their negotiations. The strategy was more likely to occur when negotiators had individualistic motives and was less likely to occur when both parties realized their common interests. Use of the strategy led to favorable outcomes, and these were best predicted by negotiator aspirations, rather than perceptual accuracy. The authors discovered two forms of the strategy: misrepresentation by commission (the user actively misrepresented his or her common-value issue preferences) and misrepresentation by omission (the user concealed his or her common-value issue interests when the other person made a favorable offer).
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In the present research, the authors examined a distributive bargaining situation in which the participant’s counterpart either did or did not make an unambiguously cooperative move at the outset of the negotiation. Participants’ bargaining roles were written such that they had a clear alternative of their own as well as accurate inside information about the other party’s no-agreement alternative. A confederate posing as a participant assumed the opposite role and followed a script. The script was varied such that the confederate either did or did not disclose his or her alternative at the outset of the negotiation. Results indicated that even though cooperation ran counter to their self-interest, participants were more cooperative in the disclosure conditions. That is, they made less demanding offers, disclosed more truthful information, and settled for less profit. Implications of these results and future research directions are discussed.
Article
The construct of self-efficacy has received increasing empirical attention in the organizational behavior literature. People who think they can perform well on a task do better than those who think they will fail. Differences in self-efficacy are associated with bona fide differences in skill level; however, efficacy perceptions also may be influenced by differences in personality, motivation, and the task itself. This article reviews theoretically the antecedent processes and information cues involved in the formation of self-efficacy. A model of the determinants of self-efficacy is proposed that enhances understanding of both the complexity and malleability of the construct. Determinants that facilitate the most immediate change in self-efficacy are identified, and appropriate change strategies are highlighted. Implications and propositions pertaining to future research are discussed at the end of the article.
Article
This paper examined negotiator behavior in a variable-sum two-party negotiation task and its impact on individual and joint negotiator out-come. Specifically, we examined the role of negotiator opening offer, reciprocity and complementarity of the use of tactics, systematic progression of offers, and information sharing in a negotiation with integrative potential. Results indicated that initial offers affect final outcome differently across buyers and sellers. The buyer's initial offer was curvilinearly related to his or her final outcome in the form of an inverted-U. The seller's initial offer was positive-linearly related to seller's outcome. Second, negotiators reciprocated and complemented both distributive and integrative tactics. In addition, highly integrative dyads differed from less efficient dyads in their reciprocation of integrative behaviors and complementarity of distributive behaviors. Third, approximately forty percent of offers made represented systematic concessions, but the proportion of offers reflecting systematic concessions was not related to the efficiency of the joint outcome. Finally, while information sharing did appear to have a positive effect on the efficiency of agreements, differences in the amount of information provided did not affect the proportion of outcome claimed by each party.
Article
Negotiators with a BATNA (best alternative to the negotiated agreement) obtain higher individual outcomes and a larger percentage of the dyadic outcomes than individuals without a BATNA. This study examined if three mechanisms related to a BATNA, an alternative, a specific goal, and self-efficacy, independently or in combination, influence outcomes. Six of the eight combinations resulted in higher individual outcomes. An alternative coupled with a goal or self-efficacy resulted in a higher percent of dyadic outcomes and higher impasse rates.
Article
Compared 5 ways of operationalizing self-efficacy that are commonly found in the literature and assessed the antecedents and consequences of self-efficacy on the basis of A. Bandura's (1986) conceptualization. Results indicate that measuring self-efficacy by using a task-specific, 1-item confidence rating showed the lowest convergent validity with the other self-efficacy operationalizations and showed the least consistency in its correlation with the hypothesized self-efficacy antecedents and outcomes. Furthermore, self-efficacy magnitude and self-efficacy strength (combining all the certainty answers) appeared to be inferior to self-efficacy composites based on combining only the strength items where the magnitude response was "yes, I can perform at that level." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This book represents a compilation of articles on negotiation and related topics: conflict, conflict resolution, power, influence, and persuasion. Most of the articles were selected from newspapers, magazines, and management journals. We chose them because they made very good points, were very readable, and were not unnecessarily theoretical or technical. One purpose of this book—and the related practice activities (role plays and simulations)—is to help the student overcome the fear of negotiating. This fear can be overcome through mastery of the concepts presented here and practice of the related skills. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Two experiments addressed relations between judgmental processes and action by examining both the impact of the anchoring/adjustment heuristic on judgments of performance capabilities and the subsequent impact of these self-efficacy judgments on behavior. In Exp I, 62 undergraduates judged their capabilities for performance on a problem-solving task after exposure to ostensibly random anchor values representing either high or low levels of performance. Ss in a control condition received no anchor values. Anchoring biases strongly affected self-efficacy judgments. High-anchor Ss evidenced the highest judgments of their capabilities and low-anchor Ss the lowest judgments. Ss then performed the task. Differences in task persistence paralleled the differences in self-efficacy judgments, with high-anchor Ss displaying the highest level of task persistence. Exp II, with 23 high school students, replicated these results. In both studies, self-efficacy was predictive of both between-group differences and variations in performance within the anchoring conditions. (36 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The study evaluated whether alternate assessment methods contribute to variability in self-efficacy and outcome expectancy ratings for refusal of unreasonable requests. Subject assertiveness plus two methods of scene presentation (i.e., printed vs videotape) and two methods of response generation (i.e., experimenter-prepared vs. subject thought-listed) were compared in a repeated measures design. All subjects were exposed to eight request situations that were matched for legitimacy level and target person. Each situation reflected one of four combinations of assessment methods and served to elicit either an efficacy or outcome expectancy rating. For self-efficacy ratings, there was a significant interaction that indicated that the printed scene plus experimenter-prepared response condition yielded significantly higher ratings than all of the other conditions. For outcome expectancy ratings, there was a main effect for response-generation method indicating that the thought-listing method led to lower expectancy of positive outcomes. Also, consistent with past research, assertive subjects reported more positive than negative outcome expectancies. These plus other findings are discussed relative to the cognitive assessment and self-efficacy literatures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Manipulated self-efficacy and task strategies in the training of 209 undergraduates under high strategy, low strategy, and control conditions. Ss underwent 5 trials and were administered a self-efficacy scale after each trial. Results show that ability, past performance, and self-efficacy were the major predictors of goal choice. Ability, self-efficacy, goals, and task strategies were related to task performance. Self-efficacy was more strongly related to past performance than to future performance but remained a significant predictor of future performance even when past performance was controlled. Self-efficacy ratings for moderate to difficult levels of performance were the best predictors of future performance; a reanalysis of 2 previous goal-setting studies by the first author confirms this finding. (19 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Social value orientations (SVOs) are known to influence individual behaviour in outcome interdependent settings. By extending these findings to negotiation, this research investigates the relationship between own and partners' SVOs, negotiator strategies and outcomes. Results showed that cooperators, competitors and individualists could be distinguished in terms of initial demands and concessions. Competitors made higher initial demands and larger concessions than individualists or cooperators, suggesting that their ability to maximize outcome differences rests on whether structural features are congruent with this goal. The principal finding of this research was the demonstration that own and partners' SVO interact to determine outcomes. Results showed that the three SVO groups differed in terms of context sensitivity: competitor outcomes were invariant across partners; individualists achieved poor outcomes in negotiations with cooperators and, reciprocally, cooperators attained high outcomes in negotiations with individualists. Additionally, individualist outcomes worsened in their last negotiation, while those of cooperators differed as a function of role and partner's SVO. These results suggest that although the information used by individualists and cooperators differs, for both groups the cognitive representation of negotiations is a further factor influencing their outcomes.
Article
This study examined the effects of self-efficacy and a two-stage training process on the acquisition and maintenance (i.e., retention) of complex interpersonal skills. In stage one, all participants received basic training in negotiation skills; behavioral measures of negotiation performance were taken following this training. During stage two, alternative post-training interventions (goal setting and self-management) were offered to facilitate skill maintenance. Six weeks later, behavioral measures of performance were repeated. Results indicated that pre-test self-efficacy contributed positively to both initial and delayed performance. While training condition contributed to skill maintenance, self-efficacy also interacted with post-training method to influence delayed performance. Specifically, self-management training attenuated the self-efficacy performance relationship, while goal-setting training accentuated performance differences between high and low self-efficacy trainees. Implications of these findings are discussed for researchers and practitioners concerned with interpersonal skills training.
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We propose that face-to-face contact fosters the development of rapport and thereby helps negotiators coordinate on mutually beneficial settlements in mixed-motive conflicts. Specifically, we investigate whether, in a cooperative climate, negotiators' visual access to each other's nonverbal behavior fosters a dyadic state of rapport that facilitates mutual cooperation. Experiment 1 manipulated whether negotiators stood face-to-face or side-by-side (unable to see each other) in a simulated strike negotiation. Face-to-face dyads were more likely to coordinate on a settlement early in the strike, resulting in higher joint gains. An alternative interpretation in terms of an anticipatory effect of face-to-face contact was not supported. Experiment 2 manipulated whether previously unacquainted negotiators conversed face-to-face or by telephone before separating to play a conflict game with the structure of a Prisoner's Dilemma game. Face-to-face dyads were more likely to coordinate on high joint gain outcomes. The facilitatory effect of face-to-face contact was statistically mediated by a measure of dyadic rapport. Results did not support alternative interpretations based on individual-level positive affect or expectations about opponents. We conclude with a discussion of the role of affective and dyad-level processes in social psychological models of conflict resolution. 2000 Academic Press Many interactions in life are mixed-motive conflicts in which the collectively optimal outcome requires mutual cooperation but individual self-interest makes it tempting not to cooperate (Axelrod, 1984; Kelley & Thibaut, 1954; Rubin & Aimee L.
