Article

Diversity-related burnout among teachers

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Abstract

“Diversity-related burnout” is put forward as a concept that can add to our understanding of the negative impact of the daily coping with culturally diverse students on teachers. A Principal Component Analysis, based on the responses of 280 teachers working at 30 Israeli schools, showed that diversity-related burnout is empirically distinguishable from, albeit correlated with, the more traditional notion of teacher burnout. Results also revealed that diversity-related burnout is predicted by variables related to the teacher's background (grade level and job role), to the degree of school cultural heterogeneity, and to aspects of the school organizational culture related to multiculturalism as perceived by the teacher. The highest levels of diversity-related burnout were found among teachers categorized as assimilationists and who work in schools perceived by them also to be assimilationist. Proactive and reactive approaches for preventing and reducing diversity-related burnout are suggested.

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... This domain of beliefs may be linked to views on cultural expectations and prejudice (Makarova and Herzog 2013;Van Praag et al. 2016), possibly influencing the way teachers interact and support their students. On a personal level, too, this domain of beliefs may be associated with teachers' perceptions of challenges and educational demands when dealing with culturally diverse students (Tatar and Horenczyk 2003). Thus, it is imperative to understand what beliefs teachers hold towards diverse groups of students. ...
... Additionally, it has been found that teachers' cultural diversity beliefs in line with the ignoring differences ideology may be associated with higher levels of cultural diversity-related stress (Gutentag et al. 2018;Tatar et al. 2011). Notably, reporting a high level of cultural diversity-related stress is associated with high rates of leaving the teaching profession (Tatar and Horenczyk 2003). Thus, embracing the ignoring differences ideology may not only be problematic for ethnic minority students, but it could potentially harm teachers' psychosocial functioning in the long run. ...
... Cultural diversity-related stress reflects the extent to which teacher's personal and professional well-being is negatively affected by dealing with a culturally heterogeneous student body (Tatar and Horenczyk 2003). Cultural diversity-related stress was assessed by the Cultural Diversity-Related Stress scale (five items) ranging from 1 (never) to 5 (always) (e.g., "Working daily with students from different cultural backgrounds frustrates me"). ...
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The color-evasive ideology (commonly termed "colorblindness") proposes that ethnic and cultural group memberships should be deemphasized. Yet there is a conceptual confusion around the meaning and measurement of color-evasiveness, and this construct is not used consistently in the international as well as German literature. Our purpose is to investigate whether two underlying forms of the color-evasive ideology (i.e., stressing similarities and ignoring differences) are two distinct, albeit related, constructs. We tested this hypothesis by applying these two forms of the color-evasive ideology to teachers' cultural diversity beliefs. In two cross-sectional field studies conducted with pre-service teachers (Study 1, n = 210), and in-service teachers (Study 2, n = 99), questionnaire items on the stressing similarities ideology and items on the ignoring differences ideology loaded on two separate factors, providing a better fit to the data than the one-factor model. Mean scores on these two types of color-evasive ideology also differed substantially, indicating that participants across the two studies mainly endorsed the stressing similarities perspective. The stressing similarities and ignoring differences ideologies related differently to other intergroup ideologies (i.e., multiculturalism and polycultural-ism), and showed different patterns to psychosocial functioning in culturally diverse classrooms (i.e., cultural diversity-related stress).
... That said, today's multicultural educational environments present both opportunity and challenge, which teachers dealing with the diversity issues first-hand (Fortuin et al. 2014) often lack the knowledge, skills, and motivation to meet (Tatar and Horenczyk 2003). Specifically, student diversity factors include culture, religion, primary language, race, socioeconomic level, ethnicity, family composition, gender, and previous experience, as well as ability level (Copple 2003). ...
... Specifically, student diversity factors include culture, religion, primary language, race, socioeconomic level, ethnicity, family composition, gender, and previous experience, as well as ability level (Copple 2003). Working with such a heterogeneous student body on a daily basis is likely to exert massive impact on the teacher (e.g., Tatar and Horenczyk 2003). Particularly, being confronted with a learner who is 'different'linguistically, socially, and culturally (de Abreu and Hale 2014) poses challenges to mainstream teaching practices (Gorgorio and Planas 2001). ...
... Delving into factors affecting teachers' approaches to culturally diverse students, Tatar and Horenczyk (2003) proposed that teachers working with a heterogeneous student body might experience a distinctive form of burnout, labelled 'diversity-related burnout.' This was defined as the extent to which the teacher's personal and professional well-being is negatively affected by daily coping with a culturally heterogeneous student population (Tatar and Horenczyk 2003). ...
Article
This study investigated teachers’ reported practices of teaching culture in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classrooms from the perspective of their approaches to student diversity. Specifically, it examined the relationship between teachers’ orientations towards the cultural elements integrated in curriculum materials and their approaches to teaching cultural content in the context of linguistic, cultural, and religious diversity of Israeli schools. Interview data from three teacher groups – majority, minority and immigrant – obtained through open-ended questions, critical incidents and vignettes were interpreted through the lens of DOPA (Diversity in Organisations: Perceptions and Approaches) model. Thematic analysis yielded four distinct teacher profiles as related to teachers’ approaches to student diversity, their curriculum orientations and subsequent use of the curriculum materials. The emergent profiles are discussed with regard to the ways of coping with diverse student populations developed by teachers in each group and reflected in adopted teaching practices.
... Though many teachers have grown up in a culturally diverse society, teachers are often not well prepared to deal with ethnic and cultural diversity in their classroom (Banks and McGee Banks 2004;Wubbels et al. 2006), which may lead to stress and burnout. The increasing ethnic and cultural diversity in schools and classrooms weighs heavily on teachers, and the reality of the educational setting at present is one of increasing 'cultural mismatch' (Cockrell et al. 1999) between teachers, students, and parents (Shor 2005;Tatar and Horenczyk 2003;Vedder and Horenczyk 2006). This affects teachers working with immigrant students and makes teachers less able to face the challenges posed by multicultural contexts. ...
... All these 'acculturative stressors' may negatively affect the personal and professional well-being of teachers. An effect of this can be 'diversity-related burnout' (Tatar and Horenczyk 2003) among teachers. Diversity-related burnout is a distinct construct that reflects the negative impact of daily coping with cultural and ethnically diverse students. ...
... Diversity-related burnout is a distinct construct that reflects the negative impact of daily coping with cultural and ethnically diverse students. This type of burnout has been shown to be related to the degree of cultural heterogeneity of the school and to the teacher's own views toward multiculturalism (Dubbeld et al. 2017;Tatar and Horenczyk 2003). ...
Article
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There is a growing number of ethnically and culturally diverse students in Dutch junior vocational high schools. This article examines teachers’ multicultural attitudes, their perceptions of cultural diversity related to school policy and school climate, and the chance of general and diversity-related burnout. The present research also characterises teachers in terms of their multicultural attitudes and perceptions of school policy and climate through cluster analysis. Results are based on questionnaire data of 120 teachers, working at five locations of a multicultural junior vocational high school in a highly urbanised part of the Netherlands. Correlational, regression, and variance analyses indicated that the highest levels of general and diversity-related burnout were found among teachers categorised as assimilationist in attitude and who perceived their school as pluralistic. Teachers could be divided into three types of profiles: (1) relative assimilative attitude, (2) no pronounced assimilative attitude, and (3) moderate assimilative attitude. Teachers with the second profile showed the highest chance for burnout. © 2019, © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
... Teachers require skills, knowledge, and motivation to cope with the challenges that multicultural classrooms pose. Unfortunately, research suggests that most teachers are illequipped (Horenczyk and Tatar, 2003). Such training begins with teachers' recognition of their own biases and prejudices and capacity to communicate with people from different backgrounds (Chang et al., 2011). ...
... The main research instrument was a questionnaire designed to investigate the research variables and to answer the main research question and its derivative questions. The questionnaire was influenced by existing questionnaires, in particular, Smooha's (2010) Index of Arab-Jewish Relations in Israel and Horenczyk and Tatar's (2003) teachers' attitudes toward multiculturalism questionnaire. The questionnaire involved a multiple choice knowledge question about the Ministry of Education guidelines with five options, only one of which was correct. ...
Article
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Conducting discussions on controversial political issues is an important vehicle to promote students’ democratic values and critical thinking in schools. This schoolwide task cuts across all disciplines and different subject matter. Israeli civics and social studies teachers are often required to touch upon such issues and manage the situations that follow. This study examined whether civics and social studies teachers are different from teachers of other disciplines in their attitudes toward controversial political issues and in their reported behaviors. Civics and social studies teachers scored higher in all the variables related to discussions of controversial political issue and reported more relevant behaviors. In examining the variables that predict teachers’ self-efficacy to conduct controversial political issue discussions, variables that related to professional identity were the strongest predictors alongside pluralistic attitudes. We concluded that teacher training should emphasize the importance of discussions of controversial political issue and develop teachers’ ability to conduct such discussions as part of their professional role.
