Article

Motivation through Conscious Goal Setting

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Abstract

The article describes what has been found during 30 years of research by the author and others on the relationship between conscious performance goals and performance on work tasks. This approach is contrasted with previous approaches to motivation theory which stressed physiological, external or subconscious causes of action. The basic contents of goal setting theory are summarized in terms of 14 categories of findings. An applied example is provided.

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... Skinnerian behaviorism externalized motivation by attributing it to reinforcing (consequences of action) and treating the human mind as an epiphenomenon (Locke, 1996). T. A. Ryan suggested that a fruitful approach to human motivation might be to simply ask people what they were trying to accomplish when they took an action (Locke, 1996). ...
... Skinnerian behaviorism externalized motivation by attributing it to reinforcing (consequences of action) and treating the human mind as an epiphenomenon (Locke, 1996). T. A. Ryan suggested that a fruitful approach to human motivation might be to simply ask people what they were trying to accomplish when they took an action (Locke, 1996). Motivating the employees through "do your best" can be a very important factor in encouraging creativity in someone. ...
... Motivating the employees through "do your best" can be a very important factor in encouraging creativity in someone. Commitment to specific and difficult goals is the most crucial element in creative outcome (Locke, 1996). And Supportiveness, recognition, and rewards are required of commitment (Locke, 1996) so that employees can deliver the most innovative results. ...
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The research has been conducted to find out the factors affecting the advertising creativity in the context of Bangladesh. The research is a Conclusive Causal Research, where we tried to find factors influencing advertising creativity in the Bangladeshi market. The study was conducted through an online questionnaire survey as well as face to face interview with the hardcopy of the questionnaire, both of which involved 210 participants. An in-depth analysis was run through SPSS V25.0 to analyze the acquired data. It was found that Motivation and Divergence greatly influences Innovation in Advertisement, however, the Bangladeshi market does not intend to follow the global Trend. In addition to this, we proposed what the customer base of the market demands when it comes to brand promotions, and how they perceive the recent changes as well as what makes the promotional campaigns innovative. It was found that the younger customers tend to be more inclined towards the uniqueness, novelty, and originality of today’s advertisements, while they do not indulge in being included in the campaigns. Moreover, with the industry being more competitive and diverse, the work environment is expected to be more challenging as well as rewarding that will bring out the creativity out of the marketers.
... Based on goal-setting theory, human action is purposeful, and individuals are able to conceptualize goals and then set their purposes for the long or short term (Latham & Locke, 1991;Locke, 1996). Health goal is an internal desire that individual wants to achieve to satisfy his/her innate health needs (Lee et al., 1997). ...
... Hence, in the current study, health goal is introduced as a moderator to reveal the boundary conditions that inertia influences during fitness app exploration through perceived need. Health goal is defined in this study as a desire for health and fitness benefits that people want to obtain (Latham and Locke, 1991;Locke, 1996). ...
... High health goal will trigger user's strong intrinsic motivation to achieve his/her health goal to reach self-satisfaction (Bandura & Cervone, 1986;Locke, 1996). That means that rational conscious cognition for health is strongly aroused, which leads to strong conscious self-regulation (Locke & Latham, 2006). ...
Article
Information behavior for health and fitness have attained increasing attention in the e-health field. However, mobile users still need exploring a largely untapped resource on fitness apps to obtain more health benefits. Regarding that prior studies seldom focused on which factor hinders fitness app exploration, this study proposes a moderated mediation model to investigate the mechanisms underlying users’ intention to explore fitness apps (IEFA) based on status quo bias theory and goal-setting theory. This model stresses on the mediation effect of perceived need and the moderating effect of health goal. Data from 346 respondents in China were used to examine the hypotheses proposed in the research model and further to verify the moderated mediation model. The results indicate that users’ inertia negatively influences both perceived need and IEFA, and perceived need not only has a positive influence on IEFA, but also mediates the relationship between inertia and IEFA. In addition, health goal weakens the relationships between inertia and perceived need as well as between inertia and IEFA. This study extends the knowledge of information behavior in the mobile health field and enriches literature of status quo bias and health goal-setting. It also discusses practical implications for fitness app providers.
... The concept of resilience has been mainly investigated by psychologists (Locke 1996), in ecology (for a review see Hillmann 2020) and only more recently by management scholars who have focused on the individual (Coutu 2002;Mallak 1998) and the organizational resilience (Conz and Magnani 2020;Fisher, Ragsdale and Fisher 2019;Hillmann and Günther 2021;Linnenluecke 2017;Williams et al. 2017). The recent literature reviews on the topic have pointed out several aspects such as (i) the different streams of research about resilience as from adaptability of business model to supply chain design (Linnelucke 2017), (ii) the conceptual and operational issues, with particular reference to the need of disentangling resilience as a process, resilience as a capability and resilience as an outcome, a behaviour, a strategy and a mix of these (Hillman and Günther 2021), and (iii) different categories of resilience, as in the case of resilience as a proactive attribute (before event occurrence), resilience as absorptive and adaptive attributes (during event occurrence), resilience as reactive attribute (after event occurrence), and resilience as dynamic attribute (before, during and after an event) (Conz and Magnani 2020). ...
... Hence, we think that the goal setting theory would predict to what extent an organization could be resilience-oriented better than other theories. According to the goal setting theory, an individual sets a goal (or other individuals set the goals for her/him) and this influences the effort in accomplishing that goal and, in turn, performance (Locke 1996). More specifically, the more difficult is the goal, the higher is the perfomance. ...
... According to Locke (1996), goals possess two attributes: content, i.e. what a person is looking for, and intensity, i.e. how difficult and specific is a goal. These attributes influence performance since, according to the theory, the more difficult and specific the goal, the highest the performance. ...
Article
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In a fast-changing world, characterized by evenly unexpected challenges and shocks, being resilient is a crucial aspect for every organization. Drawing from the goal setting theory and the double standards of competence perspective, this study aims at understanding the antecedents of organizational proactive resilience. More precisely, it looks at the impact of quantitative and qualitative organizational growth goals on proactive resilience, distinguishing between women-led and non-women-led firms. Based on a unique sample of 167 Italian wineries (67 women-led and 100 non-women-led), this paper tests this theoretical model using path analysis techniques. The wine sector is a particularly interesting context to study the phenomenon due to its exposure to natural disasters, new consumers' behaviours that are requiring firms to continuously innovate and differentiate in a traditionally low-tech sector, but also changes happening at wineries' management level. In fact, the sector has been traditionally male dominated, but women are increasingly taking the lead. The findings indicate that growth goals differently contribute to proactive organizational resilience , but their effects vary in women-and non-women-led businesses. Specifically, these results suggest that in women-led wineries, proactive organizational resilience depends on quantitative growth goals while in non-women-led wineries businesses this depends on qualitative growth goals.
... Mindfulness, a form of heightened awareness, is essential to recognize one's strengths (Niemiec, 2013) and attend to the retirement transition in a way that supports self-development. Goal setting, a starting point for positive change, establishes motivation and provides clear direction for effort (Locke, 1996). And growth mindset, a way of thinking about one's abilities as malleable, supports a desire for continuous improvement leading to success in school, sport, and life (Dweck, 2008). ...
... The active use of character strengths is essential to increase well-being. Goal setting, or the process of articulating a desired future state and planning 23 MORE THAN JUST AN ATHLETE strategies to achieve it, supports individuals in establishing motivation and harnessing effort (Locke, 1996). A positive correlation between goal setting and performance is heavily supported in organizational psychology research (Locke & Latham, 1985). ...
... Goal setting is the process of articulating a desired future state and planning strategies to achieve it (Locke, 1996). It is a process that directs our attention and effort. ...
Article
Sport, for as long as it has existed, has held a purpose of developing character in competitors. Positive psychology establishes that each of us has unique character strengths core to who we are that support our well-being. Athletes often develop their sense of self during adolescence and formative college years while competing at elite levels. This results in a strong “athlete identity” and a self-concept centered around sport participation, performance, and team membership. Each year, approximately 150,000 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) student-athletes graduate, very few going on to play at professional levels. Athletic retirement is a pivotal transition where redefining one’s identity beyond the role of athlete is necessary to flourish. What if identity was redefined leveraging one’s best traits? Could character strengths developed through years of athletics support effective coping through this major life transition and lead to flourishing in new life domains? This paper reviews the research on character strengths and discusses how, when cultivated through mindfulness, goal setting, and growth mindset they can help retiring student-athletes achieve greater well-being. A model for character strengths use is presented with implementation recommendations aimed at helping student-athletes attain greater well-being at the culmination of their athletic career.
... We are present in the moment, here and now. Locke (1996) claims that we perform better when we have a specific goal to accomplish. Clear and demanding goals result in improved performance. ...
... The process is most effective when feedback is given regarding the progress. The highest commitment to the goal is gained when the individual is convinced that: a the target is important b the goal is achievable (Locke, 1996). ...
... Motivation includes the vigour and persistence of action (Atkinson (1964) cited in Steers & Porter, 1991). Goals serve as standards of self-satisfaction with harder goals demanding higher accomplishment in order to attain self-satisfaction than easy goals (Locke, 1995). Goals are often used within the concept of management by objectives (MBO) which means converting overall organisational goals into specific, measurable, time framed and attainable (SMART) objectives for organisational units and individual members. ...
... Goals and objectives affect performance by affecting the direction, the degree of effort exerted and the persistence of action over time. Goals serve as standards of self-satisfaction with harder goals demanding higher accomplishment in order to attain self-satisfaction than easy goals (Locke, 1995). It ppears however that the Covid-19 crisis required the personal will of the employee to achieve them hence employees were required to set their own goals. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study considered employee motivation in crisis situations with specific reference to the Covid-19 pandemic. A case study approach was adopted to investigate the employee motivation techniques implemented by a selected organization to ensure continued productivity. The case organization was selected following the convenience sampling technique and data was collected through telephone interviews with the human resource manager of the organization. Telephone interviews were appropriate following the restrictions implemented to prevent the spread of the virus. The results of the study indicate that the crisis situation required an adaptation of historical or old employee motivation techniques in order to suit the crisis situation. Employee motivation strategies such as employee recognition and goal setting took a changed direction involving both digitalization and significant decentralization. It was found that structural hierarchies had to be removed to effectively give autonomy to employees and empower them in order to remain productive. Following the evidence gathered in this study, organizations were recommended to be agile and be able to adapt all dimensions of employee productivity during crisis situations.
