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Environmental impact assessment on land reclamation projects in The Netherlands: A case history

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Abstract

Since the 12th century AD land reclamation is carried out in The Netherlands. Numerous shallow, salt or freshwater lakes were pumped dry, changing the lakes into polders. These persistent pumping activities have caused substantial land subsidence in the areas surrounding these polders. In order to assess the impact of pumping water out of a planned new polder (Markerwaard) on the adjacent land areas, a large multidisciplinary study has been performed. In this paper the geological, geotechnical, geohydrological, environmental and constructional aspects of this planned land reclamation project will be discussed. Furthermore, attention will be paid to potential measures for mitigating the harmful effects of land reclamation. It will be demonstrated that it was impossible to make reliable cost calculations of the potential damage to housing, infrastructure, crops and environment due to the construction of the polder, without proper knowledge of the geological conditions of the area and its wide surroundings.

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... As the primary design scenario, most activities and the associated setting boundary would be well complied with the conventional land reclamation event e.g. the Dutch method of land reclamation (de Mulder et al., 1994). Activities associated with IBA for land reclamation can be divided into two stages, Stage I) during construction, and Stage II) after construction, with the following considerations, 1) the release rate and the total release amount of trace elements of concern from IBA over defined time intervals; 2) attenuation of the leachate as they migrate through seawater and soil, to the receptor being considered; 3) exposure to the receptors, e.g. ...
... Sand bonds would be employed during land reclamation to avoid over-spilling of the filling materials (de Mulder et al., 1994). IBA (preloaded in the barge) may be discharged either via the free dropping method through a bottom opener or a guiding chute attached to the moving barge (Fig. S1a). ...
Article
Incineration bottom ash (IBA) faces challenges for its sustainable recycling due to the absence of scenario-specific risk assessment. Environmental risk assessment was carried out via a case study incorporating key factors to dominate human exposures during IBA utilization in land reclamation. Three research components echoing respective IBA leaching, exposures, and consequences were performed under a supportive framework to elaborate these interlinked key factors and unveil the potential environmental risks. IBA leachability was firstly investigated using various laboratory standard leaching methods while conducted a large-scale field trial experiment for mutual confirmation, suggesting that maximum leached amounts may be achieved when liquid to solid (L/S) ratio increases to 10. Dilution and transportation models were both developed to discriminate the mitigation of IBA leachate between two periods i.e. during and after land reclamation, suggesting that dilution rather than transportation may dominate the environmental impact for metal exposures. Metal bioaccumulation from a typical mollusk species was performed coupling the calculated dietary safety limits based on Singaporean diet intake for development of the threshold of toxicology concerns on human exposures. With such, IBA benign usage in land reclamation was also conferred in the form of distance and dilution factor.
... Another potential risk is caused by construction program of large-sized port and land reclamation project in coastal areas, which result in more transportation of terrigenous materials into the estuary (Figs. 1 and 3). Over-development of coastlines is always accompanied by pollution and ecological degradation (de Mulder et al., 1994;Lee et al., 2014), consequently, implementation of pivotal scientific strategies including adequate pre-planning, strict control of scale, establishment of red line setting, development of artificial wetland, and improvement of land reclamation methods are recommended to reduce the adverse impacts. With regard to the reclamation project, application of cleaning landfill materials needs to be prioritized. ...
... The second is how to determine the amount of ecological damage. Cendrero [43] and de Mulder et al. [44] found that damage factors caused by reclamation mainly focus on fishery resources, mammals such as seals, habitat resources such as mangroves and coral reefs, wetland water quality, and coastal tourism resources such as beaches. Studies have also been conducted on marine ecological damage caused by toxic leaks and land-based pollution. ...
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With the objective of establishing methods for high-quality marine development and effective marine management, this review focuses on four dimensions of marine development: marine economy, marine resources, marine ecology, and marine accounting. The focus of marine economy research is the marine industry, with the marine circular economy being the latest research frontier. Marine resources are the foundation of the marine economy. To use different types of marine resources more efficiently, it is necessary to apply the property right system of natural resources to marine fields. The healthy development of the marine economy is guaranteed by marine ecology. How to scientifically measure marine ecological loss and evaluate the marine ecological environment carrying capacity and marine ecological security is key to the sustainable development of the marine economy. The development of the marine economy is based on successful marine accounting. The lack of marine data globally has made marine accounting controversial. The study aims to review the development history and latest research frontiers for various marine-related fields and identify existing problems in the processes of marine economic development and marine management, with a view to finding a breakthrough for transforming and upgrading marine development, improving the marine economic governance system, and strengthening the modernization of marine governance capacity, so as to better develop and utilize the oceans.
... Therefore, reasonable development and utilization of intertidal resources has been tightly related to the sustainable development of coastal economy, society and ecology. Since the early 90s in 20th century, researchers worldwide in the Netherlands, Japan, South Korea and other countries (de Mulder et al., 1994;Hommes et al., 2009;Mostafa, 2012) have been interested about what land reclamation in the coastal areas will bring about to both nature and human beings. Thus, the changes in coastal geographical environment, ecology, water quality, society, economy and many other aspects directly or indirectly caused by coastal development have been widely discussed. ...