... Consequently, classroom discipline problems and student misbehavior contribute to teacher stress and burnout (Aloe, Shisler, Norris, Nickerson, & Rinker, 2014). Thus, class features that are related to the composition of the student body of the school-for example, having to teach large classes (Travers & Cooper, 1996) with highly diverse achievement patterns (Foley & Murphy, 2013) or with high cultural diversity (Tatar & Horenczyk, 2003)-might contribute to teacher stress and burnout. As such, not only does school composition provide information about the students who attend a particular school but it also implies different challenges and demands for teachers. ...
... Teaching efficacy and burnout are strongly related (Egyed & Short, 2006;Evers et al., 2002;Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2007;Wang et al., 2015), and both concepts might be influenced by external school factors. To this end, research has shown higher rates of burnout (Tatar & Horenczyk, 2003) and higher rates of leaving (B eteille & Loeb, 2009;Strunk & Robinson, 2006) among teachers at highly culturally diverse schools compared with schools that have less culturally diverse student bodies. Relatedly, teachers were found to report lower expectations regarding students' learning motivation when working at highly culturally diverse schools (Agirdag, Van Houtte, & Van Avermaet, 2013). ...
Article
We investigated the effects of stereotypical expectations regarding cultural diversity on teachers’ feelings of burnout, stress, and self-efficacy beliefs. With an experimental design, we confronted teachers with fictitious schools that were either high or low in cultural diversity and assessed the teachers’ feelings of burnout and self-efficacy beliefs (Study 1) and their stress with respect to culturally responsive teaching and locus of control (Study 2). Teachers who were confronted with a highly culturally diverse school showed higher feelings of burnout and stress and lower self-efficacy than teachers presented with a school low in cultural diversity. School composition affected teachers from primary and secondary schools differently. The consequences of holding stereotypical beliefs about highly culturally diverse schools are discussed.
... Research studies related to burnout in educational institutions have been mainly conducted on teachers (Akçamete, Kaner & Sucuoğlu 2001;Bakker and Schaufeli, 2000;Cemaloğlu & Kayabaşı, 2007;Farber & Miller, 1981;Friedman, 1999;Grayson & Alvarez, 2008;Greenglass, Fiksenbaum, & Burke, 1994;Russell, Altmaier & Van Velzen, 1987;Suçuoğlu & Küloğlu 1996;Tatar & Horenczyk, 2003), school psychologists (Huebner, 1992;Ross, Altmaier & Russell, 1989;Sandoval, 1993) and school managers (Aksu & Baysal, 2005;Koçak, 2009). Research studies conducted on school personnel point out that the school itself is a stress factor (Chang, Rand & Strunk, 2000). ...
... Research studies indicate that stress caused by courses, the homeworks or other psychological pressure factors related to the school (McCarthy, Pretty & Catano, 1990;Yang & Farn, 2005) reflection of the burnout seen in teachers on students (Howes, Matheson and Hamilton, 1994); or the negative impacts of the social, structural, physical and academic deficiencies of schools may cause school burnout (Grayson & Alvarez, 2008;Woodrum, 2005;Tatar & Horenczyk, 2003). School burnout results in absence from school, low motivation towards lessons, school dropouts (McCarthy et al., 1990;Yang and Farn, 2005), failure in the courses (Laursen, Bukowski, Nurmi, Marion, Salmela-Aro & Kiuru, 2010) and even developing an idea of suicide (Dyrbye, Thomas, Harper, Massie, Jr., Power, Eacker et al., 2009). ...
Article
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The current research examines whether school burnout, which may be seen in high school students, varies or not in relation to such variables as gender, grade point average, grade level and the students’ status of attending to private tutoring. The study is designed in survey research model and the study group consists of 728 students studying in 3 different types of high schools located in 4 different regions of Turkey. Findings show that the school burnout which students experience varies in relation to such variables as gender, grade point average, grade level and the students’ status of attending to private tutoring (dershane). Based on these findings, male students are a higher-risk group in terms of school burnout. Students with low grade point averages are a higher-risk group in terms of school burnout. The risk of school burnout increases as the grade level is higher. Attending to private tutoring causes school burnout in students in some respects while it also protects students against school burnout in other respects. According to these findings loss of interest in school, burnout due to doing homework and burnout due to studying grade averages are higher in the students who attend to private tutoring while burnout due to family and deficiencies in school and need for relaxation and entertainment grade averages are higher in the students who do not attend to private tutoring
... This last aspect is particularly relevant because burnout may derive from unique aspects of the structure of the Portuguese educational system. For this purpose, it is suggested that these variables be structured from three dimensions usually referenced in the literature (e.g., Droogenbroeck et al., 2014;Hastings & Bham, 2003;Masmoudi et al., 2016;Otero et al., 2008;Tatar & Horenczyk, 2003): (i) personal variables, (ii) organizational variables, and (iii) classroom variables. ...
... Considering that some studies suggest that the subjective experience of burnout differs depending on the teaching level (e.g., Buunk et al., 2007;Tatar & Horenczyk, 2003), it seems necessary to clarify this issue in future studies with Portuguese teachers. ...
Article
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Teachers are one of the professional classes most vulnerable to emotional instability and fatigue associated with their professional activity. The present study is a systematic review about burnout in Portuguese teachers and has two main objectives. The first is to understand the state of the art of the burnout phenomenon in Portuguese teachers from basic education to secondary education. The second is to analyze the types of variables considered in the exploration and understanding of the burnout phenomenon, from a three-dimensional structure: personal, organizational, and classroom. Results show that the set of personal and organizational variables are the most frequently analyzed in studies on burnout in teachers. Nevertheless, the results of the analyzed studies are unclear and inconsistent, highlighting the need for further studies that allow to clarify the role of different variables on burnout in Portuguese teachers. More studies are needed to determine the actual extent of burnout and, consequently, to design educational and psychological interventions to support teachers.
... Ef þrengir að starfsaðstaeðum er líklegt að kennarar upplifi álag og streitu (Betroret, 2006). Rannsóknir hafa sýnt að kennarastarfinu fylgir álag (Dunlop og Macdonald, 2004;Tsigilis, Zachopoulou og Grammatikopoulos, 2006) og að fylgni er milli staerðar barnahópa og álags á kennara (Tatar og Horenczyk, 2003;Tsai, Fung og Chow, 2006). Í niðurstöðum rannsóknar Ásdísar Olgu Sigurðardóttur (2013) kemur fram að leikskólakennarar telja barnafjölda á deildum of mikinn og það valdi álagi á alla þá sem í rýminu vinna, baeði börn og fullorðna. ...
... Barnafjöldi er eitt þeirra atriða sem getur aukið álag á kennara (Ásdís Olga Sigurðardóttir, 2013;Harpa Njálsdóttir, 2004;Tatar og Horenczyk, 2003;Tsai o.fl., 2006) en barnafjöldi hefur einnig áhrif á möguleika kennara til að ná markmiðum í skólastarfinu (Pramling Samuelsson, Williams og Sheridan, 2015). Lítil vitneskja liggur fyrir um hvaða áhrif það hefur á líðan og þroska barna að vera í umhverfi þar sem barnafjöldi er mikill miðað við húsrými. ...
... Teachers often relate their experiences or tensions in their professional identity development to teacher-student relationships (Pillen, Beijaard & Den Brok, 2013). Moreover, many teachers experience problems with teacher-student relationships (Evertson and Weinstein 2006;Wubbels et al. 2006), and problems with teacher-student relationships are seen as one of the major issues in teachers' professional development during the career and a main reason for teacher burnout (Tatar and Horenczyk 2003). ...
... Teaching can be considered as a high-stress occupation (Gold and Roth 1993). Several studies have explored the field of teacher burnout, showing high rates of burnout and attrition (Tatar andHorenczyk 2003, Hultell et al. 2013). Similar to other countries, the burnout rate for teachers in the Netherlands is higher than other professions due to high psychological work pressure, low levels of agency and limited possibilities for career/professional development. ...
Article
This study investigated the relation between teachers’ interpersonal role identity on the one hand and teachers’ self-efficacy, burnout and work engagement on the other. Data was collected using questionnaires and semi-structured and video-stimulated interviews. Results especially showed differences for self-efficacy between the teachers’ interpersonal role identities. The results indicate that teacher educators and coaches at schools can support (student) teachers (1) by helping them to discover and making them aware of their interpersonal identity standard and (2) by facilitating their growth towards a match between their interpersonal identity standard and their appraisal of classroom situations.
... Alternatively, it may be that teachers' skills in interacting with children that are not captured by the CLASS measure (e.g., more culturally competent interaction skills) have greater impact on the association between diversity and children's development. Future studies should investigate additional specific factors at the classroom level, such as teachers' expectations for children of different racial/ethnic groups (e.g., Tenenbaum & Ruck, 2007), attitudes toward diversity (Tatar & Horenczyk, 2003), or knowledge of and comfort in addressing multicultural issues with children (Wasonga, 2005;Yang & Montgomery, 2011), which might impact the relationships between diversity and child development. ...
Article
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Research has shown that racial/ethnic diversity in elementary schools and classrooms benefits children’s academic achievement and feelings of safety and belonging. The current study aimed to expand on existing research by examining associations between classroom racial/ethnic composition and upper elementary children’s social-emotional development and whether these associations differed based on overall quality of classroom interactions. Data were collected from 526 third- through fifth-grade children in 35 urban public elementary school classrooms. Measures included teacher-reported child social competence, teacher-child relationship quality, and aggression; child self-reported depression and anxiety; and observed classroom interactions. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that classroom diversity was positively related to teachers’ reports of child social competence and teacher-child closeness and negatively related to child-reported depression. The relationship between classroom diversity and child social-emotional development did not differ based on classroom interactional quality, indicating that these associations may be robust to differences in classroom environments.