... Anticipatory emotions reflect how positively one would feel if the goal were achieved, or how negatively one would feel if it were not (Bagozzi & Pieters, 1998). The accomplishment of a goal is expected to be followed by satisfaction, whereas the failure to accomplish a goal is expected to be followed by regret (Locke, 1996). Thus, satisfaction and regret appear to be retrospective emotions in the distinction between prospective, concurrent, and retrospective emotions (Pekrun, 2006). ...
... The subjective value of a task may also determine the strength of anticipatory emotions, as well as of goal pursuit effort, since emotions and goal pursuit effort are expected to rise with the subjective importance (i.e., task value) of a task. The accomplishment of a goal with a high subjective value is expected to be followed by satisfaction, whereas the failure to accomplish a subjectively valuable goal is expected to be followed by regret (Locke, 1996). Goals serve as the reference standard when individuals evaluate whether to feel satisfied versus dissatisfied (Mento et al., 1992). ...
Article
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This study integrates theories of achievement motivation and emotion to investigate daily academic behavior in an undergraduate online course. Using cluster analysis and hierarchical logistic regression, we analyze profiles of task values and anticipated emotions to understand expectations and completion of academic tasks over the duration of a week. Students’ task specific interest, opportunity cost, and anticipated satisfaction and regret varied across tasks and were predictive of both their expectations of task completion and actual task completion reported the following day. The results shed light on the important role of achievement motivation as situated and dynamic, highlighting the interplay between task priorities, task values, and anticipated emotions in academic task engagement.
... Furthermore, a comprehensive budgeting system is a tool which sets goals across the organisational environment. According to goal-setting theory (Locke, 1996(Locke, , 2004, it is necessary to set high-quality goals before implementing rewards for performance. The implementation of budgets in operational management allows principals to introduce performance evaluation and rewarding based on objectives set by budgets. ...
... According to H1, the application of budgets for performance evaluation and the rewarding of operational managers is positively influenced by the extent to which the budget is used for operational management. Budgeting system is a tool which sets goals across the organisational environment and it is possible to claim that our results are in accordance with goal-setting theory (Locke, 1996(Locke, , 2004, according to which it is necessary to set highquality goals before implementing rewards for performance. According to H2, budget use for operational management has a positive effect on the participation of operational managers in budgeting. ...
Article
Purpose This paper contributes to budgeting-related literature by investigating whether the participation of operational managers in budgeting, and budget-based evaluations and the rewarding of operational managers, significantly mediate the relationship between budget use for operational management and the perceived usefulness of the budget. Design/methodology/approach The paper is based on data gathered from a survey of Czech medium- and large-sized companies from the manufacturing sector. The hypothesised relationships are tested using partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). Findings Overall usefulness of the budget, as perceived by principals (top managers), is positively influenced by the scope of budget use, but, more importantly, the positive mediating effects of participative budgeting and budget-based evaluation and rewarding on this relationship are significant and strong. Research limitations/implications The subjective perceptions of respondents were investigated with the understanding that they may not represent actual situations in their organisations. Companies with well-functioning budgeting systems were more likely to take part in the research. Regarding satisfaction, the authors studied the perceived usefulness of the budget. Only medium- and large-sized manufacturing companies located in a post-communist country were analysed and generalisations should, therefore, be taken with caution. Practical implications The results in the studied sample indicate that satisfaction with budgeting is positively correlated with the rewarding and evaluation of operational managers, and with enabling the participation of operational managers in preparing and updating their budgets. Originality/value This research contributes to prior literature on budgeting by investigating the mediating effects of the participation of operational managers in budgeting, and the budget-based evaluation and rewarding of operational managers on the perceived usefulness of the budget by principals in an integrated model using the PLS-SEM approach.
... This year, award winners will be the first group to receive 'national recognition for their outstanding impact', but no development funding. They will also be less well-off than many staff who receive funds from their own institution for learning and teaching activity, typically for more local achievement (2018: unpaged [emphasis in original]) Locke (1996), however, explains that 'High commitment to goals is attained when (a) the individual is convinced that the goal is important; and (b) the individual is convinced that the goal is attainable (or that, at least, progress can be made toward it) ' (1996: 119). Therefore, according to Locke (1996), goal setting, in this case achieving a NTF, can be achieved through application of effective leadership techniques, with or without the inclusion of a financial incentive. ...
... They will also be less well-off than many staff who receive funds from their own institution for learning and teaching activity, typically for more local achievement (2018: unpaged [emphasis in original]) Locke (1996), however, explains that 'High commitment to goals is attained when (a) the individual is convinced that the goal is important; and (b) the individual is convinced that the goal is attainable (or that, at least, progress can be made toward it) ' (1996: 119). Therefore, according to Locke (1996), goal setting, in this case achieving a NTF, can be achieved through application of effective leadership techniques, with or without the inclusion of a financial incentive. This demonstrates two things: a) financial incentive is not, in itself, a motivating factor, and b) the new managerialist discourse of competition and individual achievement has been fully internalised by the sector. ...
Thesis
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This study explores the nature and extent of any possible relationship between reward and recognition and teaching excellence. The first step was to operationalise the concept of teaching excellence. This was achieved by conducting a meta-analysis of attributes of excellence in previous studies in the literature. Thematic analysis resulted in a Model of Teaching Excellence, which was comprised of three Qualities of Excellence, each of which included three Characteristics of Excellence. Using a multiple case study approach, the model was compared with lived experience of excellent teachers, defined as those who had been awarded either a National Teaching Fellowship or a University Teaching Fellowship. The result was that excellent teachers agreed with the Qualities and Characteristics of Excellence but disagreed with the proportions awarded to them. The Model was also compared with student evaluations of teaching excellence derived from the NSS and student-led award nominations. However, while students do value high quality teaching, their primary focus is on consistently delivered, high quality personal and academic support, by highly motivated and enthusiastic lecturers. The relationship between reward and recognition and teaching excellence was explored by enquiring about the impact of receiving such an award on the awardee, their colleagues, their managers, and their students. The primary impact on recipients was affirmation, but even that was short-lived. For the majority of recipients, however, the award had no effect. While some colleagues and managers were supportive, others were visibly hostile. The majority of colleagues, however, displayed no reaction. Crucially, Fellows stated categorically that they had not changed their practice as a consequence of receiving their award, and that their students were unaware that they had received an award for teaching excellence. The primary use of Teaching Fellowships is by universities to bolster institutional statistics to gain an edge in a competitive student-recruiting market.
... The national guideline of treating stroke patients within 60 minutes of hospital arrival was displayed on each feedback report. Consistent with the goalsetting theory of Locke and Latham [24], hospital staff were committed to achieving the goal because they viewed the goal as important and attainable if provided with the necessary supports. Staff felt supported by hospital leadership who were motivated to understand and improve their performance and provided the resources needed to make organizational-level changes. ...
... Staff felt supported by hospital leadership who were motivated to understand and improve their performance and provided the resources needed to make organizational-level changes. This collaboration between leadership and their staff has been recognized as a successful approach for promoting the generation of strategies to achieve a goal [24]. Working as a team with the support of hospital leadership, ED staff recognized that the implementation strategies improved stroke care. ...
Article
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Background Audit and feedback (A&F) is a widely used implementation strategy. Understanding mechanisms of action of A&F increases the likelihood that the strategy will lead to implementation of an evidence-based practice. We therefore sought to understand one hospital’s experience selecting and implementing an A&F intervention, to determine the implementation strategies that were used by staff and to specify the mechanism of action of those implementation strategies using causal pathway models, with the ultimate goal of improving acute stroke treatment practices. Methods We selected an A&F strategy in a hospital, initially based on implementation determinants and staff consideration of their performance on acute stroke treatment measures. After 7 months of A&F, we conducted semi-structured interviews of hospital providers and administrative staff to understand how it contributed to implementing guideline-concordant acute stroke treatment (medication named tissue plasminogen activator). We coded the interviews to identify the implementation strategies that staff used following A&F and to assess their mechanisms of action. Results We identified five implementation strategies that staff used following the feedback intervention. These included (1) creating folders containing the acute stroke treatment protocol for the emergency department, (2) educating providers about the protocol for acute stroke, (3) obtaining computed tomography imaging of stroke patients immediately upon emergency department arrival, (4) increasing access to acute stroke medical treatment in the emergency department, and (5) providing additional staff support for implementation of the protocol in the emergency department. We identified enablement, training, and environmental restructuring as mechanisms of action through which the implementation strategies acted to improve guideline-concordant and timely acute stroke treatment. Conclusions A&F of a hospital’s acute stroke treatment practices generated additional implementation strategies that acted through various mechanisms of action. Future studies should focus on how initial implementation strategies can be amplified through internal mechanisms.
... According to Locke and Latham (1990), individual task performance is affected by goals because having goals leads individuals to do what is necessary to produce such performance. There are three main direct goal mechanisms: effort, persistence and direction; which are mainly motivational (Locke 1996). Studies done demonstrate that athletes of all ages set goals to enhance their performances and goal-setting is a significant strategy to increase performance (Horn, 2008). ...
Article
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Cycling sport is one of the sports that require physical and psychological resilience. It is thought that athletes should show physical and psychological resilience to reach specific target, find solution for unexpected, sudden problems, be patient and be determined in this sport that requires physical and psychological resilience that is done under extreme conditions. It is important to examine goal commitment and psychological resilience of cycling athletes for performance improvement, success motivation and contribution to the studies in this field. Purpose: This study aimed to examine goal commitment and psychological resilience of elite cycling athletes. 94 elite bicycle athletes participating in national and international races between the ages of 18 and 27 participated voluntarily. Resilience Scale for Adults, developed by Friborg et al. (2003), was used to determine psychological resilience of athletes. Goal Commitment Scale, developed by Hollenbeck, Williams and Klein (1989) and adapted to Turkish by Şenel and Yıldız (2016), was used to determine goal commitment. Scale reliability coefficient was found to be 0.913. In conclusion, no significant differences were found between sex and psychological resilience and goal commitment. But, significant differences were found between sports ages and subscales of self-perception, perception of future, and structural type of Resilience Scale for Adults. Significant difference was found between sports ages and goal commitment. As sports age increase, so did goal commitment. There was no significant correlation between goal commitment and Bahadır Altay, Gülsüm Baştuğ, İbrahim İhsan Arıkan GOAL COMMITMENT AND PSYCHOLOGICAL RESILIENCE AMONG CYCLING ATHLETES European Journal of Physical Education and Sport Science-Volume 3 │ Issue 12 │ 2017 619 psychological resilience. Goal commitment and psychological resilience training is recommended for different sports branches requiring physical and psychological resilience.