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Chen, X.D.; Yu, S.B.; Chen, J.; Zhang, C.K.; Dai, W.Q., and Zhang, Q., 2020. Environmental impact of large-scale tidal flats reclamation in Jiangsu, China. In: Malvárez, G. and Navas, F. (eds.), Global Coastal Issues of 2020. Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue No. 95, pp. 315–319. Coconut Creek (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208. While coastal reclamation creates huge benefits by providing a variety of resources for socio-economic development, the environmental impact of human activities should be appropriately evaluated. Since 2009, a large-scale tidal flats reclamation project was conducted. The project was suspended and no more reclamation was conducted after 2017. An integral assessment method has been desperately in need to comprehensively understand the environmental impact of such project which has been partly completed. A comparison was made between the states before and after the implementation of the reclamation project in Jiangsu coast. Results show that generally the large-scale reclamation had limited influence on the tidal system and coastal evolution, but inevitably changed the local hydrodynamic conditions in the vicinity of most project sites. Ecology resource suffered most pressure. Environmental pollution was also a critical indicator. An integrated framework was proposed based on the conceptual model of “Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response” to assess the environment impact of large-scale reclamation in Jiangsu tidal flats. However, large numbers of relevant data need to be collected on the way forward. Nevertheless, this assessment model will promote the long-term harmonious development of economic development and ecosystem health.
... However, it was reclaimed in the Netherlands to save a unique thing that perhaps not everyone knows. Reclamation in the Netherlands implemented the system Polder (De Mulder, EFJ, Van Bruchem, AJ, Claessen, FAM, Hannink, G., Hulsbergen, JG, & Satijn, HMC, 1994), Therefore, dijk and sea walls found in the Netherlands (Polderman, 1975), Reclamation Flevoland region or once a region Zuiderzee in 1916 a big flood, and it was decided that Zuiderzee (An inland sea in the Netherlands) will be covered by reclaiming and "Zuiderzee Works" starts. in 1932, Afsluitdijk completed, the sea closes completely. This was then called with Ijsselmeer which means the lake at the end of Ijssel's river (Van Loon, 1975), Flevoland is an area that is claimed as the world's largest artificial island. ...
Article
Jakarta Bay Reclamation is the process of land acquisition by the government of Jakarta within government Jokowi Widodo, who was replaced by Basuki Tjahaja Purnama (Ahok). Later, in the 2017 gubernatorial election Anies Baswedan and Sandiaga Uno won an absolute and seized power in the capital. With the win, according to the governor's promise during the election campaign that Anies has suspended the reclamation project and confirms the termination of the contract with the developers, some of whom started reclamation and want to restore the land benefit for the greatest prosperity of the people in accordance with the mandate of the state constitution. This action reaps the pros and cons because the developers have invested large enough to planning a new city for business purposes and converted into for the benefit of the people. The study aims to analyze and provide alternative solutions regarding the use and utilization of land reclamation which covers approximately 1500 hectares in order to find a win-win solution. The method used is normative juridical approach to address how policy should be appropriate so that the reclaimed land can be reused and do not become wastelands. From this research found an alternative solution by dividing the three steps, among others who had given position, which was the reclamation process, and that has not been processed yet been obtained prior permission from the governor. Complicating this issue is caused due to developers who build without permits and permit reclamation is still under debate, so there are some developers who commit violations in the sphere of administrative and legal procedures, and increasingly complicated in the land that has been reclaimed in fact already issued building rights to on behalf of developers perceived by the governor Anies as a rule are not prudential practice. Keywords: Land Bank, Reclamation, Land Acquisition, Affordable Housing.
... Coastal areas are usually the final discharge zones of regional groundwater systems (Jiao et al., 2006). With the extending of land to sea, the large-scale reclamation activities have an irreversible detrimental impact on the geomorphology of the coastal line and hydrodynamic system (Chen and Jiao, 2007;Duan et al., 2016;Mulder et al., 1994;Wang et al., 2014;Yang et al., 2011). For instance, the natural interactions between sea and land have been seriously interrupted by the constructed seawalls and other man-made structures, leading to changes of groundwater flow path, rate of drainage and load of nutrient, which ultimately result in rising GWL, biodiversity decline, saltwater retention, soil salinization, beach dewatering and instability of coastal infrastructures (Bi et al., 2012;Hu and Jiao, 2010;Kalnay and Cai, 2003;Li et al., 2019;McKinney, 2008;Wang et al., 2019;. ...
Article
It is challenging to predict groundwater level (GWL) accurately and reliably in reclaimed coastal areas, the dynamic of which has been greatly altered by the land reclamation activities, due to its diverse engineering boundaries. In this study, the data-driven Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models (nonlinear input-output network (NIO), nonlinear autoregressive network with exogenous inputs (NARX), and wavelet-NARX (WA-NARX)) are used to predict the GWL in a newly reclaimed land on Zhoushan Island, China. The models use semi-diurnal tide (SDT) and precipitation as input variables, and the wavelet coherence (WTC) is applied to analyze the response of GWL to SDT. The results show that the WA-NARX hybrid model provides better prediction performance, especially for short-term periods. Meanwhile, we also explore the correlations between GWL and SDT in the filled and clay layers by using the WTC and the global coherence coefficient (GCC). The results show strong correlations at 0.5-, 1-, and 15-day time scales (resonance periodicities), which are then used as prediction periods for ANN models. The correlation is stronger for the filled layer than that for the clay layer indicates GWL in the filled layer is more sensitive to SDT, especially at 0.5-day time scale. The predicted results also confirm that SDT and precipitation have great influences on GWL with better prediction in the filled layer.
