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The article describes what has been found during 30 years of research by the author and others on the relationship between conscious performance goals and performance on work tasks. This approach is contrasted with previous approaches to motivation theory which stressed physiological, external or subconscious causes of action. The basic contents of goal setting theory are summarized in terms of 14 categories of findings. An applied example is provided.
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... The effect of a specific goal. A specific, difficult goal, it is argued, will consistently lead to higher performance than abstract or vague goal, such as to do one's best (Locke, 1996;Locke and Latham, 2002;Locke and Latham, 2013). An abstract or vague goal will cause ambiguity in order to reach it and it will be subjective (Locke and Latham, 2013). ...
... An abstract or vague goal will cause ambiguity in order to reach it and it will be subjective (Locke and Latham, 2013). Quantitative (increase sales by 15%) and enumeration (the list of the target that must be attained) is the way by which a specific difficult goal can be achieved, because it will reduce variety in performance and motivate an individual to manage their performance (Locke, 1996). Many researchers support this hypothesis, such as Latham and Yukl (1975), Locke et al. (1981), and Steer and Porter (1974). ...
... In the relationship between goalsetting and performance, commitment is commonly used as a moderator (Locke and Latham, 2002). Moreover, Locke (1996) in his research, found that the most critical commitment to goals is when goals are specific and difficult. Furthermore, he did not specifically explain the relationship between goal-setting factors and goal commitment. ...
The purpose of this study is to investigate the level of target commitment in the DGT and the role of target setting theory in effecting this. This research uses Kwan et al. (2013) goal-setting questionnaire. The sample comes from 165 employees of the Directorate General of Taxes (DGT), Indonesia. The result demonstrates that the level of target commitment within the DGT’s employees is high. The effect of target setting factors shows that target clarity and the positive target setting processes positively related with target commitment, whereas target stress, target conflict, and dysfunctional effects of targets negatively related with target commitment. However, high level of target difficulty does not significantly relate to target commitment, strong possibility for moderator. In this study, it is argued that to have a high level of target commitment within the DGT’s employees , It should have a target setting factors to effect this. Keywords: Target setting, Target Commitment, Public sector, the Directorate General of Taxes, Indonesia.
... Locke (1996) summarizes 30 years of goal-setting research to explain what make goals effective. Locke (1996) notes that hard, specific goals lead to the greatest levels of achievement, and that personal commitment is essential when goals are hard. He notes that people typically do not set goals as high for themselves as others would set for them, which is detrimental, as aiming for higher goals leads to greater achievement. ...
... Support from a coach or a manager can be beneficial in goal pursuit. Managers or coaches can act as role models, bolster motivation through expressions of confidence, provide training or new strategies to increase skills, and, especially, can provide feedback that's essential in helping guide performance towards achieving goals (Locke, 1996). ...
... Research about goal-setting provides additional insight into how negative feedback may be received. Locke (1996) notes that challenging, specific goals lead to the greatest levels of performance, and that personal commitment is essential when goals are challenging. ...
We all need feedback to grow professionally and improve our skills. Our cognitive biases and limited perspective mean it is imperative that we draw on others to help us see what we cannot, and point us to new strategies to achieve our goals. But, even if you agree with that sentiment, you might find it emotionally wrenching to hear that your work falls short or could be improved: many of us avoid or reject beneficial, but critical, feedback. And, sometimes negative feedback is inexpertly delivered, making it even harder to hear. Positive psychology aims to help people flourish; while it’s sometimes hard to remember this, critical feedback is usually intended to promote flourishing, too. This capstone describes a model for thinking about how to flourish from feedback. It provides tools which can be used to make us more receptive to feedback and influence our feedback environment; these same tools can be used to prepare for, engage in, and process feedback conversations. Finally, the model offers guidance for selecting the right tools to help everyone reap the benefits that can come from hearing the wisdom that others can share with us.
... The effects of Goal setting on the performance of an individual or team can be understood through goal-setting theory (Locke, 1996). The two attributes of goals that were studied were the difficulty and specificity. ...
... The two attributes of goals that were studied were the difficulty and specificity. Locke (1996) found that more difficult goals lead to higher achievement if the individual is committed and has the necessary ability. The more specific or explicit the goal, the more precisely performance can be regulated. ...
... Also, goals that are both specific and difficult lead to the highest performance, but the individual must be committed to it. Locke (1996) argue that high commitment to the goal is attained when the individual is convinced that it is important and if they believe it to be achievable (self-efficacy). ...
Social team building typically consists of a one-day extra-mural excursion involving some non-work related tasks performed by teams to improve interpersonal relationships. MBA study groups are pre-allocated at the start of the academic programme and team development interventions are often employed to facilitate group formation. This study aims to evaluate the influence of such interventions for promoting study group formation through the use of Input-Process-Output models of team performance.
... It refers to the extent to which learners show active learning behaviors and set learning goals for themselves (Zimmerman, 1998). According to goal- setting theory (Locke, 1996), purpose causes human action, which occurs whenever the goals are set and pursued by choice. Research has revealed positive effects of goal-setting on task performance, aca- demic achievement, well-being ( Barnard-Brak, Lan, & Paton, 2010), and learner autonomy (Pintrich, 2000). ...
... The quantitative results were supported by the qualitative data: All of the students believed that it increased their WTC and motivation, and stimulated their future goals and plans. These results suggest the importance of ideal L2 selves (D€ ornyei, 2005, 2009), imagined communities (Norton, 2001), goal-setting (Locke, 1996), and self-regulated learning (Zimmerman, 1998), and they support previous survey studies that found relationships between visualization and L2 motivation in general (AlShehri, 2009;Chan, 2014;D€ ornyei & Chan, 2013;You et al., 2016) and between visualization and goal-setting and WTC in particular (Munezane, 2015). ...
... Students enjoyed visualizing and imagining the future, but they found setting action plans to be useful. It is possi- ble that the action plans contributed to enhancing WTC among these students because the pursuit of goals requires action (Locke, 1996). Many students start their new semester or year with a language learn- ing goal but fail to progress because they do not know how to take action. ...
Willingness to communicate (WTC) research has focused mostly on identifying factors that influence second language (L2) WTC in ESL contexts. This study differs by examining the effects of a 6‐week treatment aimed at enhancing WTC in a group of 206 Yemeni rural high school EFL learners. Classes were randomly assigned to a control group (n = 102) or an experimental group (n = 104). The researcher designed one weekly 45‐minute visualization lesson for the treatment group to help learners imagine themselves communicating in English; the control group did communicative activities. Results of an analysis of covariance indicate that the treatment group's WTC had increased significantly at the end of the intervention. Quantitative and qualitative analyses revealed students’ perceptions of the effectiveness of the program. The study provides insights into the role of visualization to enhance students’ WTC and suggests activities that teachers can use to enhance students’ WTC. It shows that there are many ways besides visualization to stimulate the development of ideal L2 selves and that it is not difficult to conduct interventions at schools in Yemen or in any other developing country if teachers are given the appropriate activities, guidelines, planning sessions, and instructions. Practical implications are discussed.