... A key component of patientcentered care incorporates a holistic understanding of the patient's background and presenting concerns [12,13], and includes a shared understanding of patient goals and expectations. Discussions of patient motivations (immediate intentions [14]) and desired goals (what is consciously trying to be achieved [15]) may be included in a patient-centered approach. Understanding patient expectancies (perception of what will result from a specific action [16]) related to weight loss can be an important tool in individualized goal setting. ...
Article
Background Existing research has primarily focused on weight as the outcome of interest for bariatric surgery; however, patients frequently report other lifestyle and interpersonal surgery motivations and goals. Understanding the spectrum of bariatric surgery goals and motivations has important implications for enhancing patient-centered care and surgery outcomes. Objectives The current study characterized the nature of bariatric patient motivations and goals for surgery, described the extent to which motivations matched goals, and examined whether men and women differed in the specific motivations/goals described. Setting Teaching hospital, United States Methods Data were obtained via retrospective chart review of bariatric patient responses to the clinic’s standard open-ended questions about motivations and goals for bariatric surgery. A mixed method approach was used, including content analysis to identify themes and chi-square/t-test analyses to test gender differences. Results Surgery motivations and outcome goals were reflected by eight overarching and overlapping themes. The most common motivations were related to general health and quality of life. The most common goals were to improve health/longevity and mobility. Over a quarter of patients showed no overlap between motivations and goals. Few gender differences were observed. Conclusions Findings underscore the importance of goals beyond weight loss, as well as the utility of helping patients shape their goals in accordance with goal-setting theories.
... Extrinsic motivation, on the other hand, drives behavior for separate outcomes such as rewards, seeking approval from others or avoidance of punishment (Deci, 2017), which reinforces a particular behavior. According to the goal-setting theory, strong and positive outcomes motivate the user to pursue a goal (Locke, 1996). In this vein, gamified elements in the form of leaderboard, rewards, social interaction in mobile applications can help promote behavioral change (Cafazzo et al., 2012). ...
Article
Purpose The emergence of mHealth applications has led to the rise of health-based services delivered over smartphones. Younger people are often found to be more innovative toward technology, especially related to smartphones (Rai et al. , 2013). Most mHealth application downloaders are continually shifting between applications because of the hyper-competition making achieving loyal consumers challenging (Racherla et al. , 2012). The purpose of this paper is to study the determinants that help increase young consumers mHealth application loyalty. This study integrates self-determination theory (SDT), gamification elements and engagement to examine loyalty. Design/methodology/approach A valid sample of 263 college student’s data was obtained for data analysis from a survey conducted in multiple campuses of the Delhi University in India. Findings The three psychological needs: need for autonomy, need for competence and need for relatedness, showed a positive impact on intrinsic motivation. From the gamification factors; perceived playfulness, the level of challenge and social interaction, only the first two showed a positive impact on extrinsic motivation. Both motivation factors influence engagement, showing a frequent interaction with the application, leading to loyalty. Originality/value Previous studies examined the adoption of mHealth services, this study is one of the first to examine young consumers’ loyalty in using mhealth apps. It sheds light on the existing literature and contributes to research on mHealth applications by determining the factors that lead to loyalty by the young consumers.
... A long-term goal should be broken down into several short-term goals that function as more achievable steps in pursuit of the longer-term goal [28][29]. In addition, to maximize one's chances of goal achievement, the goal should be specific, beneficial to the person, challenging and difficult, yet attainable [30][31]. ...
Preprint
Experiential learning can facilitate the development of transferrable skills necessary for success in attaining tenure and promotion in academia. In this article, we discuss the benefits of designing and implementing an individualized professional development experience or practicum. By doing this, we describe the experiential learning component of the Accomplishing Career Transitions (ACT) Program of the American Society for Cell Biology. The ACT program aims to assist postdoctoral trainees and junior faculty from backgrounds underrepresented in STEM as they strive to transition into tenure-track positions and ultimately attain tenure at research-intensive or teaching-intensive academic institutions.
... The literature on gamification refers-in view of a non-consensual gamification theory [18,40]-to different theories and concepts of psychology, which play a role in connection with different design elements [23,47,51]. For example, the concept of self-efficacy [2, 3], the needs of Maslow [39], goal setting theory [33][34][35], the theory of social comparison [17], flow theory [15,54] and last but not least, self-determination theory [50]. The latter in particular is used as a meta-theory to motivate the effects of many game elements as an explanatory approach [48,49]. ...
Article
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Gamification is regularly defined as the use of game elements in non-gaming contexts. However, discussions in the context of the pedagogical value of gamification suggest controversies on various levels. While on the one hand, the potential is seen in the design of joyful learning environments, critics point out the pedagogical dangers or the problems related to optimizing working life. It becomes apparent that the assumptions guiding action on the subject matter of gamification in educational contexts differ, which leads to different derivations for pedagogical practice-but also allows for different perspectives on initially controversial positions. Being aware of these assumptions is the claim of a reflexive pedagogy. With regard to the pedagogical use of gamifying elements and their empirical investigation, there are three main anchor points to consider from a reflexive stance: (a) the high context-specificity of the teaching undertaken and (b) the (non-)visibility of the design elements and (c) the (non-)acceptance of the gamified elements by the students. We start by providing a discussion of the definitional discourse on what is understood as gamification leading to our argument for a non-definition of gamification. We describe the potential of this non-definition of gamification and exemplify its use in a gamified concept of teaching police recruits professional reflexivity. The concept features the narrative of a potential crime that has been undertaken and that students decide for themselves if they want to engage with it.
... At the other end of the spectrum, should an action be initiated with no particular aim in mind or should a target be far from firmly established, the lack of clarity may result in withdrawal behaviours, as it would be profoundly difficult for a person to sustain motivation towards a loosely-defined accomplishment. Significantly, the correlation between goal clarity and outcomes of performance was confirmed in several empirical studies (Mento et al. 1987;Locke 1996;Anderson and Stritch 2015;van der Hoek et al. 2018). With respect to the aspect of difficulty, demanding objectives are, by definition, more troublesome to accomplish and there may be a lack of agreement as to whether such pursuits would favour or rather hamper the likelihood of stellar performance. ...
Book
This book attempts to demystify concerns surrounding a novel motivational construct known as a Directed Motivational Current. The study aimed at exploring whether a high sense of efficacy may support a person in transforming short-spanned motivational episodes into longitudinal engagement typical for the DMC framework. To this end, a sequential exploratory mixed methodology was used. Subsequently, a link between well-anchored efficacy beliefs and the rate at which DMCs occur was indeed discovered. This was further reinforced by the outcomes of personalised interviews. Eventually, the research yielded several noteworthy conclusions, including the fact that imbuing the DMC structure with elements of efficacy building may lead to long-term, sustained behaviour in a foreign language classroom.
... Firstly, having a supportive relationship, in which coachees can discuss personal and professional issues, can in-itself reduce anxiety, stress and depression (Myers, 1999). Secondly, discussing one's aspirations and goals involves engaging in intensive cognitive processes (Locke, 1996), which stimulate pathways of thinking, self-insight and commitment to the goal (Locke & Latham, 2013). Thirdly, as coachees move through the self-regulation cycle towards their goals, barriers and difficulties inevitably arise. ...
Article
Both Coaching Psychology and Positive Psychology programs have been empirically shown to enhance various aspects of well-being. Perhaps surprisingly, no study to date has directly compared the two approaches along various outcomes in adults. We randomly assigned 393 M.B.A students to attend 13 weeks of lectures, with accompanying practical exercises, in either Positive Psychology, Coaching Psychology, or Organizational Behaviour (control group). Though participants in both the Positive Psychology and Coaching Psychology groups experienced improvements (vs. the control group) in subjective well-being and psychopathology, Coaching Psychology participants experienced additional benefits – beyond those experienced by Positive Psychology participants, who did not differ from the control group – in goal attainment, self-insight, psychological well-being, and solution-focused thinking. The latter benefits may be attributable to Coaching Psychology’s capacity to enhance personal agency through goal-focused self-regulation, a key tenet of the coaching relationship. We suggest that this concept could inform future Positive Psychology programs.
... Goals have been used successfully to encourage many sustainable consumption behaviours, including household energy conservation (Abrahamse, Steg, Vlek, & Rothengatter, 2007;Becker, 1978;Katzev & Johnson, 1983) or preferences for loose rather than packaged grocery products (Tate, Stewart, & Daly, 2014).Various factors have been shown to moderate goal effectiveness. For example, it has been shown that difficult goals lead to greater achievement, but goals which are fixed at a too high a level may discourage and demoralize individuals (Locke, 1996). Goals are more likely to be effective motivators if they are accepted as legitimate, feasible, stated in exact terms, and provide precise feedback allowing the agent to evaluate his/her progress to that goal (Locke & Latham, 2002). ...
Article
We compared the effectiveness of basket goal-setting to product information strategies on sustainable consumption in a simulated online supermarket. Experiment 1 found a significant effect of basket goal setting techniques with carbon basket feedback in either numerical or graphical form on the carbon content of baskets purchased but no effect of numerical product information alone or in combination with basket CO2 information. Experiment 2 also found that basket goal setting was effective, but found no additional effect of introducing five-colour coding of the carbon footprints of either products or baskets. Experiment 3 found that repeated visits to the online supermarket led to improved learning about product carbon footprint in the basket goal setting condition, which mediated the effect of goal setting on basket carbon footprint. Our results suggest that goal setting techniques with feedback can reduce the carbon footprint of online shopping baskets and facilitate learning about product carbon footprint.
... However, intensity refers to the scope, focus, and complexity of the choice made by an individual toward the goals. Locke (1996) stated that students who set their own goals showed positive commitment, even though they are as high as an assigned person had expected. For example, a study was done by Abe, Llogu, and Madueke (2014) found that students exposed to goal-setting showed better performance in the English language compared to those in the control group. ...