... These case studies also illustrate the range of conditions experienced by coastal wetlands: a degrading system with limited sediment supply and considerable subsidence (Mississippi Delta, LA, USA) and a prograding system with plentiful sediment supply and negligible subsidence (Friesland, Wadden Sea, the Netherlands [NL]) (Fig 1). Both areas have undergone extensive changes over the last several decades and climate change and management actions are expected to influence the future elevation, area, or species composition of wetlands [46][47][48][49][50][51]. Wave attenuation and its potential impact on wave runup is of key interest in both of these areas, and management options related to the construction or preservation of vegetation in front of coastal protection levees are being explored [44,52,53]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding changes in wave attenuation by emergent vegetation as wetlands degrade or accrete over time is crucial for incorporation of wetlands into holistic coastal risk management. Linked SLAMM and XBeach models were used to investigate potential future changes in wave attenuation over a 50-year period in a degrading, subtropical wetland and a prograding, temperate wetland. These contrasting systems also have differing management contexts and were contrasted to demonstrate how the linked models can provide management-relevant insights. Morphological development of wetlands for different scenarios of sea-level rise and accretion was simulated with SLAMM and then coupled with different vegetation characteristics to predict the influence on future wave attenuation using XBeach. The geomorphological context, subsidence, and accretion resulted in large predicted reductions in the extent of vegetated land (e.g., wetland) and changes in wave height reduction potential across the wetland. These were exacerbated by increases in sea-level from +0.217 m to +0.386 m over a 50-year period, especially at the lowest accretion rates in the degrading wetland. Mangrove vegetation increased wave attenuation within the degrading, subtropical, saline wetland, while grazing reduced wave attenuation in the temperate, prograding wetland. Coastal management decisions and actions, related to coastal vegetation type and structure, have the potential to change future wave attenuation at a spatial scale relevant to coastal protection planning. Therefore, a coastal management approach that includes disaster risk reduction, biodiversity, and climate change, can be informed by coastal modeling tools, such as those demonstrated here for two contrasting case studies.
... To alleviate pressure from dense populations, it is an important way to carry out marine reclamation land projects and expand urban space in coastal cities. Therefore, land reclamation activities have been performed in many countries around the world, including the USA [1], Singapore [2], the Netherlands [3], Japan [4], China [5], and other countries [6]. However, because land reclamation usually involves dumping uncompacted filling materials over unconsolidated marine sediments [7], the settlement process of reclamation foundation has become a problem of great public The function area of the airport mainly includes the flight area, the terminal area, and the The function area of the airport mainly includes the flight area, the terminal area, and the supporting area, and the runway is about 3800 m in length [23]. ...
Article
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Artificial lands or islands reclaimed from the sea due to their vast land spaces and air are suitable for the construction of airports, harbors, and industrial parks, which are convenient for human and cargo transportation. However, the settlement process of reclamation foundation is a problem of public concern, including soil consolidation and water recharge. Xiamen New Airport, one of the largest international airports in China, has been under construction on marine reclamation land for three years. At present, the airport has reached the second phase of construction, occupying 15.33 km2. The project will last about twenty years. To investigate the temporal and spatial evolution of ground settlement associated with land reclamation, Sentinel-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data, including intensity images and phase measurements, were considered. A total of 82 SAR images acquired by C-band Sentinel-1 satellite covering the time period from August 2015 to October 2018 were collected. First, the spatial evolution process of land reclamation was analyzed by exploring the time series of SAR image intensity maps. Then, the small baseline subset InSAR (SBAS–InSAR) technique was used to retrieve ground deformation information over the past three years for the first time since land reclamation. Results suggest that the reclaimed land experienced remarkable subsidence, especially after the second phase of land reclamation. Furthermore, 26 ground settlement areas (i.e., 0.015% of the whole area) associated with land reclamation were uncovered over an area of more than 1200 km2 of the Xiamen coastal area from January 2017 to October 2018. This study offers important guidance for the next phase of land reclamation and the future construction of Xiamen New Airport.
... Land reclamation projects have a significant bearing on the environment in terms of their physical [7,8], ecological [9], geotechnical [10] and social and economical make-up [3]. As distinct from slower-moving, natural, physical and geographical change, reclamation can • change sea currents and coastal bathymetry [7,11]; • influence water pH, salinity, electric conductivity and pollutant counts [9]; • cause loss of biodiversity with a reduction of fish density and species and a downturn in the water bird population [3,12]; and • create geological disasters such as liquefaction and land subsidence [4,5,13]. ...
Article
Land reclamation activities can, directly and indirectly, impact the environment. Examples of direct effects include alterations in coastal geomorphology, variations in the chemical content of water and changes in biological composition along the littoral zone. The indirect impacts can involve geological changes and increase vulnerability to natural disasters. Reclamation processes also result in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from vehicle and machinery fuel use and through the release of carbon stored in vegetation, soils and sediment in mangroves and seagrass ecosystems. Considering the global extent of land reclamation, the scale of these emissions is likely to be of widespread interest. The case of Jakarta Bay provides useful insights that can contribute to the improved environmental management of kindred land development projects in Indonesia and other parts of Asia. More than 5,100 ha of new land mass is planned from the Jakarta Bay reclamation. Preliminary analysis suggests that 30% of the planned area will require more than 150.7 million cubic metres of sand sourced from 8,628 ha of marine quarry area. In this study, we examine the sources of GHG emissions in these activities and the potential opportunities available to reduce them. The audience for this paper includes policymakers, environmental practitioners, city developers and postgraduate scholars dealing with land reclamation or other major infrastructure developments.