... In both alternatives (feeling of unlimited and limited responsibility) the goals are set very high. This is a good thing, since high goals bring improved job performance and higher levels of satisfaction (Locke, 1996;Locke & Latham, 2006;Locke, Shaw, Saari, & Latham, 1981). However, if the goal is vague or abstract, as in the case of Veronica, the result is a lack of motivation and frustration (Locke, 1996;Locke & Latham, 2006;Locke et al., 1981;Latham, 2004). ...
... This is a good thing, since high goals bring improved job performance and higher levels of satisfaction (Locke, 1996;Locke & Latham, 2006;Locke, Shaw, Saari, & Latham, 1981). However, if the goal is vague or abstract, as in the case of Veronica, the result is a lack of motivation and frustration (Locke, 1996;Locke & Latham, 2006;Locke et al., 1981;Latham, 2004). Veronica will need to set specific goals to limit her responsibility in order to experience more positive outcomes. ...
... She can recognize that the effort is worth it and see the impact she is having on the world [impact achieved]. The ability to see the impact a person is having could be interpreted as feedback, which is essential for job performance, commitment, and motivation (DeShon, Kozlowski, Schmidt, Milner, & Wiechmann, 2004;Locke, 1996;Locke & Latham, 2006;Locke et al., 1981;Latham, 2004). ...
An important and overlooked group in the topic of calling is that comprising individuals who work in the social sector, defined as individuals devoted to advancing human dignity and social justice through advocacy, service, policy research, and/or impact investing at a local, national, and global level (Tirmizi & Vogelsang, 2016). Among this group, it is possible to distinguish between those that are experiencing mainly positive outcomes because of their calling—called calling thrivers—and those who are experiencing a combination of negative and positive outcomes, called calling survivors. The aim of the study is to understand the main differences between both profiles (calling survivors and thrivers) and which variables lead to positive and negative outcomes. Using the grounded-theory method, sixteen interviews were analyzed. The result was the emergence of a calling survivor–calling thriver continuum, formed by ten characteristics: positive relationships, self-awareness, sacrifice, work centrality, responsibility, privilege, empathy, motivation, impact achieved and prioritizing. The way the characteristics are interpreted by the individuals will determine if they are closer to surviving their calling, or thriving in it. The continuum revealed by the findings demonstrates that people working in the social sector do not necessarily fall into either group—thrivers or survivors—but are a combination of both. Based on the findings, a model was developed that would help individuals working in the social sector to improve their life satisfaction and job performance or, in other words, to thrive and have a lasting impact in the world.
... Latham and Yukl (1975) define goal-setting as a mean to improve performance. Then again, setting goals is based on importance and self-efficacy (Locke andLatham 2002, Latham and) and affected by leadership ( Locke and Latham 2006). ...
... By reviewing the literature of goal-setting theory Locke (1996) argue that the more difficult and specific goals are the more critical is the commitment for achieving the goal, but the higher is the performance if the commitment is there. The commitment in turn depends on the importance and the attainability of the goal for the individual commitment giver as well as the self-efficacy to accept feedback that helps to set and perform goals (Locke 1996). ...
... By reviewing the literature of goal-setting theory Locke (1996) argue that the more difficult and specific goals are the more critical is the commitment for achieving the goal, but the higher is the performance if the commitment is there. The commitment in turn depends on the importance and the attainability of the goal for the individual commitment giver as well as the self-efficacy to accept feedback that helps to set and perform goals (Locke 1996). Therefore, Locke (1996) defines goal commitment as "the degree to which the person is genuinely attached to and determined to reach the goals." ...
... In addition, research-based studies mushroomed on topics such as hope, self-efficacy and optimism (Magyar-Moe & Lopez, 2015;Locke, 1996;Seligman, 2002). Academic programs that The goal of positive psychology is to enable people and entities to flourish, through scientifically based research, theories and interventions that move people toward well-being (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000). ...
... Laying out a strategy to prepare for Shabbat dinner helps minimize the potential stress of each step of the process. Having goals that are attainable, specific and challenging motivates high effort and builds skills, such as self-efficacy (an individual's belief in their abilities to succeed), which Locke (1996) argues is important in building resilience and self-control. For some, spreading the preparation of the dinner across the week helps increase and prolong the enjoyment of the activities and elongates the meaningfulness of the experience. ...
Shabbat (Sabbath) is the most important holiday in Judaism. It is a time of joy, rest and reflection, separate from the other days of the week. Jews celebrate Shabbat in many different ways, depending on one’s denomination within Judaism, family rituals and customs. Engaging in weekly Shabbat dinners is one way to celebrate Shabbat. From a positive psychology perspective, Shabbat dinners are a means to increase well-being. Looking at Shabbat dinner through a “Shabbat mindset” brings new meaning to the experience. By examining psychological theories and research, such as positive emotions and self-determination, it seems that Shabbat dinner is an ideal positive intervention. The rituals and structure of a Shabbat dinner foster positive emotions, engagement, relationship building, meaning, achievement, self-efficacy and much more.
... Hence, the proliferation of papers seeking to spell out the relationships among effectuation in general, the bird-in-hand principle specifically, and the concept of bricolage. Yet this taken-for-grantedness begs the question of the process through which goals come to be and the need to relate work on effectuation to the extensive work already done on goal setting (e.g., Locke et al. 1981;Locke 1996;Fried and Slowik 2004;Mauer et al. 2017). An even more intriguing set of questions has to do with the implications of one of those connections: the moral, ethical, and welfare aspects of new goals. ...
... This raises exciting future research questions about what optimality means in the effectuation process. Existing conceptualizations of optimality require goals to be specified ex ante (Locke 1996). But the discussion in the dialogs opens the door to thinking about a differ- ent sort of optimality ( Gupta et al. 2016) that is relevant to processes, such as effectuation, that cannot be mea- sured against a single outcome but instead against a range of inputs, actions, and possible futures. ...