... Misbehaviors could be the most important source of teacher attrition early in the career (Ingersoll & Smith, 2003;Spilt, Koomen, & Thijs, 2011). Further, the effect of relationships between teachers and students seemed to be retained throughout teachers' teaching careers (Tatar & Horenczyk, 2003). Case studies such as Veldman, van Tartwijk, Brekelmans, and Wubbels (2013) also supported that teacher-student relationship significantly bring about teacher job satisfaction. ...
Article
This study aims to analyze how selected student and school factors may affect teacher job satisfaction, in addition to teacher factors, through multilevel regression and commonality analysis of U.S. data from the Teaching and Learning International Surveys (TALIS) 2013. In the overall model of teacher job satisfaction, the factors of low achievers, behavioral problems, SES, classroom discipline climate, school location, principal job satisfaction, school autonomy for instruction, participation among stakeholders, experience, teacher self-efficacy, teacher-student relationship, teacher cooperation, and effective professional development are important predictors for teacher job satisfaction based on the values of beta weights and structure coefficients. Furthermore, the commonality analysis reveals that student, school, and teacher factors uniquely contribute 4.19%, 7.07%, and 6.41% of variance, respectively. Findings provide significant implications for educational policies on teacher job satisfaction and retention.
... Forskning visar att brist på kompetens kan resultera i problem vad gäller lärares och elevers välmående och prestationer (Oberle & Schonert-Reichl, 2016). Vi vet också att lärare som arbetar i skolor med hög etnisk och kulturell mångfald kan uppleva stress och utbrändhet och en benägenhet att sluta arbeta som lärare (Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2016;Tatar & Horenczyk, 2003). Ungefär en fjärdedel av lärarna i vår undersökning angav själva att de inte upplevde sig kompetenta för att hantera kulturell mångfald. ...
... Abel, Sewell, 1999;Kyriacou, 2001;Hastings, Bham, 2003;Mlčák, 2004;Dorman, 2004;Howard, Johnson, 2004;Covell, McNeil, Howell, 2009); ▪ nedorozumenia a nepochopenie medzi učiteľom a žiakmi z odlišného etnického/kultúrneho prostredia (napr. Brown, Uehara, 1999;Tatar, Horenczyk, 2003;Howard, Johnson, 2004); ▪ nedostatočné vybavenie tried/škôl (napr. Rudow, 1999); ▪ nedostatočné pracovné podmienky (nedostatok adekvátnych facilitátorov a zdrojov, príliš veľa žiakov v triede, nadmerný hluk, geografi cká izolácia školy) (napr. ...
... Baumi (2016) relates the feeling of belongingness amongst teachers with Maslow's (1943) hierarchy of needs and states that effective collaboration is rooted in certain fixed goals, healthy rapport, and equitable distribution of work. Furthermore, some researchers have claimed isolation as a major factor for teachers' low job satisfaction (Banerjee, Stearns, Moller, & Mickelson, 2017;Schleifer et al., 2017;Tatar & Horenczyk, 2003). However, Burns and Darling-Hammond (2014) asserts that a collaborator or a co-teacher plays a key role by making teaching less stressful and more rewarding. ...
Article
Collaboration dismantles the compartmentalized structure of educational organizations and creates a safe and supportive environment for its teachers. This helps them to share valuable knowledge related to content or pedagogy, with the common interest of creating a better learning environment for the students. Collaboration supports teachers in instructional practices as well as contributes to their job satisfaction. The structure of this paper is guided by theoretical frameworks by DuFour, Eaker, and DuFour's (2005) on collaboration, Bandura's (1977, 1982) social cognitive theory, and Herzberg's (1987) theory of motivation and hygiene. The data from United States teachers' from The Teaching and Learning International Survey (2013) was used to explore the relationship between collaboration, instructional practices, and job satisfaction using structural equation modeling. The results showed that collaboration among teachers cannot directly predict the level of job satisfaction, but significantly predicts job satisfaction when mediated through the use of instructional practices.
... and stress: Tatar and Horenczyk (2003) have investigated 'diversity-related burnout' among teachers in Israel. They distinguish between an 'assimilative' and a 'pluralistic' attitude among teachers and found the highest levels of diversity-related burnout among teachers who have an assimilative attitude and who additionally work in schools with an assimilationist orientation, while teachers with pluralistic views showed the lowest degree of diversity-related burnout. ...
Chapter
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This paper examines the access of asylum seeker and refugee students to Hungarian public education by focusing on the educational implications of the Hungarian asylum system. The paper questions the deficit and problem-oriented approach towards this group as the presence of these students can be of benefit to the Hungarian public education system, to local students and to the wider society. In light of this, policy recommendations for the educational incorporation of asylum seeker and refugee minors residing in Hungary are put forward. The paper builds on the findings of ethnographic fieldwork carried out during a special educational development project at the Bicske Integration Centre between February 2009 and June 2011 and on the results of a participatory observation conducted in March 2012 at the Global Academy, a special secondary school for resettled refugee newcomer students in Columbus, Ohio.
... Differences in explicit attitudes suggest that negative expectations may stem from teachers' expectations that culturally diverse student bodies require extra work and effort. These results mirror research showing that teachers often feel higher levels of stress related to cultural diversity (Tatar & Horenczyk, 2003), possibly associated with expected differences in language proficiency (Lotan, 2006). Neither the perceived valence of cultural diversity nor its perceived profitability for students differed as a function of school composition. ...
Article
Background Research exploring mechanisms driving inequalities in school systems has found that biased teacher judgements contribute to observed disadvantages for ethnic minority students. Teacher judgements may be driven by explicit and implicit attitudes. Aims The current research explored the effect of cultural diversity at schools (actual or imagined) on teachers’ attitudes towards ethnic minority students. Samples One hundred and five preservice teachers (90 female) with a mean age of 26.20 years (teaching experience: 57.55 weeks) participated in Study 1. Two hundred and thirty‐one teachers (159 female) with a mean age of 41.00 years (teaching experience: 12.92 years) participated in Study 2. Method Cultural diversity was operationalized via a fictive description of a school (Study 1) or via the actual proportion of ethnic minority students at the school (Study 2). An Implicit Association Test assessed implicit attitudes towards ethnic minority students. Explicit attitudes were assessed via questionnaire. Results Preservice teachers imagining a more culturally diverse school held more negative implicit attitudes towards ethnic minority students than those imagining a less diverse school. In contrast, in‐service teachers actually working in more diverse schools held less negative implicit attitudes towards minority students. Preservice teachers associated teaching in culturally diverse schools with increased effort, whereas in‐service teachers actually working in culturally diverse schools reported more enthusiasm towards teaching ethnic minority students. Conclusions This research shows the challenge and the negative stereotypes preservice teachers associate with culturally diverse schools, while in‐service teachers’ negative associations may be buffered by the actual experience of working with ethnic minority students.
... This measure used selected items from Tatar & Horenczyk's (2003) acculturation attitudes questionnaire. Five items related to a separationist acculturation attitude (α = 0.62), 5 items to an integrationist acculturation attitude (α = 0.62), and another 5 items to an assimilationist acculturation attitude for which the reliability was unsatisfactory (α = 0.46), so this scale was not used. ...
Article
This mixed-methods study examined the experiences of belonging/otherness among Arab teachers in Israel. A group of boundary-crossing teachers: Arab teachers in Jewish schools (AJ; N = 57) was compared with Arab teachers teaching in their own community (AA; N = 103). We found that the AJ group had a multicultural orientation, unlike the AA group, who were community-orientated. These orientations are reflected in different otherness sources, different motivations for selecting a workplace, and differences in identity ratings. While professional and social sources promoted teachers' sense of belonging in the two groups, the source of AJs' sense of otherness was the national divide as opposed to community-oriented aspects in AAs. Selfefficacy ratings were high in both groups with a significant advantage for AJs, an unanticipated finding given that most of them were women, had attended teacher training colleges rather than universities , and were rarely homeroom teachers. Arab teachers' involvement in Jewish schools was partial with a low proportion of classroom educators or teachers in managerial roles. AJs tend to leave their national identity outside the school, and are not involved in political discourse or in the staffroom power relations. The phenomenon of integrating AJs is relatively new, and within a segregated education system that limits the opportunities for Jews and Arabs to meet, it can provide a viable, albeit limited, tool to inhibit prejudice and antagonism between Jews and Arabs.
... However, connections between acculturation orientations and burnout of professionals working with immigrants have been rarely investigated. We found only two such studies conducted amongst teachers in Israel and the Netherlands (Dubbeld et al., 2019;Tatar & Horenczyk, 2003). In both studies, the teachers' stronger assimilative attitudes were associated with higher levels of burnout. ...