... A review of the literature shows that previous studies have mainly focused on the relationship between sea reclamation and particular types of ecological problems in small areas. Mulder et al. (1994) and Li et al. (Li et al., 2014a,b) studied the impact of coastal reclamation on the environment. Li et al. (Li et al., 2014a,b) detected coastal wetland loss and environmental changes due to rapid urban expansion in Lianyungang, China. ...
Article
How human activities impact on coastal ecosystem during rapid urbanization is one of the hot spots in the coastal management study. In this paper, we comparatively evaluate changes in the positive and the negative ecological elements of Shenzhen's coastal zone in the rapid urbanization process to understand impacts of human activities. The positive and the negative ecological elements divided by built of classification based on extracted land uses from multi-source remote sensing images and land-use degree index. Then landscape indexes such as AWMSI, ED, PSSD, PSCOV at the class level and CONNECT, SHEI at both class level and landscape level were used to reveal spatial and temporal differentiation of impacts of human activities on ecological elements. Results revealed that impacts of human activities on coastal ecosystem were stronger in west coast than that in east coast, and environmental protection awareness of government began to enhance from 2000, whereas the ecosystem health didn't become better. Future urbanization plans about coastal zones need to consider the ecological benefit of the landscape pattern from both a local and global point of view. This method can contribute to the sustainable management of other coastal zones.
... Reclamation, the process of creating new land from a river, lake or coastal wetland through the construction an embankment, is considered one of the important and effective measures to resolve this land shortage. To address the emerging problems of population expansion and greater land use demand, many coastal countries, such as China (Meng et al., 2017;Wang et al., 2014), Japan (Ohkura, 2003;Suzuki, 2003), Netherlands (De Mulder et al., 1994;Hoeksema, 2007), and Singapore (Bo et al., 2005;Lu et al., 2002), have carried out many reclamation projects for cultivation or other uses. For example, a total area of 11,162.89 ...
Article
The effects of enclosed, semi-closed, and opened reclamation methods on the macrobenthos community structure were investigated. Compared with their paired controls, water salinity decreased sharply in the enclosed reclamation region with no apparent change in the opened reclamation region. Declining species and biodiversity was observed in the reclamation regions, but the extent of this declining trend was weaker in the semiclosed and opened reclamations than in the enclosed reclamation region. The ABC curve indicated that the enclosed reclamation was disturbed, whereas the semi-closed and opened reclamations were undisturbed. Taken together, these results suggest that reclamation may have a negative effect on the community and health status of macrobenthos in the intertidal wetlands of the Yangtze Estuary. Semi-closed and opened reclamation methods may mitigate the problem of a salinity decrease caused by enclosed reclamation, while also having a relatively weaker negative effect on community structure and wetland habitat.
... Coastal tidal flats are small and scattered, although they release negligible trace gases and store a great amount of carbon [17]. Many countries, such as the Netherlands, South Korea, Singapore, Japan, Spain, and China, have intensively reclaimed coastal tidal flats for living space and food security [18][19][20]. Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) of coastal tidal flats changed greatly due to reclamation. Therefore, understanding the changes in SOC and TN following reclamation and spatial variation in coastal areas is required for coastal cropland management for ecosystem services, such as carbon and nitrogen sequestration and soil fertility. ...
Article
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Soils play an important role in sequestrating atmospheric CO2. Coastal tidal flats have been intensively reclaimed for food security and living spaces worldwide. We aimed to identify the changes of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) following coastal reclamation and their spatial variation in the coastal area of mid-Eastern China to provide information for coastal cropland management. We measured SOC and TN of 463 soil samples in the coastal plain of mid-Eastern China. The results showed that SOC and TN increased highly from the uncultivated coastal tidal flat (2.49 g·kg–1 and 0.21 g·kg–1, respectively) to the cropland (10.73 g·kg–1 and 1.3 g·kg–1, respectively). After long-term cultivation, SOC and TN in the old farmland (12.98 g·kg–1 and 1.49 g·kg–1, respectively) were greater than those in the young farmland (5.76 g·kg–1 and 0.86 g·kg–1, respectively). The density of SOC in the uncultivated coastal tidal flat, young farmland, and old farmland were 0.68 kg·C·m–2, 1.52 kg·C·m–2, and 3.31 kg·C·m–2, respectively. The density of TN in the uncultivated coastal tidal flat, young farmland and old farmland were 0.05 kg·N·m–2, 0.23 kg·N·m–2, and 0.38 kg·N·m–2, respectively. The C/N (11.17) in the uncultivated coastal tidal flat was highest comparing to that in the young and old farmland due to lower nitrogen. The C/N increased from 6.78 to 8.71 following cultivation. Reclaimed coastal tidal flats had high carbon and nitrogen sequestration potential that not only mitigated the threat of global warming, but also improved soil fertility for crop production. Coastal management of cropland should consider the spatial distribution of SOC and TN to improve ecosystem services of coastal soils.
... The second phase, consequently, is more influential to the salinity trend at the mudflat in the inner bay. Studies concerning the environmental and Fig. 9 Comparison of wind speed and salinity increase for case C1996 in the inner bay (S1), compared to case C2007 ecological effects of land reclamation have mostly examined its effects around the reclaimed areas (de Mulder et al. 1994;Chen and Jiao 2007;Zhu et al. 2014;Zhang et al. 2016). However, the results in this study imply that land reclamations on one side of the bay also affect the salinity and environmental conditions 10 km away on its other side, with the effects propagating from the outer to the inner bay. ...