Reflecting on the 12 works that compose this special issue, we are struck by the distinctiveness of effectuation as a theory native to the domain of entrepreneurship. While theoretical perspectives from disciplines including economics, psychology, and sociology have been applied to understanding the new venture phenomenon, entrepreneurship scholars have historically had little to offer in return beyond the testing bed. The authors in this special issue begin to make the case for transforming the bed into fertile soil in which the disciplines can grow and bear new fruit. Moreover, uncertainty, co-creation, resources, goals, and control all represent important and current issues in management, marketing, organizations, finance, and operations. Effectuation has something new to offer to each of these. In this article, we summarize what we learn from the works in the special issue in order to construct a research agenda that can move effectuation from entrepreneurship to the disciplines and beyond into new futures. Full version is accessible here, free of charge; https://rdcu.be/boewC (View only)
... Whether it is to be the first on the leader board or to gather as many badges as possible, gamification makes goals more salient.  claim that motivation is facilitated by such conscious goal-setting. Further they argue that goals have two effects on task performance. ...
... Goals give actions an object or aim. Second, goals have an energizing function and serve as motivational inducement . ...
... While interest in persistence has provided many discoveries, a multitude of persistence-related con- structs have been conceptualized with definitions that overlap con- siderably. Among these constructs are goal striving, goal commitment, work commitment, need for achievement, self-control, ambition, courage, zeal, passion, work ethic, dependability, industriousness, grit, tenacity, stamina, conscientiousness, perseverance, and persistence it- self (Cassidy & Lynn, 1989;Duckworth, Peterson, Matthews, & Kelly, 2007;Grant, 2008;Howard & Alipour, 2014;Klein, Wesson, Hollenbeck, Wright, & DeShon, 2001;Locke, 1996;Vancouver, Weinhardt, & Schmidt, 2010). Although these constructs are often considered to be unique, they are also discussed interchangeably in certain contexts. ...
... The current article provides several theoretical implications for the study of personality and motivation. First, although many constructs describe the tendency to strive towards goals in general (Cassidy & Lynn, 1989;Klein et al., 2001;Locke, 1996), we showed these con- structs may be more accurately conceptualized as dimensions of per- sistence. These results do not suggest, however, that these existing constructs are useless or even incorrect. ...
Persistence is often viewed as a behavioral event, whereby a person works through obstacles in the pursuit of a goal. This operationalization does not speak to persistence as an individual difference, but many researchers have observed people for which persistence appears habitual and is applied in the pursuit of all goals broadly. We suggest that several closely related constructs, such as grit and perseverance, may partially capture multiple dimensions of the overall construct of persistence. These dimensions are Persistence Despite Difficulties (PDD), Persistence Despite Fear (PDF), and Inappropriate Persistence (IP). In an initial study, we show that these three dimensions emerge in multiple measures for these closely related constructs, along with the construct of Goal Time Preference (GTP). Then, we create the Multidimensional Persistence Scale through a three-study process, showing that the scale has satisfactory psychometric properties and validity, and we support our three-dimensional conceptualization of persistence. Lastly, in two studies, we demonstrate that the three dimensions of persistence have notable and distinct relationships with personal well-being; however, only PDD appears to significantly influence organizational outcomes, supported through its significant relationship with organizational citizenship behaviors.
... According to the goal setting theory by E.A. Locke, personal commitment is connected with internalising the goal and perceiving it in the category of an own initiative. It is possible when we implement the assumptions of participation and will formulate goals (Locke, 1996) concerning shaping the safety and security environment at school together with the group. Proper management which is perceived more in the category of leadership and the awareness that the goal is attainable (Locke, 1996) are of crucial importance. ...
... It is possible when we implement the assumptions of participation and will formulate goals (Locke, 1996) concerning shaping the safety and security environment at school together with the group. Proper management which is perceived more in the category of leadership and the awareness that the goal is attainable (Locke, 1996) are of crucial importance. Low effectiveness of the command and control system and a high level of control in relation to trust and freedom to decide how to implement the adopted tasks should be highlighted (Ćwik, 2005). ...
Safety and security promotion has been implemented in Polish schools for several decades. However, the effectiveness of these measures raises doubts when analysing the scale of risky behaviours among children, young people and adults. Statistical analyses conducted by the Police suggest that there is still a lot to do with regard to safety assurance. It was actually those data, along with an analysis of the school programmes of education and prevention, that became the motivation to embark on extended research concerning these issues. Owing to the studies conducted in 2018 and 2019, it became possible to obtain the answer to the question: To what extent are the selected assumptions of participatory management considered in the school safety and security promotion?
Participation in the educational and preventive programmes in schools was virtually unnoticeable. For this reason, it proved necessary to carry out surveys among teachers and school leavers in order to enable a diagnosis to be made concerning the way of understanding the essence of safety assurance, the scope of the actual participation of pupils in the preventive actions and the evaluation of these actions by teachers and school leavers. An analysis of the data obtained made it possible to formulate recommendations to enable a more comprehensive preparation of teachers and teacher candidates for initiating preventive actions. As it turned out, it was particularly important to include the holistic understanding of safety assurance in curricula for teacher candidates. Elimination of risk factors, which teachers focus on, is equally important as strengthening the factors that protect against risks. Of key importance in this respect is the need for understanding the essence of safety in both positive and negative dimensions. Such an approach, taking account of high-quality methodology of classes, is necessary in implementing high-quality safety and security promotion in schools.
... The effects of goal setting on student or worker participant has strongly been dis- cussed in the psychology literature. Psychological literature has long been focussed on understanding the effects of goal setting as a mechanism to enhance motivation and in turn performance (Latham and Locke, 1979;Locke and Latham, 1990a;Locke, 1996;Locke andLatham, 2002, 2006). Latham and Locke (1979) were the pioneers in providing laboratory and field-based experimental evidence that setting goals to employers help increase their performance. ...
... The effects of goal setting on student or worker participant has strongly been dis- cussed in the psychology literature. Psychological literature has long been focussed on understanding the effects of goal setting as a mechanism to enhance motivation and in turn performance (Latham and Locke, 1979;Locke and Latham, 1990a;Locke, 1996;Locke andLatham, 2002, 2006). Latham and Locke (1979) were the pioneers in providing laboratory and field-based experimental evidence that setting goals to employers help increase their performance. ...
Most incentive-based programs only dispense rewards conditional on students' having achieved the given effort-and/or performance-based targets. However, what has remained untested is understanding student effort when an incentive is given upfront even before students are asked to achieve a target (upfront reward group). Further, we also study the effects of rewarding students for their commitment to achieve a target set (upfront reward-promise group). Finally, we study the effects of two additional groups where a conditional reward is offered to students upon achievement of the target, however, in one group students are asked to make the commitment (conditional reward-promise group) and the other they were simply informed about this opportunity (conditional reward group). All these groups are compared to a baseline group, where only the target is given to students with no performance rewards offered. We utilise a real effort task in a laboratory setting to study the effects of these above mentioned incentive structure groups. The main results we find from this analysis are as follows. First, rewarding participants upfront does have a positive impact on student performance. Second, the offer of a conditional reward in combination with the promise to achieve the target did not demonstrate a positive and/or significant effect on task performance. Third, regardless of the incentive structure, participants who signed the promise achieved lower scores as compared to those who did not sign the promise. Fourth, when we consider the accuracy with which participants performed the task (i.e an indicator of quality), female students seem to be more accurate when they sign a promise.