Article
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The present study investigates the effects of group appraisal and acculturation orientations on burnout of social workers working with immigrants. The study is based on the Threat‐Benefit and the Acculturation Theories. The proposed theoretical model was tested in a sample of social workers working with immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) in Israel (n = 313). Amongst the study participants, 254 were Israeli born, and 59 were immigrants from the FSU. The results demonstrated that social workers' acculturation orientations mediate the connection between the appraisal of the immigrant group and the social workers' burnout when working with immigrants from this group. Specifically, appraisal of immigrants as beneficial for the receiving society was associated with a stronger orientation towards preserving the immigrant culture (β = 0.22). On the other hand, appraisal of immigrants as threatening the receiving society was associated with a weaker orientation towards preserving the immigrant culture (β = −0.21) and with a stronger orientation towards acquiring the majority culture by immigrants (β = 0.12). A stronger acculturation orientation related to preserving the immigrant culture was associated with a lower level of burnout (β = −0.13) and a higher sense of personal accomplishments of social workers working with immigrants (β = 0.20). Immigrant social workers, compared to their native colleagues, reported a higher level of personal accomplishment (M[SD]IM = 5.08[1.24] vs. M[SD]IS = 4.21[1.39]) but also a higher level of burnout working with immigrant clients (M[SD]IM = 1.88[0.83] vs. M[SD]IS = 1.60[0.63]). The main conclusion following the present study relates to the importance of developing a positive appraisal of immigrants and accepting the immigrant culture for successful work with immigrants.
... To assess the construct validity of the two subscales included in the CRCMSES, I ran additional analyses, calculating bivariate correlations between the two subscales and the Cultural Diversity-Related Stress Scale (Tatar & Horenczyk, 2003). The direction and size of the correlations were similar, with both, although small, negative correlations. ...
Thesis
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The present dissertation about teachers’ cultural diversity beliefs and culturally responsive practices includes a general introduction (Chapter 1), a systematic literature review (Chapter 2), three empirical studies (Chapter 3, 4, and 5) and it ends with a general discussion and conclusion (Chapter 6). The major focus of investigation laid in creating a deeper understanding of teachers’ beliefs about cultural diversity and how those beliefs are related to teaching practices, which could or could not be considered to be culturally responsive. In this dissertation, I relied on insights from theoretical perspectives that derived from the field of psychology such as social cognitive theory and intergroup ideologies, as well as from the field of multicultural education such as culturally responsive teaching. In Chapter 1, I provide the background of this dissertation, with contextual information regarding the German educational system, the theoretical framework used and the main research objectives of each study. In Chapter 2, I conducted a systematic review of the existing international studies on trainings addressing cultural diversity beliefs with pre-service teachers. More specifically, the aims of the systematic literature review were (1) to provide a description of main components and contextual characteristics of teacher trainings targeting cultural diversity beliefs, (2) report the training effects, and (3) detail the methodological strengths and weaknesses of these studies. By examining the main components and contextual characteristics of teacher trainings, the effects on beliefs about cultural diversity as well as the methodological strengths and weaknesses of these studies in a single review, I took an integrated approach to these three processes. To review the final pool of studies (N = 36) I used a descriptive and narrative approach, relying primarily on the use of words and text to summarise and explain findings of the synthesis. The three empirical studies that follow, all highlight aspects of how far and how teacher beliefs about cultural diversity translate into real-world practices in schools. In Chapter 3, to expand the validity of culturally responsive teaching to the German context, I aimed at verifying the dimensional structure of German version of the Culturally Responsive Classroom Management Self-Efficacy Scale (CRCMSES; Siwatu, Putman, Starker-Glass, & Lewis, 2015). I conducted Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis, and run correlations between the subscales of the CRCMSES and a measure of cultural diversity- related stress. Data (n = 504) used for the first empirical study (Chapter 3) were collected in the InTePP-project (Inclusive Teaching Professionalization Panel) in which pre-service teachers’ competencies and beliefs were assessed longitudinally at two universities: the University of Potsdam and the University of Cologne. In the second empirical study, which forms Chapter 4, the focus is on teachers’ practices resembling school approaches to cultural diversity. In this study, I investigated two research questions: (1a) What types of descriptive norms regarding cultural diversity are perceived by teachers and students with and without an immigrant background and (1b) what is their degree of congruence? Additionally, I was also interested in how are teachers’ and students’ perceptions of descriptive norms about cultural diversity related to practices and artefacts in the physical and virtual school environment? Data for the second empirical study (Chapter 4) were previously collected in a dissertation project of doctor Maja Schachner funded by the federal program “ProExzellenz” of the Free State of Thuringia. Adopting a mixed-methods research design I conducted a secondary analysis of data from teachers’ (n = 207) and students’ (n = 1,644) gathered in 22 secondary schools in south-west Germany. Additional sources of data in this study were based on pictures of school interiors (hall and corridors) and sixth-grade classrooms’ walls (n = 2,995), and screenshots from each school website (n = 6,499). Chapter 5 addresses the question of how culturally responsive teaching, teacher cultural diversity beliefs, and self-reflection on own teaching are related. More specifically, in this study I addressed two research questions: (1) How does CRT relate to teachers’ beliefs about incorporating cultural diversity content into daily teaching and learning activities? And (2) how does the level of teachers’ self-reflection on their own teaching relate to CRT? For this last empirical chapter, I conducted a multiple case study with four ethnic German teachers who work in one culturally and ethnically diverse high school in Berlin, using classroom video observations and post-observation interviews. In the final chapter (Chapter 6), I summarised the main findings of the systematic literature review and three empirical studies, and discuss their scientific and practical implications. This dissertation makes a significant contribution to the field of educational science to understanding culturally responsive teaching in terms of its measurement, focus on both beliefs and practices and the link between the two, and theoretical, practical, and future study implications.
... Thus, homeroom teachers may be more resilient than subject teachers in the context of heavy job load and thus their occupational health could be less bothered by the consequences of long working hours (Luthar et al., 2000). As compared to subject teachers, homeroom teachers may have more opportunities in reaping a sense of achievement and satisfaction from their execution of daily homeroom duties due to the extensiveness and richness of their work duties (Day & Gu, 2014;Howard & Johnson, 2004;Tatar & Horenczyk, 2003). In support of this idea, Popper-Giveon and Shayshon (2017) conducted interviews with teachers in Israel. ...
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Job exhaustion is not uncommon among Chinese middle school teachers, but the key antecedents of job exhaustion and the underlying mechanisms in this historically underrepresented population remain poorly understood. This study examined the association between job demand and exhaustion, and tested the mediating role of job satisfaction and the moderating role of teachers’ role (i.e., homeroom versus subject) in this association. The two-wave, China Education Panel Survey data from 701 Chinese junior middle school teachers (Mage = 30.05 years old, SDage = 7.86; 78.75% females) were used. Primary hypotheses were tested using structural equation modelling. Results indicated that job load rather than job stress at Wave 1 was positively associated with job exhaustion at Wave 2 indirectly through its negative association with job satisfaction at Wave 2 only among subject teachers; in contrast, for homeroom teachers, job satisfaction at Wave 2 was the only factor that was identified to be negatively associated with job exhaustion at Wave 2. Notably, all significant associations emerged after controlling for a number of covariates, including job exhaustion at Wave 1. Such findings shed initial light on the complexity inherent within the phenomena of middle school teachers’ occupational health in a Chinese cultural context. Reducing teachers’ work load associated with long working hours and promoting teachers’ job satisfaction may be effective ways to relieve and prevent job exhaustion, especially for Chinese subject teachers.
... Principals as instructional leaders need to encourage and motivate teachers to engage in collaborative activities that facilitate teaching and learning (Goddard et al., 2015). Teachers often complain that they often feel isolated from colleagues and support systems, leading to dissatisfaction (Tatar, & Horenczyk, 2003;Urick, 2016). Collaboration can reduce feelings of isolation because through collaboration, teachers feel free and comfortable communicating with one other, leading to job satisfaction and high performance (Johnson et al., 2012;Vangrieken et al., 2015). ...
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p>This quantitative correlational study examined the relationship between the school environment and teachers’ job satisfaction. The study focused on finding the extent to which four predictors of the school environment (teachers’ collaboration, motivation, instructional materials, and teachers’ participation in decision making) predict teachers’ job satisfaction. Besides, the study also aimed at determining which variable is the best predictor of teachers’ job satisfaction. This study was guided by the following research questions: (1) To what extent does teachers’ collaboration influence their job satisfaction? (2) To what extent does teachers’ participation in decision-making influences their job satisfaction? (3) To what extent does motivation influence teachers’ job satisfaction? (4) To what extent do instructional materials influence teachers’ job satisfaction? The simple random sampling technique was used for this study. The sample population was made up of all 550 teachers in 15 public secondary schools, 320 females and 230 males. A questionnaire was used as an instrument for data collection. The instrument’s validity and reliability were ensured. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Pearson product-moment correlation was used to determine the relationships between the independent variables and the dependent variable. Simple linear regression was used to determine the amount of variance in the dependent variable accounted for by each independent variable. In addition, a multiple regression was used to assess the ability of four control measures to predict teachers’ job satisfaction and to find out which of the independent variables is the best predictor of teachers’ job satisfaction. The study found out that all the independent variables make a unique and statistically significant contribution to predicting teachers’ job satisfaction. The model explains 84.9% of the variance in teachers’ job satisfaction. Teachers’ participation in decision-making made the largest contribution (Beta= .626). This reveals that teachers’ participation in decision-making is the best predictor of teachers’ job satisfaction, followed by motivation (Beta= .532). This study provides useful findings which have implications for school leaders and policy-makers. Article visualizations: </p
... In considering the teacher-student and teacher-parent relationship, a variable that requires particular attention is the school level. Some studies tend in this regard to highlight the presence of higher levels of burnout among secondary school teachers working with adolescents than among teachers working at primary school level (Quattrin et al., 2009;Vercambre et al., 2009;Betoret and Artiga, 2010;Ullrich et al., 2012;Hall-Kenyon et al., 2014), while the opposite was found in other studies (Tatar and Horenczyk, 2003;Kokkinos, 2006;Tsigilis et al., 2011). Several studies conducted in Italian secondary schools tend to underline the greater conflictual nature of the relationship between teachers and pre-adolescent students, especially in the presence of unruly, turbulent, hyperactive and demotivated student behaviour in overcrowded classes (Di Pietro and Rampazzo, 1997;Pinelli et al., 1999). ...