Thesis
This present study aims to investigate the level of motivation and goal setting skills of first year students majoring in English Language at a leading public university in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The main objectives of this study are to find the relationship between motivation and goal setting as well as to compare motivation levels reported by male and female student participants. Quantitative approach was used in this study. Two hundred and three students filled in a questionnaire which was adapted from Vallerand et al. (1989) for 28 items on Academic Motivation Scale (AMS), and from Sherer et al. (1982) 23 items on Goal Setting Skills. Cronbach’s alpha of AMS was .87, and Cronbach’s alpha of Goal Setting Skills was .89. The findings showed that goal setting skill amongst freshman students ranged around a neutral score (M = 3.50). The student participants appeared to have stronger extrinsic motivation in learning (M = 4.02) than intrinsic motivation (M = 3.85). The student participants in general denied on items of Amotivation (M = 2.31). Furthermore, the result showed that there was a positive correlation between goal-setting and intrinsic motivation (r = .42, p = .001) and extrinsic motivation and goal-setting (r = .34, p = .001). There was a negative correlation between amotivation and goal-setting. Also, there is no statistically significant difference amongst male and female participants for the two types of motivation and amotivation based on the results of an independent samples t-test.
... Hence, the distinctive work competence within entire employee and the general managers of the logistics-hub firms could help the firms for facing its competitions and pandemics' situations in many industries in the global era. (Hult, Ketchen Jr, & Reus, 2001;Javad Khazaei, Masood, & Ezat Amirbakzadeh, 2017;Locke, 1996;Mitrega, 2012). Furthermore, the R-A theory have competition among firm in heterogeneous business in the logistic-hub firms-venture performance and the sustainable competitive advantage should have as the foundation of the firms to create the best policy and the new-platform in business management, bundles and provide the toporganization's resources and for achieving the employee performance within general managers supported. ...
... Objective performance feedback has been studied as a potential mitigator of gender gaps in outcomes in the economic literature (Azmat & Iriberri, 2010;Bandiera et al., 2015;Ertaç & Szentes, 2011;David Wozniak et al., 2016). Subjective feedback has received significant attention in the psychology, educational psychology, and human resource management literature (e.g., Deci & Ryan, 1985;Dweck, 2007;Johnson, 2013;Khan et al., 2014;Locke, 1996;Posner & Kouzes, 1999;Wong, 2015), but has not been evaluated in the economics literature. Praise -a positive valuation of performance or effort -has been studied in its role as a verbal performance incentive, with the finding that its impact can be greater than that of a financial reward (Ariely, 2016b). ...
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We use an online game with randomized treatments to study gender differences in the impacts of competition and subjective feedback. 5191 participants were randomly selected into 8 groups: players either saw a Top 10 leaderboard or not ( competition ), and within these, they received no subjective feedback, supportive feedback, rewarding feedback, or "trash talk" ( feedback type ). Seeing a leaderboard increases the persistence (number of games played) of all players, but only increases the performance (score) of male players. When the leaderboard is combined with supportive feedback, the performance of female players increases as well. This points to important heterogeneities by feedback type and individual characteristics and suggests that personalized feedback may be key for decreasing gender gaps, particularly in competitive settings such as STEM fields.
... La eficacia percibida influye en los tipos de tareas, en el nivel de dificultad y el compromiso con el objetivo que una persona está dispuesta a asumir [3]. El modelo de rendimiento y motivación de Carol Dweck va más allá, sugiriendo un continuum psicológico desde la persona orientada al dominio (mastery oriented) hasta la persona que se siente y piensa que ya está de alguna manera predeterminada (learned helpless) [4]. ...
... Wang & Hou, 2015) (Shelby D. Hunt, 2013 Shelby D. Hunt & Arnett, 2006).Moreover, the theory of the growth of firms in industrial FMCG-enterprise are could conducted to used for long-run FMCG-business and sustainable within motivations and the network formation and analysis of heterogeneously FMCG-industries and economic functions, drive the human resource and other resource to gain the hi-profitability also deliver fact moving consumer product with tightadministrative coordination and communication within among the industrial FMCG firms in Indonesia in the global pandemic era.(Chow, Lai, & Loi, 2015;Locke, 1996;Lockett et al., 2012;Niels, Per Nikolaj, & Carsten Stig, 2011;Ryan & Berbegal-Mirabent, 2016) Furthermore, the market positions in FMCG venture, competitive advantage and performance should be based for making the action plan for run the business and management within the FMCG firms in Indonesia.(Castaño, Méndez, & Galindo, 2016; Demirkan & Spohrer, 2014;Kapferer, 2012;Rusu & Avasilcai, 2014;Torun & Çicekci, 2007) (Björklund, Jensen, & Lohela-Karlsson, 2013; Hwang, Lin, & Shin, 2018) The Research Model within National-Retail Firms to Enhance the Superior Financial Performance (Source: Develop from an Author-concept) The hypothesis in these investigation from the conceptual management and business research model in FMCG Firms in Indonesia, such as on figure 2 above, as follow (Evanschitzky et al., 2014; Graves, Sarkis, & Zhu, 2013; Lai & Chang, 2010; Pak, Kooij, De Lange, & Van Veldhoven, 2019; Shane, Locke, & Collins, 2003): H1. ...
... Tasks are the activities undertaken to reach a goal, that is the behaviors themselves (planning and organizing are also behaviors in this sense). Goals strongly influence behavior, attention, and motivation, leading to better performance on tasks (Locke, 1996;Locke & Latham, 2006). When a high-level goal is paired with unspecific tasks, goals are less likely to be achieved. ...
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Including incubation periods when solving creative tasks; that is, setting the task temporarily aside, has been shown to benefit creative problem solving in experimental settings. However, practical implications and benefits of incubation are unclear, especially in a school setting. An important factor involves the difference between how creative problems are defined in an experimental situation, on the one hand, and an applied context, such as schools, on the other. Creative problems in incubation experiments are typically clearly defined tasks, but such well-defined problems are rarely found in practical situations where ambiguous problems with multiple solutions are more likely. For incubation to be relevant in an applied setting, such as schools, it is vital to understand the role of how tasks are defined. The aim of the current study was to assess whether having a highly constrained task is necessary for incubation periods to benefit creative problem solving. An experiment with two fully crossed independent variables, incubation period (included and not included) and task constraints (high and medium) was used to investigate the effects on both creative originality and creative productivity. Task constraints were implemented by first allowing participants to select their task and then later allowing half of the participants to revise their choice. An incubation period was implemented by interpolating a choice reaction task into the creative task for half of the participants. The results demonstrate that clear unchangeable tasks are necessary for incubation to benefit creative problem solving. Choice must, therefore, be constrained before the task is temporarily set aside, for incubation to benefit creativity. For practical applications in a school setting, this means that students should be encouraged to select a task or settle on an idea early in the process of completing a creative assignment to benefit from incubation periods.
... Four principles make up the Policy Content conceptual framework: Goals, Fact Base, Policy Description, and Policy Restrictions. Psychological and organizational theories on goal-setting highlight the importance of specificity for performance improvement [41,42]. Goals can focus organizational and individual energy on goal-relevant activities, improve and prolong effort, and enhance achievement. ...
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Development management ordinances are central components of the development process, and yet there is not an established set of principles to guide their evaluation. We build upon the established plan quality literature to develop a protocol to assess ordinances based on their content and their administration. Using substantive and procedural principles enables the examination of how ordinances incorporate both scientific information and administrative practices to support policy implementation. Our cross-sectional study of 22 jurisdictions in two different states compared riparian buffer policies, single-purpose mandates, and sociodemographic variables. We found (1) overall low ordinance quality scores, (2) statistically significant differences between the watersheds at the sub-principle level, and (3) multiple, moderate correlations among ordinance quality scores, population density, and planning capacity. The findings suggest opportunities to increase the usage of best available science and promising administrative practices within ordinances aimed at protecting water quality.
... Based on the goal-setting theory (Locke, 1996;Lunenburg, 2011), complex challenges motivate gamers the most, provided that gamers deem the challenging objectives achievable. Suppose the player feels that the challenge is challenging but attainable. ...
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Purpose The goal of this study is to examine the factors (e.g. enjoyment, skills, challenge, telepresence and flow) that influence players’ purchase intention toward Dota 2 virtual in-game as well as examine the effect of flow toward purchase intention of Dota 2 through the critical mechanism (i.e. continuous intention). Notably, the analysis of the moderating role of enjoyment of buying on the relation of (a) flow and purchase intention of Dota 2 in-game, as well as (b) between flow continuous intention and finally (c) between continuous intention purchase intention of Dota 2. Design/methodology/approach The data were gained from 331 users using Google Forms and posted to respondents on social media platforms and forums such as Facebook and Reddit, as these websites have the closest reach to gamers. Findings The study revealed that enjoyment, skill, challenge and telepresence have a positive effect on flow. Also, the flow was significantly related to purchase intention. The continuous intention has significantly mediated the relationship between flow and purchase intention. Importantly, this study found that the moderating role of buying enjoyment increases the relationship between flow and purchase intention (H7a) and between continuous intention and purchase intention (H7c). In contrast, the moderating role of buying enjoyment on the relationship between flow and continuous intention (H7b) was not supported. Hence, this study sheds a new light on the notable Dota 2 in-game and continuous intention purchase intention of the users. Originality/value In response, this study's main research question can be highlighted on testing how enjoyment, skills, challenge, telepresence, in-game virtual items influence purchasing intention when the enjoyment of buying moderates the proposed relationship? Therefore, this study aims to examine the significant elements like enjoyment, skills, challenge telepresence toward flow, and subsequently, the effect of flow toward purchase intention of Dota 2 in-game through continuous intention as a key mechanism which is urgently needed to minimize the gap in-game virtual items literature. Significantly, this study also intends to explore the contingent role of enjoyment of buying on the relation of flow and purchase intention of Dota-2 in-game, as well as between flow and continuous intention and finally between continuous intention and purchase intention.
... By allowing for the patient to have the ability to set their goals, they become more invested in the goal [26] and as a result, there is an added level of intrinsic motivation [60]. Within the context of the proposed conversational agent, this means choosing the type of goal which can be calorie restriction,or sugar reduction. ...