... Goal-setting and performance are interrelated because goals affect the behaviour to perform the task, the energy invested, the strategies employed and its persistence . Researchers on goal-setting theory argue that there are three main features of goals that cause them to be distinguishable: difficulty, specificity and commitment . ...
... In light of goal-setting theory, this observation is congruent with Acevedo et al. (1992), who showed that ultra-marathon runners are more committed to personal performance goals (i.e., finishing the race below a given time) and process goals (e.g., managing efficient breaks, adapting the running technique to the terrain, and splitting the race into shorter steps) than outcome goals (i.e., ranking goal), suggesting that runners are not that concerned with social comparisons. Instead, they tend to set challenging -yet reachable -goals in line with their personal standards (Locke, 1996). Interestingly, Bueno et al. (2008) investigated what they called the "mediator mechanisms" in the efficacy of goal-setting performances in endurance sports. ...
Using an enactive approach to trail runners’ activity, this study sought to identify and characterize runners’ phenomenological gestalts, which are forms of experience that synthesize the heterogeneous sensorimotor, cognitive and emotional information that emerges in race situations. By an in-depth examination of their meaningful experiences, we were able to highlight the different typologies of interactions between bodily processes (e.g., sensations and pains), behaviors (e.g., actions and strategies), and environment (e.g., meteorological conditions and route profile). Ten non-professional runners who ran an ultra-trail running race (330 km, 24,000 m of elevation gain) volunteered to participate in the study. Data were collected in two steps: (1) collection of past activity traces (i.e., race maps, field notes, and self-assessment scales) and (2) enactive interviews using the past activity traces in which the runners were invited to relive their experience and describe their activity. The enactive interviews were coded using the course-of-experience methodology to identify the phenomenological gestalts that emerged from activity and scaffolded the runners’ courses of experience. The results revealed that runners typically enact three phenomenological gestalts: controlling global ease, enduring general fatigue and experiencing difficult situations, and feeling freedom in the running pace. These phenomenological gestalts were made up of specific behaviors, involvements, and meaningful situated elements that portrayed various ways of achieving an ultra-endurance performance in the race situation. They also highlighted how runners enact a meaningful world by acting in relation to the fluctuations in physical sensations and environmental conditions during an ultra-trail race. Practical applications for preparation, race management and sports psychology interventions are proposed to enrich the existing recommendations. In conclusion, this approach provides new research perspectives by offering a more holistic grasp of activity in trail running through an in-depth analysis of athletes’ experience. In doing so, we may expect that runners can connect these typical gestalts to their own personal experiences and stories as trail runners in order to sustain a viable approach to their sport.
... addiction (Szabo, 2010). A high score of commitment reflects how hard a person wants to achieve a goal and the extent to which she is willing to make sacrifices (Locke, 1996). High level of commitment cannot be separated from obsessive passion, which embodies the internal pressure to do something, or to engage in an activity (Forest, Mageau, Sarrazin, & Morin, 2011). ...
Exercise addiction is widely studied in sport science and psychology, but at this time it is not recognized as an independently diagnosable mental or psychiatric disorder. Indeed, studies on exercise addiction assess a level of risk for disordered exercise behaviour, characterized by lack of control and negative personal consequences. It is argued that commitment and passion are two overlapping features of high exercise involvement which obscure the fine line between healthy and unhealthy exercise. The present case study examined a successful female body builder who initially claimed that she was addicted to exercise. During an interview she also completed three questionnaires and her appraisal of well-being in eight life domains were assessed at present, as well as retrospectively before her intensive involvement with exercise. She was screened under the Non-Substance Related Disorders category of Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders classification of DSM-5 for gambling, by replacing the word "gambling" with "exercise". Although she was susceptible to exercise addiction, attained high scores on obsessive passion, exhibited more than four symptoms on the DSM list, she exhibited no signs of loss of control and she mainly reported positive experiences associated with her exercise behaviour. She has obtained a nearly maximum score on commitment to exercise and high score on harmonious passion. Almost all aspects of her life have changed in positive direction after getting intensely involved in exercise. This case illustrates that the current scholastic path to the study of exercise addiction may be obscured by ambiguous assumptions and unilateral quantitative focus.
... Goals originating externally are moderated by both self-set goals and self-efficacy. In turn, self-efficacy is closely linked to goal setting (Bandura & Schunk, 1981;Locke, 1996) with high self-efficacy increasing motivation and low self-efficacy decreasing motivation for identical goals (Locke & Latham, 2002). Where external goals are absent, people may set goals automatically through a process known as automaticity (Bargh & Chartrand, 1999). ...
Goal setting is an important part of business process management requiring metrics against which to measure performance. Similarly, as future business process analysts, information systems students require goal setting and measurement competencies. Following an inductive process, goals set by students with no a-priori training in self-assessment were explored based on two questions: What goals do students set? And how do they assess these goals? The findings reveal that students make use of multiple goal types with goals of effort and understanding linked to higher performance. Furthermore, goals need not be explicitly stated nor defined prior to beginning a task to be effective. Higher performing students were better at self-assessment which was considered a function of goal setting and previous self-assessment experience. In addition, the findings reveal temporal aspects to goal setting with short-term goals providing better outcomes. Goal setting was shown to be entangled with types of goals transcending temporal levels. Additional entanglements were observed with goals providing motivation and increased self-efficacy but are in turn moderated by lack of motivation and low self-efficacy. Assemblage theory was applied to understand the emergent properties of the entanglements. From an assemblage perspective, goals, goal types, goal levels, self-assessment, motivation, and self-efficacy combine with the individual and their environment in diverse ways to form larger goals that can be replicated throughout a person's life. From a practice perspective, educators can design course interventions being cognizant of the impact of goal setting and self-assessment on student outcomes.
... Training and development can help employees take on variable job roles within teams and achieve enhanced levels of skill and self-efficacy. Recruitment and selection are complementary to training and help build a workforce committed to high performance goals (Locke 1996). Becker and Huselid (2006), elaborating earlier contributions, argued that for HRM to have a major positive impact, relevant work practices need to be bundled in a mutually supportive way. ...