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In the educational field, the role of the support component of the teacher-student relationship is well known, while the role of the teacher-student relationship on teacher burnout is a more current field of investigation. Several studies on the sources of burnout have recently focused on job satisfaction and teacher-student satisfaction. However, the role of teacher-parent satisfaction is still little explored in this field. Moreover, in the Italian school context, students’ seniority and educational level require further investigation, as the average age of teachers is particularly high compared to their European colleagues. The present study aims to examine in a sample of 882 Italian teachers the presence of burnout and differences in teacher-student and teacher-parent satisfaction between primary (students aged 6–10years) and lower secondary (students aged 11–13years) teachers. A further objective is to test whether teacher-student and teacher-parent satisfaction and seniority can be significant predictors of burnout. Teachers completed the Job Satisfaction Scale (MESI) and the MBI-Educators Survey and the data were then processed using MANOVA and multiple linear regression analysis. The results revealed that 8.2% of the teachers suffered from burnout and lower secondary teachers showed the highest levels of emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and reduced personal accomplishment. Predictors of emotional exhaustion were job dissatisfaction and seniority, and predictors of depersonalisation were job dissatisfaction and teacher-student dissatisfaction. Finally, predictors of personal accomplishment were also teacher-parent satisfaction and teacher-student satisfaction. The implications of these findings for practice and research are discussed in this article.
... As measuring culture and cultural differences objectively is a complex undertaking, in this study we used the birth countries of teachers, students, and students' parents as a proxy for cultural diversity, since the context in which people grow and develop determines their culture (Ottaviano & Peri, 2006;Weinstein et al., 2004). The challenges of teaching in a context of cultural diversity are such that some authors speak of diversity-related burnout, resulting from the stress and adaptation efforts that teachers must deploy to respond to students' needs (Swartz, 2003;Tatar & Horenczyk, 2003). Other studies have shown that when teachers from the majority culture teach a class with a high multicultural density, they may experience a form of culture shock (Mueller et al., 1999;Stearns et al., 2014). ...
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Teachers’ professional satisfaction promotes students’ educational success. Studies have shown that teaching in a context of high cultural diversity may affect teachers’ level of satisfaction (e.g., satisfaction with students, perceived warmth in the teacher–student relationship, sense of efficacy). This longitudinal study conducted among 69 Canadian elementary school teachers found that those who reported more openness to their students’ cultural diversity presented a more positive perception of students and reported greater warmth in their relationships with students but experienced a lower sense of professional efficacy. This study highlights the importance of teachers’ openness to cultural diversity, an understudied variable.
... На формирование представлений о собственной эффективности влияют четыре обстоятельства: наличие широкого поведенческого репертуара, опыта наблюдения за другими людьми, вербального подкрепления от других, а также оценка своего эмоционального состояния (Bandura, 1997). В мультикультурном контексте самоэффективность изучалась, в частности, в исследованиях М. Татара и Г. Горенчика (Tatar, Horenczyk, 2003;Tatar et al., 2011), в которых было выявлено, что уровень эмоционального выгорания учителей выше в связи с их ассимиляционными установками, т.е. отрицанием культурного многообразия. ...
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The article presents the results of an empirical research, which objective was to study the relationship between various components of intercultural competence and self-efficacy of teachers working with students from other cultures. Inter-cultural competence is understood as a complex multi-component concept that includes four basic components: intercul-tural interest, intercultural stability, lack of ethnocentrism, and management of intercultural interaction. In a situation of direct interaction with representatives of other cultures, in addition to self-assessment of intercultural competence, it is also important to take into account the behavioral choices in a situation of inter-cultural communication. Thus, the study Работа выполнена в рамках научно-исследовательского проекта ФГБОУ ВО МГППУ «Инструменты оценки межкультурной компетентности педагога». Study was supported by the MSUPE research project "Tools for assessing the intercultural competence of a teacher".
... Researchers have found that teacher selfefficacy beliefs and burnout are inversely related (Friedman, 2003;Høigaard et al., 2012;Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2010). The struggles of teaching in multicultural classrooms can lead teachers to experience diversity-related burnout (Tatar & Horenczyk, 2003). Several studies examined how teachers' cultural receptivity (Swearingen, 2009) and multicultural sensitivity (Joseph, 2010) are related to their burnout. ...
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Many teachers enter classrooms with limited cross-cultural awareness and low levels of confidence to accommodate cultural diversity. Therefore, teaching a heterogeneous body of students requires teachers to have culturally responsive teaching self-efficacy (CRTSE). The investigation of factors impacting teachers’ self-efficacy in teaching diverse students has produced mixed results. The purpose of the current study was to explore the determinants of CRTSE in a sample of Canadian preservice teachers. One hundred and ten preservice teachers from a medium-sized public Canadian University completed measures of political orientation, CRTSE, cross-cultural experiences, and teacher burnout. Higher levels of preservice teachers’ CRTSE were predicted by lower levels of Emotional Exhaustion (i.e., a key aspect of burnout syndrome) and more frequent cross-cultural experiences in their childhood and adolescence. Implications for training preservice teachers are discussed.
... 3 Work related stress and burnout affects all jobs and professions irrespective of white and/or blue color statuses, however medical educators face a distinctive level of stress at job. 4 Medical educationists are under consistent pressure such as assessments, curriculum modulations, demands of students and institution, accreditation and regulatory formalities and balance in teaching and clinical performance. 5 Most of burnout is related to financial hazards for the institution and the society in terms of long timeoffs, low inspiration for work, mental sicknesses, heart problems and hospitalization. ...
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Objective: To assess burnout in medical educators and to identify factors associated with it. Methods: A sequential mixed methods research study was conducted over eight months from July 2018 until February 2019. Participants included medical educators, who are studying for or graduated with a postgraduate qualification in medical education. An online questionnaire was developed using Maslach Burnout Inventory to collect quantitative data. The findings were explored in-depth qualitatively. Descriptive and inferential statistics were calculated for the quantitative data using SPSS 20. For qualitative data, we performed thematic analysis. Results: Of total 160 medical educationists, 101 responded giving 63.1% response rate. Mean age was 41.4 years and majority 53.5% were females. Overall aggregate mean burnout level was 12.34 ± 7.36 whereas sub-domains of Maslach burnout inventory (MBI) like i) emotional exhaustion, ii) depersonalization and iii) personal accomplishment were found out to be 19.59, 10.42 and 11.21 respectively. Most respondents had moderate 71 (70.3%) emotional exhaustion and 8 (8.9%) had severe emotional exhaustion. Average level of depersonalization was suffered by 73 (72.3%) respondents and severe level was observed in 20 (19.8%) respondents. Personal accomplishment was found low in all 101 (100.0%) respondents. Selective in-depth interviews revealed that coping mechanisms like social gatherings, indoor and outdoor game facilities and outings and leisure time should be strategized for faculties. Conclusion: In this study medical educators were found to have quite high level of burnout. The early career medical educators feels emotionally exhausted, with low sense of personal accomplishment.
... The questionnaire is based on Berry's (1992) model and adapted to the Israeli context (Horenczyk, 1996;Tatar & Horenczyk, 2003). The questionnaire involves 15 items on a six-point Likert scale, divided into three acculturation subscales: (1) Assimilation; ...
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The importance of teachers holding discussions of controversial political issues (CPI) in class is commonly acknowledged, but teachers vary in their willingness to engage in such discussions. The aim of this study is to compare different groups of minority teachers with regards to their attitudes toward CPI. Questionnaires were obtained from 282 teachers belonging to five different minority-teacher groups in Israel. Their attitudes towards conducting discussions of CPI were examined in relation to self-efficacy, acculturation attitudes, and demographic variables. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that teachers’ pluralistic acculturation attitude was the most important predictor of attitudes toward CPI, followed by teachers’ social self-efficacy. Arab teachers scored lower than all other groups on organizational self-efficacy and exhibited the most integrationist approaches, while teachers of low incidence ethnic origin exhibited the most assimilationist approach. The research draws attention to the diversity of diversity- that different minority groups approach the issue of CPI depending on the nature of their relationship with the majority group, the size and political power of the minority group and its acculturation approach.