Article
To achieve better management and conservation, it is important to monitor the salinity of seawater that overlies mudflats and attribute any salinity trend to its potential causes. This study analyzes the salinity trend observed in a semi-enclosed bay and identifies the main causes using numerical modeling. The intertidal mudflat within a Ramsar site in Deep Bay, China is used as a case study. The salinity at the bay’s mouth and toward its interior displayed opposite trends from 1994 to 2007, and previous research has attributed the decreasing salinity over the mudflat in the inner bay to an increase in river flow discharge. However, the simulation results in this study show that the effect of land reclamation during this period was 1.5 times that of the freshwater discharge increase. The effect has propagated from the outer and middle bay to the inner bay, and also to the side where the mudflat is situated. Water mixing due to tides has been weakened, and wind has become more influential in the mixing. Overall, this study is beneficial to other regions considering land reclamation, highlighting its potential effect compared with other factors that could influence the salinity, and thus the overall health of mudflats.
... 海洋与海岸带生态系统是人类赖以生存和发展的基础。它不仅为人类提供自然资源,如渔产品、原 材料以及生产和生活空间等,还为人类提供了多种多样的服务,如调节气候、接纳和净化污染物、供人 类休闲娱乐等。海岸带地区由于高的生物生产力和便利的交通条件,已成为人类活动的中心 [1] 。世界上 一半以上的人口、生产和消费活动都集中在面积不到 10%的海岸带地区 [2] 。然而,随着海岸带地区社会 经济的发展和人口的增加,人类开发利用海洋的各类海洋工程,如港口航运、围填海、大型海水养殖场、 人工岛、跨海桥梁、滨海电厂、海水淡化等已经或正在损害海洋与海岸带生态系统为人类提供各种产品 和服务的能力,严重威胁到人类健康和海洋经济的可持续发展。解决海洋生态损害问题的办法之一是将 损害生态系统的外部性行为内部化,让生态损害的责任方承担生态损害的全部成本,即实施海洋生态损 害补偿制度,用经济的手段来调节人们利用海洋生态系统的行为。 海洋生态损害评估是实施海洋生态损害补偿制度的基础和前提。目前国内外学术界关于海洋生态损 害评估及生态损害补偿的研究较多,但大都集中在溢油或危险化学品泄漏的生态损害评估 [3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11] 。关于海 洋工程生态损害评估的研究,主要集中在围填海 [12][13][14][15][16][17] ,较少涉及跨海桥梁、大型海水养殖场、港口与航 运等海洋工程。在实践中,海洋工程项目基本上都履行了法定审批程序,并缴纳海域使用金,获得行政 部门的许可。而我国目前的海域使用金标准偏低,不仅没有包括生态损害补偿金额,甚至低于海洋空间 资源的价值 [16] 。 理论研究和政策的差距往往导致海洋工程带来的生态损害被忽略, 而这些损害日积月累, 将给海洋栖息地及环境带来不容忽视的影响。因此,有必要建立海洋工程生态损害的评估方法,在此基 础上制定海洋工程生态损害补偿标准,利用经济的杠杆调整海洋开发利用行为,并为海洋资源与生态系 统的修复筹措资金。 1 方法与模型 目前学术界建立的关于海洋生态损害的评估方法可以分为两大类 [18] :一是基于经济价值的评估,即 评估受损海洋生态系统服务的货币价值;二是基于受损资源修复成本的评估,即评估受损海洋资源及生 态系统修复到基线状态的成本 [19,20] ...
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With fast economic growth, population increase, and urbanization in coastal zones, an increasing number of marine engineering projects have diminished or are diminishing the capacity of ocean and coastal ecosystems to provide goods and services for mankind, threatening the health of local populations and the sustainable development of marine economies. To prevent marine ecological damage and to ensure sustainable development in coastal regions, market-based incentives, such as marine ecological damage compensation (MEDC), have been introduced due to their high efficiency and flexibility. The basic premise of this approach is to make the responsible parties pay the full costs associated with the ocean space development activities, i.e., the ocean users should pay the private costs as well as the cost of marine ecological damage, so that excessive development activities can be curbed. While there are many studies about the ecological damage and compensation of spills of oil or other hazardous substances, coastal reclamation or wetland drainage, there have been few attempts in the academic community to research the ecological damage of marine engineering such as the construction of a sea-crossing bridge and marine culture. In practice, marine engineering gets approval from the relevant government agencies, and pays fees for the use of sea areas, which may make them ignore ecological damage compensation. However, these damages are typically long lasting and have considerable cumulative effects on marine habitats and environment. Thus, the development of a framework for ecological damage assessment caused by marine engineering is urgently needed, to ensure the marine ecosystems been compensated. This paper presents a framework for ecological damage assessment and a model for the development of a MEDC standard. The value of ecosystem services in the affected sea area and the severity of damage to various ecosystem services in various sea area use patterns related to the marine engineering are systematically assembled in the established model. The established framework and model are employed in the Xinglin sea-crossing bridge, Xiamen. Results show that the ecological damage and therefore the ecological damage compensation of Xinglin sea-crossing bridge is 17.39 million yuan with the discount rate 2%. The amount of ecological damage is 12.76 million yuan even with a high discount rate, 4%, which is far more than the amount of compensation, 6 million yuan, which was actually imposed by local government. Xiamen municipality needs to re-examine its compensation standard to reflect the real damage of marine engineering and to ensure to collect enough money to restore the damaged ecosystems.