A long-running debate in the small-firms’ literature questions the value of formal human resource management (HRM) practices, which have been linked to high performance in larger firms. The authors contribute to this literature by exploiting linked employer–employee surveys for 2004 and 2011. Using employees’ intrinsic job satisfaction and organizational commitment as motivational outcomes, the authors find the returns to small-firm investments in HRM are U-shaped. Small firms benefit from intrinsically motivating work situations in the absence of HRM practices and find this advantage disturbed when formal HRM practices are initially introduced. Firms can restore positive motivation when they invest intensively in HRM practices in a way that characterizes high performance work systems (HWPS). Although the HPWS effect on employee motivation is modified somewhat by the Great Recession, it remains robust and continues to have positive promise for small firms.
... (Hochanadel & Finamore, 2015). Without feedback, goals are less likely to be achieved, self-efficacy may decrease and hope can wane, as feedback is an important part of feeling progress towards achieving a goal and to perseverance (Locke, 1996). As purpose is a particular type of goal (Bronk, 2014), aided to develop in adolescence through social support (Damon, 2008), including opportunities for feedback in a purpose fostering intervention, is likely to have positive outcomes. ...
Purpose in life is positively correlated with psychological and physical wellbeing. It is also an important part of healthy identity formation in adolescence and is linked to academic success. However, purpose in adolescence is rare, with only one in five adolescents being able to identify their purpose in life (Damon, 2008). Moreover, purpose in life becomes less prevalent across the lifespan, leaving many people drifting and disengaged. The good news is, that research shows, it is possible to foster purpose and adolescence is an optimal time to do so. This paper reviews the research on purpose in adolescence, reviews existing interventions, and proposes a model for a new type of purpose intervention for adolescents.
... However, for implicit theories to influence an attempt to change behavior, we argue that one must also possess the initial motivation to change. Indeed, people are more likely to set goals for themselves if they believe that goal is important to them and can be attained (Locke, 1996). Therefore, simply holding an in- cremental mindset of behavior will not be sufficient for making a change attempt-motivation is also required to push people toward making a positive behavior change. ...
Despite the low rate of behavior change among those engaged in addictive behaviors, some people can and do initiate change. We propose that attempting to self-regulate addictive behavior is a function of motivation and the belief that behavior is malleable. Specifically, feeling self-discontinuous (i.e., feeling that addiction has fundamentally changed the self) should motivate change by inducing nostalgia for the pre-addicted self. Importantly, we expected that discontinuity-induced nostalgia would only be associated with an attempted change among those who believe that behavior is malleable (i.e., incremental theorists). To test this moderated-mediation model, we recruited a community sample of disordered gamblers (N=243) to assess self-reported change attempts over time. During the initial session, participants completed measures of self-discontinuity, nostalgia, and implicit theories of behavior. Three months later, participants (N=120) reported whether they attempted to change their gambling behavior, as well as the method and extent to which they sustained this change. As expected, discontinuity-induced nostalgia was positively associated with an increased likelihood of self-reporting a change attempt, but only when behavior was believed to be malleable, rather than fixed. As very few disordered gamblers take action, these findings suggest novel psychological processes to promote positive behavior change.
... Meaning captures a sense of belonging to and serving something larger than one's self (Martela & Steger, 2016;Seligman, 2011;Smith, 2017), and the ability to make sense of life's challenges (Frankl, 1963). Accomplishment speaks to the pursuit of achievement for its own sake (Seligman, 2011) and includes goal setting (Locke, 1996), perseverance (Duckworth, 2016), and mastery (Deci & Ryan, 2000). While the elements of wellbeing may be linked at times (a quality relationship may increase meaning and positive emotion, for example), the elements are each defined and measured independently (Seligman, 2011). ...
Research shows that organizations perform better when women are represented on senior leadership teams. Yet women are not rising to the highest ranks of leadership at equivalent rates as men. Gender stereotypes negatively influence women’s self-efficacy, the internal beliefs of what they are capable of. Women hold themselves back when they respond to these low self-efficacy beliefs, by not aspiring, not applying, not asking, and not acting. This paper explores current leadership gap data and the consequences of the disparity between men and women in leadership roles. Next, the paper describes how stereotypes can create the underlying problem: limiting internal beliefs. This paper proposes an evidence-based solution drawn from the field of positive psychology. A review of decades of research suggests that with increased career self-efficacy, women will be more likely to reach for, persist in, and succeed in senior leadership positions. The paper’s appendices describe four practical interventions that can be implemented by women and organizations designed to raise women’s career self-efficacy.
... While goals increase performance, all goals are not created equal. Locke (1996) explains that the more specific a goal, the more precisely performance can be monitored. Additionally, he shows that goals that are both specific and difficult lead to the highest levels of performance. ...
Supported by a situational analysis and review of positive psychological literature, this paper outlines an application plan to support GateWay Community College's 'experiential learning with a purpose' vision which focuses on infusing meaning into students' career development and learning. This vision was articulated by Kerry Sanderson, Director of Career Services, and Jessica Brosilo, Service Learning Center Coordinator, in the form of three guiding principles for our work: 1) accessing large student populations, 2) developing students' personal meaning and understanding of purpose through career goals, and 3) cultivating a broader view of success beyond career goals. Future-mindedness and self-efficacy emerged as key pillars in an integrative system for building meaning, along with the importance of persistence which surfaced through our discussions with Sanderson and Brosilo and our review of the Maricopa County Community College District and GateWay Community College's joint strategic direction on student support goals. Our application plan rests on these three pillars: future-mindedness, self-efficacy, and meaning-with persistence running as a key thread throughout. The plan resides on three key processes: 1) administering a foundational, future-oriented writing exercise for incoming students that also cultivates foundations for self-efficacy and goal setting; 2) administering a growth mindset, belonging and self-efficacy intervention focused on messaging and environmental for incoming students, and 3) ongoing programming for students that supports purpose and meaning as well as student persistence.
... According to Locke and Latham (1990), individual task performance is affected by goals because having goals leads individuals to do what is necessary to produce such performance. There are three main direct goal mechanisms: effort, persistence and direction; which are mainly motivational (Locke, 1996). Studies done demonstrate that athletes of all ages set goals to enhance their performances and goal-setting is a significant strategy to increase performance (Horn, 2008). ...
... Erez and Arad 1986), others find that it makes little difference (e.g. Locke 1996). In the context of global development, it is often thought that acceptance of an aim or a method of achieving it by stakeholders (frequently rendered by the term "ownership") is secured by "participation" (see e.g. ...
... Furthermore, avoiding switching be- tween domains or introducing new domain-related concepts can improve the atten- tion span due to reduction of extraneous cognitive load. On the other hand, these examples should have well-defined goals since (according to goal-setting theory ), learning performance can drop substantially as a function of the specificity and clarity of tasks. Such scenario can easily occur due to the integration of different scientific fields (i.e. ...