... For example, in a study conducted with Brazilian teachers, elementary school teachers showed the lowest levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and the highest levels of job satisfaction [19]. In another study in Israel, teachers of the youngest students reported the highest levels of burnout [20]. For instance, [21] did not find considerable discrepancies in the burnout levels among Australian elementary and high school teachers. ...
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Teaching has been identified as an environment of extreme physical, mental, and cognitive demand for teachers and is one of the careers where burnout levels are the highest. This qualitative study aims to (i) understand the importance of personal, organizational, and classroom dimensions concerning the Portuguese education system, (ii) and how these dimensions contribute to burnout in Portuguese teachers from different teaching levels. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty-six primary and high school teachers. Results offer insights on the impact that different variables have on teachers’ burnout. The content analysis suggests that organization is the most relevant dimension contributing to teachers’ burnout. On the other hand, the classroom category appears to be the most challenging context for teachers to manage. The results highlight the need to consider the dynamics and interdependency between personal, organizational, and classroom dimensions in the development and prevalence of burnout.
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The article describes the development and testing of the SJT-ICC situational judgment test designed to measure intercultural competence of a teacher in the form of behavioral preferences in the professional field of interaction with students and their parents. This approach makes it possible to assess behavioral aspects of intercultural competence in a particular professional area more effectively than survey methods. The SJT-ICC consists of 18 cases from pedagogical practice and four possible behavioral options for the teachers, from which the subject must choose the most appropriate one. These situations were prepared on the basis of qualitative research in the format of in-depth interviews centered around difficult, critical situations that a teacher encounters when working with children and par¬ents from other cultures (n=53). The assessment of the intercultural competence of the answer options was made on the basis of an expert survey of 23 special-ists.1367 teachers took part in the research to validate and check the consisten¬cy of the SJT-ICC. The outcome of the categorical principal component analysis (CatPCA) was a one-scale structure of the SJT-ICC which was confirmed by the confirmatory factor analysis. The relationship between the results of the SJT-ICC and the scales used for validation is predictable: intercultural competence is associated with indicators of professional success of a teacher working with students of other cultures. It is concluded that the SJT-ICC can be effectively used to assess the prerequisites for intercultural success among Russian teachers.
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Background/Aim. Burnout syndrome is a psychological phenomenon that occurs as a response to chronic interpersonal stressors at work. It is manifested by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and a sense of reduced personal accomplishment. The aim of the study was to examine the correlation between burnout syndrome, individual-psychological factors and social support among special and regular education teachers, as well as to determine differences of burnout syndrome dimensions between groups of teachers with different educational backgrounds. Methods. This non-experimental, cross-sectional correlation study included 317 teachers (122 special education teachers and 38 other teachers in special education for children with intellectual disabilities and 157 teachers from regular primary schools) from Belgrade. Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Assertiveness Assessment Questionnaire Scale (A-Scale), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSS), Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale (TSES), and Multidimensional Perceived Social Support Scale (MSPSS) were used in the study. Results. The highest prevalence of high levels of burnout were recorded on the emotional exhaustion subscale and were 38% for special education teachers, 47% for other teachers in special education, and 39% for teachers in regular education. The most important predictors of burnout in special education teachers were: for emotional exhaustion (self-esteem, efficiency of class management and seniority); for depersonalization (self-esteem, efficiency of class management and social support); for a sense of lower personal accomplishment (assertiveness, effective student learning and class management). The most important predictors of burnout in regular education teachers were: for emotional exhaustion (assertiveness, effective class management, social support and seniority); for depersonalization (self-esteem, effective student learning and seniority); for a reduced personal accomplishment (self-esteem, effective student learning and social support). Conclusion. Individual-psychological factors have emerged as an important predictor of burnout syndrome in the teaching profession, indicating the importance of examining the impact of these factors in other professions that are characterized by the specific demands for a deeper emotional investment during the work process.
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This qualitative study aimed at investigating the reasons for burnout among Iranian English language teachers who were teaching in public Iranian high schools. To this aim, 15 male and female teachers who had scored high on the Maslach Burnout Inventory were selected and studied through semi-structured interview, journal keeping and observation methods. Qualitative content analysis of the collected data showed that students’ low proficiency, lack of support from administrators, student misbehavior, students’ lack of interest in learning English, time limitation and class oversize were among the major reasons for Iranian English language teacher burnout. The results support the recent renewal of the English language teaching curriculum for schools, but they have further implications for policy-makers.
Chapter
Der Beitrag widmet sich der Frage, inwiefern und inwieweit Lehrkräfte durch die zunehmende kulturelle Heterogenität an den Schulen belastet werden. Zunächst wird dargestellt, in welcher Hinsicht kulturelle Vielfalt die Professionalität von Lehrkräften herausfordert und inwieweit dies zu unterschiedlichen Quellen der Belastung führen kann. Dabei werden durch Interkulturalität direkt bewirkte von indirekt bewirkten Belastungen unterschieden. Quellen der Belastungen finden sich auf individueller Ebene im Handlungsrepertoire und den Einstellungen von Lehrkräften, in der Interaktion zwischen Schüler*innen und Lehrkräften und im institutionellen Kontext. Schließlich werden Ansatzpunkte für Lehrer*innenbildung und Schulentwicklung aufgezeigt, um dem Erleben kulturbezogenen Stresses entgegenzuwirken.
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Among the influences on the ability of immigrant groups to integrate and adapt in a new society, empirical studies have highlighted the role of attitudes of the host population toward the immigrant group. Based on previous social psychological theories, such as integrated threat theory (Stephan & Stephan, An integrated threat theory of prejudice. In: Oskamp S. (ed) Reducing prejudice and discrimination. Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, pp. 23–45, 2000), which have emphasized levels of perceived threat, the current chapter elaborates a threat-benefit model (TBM) of appraisal of immigrant groups. The theory proposes that local populations appraise immigrant groups as representing a number of different threats (economic, physical, social cohesion, and a threat to modernity) but also a number of potential benefits (economic, social cohesion, cultural diversity, and humanitarian) to the receiving society. Appraisal of levels of the different threats and benefits varies according to characteristics of the immigrant group, the receiving society, and the individual doing the appraisal. In addition, TBM suggests that the individuals’ appraisal will depend upon the value preferences that they hold. Based on findings from two studies (Tartakovsky & Walsh, Int J Intercult Relat 53: 39–53, 2016a, J Cross-Cult Psychol, 47: 72–96, 2016b), we examine how levels of appraisal can impact the behavioral and emotional responses of the receiving population through an examination of attitudes to policy and experiences of burnout among social workers, a population at the forefront of care provision for immigrant groups. We suggest that the ability of a host population to cope with the stressors involved in the influx of an immigrant group and to continue in a positive growth trajectory (e.g., to provide care and to promote immigrant rights and welfare) can represent a form of societal resilience.
Thesis
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The psychological well-being of teachers has been a source of concern for several decades. The studies on the subject show that they suffer from psychological distress and this has an impact on the quality of their teaching as well as on the high rate of resignation. A high rate of resignation among teachers and a high rate of absenteeism reflect some problems within this profession. It is therefore necessary to deepen our understanding of the causes of this psychological distress, in order to make the necessary improvements. The purpose of this thesis is to assess the psychological well-being of primary and secondary school teachers in Quebec's French school boards and the sociodemographic factors that may play a role in their psychological health. The objectives of this research will be to measure the psychological well-being and psychological distress of teachers, to compare primary and secondary teachers, and to compare them according to different sociodemographic factors, such as age, gender, number of years of experience, etc. This will shed light on the factors that play a role in their psychological health. Our sample consists of 827 primary and secondary school teachers and they answered a questionnaire assessing their sociodemographic factors, their psychological well-being, their psychological distress, their work environment and their lifestyle. The results of this study show that teachers experience on average a satisfactory level of psychological well-being, which corresponds to 3.80 / 5 on the Likert scale, and almost never live psychological distress (1.86 / 5). On the other hand, the prevalence of teachers with a low level of psychological well-being is 28.3%, so this indicates a certain problem within this profession. In addition, our results show a significant difference in psychological well-being by number of years of experience. Indeed, it is the most experienced teachers who have the best psychological well-being. A significant difference also made it possible to establish a link between the number of hours worked per week and psychological health. Teachers working more than 41 hours per week experience less well-being and more psychological distress. In addition, a statistical trend shows that women experience a little less psychological well-being than men. This study therefore concludes that it is necessary to adjust the teacher's work environment in order to improve their psychological health. An improvement in the workload would be necessary so that teachers do not need 21 years of experience before their level of psychological well-being can increase. It could also reduce the number of hours worked per week and this would certainly have an impact on their well-being. An upcoming study measuring the psychological well-being work environment with sociodemographic factors as mediating variables could tell us more about what may be causing poor psychological well-being and which sociodemographic factors are most at risk to suffer. In addition, since the psychological distress is quite low in our sample, this probably reflects extreme cases and it would be more appropriate to focus more on the prevalence of 28.3% who have low psychological well-being. One in four teachers does not seem satisfied with their well-being and this shows a problem for this proportion of teachers. This result is consistent with the scientific literature on the subject. An upcoming study examining this prevalence by socio-demographic factors could tell us more about the teachers most at risk of experiencing distress and leaving the profession.