... Most near-coastal regions are confronted with the challenges of limited land resources and increasing population. Land reclamation from the sea has become an increasingly important process to meet this demand in areas such as Hong Kong, Netherlands, Korea, Singapore, and Spain (de Mulder et al., 1994;Glaser, Haberzettl, and Walsh, 1991;Jiao, Wang, and Nandy, 2006;Kim et al., 2006;Santín et al., 2009). Areas of reclaimed land in China are large and increasing. ...
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The coastal plain of Cixi City, in southeast China, has experienced more than a thousand years of land reclamation history. Since 1047, 11 dikes have been built, dividing our study region into 11 zones. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of long-term reclamation on the variability of soil properties. Using an integrated transect and nested sampling approach, a total of 329 surface soil samples were collected. Soil pH, organic matter, electrical conductivity, and particle size distribution were measured. Data were evaluated using classical statistics and geostatistics methods. Results indicate that reclamation exerted quantifiable effects on various soil attributes. There were significant differences in soil properties among the zones. The ranges in semivariograms were approximately equal to or twice the average zone span, suggesting that there was usually a break in continuity of soil properties at the boundary of reclamation zones. As illustrated by the lower nugget effect or larger range distance in semivariograms, soil pH, electrical conductivity, and organic matter similarly showed more continuous patterns in space compared with particle size distribution. With the increase of time since reclamation, salt content, alkalinity, and particle size tended to decrease, while organic matter content tended to increase. Most properties varied greatly in the initial reclamation stages. A relatively steady state was reached within 10 years following the reclamation for pH, about 30 years for organic matter, and 60 years for electrical conductivity, respectively. Further, similar land uses and parent materials produced similar inherent soil properties. These findings can be applied to broader spatial scales in other coastal regions to assist in transitioning from a coastal tidal plain to productive agricultural land, through reclamation, and targeted land management practices.
... Most of the studies focus on the ecological damages associated with accidental spills of oil or other hazardous substances or waste disposals (Ryan, 1994;NOAA, 1997;Mason, 2003;Kim, 2003;McCay et al., 2006). Another set of studies examines the ecological damages related to coastal reclamation or wetland drainage in China (Wang et al., 2010a,b;Peng et al., 2011) and around the world (Cendrero et al., 1981;De Mulder et al., 1994;Hoeksema, 2007;Airoldi and Beck, 2007;Halpern et al., 2008;Elliott and Cutts, 2004;FAO, 1999;OSPAR, 2008). In contrast, little attention has been paid to the ecological damages related to coastal development and ocean use activities that are consider regular or routine, such as aquaculture, sea bridges, and anchorage. ...
... Reclamation from the sea has a long history ͑Thorn 1960͒. Successful past experience includes the notable gain in coastal land area in Holland ͑De Mulder et al. 1994͒ by means of dikes and similar protection schemes over many centuries. In the United States, the rate of land reclamation from the San Francisco Bay reached up to 9.3 km 2 per annum before 1965 ͑San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission 1993͒. ...
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An integrated approach is presented for determining the harmonized optimal coastline from given options for large-scale coastal reclamation. The approach incorporates results from hydrodynamic, sediment transport, and water quality models and ecological impact considerations. These models predict reclamation impact on tidal flow, sediment deposition and erosion, and water quality under different scenarios. The impact on sensitive coastal ecosystems is considered indirectly in terms of the qualitative relationship to results from the sediment transport model, The analytical hierarchy process method is applied to determine the weights of various control factors and to integrate the model predictions. A sensitivity analysis is made to assess the effect on the final results of modeling errors and uncertainty in the weights assigned, and thus to enhance the reliability of decision making. Although the methodology given herein emphasizes reclamation in a bay with multifold functions, the procedure is potentially applicable to most coastal reclamation projects, except single-option schemes, An application to Deep Bay coastline is described in the companion paper.
... Since its planning, the need for new agricultural land has diminished, whereas the appreciation of benefits of the IJsselmeer as open water for water management and recreational purposes has increased. There was much fear as well that large-scale and very costly geotechnical and foundation problems on the old land would arise from the reclamation of such deep lakes (initial depth more than 8 m!) (DE MULDER et al., 1994). ...