In the last decade, bioinformatics has become an indispensable branch of modern science research, experiencing an explosion in financial support, developed applications and data collection. The growth of the datasets that are emerging from research laboratories, industry, the health sector, etc., are increasingly raising the levels of demand in computing power and storage. Processing biological data, in the large scales of these datasets, often requires the use of High Performance Computing (HPC) resources, especially when dealing with certain types of omics data, such as genomic and metagenomic data. Such computational resources not only require substantial investments, but they also involve high maintenance costs. More importantly, in order to keep good returns from the investments, specific training needs to be put in place to ensure that wasting is minimized. Furthermore, given that bioinformatics is a highly interdisciplinary field where several other domains intersect (such as biology, chemistry, physics and computer science), researchers from these areas also require bioinformatics-specific training in HPC, in order to fully take advantage of supercomputing centers. In this document, we describe our experience in training researchers from several different disciplines in HPC, as applied to bioinformatics under the framework of the leading European bioinformatics platform ELIXIR, and analyze both the content and outcomes of the course.
... In other words, the learner should follow some steps, strategies and deadlines for actions. Locke (1996), who summarized all goal setting theories under 14 categories of findings within the relevant literature, stated that feedback showing progress in relation to the goal enhanced the effectiveness of goal setting. For learners to persist in their goals or to challenge themselves for harder goals, a kind of assessment, comment or criticism is needed. ...
This study examined the types of goals and action plans set
by Turkish EFL learners before they start writing an academic
essay. The perceptions related to their goal achievement and
the effects of personal goal-setting on attitudes of Turkish EFL
learners’ towards writing in English were also investigated.
Non-probability convenience sampling was used to choose
the sample of the study. In the one-group pretest-posttest
quasi-experimental design, 25 participants set their goals and
action plans on a goal form before they wrote their essays.
Then they were asked to reflect on their goal achievements
on the same forms after receiving teacher feedback. A
possible change in their attitudes towards writing in English
was also sought using Attitudes towards Writing in English
Questionnaire which was developed by the researcher. The
goal and action plans of the participants were analyzed using
a taxonomy of goals and taxonomy of actions. It was found
that the participants of the study tended to have language
goals mostly. In terms of actions taken to achieve their goals,
self-regulation or heuristic actions were chosen. There was
no statistically significant change in the attitudes of the
participants. However, a positive significant change was
seen in the sub-scale “Intrinsic motivation for EFL writing”.
The study showed that personal goal setting can be useful
to assist learners in EFL writing contexts when they are given
guidance about setting goals, taking actions to achieve their
goals and reflecting on their goal achievements.
... Goal-setting theory is derived from the proposition that conscious goals impact action. Conscious goals can be categorised into intentions, purposes, desired ends, or objectives, and performance standards and targets (Locke, 1996). Goal-setting theory posits that goal specificity (i.e. a goal must be specific and quantifiable to be able to offer progress feedback and to know when the goal is achieved) can motivate individuals to exert greater effort toward goal attainment and, therefore, to achieve better performance ( Locke and Latham, 2002). ...
Prior studies have reported relationships between both performance measurement system (PMS) and organisational culture (OC) with work performance (WP), but with separate investigations at individual levels. Drawing upon Ouchi’s Z and goal-setting theories, this study examined the interlinks between these three variables in a single unified model. The findings, following a Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis on a survey of 166 lecturers working in Iraqi public universities, demonstrate that PMS and OC individually have a significant and positive linkage with WP. However, the moderating effect of OC on PMS-WP relationship is significantly negative. This research offers extra empirical evidence to the literature on PMS and OC by extending existing conceptualisation in this area.
... The self-consequating strategy refers to rewarding oneself for per- sistence in an activity and may be associated with the behavioural theory of learning (Skinner, 1938), although, as pointed out by Wolters and Benzon (2013), the initiation of this strategy is autonomous and driven by volition. The proximal goal setting strat- egy consists of breaking a long-term goal into smaller subgoals which are more easily achieved and may be theoretically understood under the goal-setting theory (Locke, 1996). Finally, students also reported using the environmental control strategy ( Schwinger et al., 2007) which includes choosing beneficial physical arrangements of the working environment conducive to learning. ...
... Goals are consciously intended end-states of an action (Locke, 1996;Ryan, 1970) that guide human behavior (Higgins, 1997). Research on goal setting theory has consistently shown that setting difficult goals leads to higher performance for both individuals (Locke & Latham, 1990) and groups (Kleingeld, van Mierlo, & Arends, 2011). ...
The main purpose of any social movement organization is to achieve the goals of its followers. Little is known, however, about what type of goals disadvantaged group members strive to reach and which of those may motivate them to join a social movement organization. Using a door-to-door survey (N = 351), we investigated the mobilizing effects of goals among inhabitants of the North of the Netherlands that are adversely affected by gas-extraction induced earthquakes. We distinguished between collective (e.g., reduce gas extraction) versus individual goals (e.g., financial compensation), and outcome versus means goals (e.g., influence policy-makers). Moreover, we examined how perceptions of shared opinions with other affected citizens versus with people who are not negatively affected by gas extraction motivate the inhabitants to join a movement and attach importance to different goals. Our results indicate the existence of two pathways for potential mobilization: the first one through the perceptions of shared grievances, which can motivate people to join the movement and pursue collective solutions; and a second one through the perceptions of deprivation, which can motivate people to exert influence on power holders by joining a movement. Individual outcome goals were important but did not motivate disadvantaged citizens to join a social movement organization. We discuss the role of goals as a link between individual level and meso level factors for movement mobilization and collective action.
... Further, research on role clarity shows it contributes to higher performance in various ways, including by clarifying responsibilities, establishing standards of behavior, reducing stress, and minimizing conflict (Jackson and Schuler 1985;Tubre and Collins 2000). Relatedly, studies of goal setting and goal ambiguity indicate that clarifying goals and expectations increases employee effort and directs it toward desired aims (Chun and Rainey 2005;Locke 1996;Moynihan and Pandey 2004). In a related vein, leadership research suggests that a leader's efforts to gain the trust and respect of followers are critical for performance. ...
Researchers have long recognized administrative reform as a constant feature of American public administration. The employee engagement initiative of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) has become one of the most prominent administrative reforms underway in the federal government. Like many reforms, the veracity of claims about this reform have gone untested. This article addresses this gap by testing the relationship between the OPM's employee engagement initiative and agency performance. After establishing the psychometric validity of the OPM's Employment Engagement Index, the authors use a five‐year panel data set of federal agencies and two‐way fixed‐effects regression to test the efficacy of this prominent reform. The analysis shows that efforts to encourage employee engagement generally have the expected relationship with performance, but the relationship varies according to the components that make up the index and the organizational level at which these efforts are expended.