Thesis
In this work, a conversational interaction was designed and implemented to test the effect of references to past events or shared experiences rephrased into motivational phrases within the context of working towards a diet related goal that can assist with type II diabetes over multiple sessions. Prior works that utilized a memory typically did not utilize a memory to refer to the past within conversations and when past events were referred to within a conversation, they were not utilized with motivational rephrasing. Most prior works did not analyze long term interaction or how references to past events should have been utilized. To further research in this area, the following research questions were posed. 1.) Does referring to previous sessions improve goal attainment? 2.) Does referring to previous sessions improve user experience? 3.) Does a variety of references differ from making the same reference? To determine the answers to these questions, interactions were carried out through Zoom in a between subjects experiment with three groups of participants. The results, once analyzed, found that there was a significant difference between interactions that only make references to the same shared experience and interactions that make references to various shared experiences where various shared experiences resulted in a significant increase in the change in motivation from prior to the experiment to during the experiment. This offers the following contributions: 1.) Provide clarity on how shared experiences should be used and not only whether they should be used. 2.) A motivational memory utilizing shared experiences with intrinsic motivational value 3.) Determine the effect of motivational references on goal achievement and user experience. This holds promise for the use of such a memory for goal based efforts and future work can further the domains of application and effectiveness of the motivational memory and shared experiences.
... Likewise, organizations with strong safety climates can induce safety-related behavior by enacting specific safety goals. In particular, goal-setting theory (Locke, 1996) suggests that organizational leaders can communicate with employees about what is expected in terms of safety performance, which can affect how hard they work to achieve the goal (intensity), how long they maintain their work efforts (persistence), and whether the work efforts contribute to organizational goals (Lee et al., 2019). Furthermore, expectancy-valence theory (Vroom, 1964) posits that individuals will be motivated to engage in safety behaviors (both in-role and extra-role) if they believe that these behaviors will lead to 'valued' outcomes. ...
Article
Past research suggests that safety climate plays an important role in influencing safety-related behaviors; however, little research has considered whether, how and why different levels of safety climates may interact to influence individuals’ safety behaviors. Based on a unique sample of 610 civilian pilots in Thailand, this research aims to examine whether pilots’ perceptions of ‘group’ safety climate (herein called ‘fleet’ safety climate) and organizational safety climate can lead to more safety behaviors. This study also examines the mediating role of safety motivation. Based on the latent moderated mediation structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis, the result confirmed that both fleet safety climate and organization safety climate had independent positive effects on pilots’ safety behaviors (i.e., safety compliance and safety courtesy) via an increase in their safety motivation. Furthermore, fleet safety climate was found to interact with organizational safety climate such that its influence became stronger when organizational safety climate was low. These findings suggest that, while both fleet and organizational safety climates can play a crucial role in directly influencing pilots’ safety motivation and safety behaviors, fleet safety climate can emerge as a substitute when there is a lack of emphasis on safety at the organizational level. The knowledge from this research can be used to formulate safety policies at different organizational levels to mitigate aviation risks.
... A long-term goal should be broken down into several short-term goals that function as more achievable steps in pursuit of the longer-term goal [28,29]. In addition, to maximize one's chances of goal achievement, the goal should be specific, beneficial to the person, challenging and difficult, yet attainable [30,31]. ...
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Experiential learning can facilitate the development of transferrable skills necessary for success in attaining tenure and promotion in academia. In this article, we discuss the benefits of designing and implementing an individualized professional development experience or practicum. By doing this, we describe the experiential learning component of the Accomplishing Career Transitions (ACT) Program of the American Society for Cell Biology. The ACT program aims to assist postdoctoral trainees and junior faculty from backgrounds underrepresented in STEM as they strive to transition into tenure-track positions and ultimately attain tenure at research-intensive or teaching-intensive academic institutions.
... The next step of the cognitive process leading to a behavior according to the ART is goal-setting (Hacker, 1986(Hacker, , 2005, which corresponds to the way superordinate goals are broken down into subgoals and ultimately into precise and visualizable action plans. The performance gain achieved by goal-setting has been found to be empirically supported by many studies (Locke, 1996;Tubbs, 1986). An application designed to be embedded into an everyday activity needs to ensure that it precisely meets the expectation of the application user in accordance with these individualized action plans. ...
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Modeling behavior has been a core topic of Psychology and the Social Sciences since their respective inception as academic disciplines. This has resulted in a fractured landscape of different theories, all addressing different aspects of behavior. At the same time the need to formalize the design of computer and smartphone applications has spawned the field of User Experience (UX). With the convergence of everyday behavior and the use of mobile devices the overlap between these two fields becomes ever more important. In this paper we present a comprehensive model of behavior, integrating five well-established theories, with the aim of creating a design framework for smartphone applications that foster motivation and promote the execution of a target behavior. The operationalization of the approach is demonstrated by showing how to design and implement a prototypical application to support healthy and sustainable grocery shopping behavior. While the framework proposed is not limited to this application, it is used to exemplify the relation with previous design approaches, and the concrete implications of the model-derived framework on its implementation. Our view is that both areas of research can benefit from each other: findings from behavioral theory can inform application design, while at the same time the ubiquitous integration of mobile applications allows to dynamically apply, operationalize, and implement behavioral models into everyday life.
... The majority of students achieved their learning and activity goals. One reason for such high goal accomplishment may have been that explicit goal-setting led to higher rates of motivation to accomplish goals during the zoo trip [57]. Alternatively, despite having scheduled time before and after the zoo trip to complete the survey, students may have developed goals that were "easier" to accomplish if they felt rushed. ...
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Free-choice learning occurs when individuals have autonomy in what and how they learn, and often takes place in informal settings such as zoos. To describe goal-setting and -achievement of biology undergraduates at a regional zoo, we primarily asked: (1) What types of learning goals do students set for themselves for a trip to the zoo?; and (2) What activities do students intend to engage in on a zoo trip? Participating students completed the first portion of a goal-setting assessment prior to entering the zoo, which asked students to develop learning and activity goals for themselves. At the conclusion of the zoo trip, students completed the second portion of this survey, which asked whether students achieved their goals, and if not, why. We found that most students devised learning goals related to gaining knowledge and identified passive interactions with animals as activities they hoped to engage in during their trip.
... Hence, the distinctive work competence within entire employee and the general managers of the pharmacy firms could help the firms for facing its competitions and the global pandemics' situations in many industries. ( 2001; Javad Khazaei, Masood, & Ezat Amirbakzadeh, 2017;Locke, 1996;Mitrega, 2012). ...
Article
Relative performance feedback (RPF) has often been shown to improve effort and performance in the workplace and educational settings. Yet, many studies also document substantial negative effects of RPF, in particular for low-achievers. We study a novel type of RPF designed to overcome these negative effects of RPF on low-achievers by scoring individual performance improvements. With a sample of 400 children, we conduct a class-wise randomized-controlled trial using an e-learning software in regular teaching lessons in primary schools. We demonstrate that this type of RPF significantly increases motivation, effort, and performance in math for low-achieving children, without hurting high-achieving children. Among low-achievers, those receiving more points and moving up in the ranking improved strongest on motivation and math performance. In an exploratory analysis, we document substantial gender differences in response to this type of RPF: improvements in motivation and learning are much stronger for girls. We argue that using this new type of RPF could potentially reduce inequalities, especially in educational settings.
Chapter
Large investments are made in workplaces on learning and development (L&D) activities despite research suggesting low levels of transfer of training. More recently, L&D specialists have introduced Positive Psychology (PP) training and/or interventions as part of their L&D offerings. Currently there is minimal research to suggest follow-up effects or longer-term gains for Positive Psychology Interventions (PPIs). As such, we argue that PPIs activities are likely to suffer from the same challenges as other traditional L&D activities. This chapter explores the similarities and differences between Coaching Psychology (CP) and its applied form, Evidence-Based Coaching (EBC) and PP and its applied form, PPIs. The authors highlight the role that EBC can play to not only enhance transfer of training outcomes but when integrated with PP science, attain shared outcomes i.e. wellbeing and performance. Whilst both PP and CP aspire to offer evidence-based methodologies for enhancing wellbeing and performance, PP has had a much higher profile than CP, hence there is limited research on the application of evidence-based coaching within positive psychological practice. The authors review preliminary research supporting the continued uptake of EBC as a Positive Psychology Intervention and as a powerful way to aid transfer of training in all L&D activities.
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Chronic stress and burnout affect many professionals from physicians to lawyers to educators; one group that is also impacted but underexplored is accountants. These professionals, and particularly auditors, experience unique challenges, such as lengthy busy seasons, periodic surprise inspections, disconnect from the beneficiary of their service, and a lack of meaning. This paper reviews the literature on antecedents of burnout in public accountants and efficacious interventions from positive psychology that may be useful with this population. Literature reveals that identifying and using one’s character strengths, connecting with one’s purpose and the meaning of their work, and cultivating skills to adapt to stress (i.e. resilience skills) are effective ways to increase protective factors associated with resilience. Synthesizing this literature, this paper proposes these three pathways to resilience be combined into a “C.P.A. Plan.” The paper proposes sixteen practical interventions that those interested in increasing their colleagues’ (and their) well-being, or “well-being ambassadors”, can use to increase resilience. One contribution of this paper is adding to the lack of literature on auditor resilience. A broader contribution is calling for a mindset shift in public accounting from habitually identifying what's wrong to leveraging what's strong. Finally, it provides a new value proposition for firms wishing to attract and retain talent.
Article
The present research compares the effects of mentally recreating the experience of realizing that a desirable goal had been achieved (outcome simulation exercise) with those of mentally recreating the actions that might lead to the desirable goal (process simulation exercise). It asked whether the performance benefits of process simulations over outcome simulations, which have been reported in students enrolled in face-to-face classes, would generalize to an online environment. The process simulation exercise was expected to foster attention to the antecedents of good grades, thereby improving class performance relative to the outcome simulation exercise which was intended to be merely motivational. College students from the Middle East, who were taking classes online due to the COVID-19 pandemic, participated. Type of simulation impacted students’ performance on assignments, but differently depending on the timing of the assessment. It did not influence behavioral engagement, midterm test performance, or predictions of performance before or after the test. Instead, process simulation enhanced students’ confidence in their predictions. These findings suggest that process simulation exercises may be useful learning props for activities that challenge students’ problem-solving skills (e.g., assignments) rather than engage well-practiced study habits (e.g., tests).