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Based on historical hindsight, this paper shows that sea-level rise has played a fundamental role in the development of the low-lying environment of the Netherlands. It was beneficial in morphological terms during the mid-Holocene, but from Roman times, it has been a threat to the coastal zone evolution and human habitation. Collective human response started to play a role in coastal evolution as early as the ninth century, while its influence started to become a major factor during the nineteenth and twentieth century. Throughout its history, Dutch society has always been receptive to new technologies, approaches, and policies in its dealings with the many water-related challenges. The success of concerted human response explains why the water boards were successful as the first democratic institutions in the Netherlands. Development of technology and increasing financial means (the Dutch Golden Age) gave rise to increasingly viable flood abatement measures and reclamation projects, which took place o
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The coastal plain of Cixi City, China, has experienced over 1000 years of reclamation. With the rapid development of agriculture and industry after reclamation, successive inputs into agricultural soils have drastically modified the soil environment. To determine the spatial distribution of heavy metals and to evaluate the influence of anthropogenic activities, a total of 329 top soil samples were taken along a transect on the coastal plain. The samples collected across 11 sea dikes, were selected by a nested sampling methodology. Total Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations, as well as their diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) extractable (available) concentrations were determined. Results indicated that except for Zn concentrations, there was neither heavy metals pollution nor mineral deficiency in the soils. Heavy metals exhibited considerable spatial variability, obvious spatial dependence, and close relationships on the reclaimed land. For most metals, the reclamation history was the main influencing factor. Metals concentrations generally showed discontinuities around the position of sea dikes, and the longer reclamation histories tended to have higher metals concentrations than the recently reclaimed sectors. As for Cu and Zn total concentrations, stochastic factors, like industrial waste discharge, fertilization and pesticide application, probably led to the high nugget effect and altered this relationship. The 6th and 10th zones generally had the highest total metals concentrations, due to the concentration of household appliance manufacturers in these reclaimed areas. The first two zones were characterized by high available metals concentrations, probably due to the alternant flooding and emergence, low pH values and high organic matter contents in these paddy field soils. From the 3rd to 7th zones with the same land use history and soil type, metals concentrations, especially available concentrations, showed homogeneity. The nested sampling method adopted demonstrated that the 500-m interval was enough to capture the spatial variation of the metals. These results were useful in evaluating the variation in the environment quality of the soils under long-term reclamation and to formulate plans for future reclamation projects.
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The geohydrological effects of the reclamation of the Markerwaard polder in the Netherlands can be detrimental for urban areas, agriculture and nature reserves in the province of North Holland. Especially the piezometric and phreatic drawdown can result in crop yield reduction, drought damage in nature reserves, and land subsidence, causing damage to buildings and infrastructure. The possible effects are discussed. The methods of determination of these effects are briefly described successively. Damage estimates are presented. -Authors
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To meet the demand for agriculture land and housing in populated delta areas wetland is reclaimed into polders, ie lowlands with precise water-regime control. This will change the geo- hydrological system and may cause land subsidence in the environment. Simulation models are applied to evaluate and predict these environmental effects. The present contribution deals with the implementation of the approach with the emphasis on time-variant and three dimensional effects. -from Authors
Chapter
Without countermeasures to compensate the decline of the piezometric levels, settlement of the compressible Holocene clay and peat deposits will occur after reclamation of the Markerwaard. The resultant land subsidence may cause damage to buildings and infrastructure in the coastal area of the Province of North Holland. Decline of the piezometric levels can be completely or partly compensated by means of countermeasures. During the pre-feasibility study a wide range of countermeasures have been studied. A few solutions were selected to be studied in detail. These are mainly based on the principle of injection or infiltration of water in the Pleistocene aquifers underneath the mainland. The systems studied in detail, including geohydrological and geotechnical calculations and cost estimates, are: the injection well system; the recirculation system consisting of extraction and injection wells; infiltration grooves and infiltration wells. The injection well system proved to be the most promising countermeasure. Detailed geohydrological calculations are recommended to predict the local effects of the countermeasures.
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This study deals with litho- and chronostratigraphy of the Holocene in the central and N part of the Province of N-Holland. The area under discussion can be divided lithostratigraphically into two parts: the area of the beach barriers and tidal inlets (Area B) and the more peaty hinterland (Area A). Paleogeographical differences are primarily attributed to the typical basin configuration (the Pleistocene surface), dominated by a deeply buried ENE-WSW trending former river valley, in contrast to the mainly N-S orientation of the Top Pleistocene contour lines in the rest of the coastal area. This configuration caused clastic sedimentation to take place initially in the S part of the basin. About 4900-4800 BP the major part of the marine sedimentation shifted to the N. This change resulted in the deeply eroded Bergen Inlet. The presence and shape of this Inlet has controlled the sedimentary history of this part of The Netherlands during about 1800 C14-years.-from Authors
Article
In the province of North-Holland, the reclamation of the polder Marker-waard will result in an increase of effective stress due to lowering of the water table and this will give rise to subsidence and settlement of buil-dings in the environment. A probabilistic approach has been applied to calculate the expected settlements of the ground surface for an area of 500 km 2 . The time-dependent drop in piezometric level in the sand in both the polder Markerwaard and the province of North-Holland has been simulated using a suitable numerical model. In addition calculations have been carried out to establish relation-ships between ground surface settlement and settlement of a foundation pile.