... The idea requires visualizing what the desired end is in order to create an action to achieve it . This concept is based on the goal-setting theory, and is in line with the philosophy of Aristotle . Locke (1981) stated that an individual's voluntary and leading intervention in goal setting plays an important role in order to make a significant difference in performance according to goal setting. ...
The purpose of this study is to reveal the effect of personal value as a part of creating shared value (CSV). We extracted factors of personal value through a literature review. Personal value consists of social commitment, self-actualization, goal setting, and solidarity. Self-actualization is the universal motivation of the individual, goal setting is the basis for the occurrence of action, and solidarity is the relationship factor that defends competition and personalization. This study was conducted on three hypotheses. Hypothesis 1 is that self-actualization will have an effect on CSV. Hypothesis 2 is that goal setting will have an effect on CSV. Hypothesis 3 is that solidarity will have an effect on CSV. The proxy of CSV is social commitment. We examine the effects of these personal values on CSV by surveying 557 university students. This study applied the regression model to test the hypotheses. The empirical results are as follows. CSV increases when we are more self-actualized. Goal setting positively affects CSV. CSV goes up as we have many relationships with organizations and are more cooperative in work. This study suggests the important elements of personal values in a university setting for CSV, and enables setting the direction of the education by setting the index of the attitude to increase the value of the individual in CSV.
... In addition, there is evidence to suggest that performance improvement through marginal gains (i.e. the cumulative improvement of many small, detailed goals) only works in those who have sound comprehension of the fundamentals in their field to start with, and that the higher the specificity of a goal (as in the marginal gains theory), the higher the performance level required of the individuals executing the task. Thus, in our study population, it is possible that subjects were too inexperienced in neurology to benefit from gaining knowledge in marginal-gain-based goal setting, and instead would benefit more from understanding basic neurology principles at this stage, where improvements can be made globally rather than limited to predefined, narrow areas [12,13]. It is also possible that goals set were too broad for subjects to notice tangible differences to performance when they tried to improve them , thus affecting students' 'self-reaction' and thus continued commitment to use the software . ...
... The goal setting theory explained by Locke (1996) tries to explain people's motivation; it explains that it is an action caused by a purpose, which is established by the person and has various degrees of complexity. Goals have both internal and external aspects. ...
This study departed from the idea that all people, including those hardest hit by adversity, have strengths and resiliencies. It posed the question on how a particularly vulnerable group, Central American migrant women in irregular transit through Mexico, used their strengths and resilience to reach the border with the USA. Past research has failed to address the issue of strengths and resilience in Central American migrant women, instead, much attention has been placed on the risks and vulnerabilities of this group. This research started from the strengths perspective and resilience theories to address the issue of skills and abilities of migrant women in transit through Mexico. Specifically, it was about discovering the women’s strengths, knowing how they used them to face and overcome the adversities of the journey and how they made sense of them. For this purpose, 10 narrative interviews were conducted in the Mexican border city of Tijuana, and microethnographic work was done with these women. The results of this research indicated that these migrant women are possessors of internal and external strengths; the first is related to their religious beliefs, courage, endurance and goal setting and the second with the support received from people, institutions, and their families. It was concluded that thanks to the combination of all these strengths, these women were able to successfully reach the border with the USA.
... When one talks about motivation in working places, it reflects the idea of liking to fulfill ones job or contribute to the attainment of organizational goals and objectives (Locke, 1996). However, clarity is needed when one talks about motivation in the working places since there is a suggested hierarchy of motivating forces which are dynamic and interdependent. ...
Visual performance management (VPM) is a bundle of practices where visual techniques are used to offer timely information to shop-floor employees about the performance of processes. We investigate whether VPM contributes to the beneficial effects of Lean, and if so, what the relationship is between VPM and other Lean practices. Thus, the study builds on and adds to the stream of research that tries to establish how the various practices associated with Lean depend on and reinforce each other. Based on the outcomes of a survey, we establish that VPM is positively related with operations improvement. This effect is not direct, but mediated by Lean practices such as just-in-time and quality management. We conclude, therefore, that VPM should be seen as an infrastructural practice that reinforces an organisation’s general fitness, and acting as an enabler for more dedicated Lean practices. In addition, we find that VPM positively moderates the effects of Lean practices, which supports the same conclusion.
Positive Computing literature does not consider the complex implications stemming from the evidence of computing technologies’ harmful effects. Moreover, present approaches to integrating well-being science into the design of interactive systems are built on deficit-oriented models. In response, a transversal, social constructionist paradigm of Positive Computing sensitive to the social complex and views technology as a part ofcivilization as a living, human construction is explored as a means of advancing the Positive Computing domain. The work argues the well-being of civilization needs to be routinely re-secured through the development of a metacognitive, affirmative competency that recognizessocial systems as capable of creating their own realities. To effectuate the change, adoption of an integral awareness of the socio-technical complex and a new, positively oriented model of design for interactive computing technologies are proposed.
Der Beitrag diskutiert Kontroversen über das Ziel-Konzept im Coaching, stellt Zieldefinitionen vor und vielfältige Facetten aus einem großen Wissensfundus wissenschaftlicher Arbeiten über Ziele und Zielsetzung. Behandelt werden die Zielsetzungs- und Selbstbestimmungstheorie sowie proximale und distale Ergebnisziele, Leistungs- und Lernziele, Vermeidungs- und Annäherungsziele, konfligierende Ziele, Zielvernachlässigung und unbewusste Ziele. Die Faktoren werden in einem integrativen Modell zusammengefasst, das Coaches als praktische Orientierung dienen kann. Ergebnisse einer empirischen Studie zeigen, dass der Zielerreichungsgrad mit einem zielorientierten Coachingstil zusammenhängt.
The aim of this chapter is to determine the effects of perceived role, career, goal, and performance uncertainty on employee task and contextual performance. The research model was constructed around four independent variables (role, career, goal, and performance uncertainty) and two dependent variables (task and contextual performance). Cronbach alphas for each survey were over 0.85. To determine the validity level of the surveys, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted and found that all surveys are between acceptable limits of goodness of fit index. Two hundred thirty-nine employees responded to the surveys. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to create indices for uncertainty perception. PCA shows that the employees included in the study generally were in role, goal, career, and performance uncertainty. The results indicate that there is a statistically significant effect of role and goal uncertainty on employee task performance. The other main result is that there is a statistically significant effect of role and performance uncertainty on the employees' contextual performance.