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In a replication and extension of Gist, Stevens, and Bavetta (1991), we examined the effects of self-efficacy and a performance- versus a mastery-oriented post-training session on trainees' negotiation skill maintenance. Sixty MBA students received salary-negotiation training and engaged in practice negotiations with a confederate. They then attended either a performance- or a mastery-oriented post-training session. A second practice negotiation was conducted 7 weeks later. Results indicated that mastery-oriented trainees engaged in more interim skill-maintenance activities, planned to exert more effort, and showed more positive affect than did performance-oriented trainees. In addition, self-efficacy interacted with the post-training condition on Time 2 performance: Low self-efficacy trainees performed more poorly than high self-efficacy trainees in the performance- but not in the mastery-oriented post-training condition. Analyses indicated that trainees' cognitive withdrawal mediated this effect. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
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To ensure success in resolving difficult disputes, negotiators mustmake strategic decisions about their negotiation approach. In this essay,we make practical recommendations for negotiation strategy based on Ury,Brett, and Goldberg's (1993) interests, rights, and power framework fordispute resolution and subsequent empirical research by Brett, Shapiro, andLytle (1998). We discuss how negotiations cycle through interests, rights,and power foci; the prevalence of reciprocity; and the one-sided,distributive outcomes that result from reciprocity of rights and powercommunications. We then turn to using interests, rights and powerstrategically in negotiations. We discuss choosing an opening stragegy,breaking conflict spirals of reciprocated rights and power communications,and when and how to use rights and power communications effectively innegotiations.
Many negotiations provide opportunities for integrative agreements in which parties can maximize joint gains without competing for resources in a direct win-lose fashion. However, negotiators often settle for suboptimal compromise agreements rather than search for mutually beneficial, or integrative, agreements. We hypothesized that misperceptions of the other party's interests are a primary cause of suboptimal outcomes. Two studies examined the role of social perception in negotiation and the relationship between judgment accuracy and negotiation performance. Results indicated that: most negotiators enter negotiation expecting the other party's interests to be completely opposed to their own; negotiators learn about the potential for joint gain during negotiation; most learning occurs within the first few minutes of interaction; accurate perception of the other party's interests leads to better negotiation performance; negotiators who learn about the other party's interests in the early stages of negotiation earn higher payoffs than do those who learn during the later stages of negotiation; a substantial number of negotiators fail to realize when they have interests that are completely compatible with those of the other party and settle for suboptimal agreements; and the two types of judgment error, Fixed Sum Error and Incompatibility Error, appear to be unrelated, distinct judgment errors. We discuss the role of social judgment in negotiation and the generalizability of the results to real world negotiations.
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Previous research has established two-way relationships among negotiators’ motivational orientations, strategy choices, and outcomes. This article focuses on the less often investigated three-way relationship among these variables. A log-linear analysis demonstrated that in individualistically oriented dyads, low joint gain was associated with high levels of substantiation, demand, and proposal modifications. Joint gain improved when negotiators made multi-issue offers, used positional arguing, and introduced non-reciprocal sequences based on priority information. In cooperatively oriented dyads, high levels of priority information, process management, and reciprocal sequences characterized optimum outcomes. We conclude that optimum outcomes result from (a) multi-issue offers and indirect information under an individualistic orientation and (b) reciprocity and direct information under a cooperative orientation.
This study examines whether and how accountability to constituents affects the cognitions, performance, and outcomes of team and solo negotiators. Previous findings for solos were replicated here: solo negotiators respond competitively when they are accountable to constituents. For teams, however, accountability pressures were distributed across the members resulting in each team member experiencing little responsibility for outcomes. As a consequence, teams did not respond to accountability pressures by behaving contentiously as solos did. Analysis of negotiators' perceptions of advantage reveals that solos who negotiate under conditions of high accountability consider themselves to be at a disadvantage in the negotiation even before the negotiation begins. These perceptions may underlie the accountability/competitive relation that characterizes solo negotiation. Implications for negotiation research as well as the study of groups in organizations are discussed.
This study examined the interactive effects of task structure, decision rule, and social motive on small-group negotiation processes and outcomes. Three-person groups negotiated either within an asymmetrical task structure (in which a majority of group members have compatible interests) or within a symmetrical task structure (in which no such majority exists). Groups negotiated either under unanimity rule or under majority rule, and group members were either egoistically or prosocially motivated. Results revealed cumulative main effects and the predicted three-way interaction: Groups in an asymmetrical task structure engaged in more distributive and less integrative behavior, reached lower joint outcomes, and experienced a less positive group climate especially when they had an egoistic rather than prosocial motivation and unanimity rather than majority rule applied. Theoretical implications and avenues for future research are discussed.