Chapter
Es ist überhaupt nicht egal, wie Erwachsene mit den nachwachsenden Generationen umgehen. Mittlerweile gibt es einen substanziellen Wissensfundus über einen guten Umgang mit jungen Menschen. Was gut für junge Menschen ist, bemisst sich an deren Gedeihen, Mitdenken, aktiv sein, und deren Entwicklung. Die zahlreichen Einzelbefunde lassen sich vier grundlegenden Dimensionen zuordnen, welche maßgeblich die Kapitelstruktur des Bandes ausmachen.
Chapter
Die schulische Adaptation wird gerade für Lernende mit Zuwanderungshintergrund maßgeblich durch Interaktionen mit ihren Lehrpersonen und Peers in der Schule beeinflusst. Wahrgenommene Ungleichbehandlung und diskriminierendes Verhalten können zu Lernblockaden und schulischem Rückzug führen. Multikulturelle Haltungen von Lehrpersonen und ein pluralistisches Schulklima wirken demgegenüber positiv auf die schulische Entwicklung einer kulturell heterogenen Schülerschaft. Multikulturelle Haltungen von Lehrpersonen werden seltener von Belastungswahrnehmungen im Umgang mit einer kulturell diversen Schülerschaft begleitet.
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Nitel gözleme dayalı bu araştırmada çok kültürlü sınıflarda ortaya çıkan hata düzeltme şekillerini araştırmak amaçlanmıştır. Nitel araştırma modeli araştırmacının, öğrenciler yanlış biçimleri kullandıklarında, öğretmenlerin düzeltici dönüt kullanma eylemlerini gözlemlemesine olanak tanımıştır. Araştırmanın amacına uygun olarak, araştırmacı ABD'deki bir üniversitede üç öğretmeni toplam onbir derste gözlemlemiştir. Gözlem yap/lan dersler başlangıçtan orta düzeye konuşma, din/eme ve ses/etim dersleridir. Araştırmacı, aynı zamanda öğretmenlerle bire bir görüşme yapmıştır. Hem bu görüşmelerde hem de ders gözlemlerinde not alma, kullanılan veri toplama aracı olmuştur. Verilerin çözümlenmesi sonucunda, öğretmenlerin, öğrencilerin kültürlerine karşı duyarlılığa sahip oldukları gözlemlenmiştir. Bunun yanında, sekiz değişik hata düzeltme şekli belirlenmiştir. Ancak, sınıfların çok kültürlü olması yalnızca bir hata düzeltme şeklinde etkili olmuştur.
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Handbook of Language and Ethnic Identity. Joshua A. Fishman. ed. New York: Oxford University Press. 1999. xii. 468 pp.
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This study examined the direction and time-frame of relationships between perceived self-efficacy in classroom management and the three dimensions of burnout among 243 secondary school teachers. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that perceived self-efficacy had a longitudinal effect on depersonalization and a synchronous effect on personal accomplishment. However, the direction was reversed for the relationship between perceived self-efficacy and emotional exhaustion; the time frame was synchronous. It was concluded that perceived self-efficacy in classroom management must be taken into consideration when devising interventions both to prevent and to treat burnout among secondary school teachers.
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A comprehensive survey of teacher stress, job satisfaction and career commitment among 710 full-time primary school teachers was undertaken by Borg, Riding & Falzon (1991) in the Mediterranean islands of Malta and Gozo. A principal components analysis of a 20-item sources of teacher stress inventory had suggested four distinct dimensions which were labelled: Pupil Misbehaviour, Time/Resource Difficulties, Professional Recognition Needs, and Poor Relationships, respectively. To check on the validity of the Borg et al. factor solution, the group of 710 teachers was randomly split into two separate samples. Exploratory factor analysis was carried out on the data from Sample 1 (N = 335), while Sample 2 (N = 375) provided the cross-validational data for a LISREL confirmatory factor analysis. Results supported the proposed dimensionality of the sources of teacher stress (measurement model), along with evidence of an additional teacher stress factor (Workload). Consequently, structural modelling of the 'causal relationships' between the various latent variables and self-reported stress was undertaken on the combined samples (N = 710). Although both non-recursive and recursive models incorporating Poor Colleague Relations as a mediating variable were tested for their goodness-of-fit, a simple regression model provided the most parsimonious fit to the empirical data, wherein Workload and Student Misbehaviour accounted for most of the variance in predicting teaching stress.
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This study compared levels of self-reported psychological burnout, and its antecedents and consequences, among male and female teachers/administrators of three ages of students: elementary—6 to 12 yr., junior—13 to 14 yr., and secondary—15 to 20 yr. Elementary teachers/administrators exhibited significantly lower psychological burnout than junior and secondary teachers/administrators. Similar patterns of differences were present on theoretically-based antecedents and consequences of burnout.
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Presents the results of an analysis of questionnaire and interview data revealing significant differences in occupational stress between groups of public school teachers, in New South Wales, Australia. In particular, emphasizes the importance of differentiating between executive and classroom teachers, primary/infants and secondary teachers, teachers at different career stages and teachers in geographical locations, when planning to alleviate stress in the future. The fact that primary/infants teachers reported greater stress attributable to student misbehaviour than secondary teachers reinforces the need to distinguish between the perceived “objective strength” of a stressor and the degree of distress felt by a teacher.
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The health effects of teacher stress and teacher burnout are reviewed separately in this article. Although the literature generally lends support to the hypothesis that occupational stress and burnout are associated with poor health in teachers, confidence in this conclusion is weakened by the serious methodological and conceptual difficulties that pervade this area of research. In particular, reliance on cross-sectional retrospective designs, exclusive dependence on self-report measures, and failure to adopt a theoretical framework as a guide for empirical investigations are identified as major threats to the validity of the findings reported. It is concluded that this area of research is ready for a shift to theory-based investigations that test causal models of teacher stress and health with more sophisticated research designs and measurement strategies.
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A questionnaire survey was conducted on 844 primary school teachers in Maltese state schools to investigate the prevalence of stress and the level of job satisfaction. Three out of every 10 teachers rated their job as very/extremely stressful. Length of teaching experience and age‐group taught were found to be moderators of teacher stress. The great majority of respondents (75.5%) were fairly/very satisfied with teaching. Sex and age‐group taught proved to be moderators of job satisfaction. The results revealed significant negative correlations between self‐reported teacher stress and job satisfaction, and between teacher stress and intention to take up a teaching career a second time.
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To investigate teachers' perceptions and actions regarding the psychological and counselling needs of their pupils, we collected data from 258 teachers in primary and secondary schools. The teachers' reports revealed significant differences between teachers in the two educational settings, in almost all the issues investigated. Secondary school pupils were described as more troubled by various issues and more in need of individual counselling in school than their primary school counterparts. Secondary school teachers are approached mainly with issues associated with school lives, whereas primary school pupils request more help on personal and family matters. Secondary school teachers report having less time, perceiving their involvement with their pupils' emotional life as less central to their task, and believing that their own attitudes and characteristics influence their relations with their pupils. Primary school teachers, presumably being part of a school organizational culture that legitimizes greater involvement with pupils, nurture their relationships with their pupils and make it easier for pupils to approach them, making greater use of classroom activities and specific methods intended for this purpose. While some of these findings could be explained in terms of the developmental differences between primary and secondary school pupils, it is suggested that the differential impact ofthe environment in the two types of schools affects teachers' roles and intentions in dealing with their pupils' emotional lives and needs.
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Describes a group session involving 12 teachers of various ethnicities designed to encourage participants to foster a multicultural environment in their classrooms by increasing their awareness, knowledge, and skills in working with ethnic minority students. Participants' responded positively to the sessions. Feedback questions and answers and program content is appended. (MKA)
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Core curriculum and multicultural education are two major approaches advocated in the current school reform movement. This article argues that neither of these approaches adequately addresses the problem of those minority groups who have not traditionally done well in the public school. Core curriculum advocates falsely assume that as a result of instituting a core curriculum, demanding higher standards, and patching up supposed individual deficiencies, all students will perform as expected. Multicultural education advocates inadequately design their program to focus on cultural differences in content and form. This article contends that the crucial issue in cultural diversity and learning is the relationship between the minority cultures and the American mainstream culture. Minorities whose cultural frames of reference are oppositional to the cultural frame of reference of American mainstream culture have greater difficulty crossing cultural boundaries at school to learn. Core curriculum and multicultural advocates have yet to understand and take this into account.
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S'occuper du stress chez les enseignants est rapidement devenu un objectif majeur dans les ecoles. Au niveau individuel le stress se manifeste par un sentiment de fatigue et par une perte du sommeil. Dans les cas les plus graves par une hypertension et son corrolaire qui touche l'institution scolaire : l'absence. Le sujet de cette etude s'attache au traitement et surtout a la difference de traitement chez les enseignants juifs et arabes en Israel, integrant ainsi un traitement culturel differentiel dans la gestion du stress.