Article
Проблема мотивации была и остается центральной как в общей психологии, так и в психологии труда, поскольку знание о факторах, являющихся предпосылкой к трудовой деятельности, имеет не только общепсихологическое, но и прикладное значение. В настоящее время проблема трудовой мотивации получила широкую и детальную проработку и в России, и за рубежом, однако в фокус исследовательских интересов психологов чаще попадали «рядовые» сотрудники организации, либо исследователи рассматривали работников в целом, не выделяя среди них представителей отдельных профессиональных групп, различающихся в том числе и уровнем занимаемой должности. При таком подходе к изучению трудовой мотивации работник превращается в абстрактно понятый субъект труда, тогда как конкретный носитель трудовой деятельности остается за скобками научных исследований.
Article
Background With an online sample of 8,349 people from 123 countries (74.9% from the U.S., Canada, and India), a new test was used to rank eight motivation-related competencies according to how well they predicted desirable, self-reported outcomes. Each of the competencies was derived from empirical studies showing that such competencies were associated with higher levels of motivation. The competencies were: Maintains Healthy Lifestyle, Makes Commitments, Manages Environment, Manages Rewards, Manages Stress, Manages Thoughts, Monitors Behavior, and Sets Goals. Objective The study was conducted to identify and prioritize competencies that are associated with higher levels of motivation. Methods A “concurrent study design” was used to assess predictive validity, which was suggested by a strong association between test scores and self-reported answers to criterion questions about levels of motivation, life satisfaction, and professional success. Regression analyses were conducted to prioritize the competencies. Demographic analyses were also conducted. Results The findings support the value of motivation training; test scores were higher for people who had received such training and were positively correlated with the number of training hours accrued. Effects were found for education, race and age, but no male/female difference was found. Regression analyses pointed to the importance of two of the eight competencies in particular: Sets Goals and Manages Thoughts. Conclusion The study supports the view that motivation competencies can be measured and trained and that they are predictive of desirable motivational outcomes.
Article
Research summary Anticipating that innovation nurtures entrepreneurship, we began an extended case study of an innovative start‐up in the space industry. We quickly saw that institutions imposed formidable barriers to implementing entrepreneurship from innovation. Curious about how, why and the extent of this situation, we widened our study to other start‐ups, CEOs of existing businesses, an incubator, a technology transfer office and key influencers in large space companies and agencies. We found that institutions and policies had, in effect, shrunk the entrepreneurial field, leaving little room for enterprise. Conceptualizing from this, we propose the institutions create an “entrepreneurial space.” Theoretically, we explain how this concept of an entrepreneurial space can be usefully applied in other contexts. Managerial summary The space industry is extremely innovative. It is also dominated by two powerful incumbent firms and a third that is highly regulated. This research examines how entrepreneurship in the space industry is shaped by institutions, and what this implies for the freedom to be entrepreneurial. We investigate this question in the French European context. We find that while the industrial context and institutions had completely pushed entrepreneurship out of the upstream segments it flourished in the margins of this industry. The upstream segment is not at all entrepreneurial; downstream is the entrepreneurial milieu of the space industry. We recommend that policymakers (1) strengthen private‐public‐partnership arrangements; (2) implement policies to attract venture capitalists to transform and reinvigorate the upstream segment; and (3) design specific incubation mechanisms for space start‐ups. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
We test for gender differences in the impact of subjective feedback, using an online game with randomized treatment in the form of pop-up texts and graphics. We estimate the impact of giving encouragement or praise on performance (score, accuracy) and persistence (number of games played). We find some evidence of gender differences: while praise has little impact, encouragement has a positive impact on the persistence and performance of females and a negative impact on the performance of males. These are driven by those with low task-related confidence. The findings suggest that giving more individualized feedback – such as encouragement to females with low task-related confidence – can potentially improve gender equality, especially in traditionally male fields.
Article
We conduct a field and an online classroom experiment to study gender differences in self-set performance goals and their effects on performance in a real-effort task. We distinguish between public and private goals, performance being public and identifiable in both cases. Participants set significantly more ambitious goals when these are public. Women choose lower goals than men in both treatments. Men perform better than women under private and public goals as well as in the absence of goal setting, consistent with the identifiability of performance causing gender differences, as found in other studies. Compared to private goal setting, public goal setting does not affect men's performance at all but it leads to women's performance being significantly lower. Comparing self-set goals with actual performance we find that under private goal setting women's performance is on average 67% of goals, whereas for men it is 57%. Under public goal setting the corresponding percentages are 43% and 39%, respectively.
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One of the main goals of substance use disorders (SUDs) treatment is the attainment and maintenance of abstinence, by promoting the adoption of new healthy behaviors, utilizing a wide variety of interventions and strategies. sport is an example of a health-related behavior that is applied in suds treatment, with varied effects. the present study describes the implementation and influence of a 5-week endurance training program (rAcE), and prepare participants to take part in a non-professional 10K race, based on self-determination and goal-setting theories. the objectives of the intervention were: (a) to train individuals in treatment for suds, to set goals and work to attain such goals within a sport context (b) to enhance the participants to transfer such skills into suds treatment, using the same techniques and processes and (c) boost participants' self-confidence so that they may indeed attain their goals. the participant of the RACE program was 14, with average previous substance use of 15 years, following 3.5 months of treatment of suds. the results revealed a significant positive relationship between goal achievement and self-confidence improvement (d=3.33) and treatment attendance. the follow-up assessment also revealed that the RACE program worked positively not only to strengthen the participants to develop goal-setting skills (M=8.55, SD=.69) but also to transfer the goal-setting strategies in their therapeutic process (M=8.69, SD=.85). results further supported the idea that sport can be a safe environment for the training of behavioral-change and motivational strategies in the treatment of suds.
Article
Despite the importance of innovation and innovative behaviors to the public institutions, the climate of these organizations does not grant their employees a sense of purpose and meaningfulness to be intrinsically motivated in their work. Ambiguous goals may influence employee’s attitudes and behaviors. However, previous research findings were mixed about the effect of goals on innovation at work. This study, therefore, seeks to explain the perplexing relationship between organizational goal ambiguity (OGA) and innovative work behavior (IWB) regarding the mediating effect of employee morale. A survey was administered, and respondents were selected from four public organizations of Iran. Finally, data were collected from 700 operational, full-time employees. Results indicated that employee morale mediates the connection between OGA and IWB. This paper advances a further understanding of how employee morale can weaken the direct effect of OGA on innovative work behavior. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed.
Article
Purpose This study examines the relationship between goal properties, both at the employee and organizational-level, and the perceived fairness of the performance appraisal system by federal employees. Design/methodology/approach We describe the theoretical framework regarding goals and employee perceptions of performance appraisal fairness. We then develop and test four hypotheses, exploring the relationships among variables using five years of the FEVS data. To strengthen the research design, we created an agency-level dataset, by calculating agency-level averages for all the covariates. Instead of examining 500,000 federal employees each year, we are examining 80 federal agencies. Creating a panel dataset at the agency level allows us to make stronger statements about causality than using cross-sectional data. Findings This study finds a significant positive relationship between goal setting factors and employees' perceived fairness of performance appraisals: perceived employee-level goal difficulty and perceived organizational-level goal specificity at the agency level. The study results show that certain control variables, such as intrinsic motivation, play important roles in predicting public employees' perceived fairness of performance appraisals. Federal employees who have a higher level of intrinsic motivation show a more positive perception toward performance appraisal fairness. The appropriate use of extrinsic rewards and intrinsic motivation, combined with effective goal setting strategies in public organizations, may enhance public employees' perceived fairness of performance appraisal systems. Research limitations/implications This study used the FEVS, necessitating the reduction of the sample size to agency level averages to create a panel dataset. Also, this study was limited to federal agencies in the United States, so research results may lack generalizability. Originality/value This paper fulfills an identified need to avoid cross-sectional research design and leverage longitudinal panel data.
Article
Goal setting is an important component in successful teaching and learning, but relatively little is known about its impact on course persistence and achievement in massive open online courses. Using an experimental design and employing a variety of data including student writings, content‐related assignment attempts, and quantitative achievement in the courses, we compared the outcomes of two groups of learners who were given different writing prompts at the beginning of their course. While no overall effects of writing prompt type on the dependent variables were observed, highly statistically significant differences were found when goal writings were more closely examined and compared via qualitative coding. When learners’ written responses to prompts contained either learning or performance goals, those participants both achieved more and engaged in learning longer than participants whose written responses did not fall into either of these categories. Practitioner notes What is already known about this topic Goals are related to students’ behaviors and performance. Performance goals’ influences on learning have inconsistent results, while learning goals are considered beneficial. What this paper adds The effects of conscious goal setting in massive open online courses (MOOCs) may be different from traditional learning contexts. Having either learning and performance goals results in better persistence and performance than not having these goals. Implications for practice and/or policy More interventions should be designed to help MOOC learners set and commit to their goals. Use MOOC learner's learning and performance goals to promote learning and persistence. What is already known about this topic Goals are related to students’ behaviors and performance. Performance goals’ influences on learning have inconsistent results, while learning goals are considered beneficial. What this paper adds The effects of conscious goal setting in massive open online courses (MOOCs) may be different from traditional learning contexts. Having either learning and performance goals results in better persistence and performance than not having these goals. Implications for practice and/or policy More interventions should be designed to help MOOC learners set and commit to their goals. Use MOOC learner's learning and performance goals to promote learning and persistence.
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E-textbooks and e-learning technologies have become ubiquitous in college and university courses as faculty seek out ways to provide more engaging, flexible, and customizable learning opportunities for students. However, the same technologies that support learning can serve as a source of frustration. Research on frustration with technology is limited, especially in educational settings. This study examined student frustration with e-textbooks and the factors contributing to the frustration within undergraduate general biology courses through the development of an E-Text Frustration scale. Exploratory factor analysis of the E-Text Frustration scale revealed a three-factor structure that provides quantified support for frustration with (1) e-textbook interactions on the screen, (2) problems with technology, and (3) e-text curriculum integration. This structure was supported by a confirmatory factor analysis. The construct validity of the scale was established using a correlation analysis that revealed significant relationships among the three e-text frustration measures, cognitive load, and motivation variables. Furthermore, the measurement invariance analyses indicated that the scale measures the same construct in the same way in males and females. Overall, the study findings suggest that the E-text Frustration scale is a useful instrument with high reliability and validity evidence that can be used by researchers and practitioners. Implications for future research on frustration with e-learning technologies are discussed.