Article
After reclamation of the Markerwaard polder, the changes in the groundwater regime will result in a settlement of compressible holocene layers (clay and peat layers). Within the framework of the geotechnical investigations we have studied the spatial distribution of the settlements to be expected. To this end the study area was divide into subareas, which are, within certain limits, uniform as regards the profile structure of the holocene layer and the hydrological situation (map of geotechnical subtypes). These calculations were carried out using the settlement theories of Terzaghi - Koppejan, modified to incorporate stress-dependent compression constants. On the basis of the computational results we prepared 12 diagrams for the whole study area showing the relationship between the reduction in piezometric head in the first aquifer and the final settlement. Using these diagrams, the map of geotechnical subtypes, and the piezo­ metric head reduction known from the geohydrological investigations, a map was prepared on which the expected land subsidence (settlements) are indicated. 1) General Hydrologie model investigations have shown that reclamation of the Markerwaard polder in the Netherlands will cause changes in the ground­ water regime on the mainland in a 5-10 km wide strip along the eastern coast of North-Holland Province. These changes comprise decline of the piezometric head of the deeper groundwater and consequent minor declina­ tions of the phreatic surface, especially in summer (Vos et al 1984). As part of the investigations in North-Holland into the geohydrologic aspects of the reclamation of the Markerwaard polder, a study has been made of the behaviour of the subsoil in relation to the changes in the groundwater regime. This study, designated as 'geotechnical investiga­ tions', was done in close co-operation between the Geological Service of the Netherlands (RGD), the Delft Soil Mechanics Laboratory (LGM) and Heidemij Consultancy Division. 2) Problem definition Under the influence of the decrease in piezometric head of the groundwater in the upper pleistocene aquifer and the decline of the phreatic surface, the pore pressure in the holocene layer will drop. As a result, the effec­ tive stress in this layer will increase, as is shown schematically in figure 1. This increase in the effective stress in the holocene layer will result in settlement of compressible soil layers (clay and peat layers), so that
Article
SUMMARY Land subsidence, due to the withdrawal of water from compressible soils, may cause damage in urban areas. This situation can develop in the eastern part of Noord-Holland due to reclamation of the polder Markerwaard. An estimate has been made about the expected damage for buildings and civil works. An extensive survey was necessary in the area (500 km2) with about 100,000 buildings to collect data for the number of buildings in each area, the types of building, construction dates, types of foundation etc. Relationships have been found between the subsidence of the ground surface and the movement of the various types of foundation. Standards for damage have been set up for the different types of building due to foundation movements. Statistical analyses on the probability of damage, depending on the rate of settlement, for buildings and civil works have been used. After accurately defining the patterns of damage, the reparation costs have been derived. In this way it has been possible to develop, for each type of building, the relationship between the statistically expected damage costs (in Dutch guilders) per unit area (10,000 m2) and the decline of the surface.
Article
If the Markerwaard polder is reclaimed the water level in the polder will fall 5 to 6 metres over an area of 410 km2. This will cause a drawdown of the piezometric levels in the Pleistocene aquifers underneath the eastern part- of the province of North Holland. The spatial pattern of these drawdowns is calculated by a finite elements groundwater model. Without countermeasures to;compensate for the depletion of the piezometric level, settlement of the compressible Holocene clay and peat deposits will occur and resultant land subsidence may cause damage to buildings and infrastructure. Drawdown of the piezometric levels can be entirely or partially countered by means of artificial recharge of water into the Pleisto­ cene aquifers. There are two methods for this, viz. vertical recharge wells and infiltration grooves in the remaining western peripheral lake between North Holland and the Markerwaard polder. The amount of water necessary for the countermeasures is calculated with the same groundwater model.
Assessment of the transient nature of subsidence A method for estimating building damage in subsiding areas
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Barends, F.B.J., Teunissen, J.A.M. and Verruijt, A., 1986. Assessment of the transient nature of subsidence. Proc. 3rd Int. Symp. Land Subsidence, 1984, Venice. IAHS Publ. Carree, G.J. and Hulsbergen, J.G., 1986. A method for estimating building damage in subsiding areas. Proc. 3rd Int. Symp. Land Subsidence, 1984, Venice. IAHS Publ.
An integrated study to forecast and to prevent detrimental effects in the province of North Holland resulting from a change in the groundwater regime after the reclamation of the Markerwaard Polder
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Claessen, F.A.M., 1986. An integrated study to forecast and to prevent detrimental effects in the province of North Holland resulting from a change in the groundwater regime after the reclamation of the Markerwaard Polder. Proc. 3rd Int. Symp. Land Subsidence, 1984, Venice. IAHS Publ.
Onderzoek in Noord-Holland naar de geotechnische aspecten van de aanleg van de Markerwaard
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Hannink, G., 1984. Onderzoek in Noord-Holland naar de geotechnische aspecten van de aanleg van de Markerwaard. LGM Meded., 22(3) (in Dutch).
Agricultural and environmental impact of the reclamation of the Markerwaard polder on the province of North Holland. Heidemij, Consultancy Division The Markerwaard project: Countermeasures to prevent detrimental effects, a feasibility study
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Mooy, H.G.M. and Vinkers, H.J., 1982. Agricultural and environmental impact of the reclamation of the Markerwaard polder on the province of North Holland. Heidemij, Consultancy Division, Arnhem, Int. Rep. 662-81/3. Satijn, H.M.C., 1989. The Markerwaard project: Countermeasures to prevent detrimental effects, a feasibility study. Proc. K.N.G.M.G. Syrup. Coastal Lowlands, Geology and Geotechnology.
The Markerwaard reclamation project. Quaternary geological framework of the study area (North Holland and western part of the lake IJssel, The Netherlands)
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Westerhoff, W.E. and De Mulder, E.F.J., 1986. The Markerwaard reclamation project. Quaternary geological framework of the study area (North Holland and western part of the lake IJssel, The Netherlands). Proc. 3rd Int. Symp. Land Subsidence, 1984, Venice. IAHS Publ.
Toelichting bij de geologische kaart van Nederland, schaal 1:50.000
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Westerhoff, W.E., De Mulder, E.F.J. and De Gans, W., 1987. Toelichting bij de geologische kaart van Nederland, schaal 1:50.000. De bladen Alkmaar Oost en West. Rijks Geologische Dienst. Van Bruchem, A.J., 1986. Geographical aspects of the reclama-tion of the Markerwaard Polder. Geotechnical Investigations. Proc. 3rd Int. Symp. Land Subsidence, 1984, Venice. IAHS Publ.
Infiltratie putten in de randmeren van de Marker waard
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Agricultural and environmental impact of the reclamation of the Markerwaard polder on the province of North Holland
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