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Suggests that pre-service teachers must be guided into a commitment to multicultural education that will be translated into positive effects on classroom behaviors and attitudes. The occurrence of pre-service resistance to diversity suggests negative implications for the effective education of minority students. The creation of resistance or anger should be avoided to effectuate multicultural education. Also, pre-service teachers need to feel a healthy sense of self and ethnic pride to feel respect for the different ethnic groups in their classes. Suggestions for instructional techniques to counter resistance and to increase commitment to diversity in multicultural education are offered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Conducted regression analyses to investigate which work stressors, attitudinal and demographic variables predicted the reported emotional distress (anxiety, depression, and physical symptoms) and burnout (emotional exhaustion, use of depersonalization, and feelings of personal accomplishment) of music and math teachers working in secondary schools. 107 secondary school teachers completed a 4-part questionnaire that obtained biographical data, assessed work stressors, general health, and behaviors and attitudes of teachers. Results showed that music teachers gave significantly more problematic responses defining the variables which predicted emotional distress and burnout than math teachers. Also, music teachers were substantially more distressed and burnt out than math teachers. These and other results are discussed in terms of their implications for well-being of teachers who may feel marginalized within the teaching system. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In Study 1, 592 graduate and undergraduate students, in-service teachers, and student teachers (mean age 40.2 yrs) completed 60 items from 6 stress scales developed by D. Girdano and G. Everly (1977). Factor analysis yielded the following dispositional stress scales: Overload, Lack of Self-confidence, Time Urgency, Need to Keep Busy, and Anxiety. In Study 2, correlations between the scales from Study 1, occupational stress scales, and attitudes toward pupil control (authoritarian vs humanistic) were examined, using 231 teachers (mean age 39.5 yrs). Ss who scored higher in Time Urgency and Overload scales also tended to perceive all 5 aspects (e.g., financial insecurity) of their jobs as being more stressful. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Presents an introduction to the study of behavior in organizations, emphasizing the individual, the organization, and their interaction in work situations. Topics include choice, adaptation, and developmental processes in individual-organization relationships; structural and social factors in work behavior; and ways of improving organizational effectiveness. (221/2 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Twenty-first century predictions forecast highly diverse, urban students and predominantly white, monolingual, interculturally limited teachers as the makeup of the new millennium's schools. To avoid a cultural crash, today's potential teaching force must be prepared for tomorrow's students by teacher educators in colleges and universities. Helping future teachers understand what they believe about education in general and, specifically, culturally diverse populations of students can provide an important key for that preparation. This article describes one college of education's efforts to make implicit beliefs explicit through survey data, its application of data to programs, and its plans for continuing research.
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The primary intent of the study was to investigate the impact of particular background variables on three dimensions of burnout (Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, Personal Accomplishment) for elementary (n = 98), intermediate (n = 163), secondary (n = 162), and university (n = 219) educators. Using setwise multiple regression procedures, these variables (gender, age, marital/family status, type of student taught) were effects-coded and interpreted within an analysis of variance framework. A secondary purpose of the study was to delineate factors which educators perceive as contributing most to feelings of work-related stress. While findings revealed gender, age, and type of student taught to be the most salient, their influence varied with teaching level and specific burnout facet under study. Organizational factors related to the administration of educational institutions ranked high as a substantial contributor to feelings of stress by educators at all levels of the academic system.
Article
The study examines teachers’ attitudes toward multiculturalism and the extent to which these are related to their perceptions of the school organizational culture. Results based on the responses of 442 teachers, working at 34 Israeli schools, revealed that pluralistic attitudes were higher when referring to the integration of immigrants from the former Soviet Union into the general society, whereas assimilationist attitudes were more predominant when related to the approach toward immigrants in educational contexts. It was also found that teachers’ attitudes toward multiculturalism in schools are related to components at the various levels of their perceived school organizational culture. Implications for pre-service and in-service training of teachers in culturally plural societies are discussed.
Article
This paper addresses regular-classroom teachers' attitudes toward language diversity and linguistically diverse students. We examined salient contextual variables hypothesized in the research literature to be associated with language attitudes-experience with linguistically diverse students, region of the country, formal training in second-language learning, graduate education, and grade level taught. The respondents (N = 191) were teachers selected from three states: Arizona, Utah, and Virginia. Our findings show that region of the country, experience working with language-minority children, a completed graduate degree, and formal training were related to positive language attitudes. These findings are discussed in relation to strategies for attitude change in teachers.
Article
The authors of the present investigation provide baseline data regarding preservice teachers’ beliefs about addressing the needs of students whose backgrounds and abilities differ from their own. These data provide the guidance for subsequent in-depth longitudinal investigations about the ways in which preservice teachers’ beliefs inform their classroom behaviors toward the aforementioned students, as well as suggestions for teacher educators about program improvements.
Article
33 teachers from one institutional school setting and 59 teachers from three north central school districts volunteered to complete and return Beck's Depression Scale, the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory--Adult Form, Stress Profile for Teachers, and the Staff Burnout Scale for Mental Health Professionals. Analysis of variance (2 x 2) for teaching level (grade and high school) by sex showed those teaching regular classrooms is grade school experienced less burnout and stress than did high school teachers. There was no sex difference. In the institutional setting there was a significant difference on burnout scores between men and women who taught high school; their scores were higher than those of the male grade school teachers. Burnout lie scores were also significantly higher for female high school teachers than for both male and female grade school teachers. Scores on stress were significantly higher for male high school teachers than for both female high school teachers and male grade school teachers.
Article
. This study investigated the relationship with stress and burnout of eight selected psychological, organisational and demographic variables in secondary school teachers. Teachers (N = 78) from four secondary schools completed self report measures of stress, burnout, role conflict, role ambiguity, locus of control, and organisational and demographic variables. Regression and follow-up canonical correlation analyses indicated that six of the eight selected variables were significantly related to stress, total burnout, frequency and intensity of burnout, emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and personal accomplishment subscales. Role ambiguity and locus of control explained most variance on stress and all burnout scales except burnout intensity and emotional exhaustion, which were best explained by number of years teaching experience. Overall, however, stress and burnout levels were found to be low. Theoretical implications of the study include identifying whether levels of stress and burnout increase during the course of the school year, and identifying variables which can be included in other studies. Practical implications of how to overcome factors leading to stress and burnout as identified in this study are also discussed.
Article
The tripartite components of burnout and eight coping strategies were assessed in a sample of 415 Chinese secondary school teachers in Hong Kong. While emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation were relatively undifferentiated among these teachers, a reduced sense of accomplishment as a distinct component of burnout was generally reported. The findings that avoidant coping strategies were consistently related to all three aspects of burnout suggested that teachers employing escape-avoidance to cope with stressors might be more prone to burnout. Implications for promoting certain patterns of coping to combat burnout were discussed.
Article
This study examined a research model developed to understand psychological burnout among school-based educators. Data were collected from 833 school-based educators using questionnaires completed anonymously. Four groups of predictor variables identified in previous research were considered: individual demographic and situational variables, work stressors, role conflict, and social support. Some support for the model was found. Work stressors were strong predictors of psychological burnout. Individual demographic characteristics, role conflict, and social support had little effect on psychological burnout.
Article
Numerous studies examined teachers' self-reports concerning their occupational burnout. Given that pupils are in a prime position to assess teachers' burnout, due to their intensive daily contact with their teachers and because some of pupils' behaviours can induce stress, the present study focuses on a relatively unexplored topic, namely the meanings that adolescents attach to burnout among their teachers. This study was aimed at examining pupils' perceptions regarding burnout among their teachers, and to investigate the possible recommendations that the pupils would suggest to different constituents of the educational system for coping with burnout among teachers. A total of 297 Israeli secondary school pupils (approximately 57% girls and 43% boys) studying in 12 tenth grade classes (mean age 15 years 8 months, SD = 0.42 years) participated in this study. A questionnaire dealing with pupils' perceptions of burnout among teachers was administered. It included four sections. The first part asked for background of the pupils (sex and age). Next, pupils were asked an open-ended question in which they need to describe the most salient behaviour of a burned-out teacher in the classroom and to indicate the proportion of burned-out teachers among those teaching them. The third section consisted of a list of 14 items describing potential characteristics of burned-out teachers. The respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which, in their opinion, each of the descriptors characterized burned-out teachers. In addition, pupils were asked three open-ended questions in which they were required to describe the most salient way for (a) the students, (b) the teachers themselves and (c) the school principal to cope with teachers' burnout. Findings showed that the most frequently mentioned characteristics of burned-out teachers were: teachers who 'feel that working with pupils for a full day is an oppressive effort', 'feel wiped out at the end of a teaching day', 'feel that teaching is turning them into impatient persons' and 'feel that teaching frustrates them'. No differences were found between girls' and boys' perceptions of burned-out teachers: both emphasize the psychological exhaustion of teachers as the most salient characteristic of burnout among teachers. Pupils suggest that the better ways for coping with this phenomenon include a more positive behaviour of the pupils themselves towards teachers, that burned-out teachers quit their jobs and that better work conditions be offered to them by the educational authorities. Our findings allude to the importance of analyzing interactional phenomena like burnout among teachers from the perspectives of different actors in the school arena and allow us to broaden our understanding of pupils' perceptions of teachers. Suggestions for further research and for the development of methodological refinements are discussed.