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This article reports on an initiative to enrich the German curriculum at all levels via “Climate Stories,” a student‐centered learning project that capitalizes on the encouraging strides being made in German‐speaking countries to combat global climate change. Students identify a real‐life “climate story” in the news in German that features a solution or important insight into an environmental issue. After digesting three articles, students create original artwork (visual art, collage, podcast, play) which they present to their peers. The project makes valuable cross‐disciplinary connections to popular sustainability courses and is articulated vertically in the German curriculum, starting in general education and moving upward to each level within the German major. It also connects with an initiative in climate‐focused pedagogy in the sustainability community that is active on campus and nationally. German students share their art and the “stories” behind the art, contributing insights and expertise from the German‐speaking world to undergraduates who cannot access these stories themselves in German. In the general education curriculum, the project provides evidence of global learning. In the upper‐level curriculum, projects are more complex, with oral and written components increasing in difficulty as students' proficiency grows.
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Two studies are reported on an aspect of goal setting that has not been explicitly researched to date, namely, intra-individual goal conflict. The first study utilized an experimental, laboratory design using student teams in which conflicting goals (quantity vs. quality) were assigned. The second study was a correlational, field study of college professors which measured conflict between teaching and research. In both studies conflict was negatively related to at least one performance outcome. This negative association was not mediated by goal commitment, goal priority, goal level or task strategies in either study. In both cases, the main source of the conflict was pressure.
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In this monograph we describe a unique method for resolving scientific disputes: the joint design of crucial experiments by the antagonists themselves with the help of a mediator. This method was applied to the issue of the effect of participation on goal commitment and performance. In research on this topic, Latham and his colleagues had obtained markedly different results from those obtained by Erez and her colleagues. With Locke serving as a third party mediator, Latham and Erez designed four experiments to resolve the discrepancies. The experiments were conducted at the University of Washington and the University of Maryland. The results revealed that the major reason for the difference was that Erez gave very brief tell instructions to her assigned goal subjects, whereas Latham used a tell and sell approach. Four additional factors also contributed to the earlier difference in findings: goal difficulty, setting personal goals before goal treatments were introduced, self-efficacy-inducing instructions, and instructions to reject disliked goals. It was concluded that (a) the differences between Latham and Erez can be explained on the basis of differences in specific procedures, and (b) the method used to resolve this dispute should be used by other investigators. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Determined the long-term effects of self-management training given to 20 unionized state government employees to increase their job attendance in a 6-month follow-up study. A repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that enhanced self-efficacy and increased job attendance were effectively maintained over time. Perceived self-efficacy at the end of training predicted subsequent job attendance. The control group ( n = 20) was then given the same training in self-management by a different trainer. Three months later, this group showed the same positive improvement as the original training group with regard to increased self-efficacy and job attendance. These findings lend support to a self-efficacy based theory of job attendance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Whether you're a manager, company psychologist, quality control specialist, or involved with motivating people to work harder in any capacity—Locke and Latham's guide will hand you the keen insight and practical advice you need to reach even your toughest cases. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Training in self-management was given to 20 unionized state government employees to increase their attendance at the work site. Analyses of variance revealed that compared to a control condition ( n = 20), training in self-regulatory skills taught employees how to manage personal and social obstacles to job attendance, and it raised their perceived self-efficacy that they could exercise influence over their behavior. Consequently, employee attendance was significantly higher in the training than in the control group. The higher the perceived self-efficacy, the better the subsequent job attendance. These data were significant at the .05 level. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Eight experiments were conducted to explore the relationships between goal level, valence, and instrumentality. Valence, measured in terms of anticipated satisfaction across a range of performance levels, was strongly but negatively related to goal level. This finding was explained by showing that low goals entail using less stringent standards for self-evaluation than do high goals. Instrumentality was positively associated with goal level. Ss believed that trying for hard goals would be more likely to give them a sense of achievement, develop their skills, and prove them competent than would trying for easy goals. Ss also believed that high goals would lead to more practical (job and life) benefits, as well as more pride and self-respect, than would low goals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Control theory has been propounded as an original and useful paradigm for integrating a number of theories of human (especially work) motivation. This paper challenges that claim. First, it is shown that the original, mechanical control theory model is not applicable to human beings. Second, it is shown that the two approaches used by control theorists to remedy its limitations did not succeed. One approach involved incorporating propositions drawn from other theories with the result that there was nothing distinctive left that was unique to control theory. The other approach involved broadening the scope of control theory by adding deduced propositions; however, these propositions were inconsistent with what was already known about the phenomena in question based on empirical research. The control theory approach to theory building is contrasted with that of goal setting theory (Locke & Latham, 1990). Goal-setting theory is a grounded theory (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) which evolved from research findings over a 25-year period. Goal theory developed in five directions simultaneously: validation of the core premises; demonstrations of generality; identification of moderators; conceptual refinement and elaboration; and integration with other theories. It is hypothesized that the grounded theory approach is a more fruitful one than the approaches used by control theory.
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In order to investigate what makes people feel closer to making a change decision, female undergraduates were asked to employ mental exercises on two unresolved personal problems, one being easy to implement (e.g., subscribing to a newspaper) and one being difficult to implement (e.g., breaking up with a boyfriend). In an exhaustive predecisional exercise subjects deliberated on the expectancies and values of making a change decision. Two less exhaustive predecisional exercises required that subjects imagine enjoying the incentives of having made a change decision either in a realistic or fantasy-like manner. In an exhaustive postdecisional exercise subjects had to come up with a plan on how to implement the decision not yet made and were to imagine themselves executing it. Two less exhaustive postdecisional exercises required subjects either to imagine the execution of one single implemental action, or to deliberate solely on various possible action steps. Both the exhaustive pre- and postdecisional exercises were found to be more effective in increasing subjects' perceived proximity to the act of a change decision than the respective nonexhaustive exercises. This effect was not less pronounced for difficult-to-implement problems than for easy-to-implement problems. In both exhaustive cases, the facilitative effect was not mediated by increases in outcome value or outcome expectancy. For the exhaustive postdecisional exercise, however, the effect was mediated by the formation of implemental intents. Results are interpreted in terms of a phase model of action which conceives of decisions as volitional acts that propel the individual from a deliberative state of mind (weighing) to an implemental state of mind (willing).
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The authors used 91 sales representatives to test a process model that assessed the relationship of conscientiousness to job performance through mediating motivational (goal-setting) variables. Linear structural equation modeling showed that sales representatives high in conscientiousness are more likely to set goals and are more likely to be committed to goals, which in turn is associated with greater sales volume and higher supervisory ratings of job performance. Results also showed that conscientiousness is directly related to supervisory ratings. Consistent with previous research, results showed that ability was also related to supervisory ratings of job performance and, to a lesser extent, sales volume. Contrary to expectations, 1 other personality construct, extraversion, was not related to sales volume or to supervisory ratings of job performance. Implications and future research needs are discussed.
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Training in self-management was given to 20 unionized state government employees to increase their attendance at the work site. Analyses of variance revealed that compared to a control condition (n = 20), training in self-regulatory skills taught employees how to manage personal and social obstacles to job attendance, and it raised their perceived self-efficacy that they could exercise influence over their behavior. Consequently, employee attendance was significantly higher in the training than in the control group. The higher the perceived self-efficacy, the better the subsequent job attendance. These data were significant at the .05 level.
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Eight experiments were conducted to explore the relationships between goal level, valence, and instrumentality. Valence, measured in terms of anticipated satisfaction across a range of performance levels, was strongly but negatively related to goal level. This finding was explained by showing that low goals entail using less stringent standards for self-evaluation than do high goals. Instrumentality was positively associated with goal level. Subjects believed that trying for hard goals would be more likely to give them a sense of achievement, develop their skills, and prove them competent than would trying for easy goals. Subjects also believed that high goals would lead to more practical (job and life) benefits, as well as more pride and self-respect, than would low goals.
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This study was designed to replicate conceptually and to explain the goal-level vs. incentive-type interaction reported by Mowen, Middlemist, and Luther (1981) based on goal setting and social cognitive theories. Mowen et al. found that subjects performed more poorly with hard goals than medium goals under a bonus pay system, the opposite of what was found for a piece-rate system. In the present study, an hourly pay condition was added. Mowen et al.'s interaction was replicated using a two-trial design in which subjects could obtain feedback about their ability to attain the incentive bonuses between trials. The experimental effects were completely mediated by personal goals and self-efficacy. Goal commitment was related to performance, but did not mediate the experimental conditions. The implications for the design of incentive systems are discussed.
This paper summarizes and integrates research concerned with a long-neglected topic in psychology: the relationship between conscious goals and intentions and task performance. The basic promise of this research is that an individual's conscious ideas regulate his actions. Studies are cited demonstrating that: (1) hard goals produce a higher level of performance (output) than easy goals; (2) specific hard goals produce a higher level of output than a goal of “do your best”; and (3) behavioral intentions regulate choice behavior. The theory also views goals and intentions as mediators of the effects of incentives on task performance. Evidence is presented supporting the view that monetary incentives, time limits, and knowledge of results do not affect performance level independently of the individual's goals and intentions. A theoretical analysis supports the same view with respect to three other incentives: participation, competition, and praise and reproof. Finally, behavioral intentions were found to mediate the effects of money and “verbal reinforcement” on choice behavior. It is concluded that any adequate theory of task motivation must take account of the individual's conscious goals and intentions. The applied implications of the theory are discussed.
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Previous experimental studies of participation have typically examined its motivational (especially commitment) benefits. These studies showed that these benefits are neither large nor consistent. The present study focused on the cognitive benefits of participation in decision making (pdm) and on the role of a different motivational mediator, self-efficacy. Unlike previous research which claimed to study the cognitive (informational) effects of participation, the present experiment: (a) allowed the information concerning task strategies to emerge from group discussion rather than being manipulated by the experimenter; (b) measured the actual strategies that were developed and used by subjects in the pdm condition; and (c) measured self-efficacy which was associated with the discovery and use of these strategies. It was found that the strategies developed by the subjects and their self-efficacy completely mediated the effect of participation on performance. Further, participation in setting goals, consistent with previous studies, did not affect performance but did affect self-efficacy.
