The water solubility of crude oils and petroleum products

Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A4
Oil and Chemical Pollution 01/1990; 7(1):57-84. DOI: 10.1016/S0269-8579(05)80034-6


Solubilities are reported for 42 crude oil and petroleum products in water as a function of temperature, salinity, oil weathering and water-to-oil volume ratio. The applicability of several analytical techniques (purge-and-trap gas chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography, and fluorescence) for the determination of dissolved hydrocarbon concentrations is discussed critically. The effect of water-to-oil volume ratio on the apparent solubility of oils in water is discussed in detail.

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    • "Values for log K oil , based on the regression of Lee et al. (1992a) for diesel fuel PAHs, are slightly higher than the log K ow values, ranging from 3.81 for naphthalene to 6.72 for benzo[ghi]perylene. The actual value of log K oil varies with the " average molecular weight " of the oil and, therefore, is different for different crude and refi ned petroleum products and changes with oil weathering (Lee et al. 1992a, 1992b; Shiu et al. 1990). The value of log K oil for a particular PAH decreases as the average molecular weight and density of the bulk oil increases, in agreement with Raoult's Law (Lane and Loehr 1995). "
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    ABSTRACT: Polycyclic aromatic hyftovst ond (PAH) are nearly ubiqutous contaminants of freshwater and marine sediments. Sediment PAHs are derived from combustion of organic matter, fossil fuels, and biosynthesis by microbes. Pyrogenic PAHs, particularly those associated with combustion particles (soot), have a low accessibility and bioavailability in sediments. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with petroleum, creosote, or coal tar in sediments may have a moderate accessibility/bioavailability, particularly if the PAHs are part of a nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) phase that is in contact with sediment pore water. We present a method for estimating the hazard of complex PAH assemblage in sediments to benthic organisms. Concentrations of all PAHs in sediment pore water are estimated by an equilibrium partitioning model relative to concentrations in bulk sediment. Predicted log Koc values can be used for predicting sediment/water partitioning of petrogenic PAH, but empirically derived log Kd values are needed to predict partitioning of pyrogenic PAH. A hazard quotient (HQ) for each PAH is calculated as the ratio of the estimated concentration in pore water to the chronic toxicity of the PAH determined by a log Kow/toxicity model. Hazard quotients for all PAH in a sample are summed to produce a hazard index (HI), which is a measure of the worst-case estimated hazard of the sediment PAH to benthic organisms. The results of this study show that the integration of HI results with PAH source data provides insights into the causes of sediment toxicity that are useful in an ecological risk assessment.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2005 · Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
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    • "The levels of PAHs in the WSF were generally much lower than those of benzenoids; however, significant levels of these compounds have been re- Ž ported in the WSF of different crude oils Boylan and Tripp, 1971; Anderson et al., 1974; Murray et al., 1984; . Vandermeulen et al., 1985; Shui et al., 1990 . PAHs are known to be neurotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic. "
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    ABSTRACT: The sea water-soluble fractions (WSFs) of 10 different crude oils, produced from Kuwaiti oil fields, were investigated for the composition of their polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their methylated homologs. The results indicate that the total PAHs in the WSFs ranged from 171 to 2176 μg/l. The WSFs prepared from the oil from northern oil fields generally contained higher levels of PAHs. Naphthalene and its homologs formed the bulk of the PAHs (ranging from 88.4 to 97.5% of the total PAHs). Significant levels of fluorene, phenanthrene and their homologs were also present in all of the WSFs. PAHs higher than phenanthrene were also detected at very low concentrations. The PAHs in the WSFs of the crude oils were compared with those in Kuwaiti crude oil (export), and the crude export was found to contain relatively lower levels of PAHs.
    Full-text · Article · May 2000 · Advances in Environmental Research
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    • "Tests involved six treatments: five WAF or CEWAF treatments and a seawater control, with each treatment having three replicates. Several previous investigations have shown that for establishment of dose response relationships using poorly water-soluble mixtures such as crude oil, test solutions should be prepared using a range of oil:water ratios (oil ''loadings,'' expressed as mass/volume) rather than serially diluting a single stock prepared from a high oil loading (Shiu et al. 1990; Girling et al. 1994; Singer and Tjeerdema 1995). This is the result of fractional differences among solutions derived from different loadings in comparison to serial dilutions of a single high loading. "
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    ABSTRACT: The acute effects of both untreated and dispersant-treated Prudhoe Bay crude oil on the early life-stages of three marine species were investigated. Identification of which water-accommodated fraction (undispersed or chemically dispersed) was considered "more toxic" was dependent on species, time, and endpoint (and by inference, test protocol). Generally, the data showed that at roughly equivalent hydrocarbon concentrations untreated oil solutions resulted in higher initial effects (< 1 h) in mysid and topsmelt tests, whereas dispersed oil solutions elicited higher levels of larval abnormality in abalone tests and higher levels of mortality in mysid tests. While differences in test protocols existed among the species tested, topsmelt were the most sensitive species to untreated oil solutions, with mysids being most sensitive to dispersed oil solutions.
    Preview · Article · Feb 1998 · Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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