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Why are people more willing to accept some governmental decisions than others? In this article, we present results from a series of original experiments showing that people’s reactions to a given outcome are heavily influenced by the procedure employed to produce the outcome.We find that subjects reactmuch less favorably when a decision maker intentionally keeps a large payoff, thereby leaving the subject with a small payoff, than when that same payoff results from a procedure based on chance or on desert. Moreover, subjects react less favorably to outcomes rendered by decision makers who want to be decision makers than they do to identical outcomes selected by reluctant decision makers. Our results are consistent with increasingly prominent theories of behavior emphasizing people’s aversion to being played for a “sucker,” an attitude that makes perfect sense if people’s main goal is not to acquire as many tangible goods as possible but to make sure they are a valued part of a viable group composed of cooperative individuals.
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Incl. app., bibliographical notes and references, frequently asked questions: pp. 105-138, index
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In the 45 years since Cattell used English trait terms to begin the formulation of his "description of personality," a number of investigators have proposed an alternative structure based on 5 orthogonal factors. The generality of this 5-factor model is here demonstrated across unusually comprehensive sets of trait terms. In the first of 3 studies, 1,431 trait adjectives grouped into 75 clusters were analyzed; virtually identical structures emerged in 10 replications, each based on a different factor-analytic procedure. A 2nd study of 479 common terms grouped into 133 synonym clusters revealed the same structure in 2 samples of self-ratings and in 2 samples of peer ratings. None of the factors beyond the 5th generalized across the samples. In the 3rd study, analyses of 100 clusters derived from 339 trait terms suggest their potential utility as Big-Five markers in future studies.
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Past research has suggested that dispositional sources of job satisfaction can be traced to measures of affective temperament. The present research focused on another concept, core self-evaluations, which were hypothesized to comprise self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, locus of control, and nonneuroticism. A model hypothesized that core self-evaluations would have direct effects on job and life satisfaction. It also was hypothesized that core self-evaluations would have indirect effects on job satisfaction. Data were collected from 3 independent samples in 2 countries, using dual source methodology. Results indicated that core self-evaluations had direct and indirect effects on job and life satisfaction. The statistical and logical relationship among core evaluations, affective disposition, and satisfaction was explored.
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A meta-analysis of 28 studies examined support for the Theory of Cooperation and Competition (M. Deutsch, 1973) and Dual Concern Theory (D. G. Pruitt & J. Z. Rubin, 1986). Effects of social motive (prosocial vs. egoistic) and resistance to yielding (high vs. low vs. unknown) on contenting, problem solving, and joint outcomes were examined. Consistent with Dual Concern Theory, results showed that negotiators were less contentious, engaged in more problem solving, and achieved higher joint outcomes when they had a prosocial rather than egoistic motive, but only when resistance to yielding was high (or unknown) rather than low. The authors also explored the moderating effects of study characteristics and found effects for participation inducement (class exercise, participant pool), for publication status, and for treatment of no-agreement dyads.
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A psychosocial model of sun protection and sunbathing as distinct behaviors was developed on 202 young Caucasian women and replicated in an independent sample (n = 207). Proximal outcomes were intention to sun protect and intention to sunbathe; distal outcomes included sun protection and sunbathing behavior measured 5 months later. Objective risk for skin cancer plus 4 classes of psychosocial variables (sun-protective health beliefs, self-efficacy for sun protection, attitudes toward sunbathing, and norms for sunbathing and sun protection) served as predictors. Sun-protective norms and self-efficacy for sun protection predicted only intention to sun protect; sunbathing norms predicted only intention to sunbathe. Susceptibility and advantages of tanning predicted both intention constructs, which, in turn, predicted behavior. These findings distinguish sun protection from sunbathing and provide a basis for intervention design.
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Negotiations do not always end in agreements. Yet, we know little about impasses and how they affect negotiators. In three studies, we compare how negotiators experience impasses and agreements, paying particular attention to the moderating role of disputant self-efficacy. Specifically, we propose and find that negotiators who impasse find themselves caught in a distributive spiral-they interpret their performance as unsuccessful, experience negative emotions, and develop negative perceptions of their counterpart and the process. In terms of their future behavioral intentions, they are less willing to work together in the future, plan to share less information, plan to behave less cooperatively, and they lose faith in negotiation as an effective means of managing conflicts. As predicted, negotiators with relatively high levels of self-efficacy were insulated from some of these negative outcomes.