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On the basis of 7 charismatic and transformational leadership theories, 3 core components (vision, vision implementation through task cues, and communication style) were identified. A laboratory simulation manipulated the 3 components in a completely crossed experimental design, where 2 trained actors portrayed the leader. Participants were 282 students in upper level business classes who performed a simulated production task. The vision of high quality weakly affected performance quality but significantly affected many attitudes. Vision implementation, in the form of task cues, affected performance quality and quantity. Charismatic communication style affected only the perception of charisma. Mediation was not found; rather, an exploratory path analysis found a 2-part causal sequence, where the vision of quality and vision implementation each affected self-set goals and self-efficacy, which, in turn, affected performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Used 91 sales representatives to test a process model that assessed the relationship of conscientiousness to job performance through mediating motivational (goal-setting) variables. Linear structural equation modeling showed that sales representatives high in conscientiousness are more likely to set goals and are more likely to be committed to goals, which in turn is associated with greater sales volume and higher supervisory ratings of job performance. Results also showed that conscientiousness is directly related to supervisory ratings. Consistent with previous research, results showed that ability was also related to supervisory ratings of job performance and, to a lesser extent, sales volume. Contrary to expectations, 1 other personality construct, extraversion, was not related to sales volume or to supervisory ratings of job performance. Implications and future research needs are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In 1956 AT&T decided to undertake a study of managerial lives unparalleled in its comprehensiveness and duration. This ambitious and unique research was not limited to studying the participants as managers, but examined the totality of their adult lives. In time, a second study was designed that addressed the abilities and motivations of a new generation of managers. This parallel longitudinal study provided another group, separated by twenty years from the subjects of the first study, so that individual development could be distinguished from societal change. This book is an account and evaluation of AT&T's monumental thirty years of research written by the studies' current director and her predecessor. As comprehensive and ambitious as the studies with which it is concerned, "Managerial Lives in Transition" includes social and cultural analyses as well as substantial statistical data. The authors examine the impact of recent history on management, from the dominance of white males to the emergence of women, and the growing representation of racial and ethnic minorities. Concerned with issues such as the nature of management potential, the course of adult life, and the young managers of today, this book will be of interest to psychologists, business readers, human resource managers, and students of corporate culture. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Comments on the book by K. A. Ericsson and H. A. Simon (see record 1980-24435-001) concerning verbal reports as data. The current status of verbal report methodologies in psychological research, and improvements in the methods for collecting and interpreting verbal report data, are discussed. The use of concurrent and retrospective verbal report procedures in conjunction with improved collecting and encoding procedures will continue to yield important data for improving psychological models. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Investigated the effects of goal setting, self-efficacy, competition, and personality on the performance of a sit-up task. Prior to testing, Ss were administered the Sport Orientation Questionnaire (SOQ). 60 participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: competition, medium goal; competition, high goal; no competition, medium goal; and no competition, high goal. A 5th group from the same population was added and served as the do-best comparison group. The main effect of goal level was borderline significant, and this effect was fully mediated by personal goal level and self-efficacy. Both the medium and hard goal groups significantly outperformed the do-best group. Competition did not affect performance, personal goals, commitment, or self-efficacy. The SOQ was significantly related to performance, but its effects were fully mediated by personal goals and self-efficacy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study contrasted goal setting and self-management training designs for their effectiveness in facilitating transfer of training to a novel task. Behavioral measures of performance were used to assess transfer in terms of skill generalization, skill repetition and overall performance level. Skill generalization was more limited among the goal-setting trainees as compared to the self-management trainees. While goal-setting trainees generalized fewer skills to the novel task context, these skills tended to be used more repeatedly. In contrast, self-management trainees exhibited higher rates of skill generalization and higher overall performance levels on the transfer task, even after the effects of outcome goal level were controlled. Implications are discussed for future research on training transfer.
Article
The present experiment tested the hypothesis that self-regulation of refractory behavior varies as a function of goal proximity. Obese subjects were assigned to conditions in which they either monitored their eating behavior, monitored their eating behavior and set subgoals for reducing the amount of food consumed, or received no treatment. Within the goal-setting conditions, subjects adopted either distal goals defined in terms of weekly goal limits or proximal goals specifying the goal limits for each of four time periods during each day. Goal setting enhanced self-directed change as measured by reductions in both eating behavior and weight. The higher the goal attainments, the greater were the losses in weight. Proximal and distal goal setting yielded comparable overall results because the majority of subjects assigned remote goals altered this condition by adopting proximal goals to augment control over their own behavior. Within the distal goal-setting condition, the adherents to distal goals achieved relatively small changes, whereas those who improvised proximal subgoals for themselves attained substantial reductions on the multifaceted measures of self-directed change. The combined evidence lends support to the motivational and regulative functions of proximal intentions and highlights the reciprocal influence processes that operate in self-directed change.
This study investigated the relationship between Type A behavior and the research productivity of university faculty. The research also examined the roles played by various Type A subfactors (job involvement, competitiveness, and impatience) and by three hypothesized intervening variables (self-efficacy, performance goals, and working on multiple projects) in the Type A—productivity relationship. Results showed a direct relationship between Type A behavior and both quantity and quality indices of faculty research productivity. Findings also supported self-efficacy, goals, and working on multiple projects as variables intervening between the display of Type A behavior and performance. Job involvement was found to be the only Type A subfactor related to productivity.
Article
Living organisms exhibit various levels of self-regulation, the highest of which is man's ability to regulate the operation of his conceptual faculty. Ayn Rand's theory of free will, the basis of this article, identifies this level of self-regulation with volition. The locus of direct volitional choice is placed in the choice “to think or not to think,” where thinking is understood as rational, purposefully directed cognition. The nature of this choice is analyzed in detail, with special emphasis on Rand's concept of mental “focus.” The epistemological status of the theory is discussed, including the role of introspective evidence in its behalf. It is argued that one's volitional control over one's own thinking has the status of an axiom, and that any attempted denial of this control is self-refuting.
Article
Examines the motivation for achievement as a psychological factor that shapes economic development. Refuting arguments based on race, climate, or population growth, the book instead argues for cultural customs and motivations - especially the motivation for achievement - as the major catalysts of economic growth. Considering the Protestant Reformation, the rise of capitalism, parents' influences on sons, and folklore and children's stories as shaping cultural motivations for achievement, the book hypothesizes that a high level of achievement motivation precedes economic growth. This is supported through qualitative analysis of the achievement motive, as well as of other psychological factors - including entrepreneurial behavior and characteristics, and available sources of achievement in past and present highly achieving societies. It is the achievement motive - and not merely the profit motive or the desire for material gain - that has advanced societies economically. Consequently, individuals are not merely products of their environment, as many social scientists have asserted, but also creators of the environment, as they manipulate it in various ways in the search for achievement. Finally, a plan is hypothesized to accelerate economic growth in developing countries, by encouraging and supplementing their achievement motives through mobilizing the greater achievement resources of developed countries. The conclusion is not just that motivations shape economic progress, but that current influences on future people's motivations and values will determine economic growth in the long run. Thus, it is most beneficial for a society to concentrate its resources on creating an environment conducive to entrepreneurship and a strong ideological base for achievement. (CJC)
Article
3 laboratory experiments are reported which stem from Ryan's approach to motivation. The fundamental unit is the "intention." The experiments examined the relationship between intended level of achievement and actual level of performance. A significant linear relationship was obtained in all 3 experiments; the higher the level of intention, the higher the level of performance. The findings held both between and within Ss and across different tasks. The implications for the explanation of behavior are discussed. (19 ref.)
Article
This essay argues: (1) that the fundamental conflict between the behaviorist and cognitive approaches to psychology are philosophical, not scientific; (2) that the philosophical premises underlying behaviorism (materialism, epiphenomenalism, functional model of causality, and the rejection of concepts referring to conscious states and processes) are false; and (3) that an objective, scientific approach to psychology must take consciousness and volition as axiomatic starting points.
Article
Participation has been a concern of both theorists and practitioners for many decades, but sophisticated analyses of the literature have been inconclusive with respect to its performance and affective benefits (Wagner & Gooding, 1987). The present study used an experimental design to test the hypothesis that the effectiveness of participation in promoting high performance would depend upon the locus of knowledge. Thus, high performance would result if (a) there was no participation and the supervisor had correct information, and if (b) there was participation and at least one party had correct information and neither had incorrect (i.e., conflicting) information. Lower performance would result under other conditions. We also tested the hypothesis that supervisors and subordinates under participation would have more positive affect than those who did not. These hypotheses were supported in a 2 × 3 × 3 experiment varying participation (Participation and No Participation), supervisor information (Correct, Incorrect, and No Information), and subordinate information (Correct, Incorrect, and No Information). Both supervisors and subordinates reported more positive affect and perceptions under Participation (versus No Participation) regardless of their degree of correct knowledge.
Towards experimental analysis of human motivation in terms of motives, expectancies and incentives Motives in fantasy, action & society Social foundations of thought and action: A social-cognitive view The role of proximal inten-tions in self-regulation of refractory behavior
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Intentional behavior Knowledge as a determinant of the effects of participation on performance and attitudes. Organizational Behavior & Human Decision Pro-cesses
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The biological basis of teleological con-cepts Volition as cognitive self-regulation. Orga-nizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes
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Introduction to Objectivist epistemology
  • A Rand
Rand, A. (1990). Introduction to Objectivist epistemology. New York: NAL Books.
Towards experimental analysis of human motivation in terms of motives, expectancies and incentives
  • Atkinson
Atkinson, J. W. (1958). Towards experimental analysis of human motivation in terms of motives, expectancies and incentives. In J. W. Atkinson (Ed.), Motives in fantasy, action & society. Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand.
The biological basis of teleological concepts
  • H Binswanger
Binswanger, H. (1990). The biological basis of teleological concepts. Los Angeles: Ayn Rand Institute Press.
The essence of leadership
  • E A Locke
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Locke, E. A. & associates (1991). The essence of leadership. New York: Lexington (Macmillan).
Type A behavior and faculty research productivity: What are the mechanisms?
  • Taylor