A model is presented to reconcile the management of software development and organizational management through the relationship of factors associated with production in software factories and administrative factors, aligning operational metrics with the strategic objectives of the factories. Other authors have proposed models such as the Integrated Maturity Capability (CMMI), the Personal Software Processes (PSP), or the Software for Equipment (TSP), to support the continuous improvement of software factories. In parallel, the organizational management has consolidated the missionary development of companies in different sectors, through the exercise of strategic planning and its deployment. The proposal presented in this article provides a tool, complementary to those that serve as support for the development and deployment of strategic planning for the convenience of executives of software factories. The result of this proposal was validated in four software factories with different levels of maturity.
Selbstreguliertes Lernen spielt eine fundamentale Rolle für das Meistern der Aufgaben und Herausforderungen, welchen sich Studierende alltäglich gegenüber-sehen. Für zielgerichtetes und erfolgreiches selbstreguliertes Lernen sind Kompetenzen im Bereich der Metakognition und der Motivation von großer Bedeutung. Ziel der vorliegenden Dissertation war es, ein Instrumentarium zu entwickeln, um solche Kompetenzen im Bereich der Motivation und motivations-/ volitionsbezogenen Metakognition erfassen, verstehen und fördern zu können. Einführend wird zunächst die Bedeutung von Motivation für Lern- und Leistungsverhalten im Studium näher erläutert. Anschließend wird das Modell motivationsbezogener Kompetenzen von Spinath (2005) als Grundlage dieser Dissertation vorgestellt. In den darauf folgenden Kapiteln werden drei empirische Studien vorgestellt: Um motivationsbezogene Kompetenzen messen zu können, wurde in Studie 1 ein Instrument zur Erfassung solcher Kompetenzen entwickelt und validiert. In Studie 2 wurden Zusammenhänge motivationsbezogener Kompetenzen zu Fortschrittsempfinden und Motivation für folgende Handlungen näher untersucht. Im Rahmen von Studie 3 wurde ein Training zur Förderung motivationsbezogener Kompetenzen entwickelt und evaluiert. Die Befunde werden abschließend zusammenfassend kritisch diskutiert und es werden theoretische und praktische Implikationen abgeleitet. Es wird geschlossen, dass das entwickelte Instrumentarium ermöglicht, motivationsbezogene Kompetenzen reliabel und valide zu erfassen, zu verstehen und zu fördern. Langfristig soll die Förderung motivationsbezogener Kompetenzen zu einer Maximierung der Motivation und Leistung von Studierenden und dadurch auch zu einer Minderung weiterführender negativer Konsequenzen (wie z. B. Studienabbruch) führen.
If coaching is to continue to grow and develop, if we as coaches are to deliver coaching and coaching methodologies that are genuinely effective for our clients, then we need to be au fait with the coaching literature and the body of research that informs effective coaching practice. In short, we need to engage in evidence-based coaching. Not only does such an approach allow us to work in an ethical and professional manner, steering clear of the all-too-frequent fads and foibles evident throughout sections of the coaching and self-development industry, but it helps us as coaches develop on a personal level. By questioning our assumptions, by engaging in constructive and informed self-reflection about our coaching practice, we become more mature, balanced and purposeful professionals. However, this can feel extremely challenging for those new to evidence-based approaches to coaching. This article aims to provide the reader with basic foundational information about the state of play in coaching research and evidence-based practice along with a simple but very useful framework for evaluating the utility of coaching literature. The article concludes with some tips for staying abreast of emerging coaching research.
Research exploring feedback in the form of workplace performance appraisals or in educational contexts, is common. However, there is a dearth of research to inform evidence-based practice in every-day positive feedback. In the current study, 289 employed adults reported on their managers’ positive feedback, the feedback-seeking culture, and rated their own task performance. Findings suggest that managerial positive feedback, but not feedback-seeking culture, meaningfully predicts task performance. Furthermore, the relationship between positive feedback and task performance is partially moderated by the feedback-seeking culture. The current study further contextualises our understanding of workplace positive feedback and draws recommendations for managerial practice surrounding congruency between culture and practice.
This chapter explores the fifth and final element of Seligman’s (Flourish: A visionary new understanding of happiness and well-being, Free Press, New York, NY, 2011) well-being theory and his PERMA model. The “A” represents accomplishment. It is the natural desire of the servant leader to serve, to enable followers to experience well-being, and to become servant leaders themselves (Greenleaf in The servant as leader, Center for Applied Studies, Cambridge, MA, 1970). Servant leadership is unique from other leadership approaches because of its focus on need satisfaction of followers as an end in itself. Barbuto and Wheeler (Group and Organization Management, 31: 300–326, 2006) stated that the hype around servant leadership may be warranted as their findings support the idea that servant leadership leads to accomplishment and attaining results. Servant leadership focus on the process is equally important in athletics. Servant leaders are more focused on training and instruction than non-servant leaders. Many leaders tend to rely on styles that are focused on outcomes first and foremost. They lead, influence, and motivate in ways that they believe will lead to winning, often foregoing concern for the needs and aspirations of their followers (DeSensi in Intercollegiate Sport, 7(1): 58–63, 2014). Coaches who displayed servant leadership behaviors had athletes that enjoyed the experience more than those that played for non-servant leadership coaches and teams that won more games (Rieke et al. in International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 3(2): 227–239, 2008).
Arthritis reduces mobility and functional independence due to inflammation and stiffness in joints. A physically active lifestyle consisting of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and non-sedentary hours helps in improving pain and mobility in arthritis patients. Physiotherapists recommend an appropriate amount of physical activity to patients so that the patients can maintain a physically active lifestyle without further hurting the joints. However, meeting the goals set by a physiotherapist becomes hard when the patient experiences a flare in the symptoms. When the symptoms flare, clinicians can help the patients in adjusting their goals. However, a meeting with a physiotherapist is not always possible. E-coaching solutions provide an opportunity to provide immediate feedback to the patients. Receiving immediate feedback is useful for patients in performing an adequate amount of physical activity without hurting the joints. We developed and studied a web application to support the clinician-guided physical activity among arthritis patients. In this paper, we discuss the implications of the study for future automated e-coaching solutions designed to support physical activity among arthritis patients.
This chapter examines the relationship between collaboration and learning. Next, attention will be turned to how collaboration was transitioned from the classroom to the online environment, as e-collaboration. The case will be made that e-collaboration has provided solutions to at least four major areas of concern in e-learning: providing sufficient interaction for the learner, creating instructor and peer telepresence for learners, stimulating learning motivation online, and providing a vehicle to deliver authentic learning tasks and activities online. E-collaboration provides richer and more human interactions. E-collaboration provides the kind of telepresence that learners seek. E-collaboration can influence learning motivation. Finally, e-collaboration has made it possible to create authentic learning tasks, projects, and activities online. Additionally, many online collaborative tools, various platforms that can support e-collaboration, instructor techniques, and illustrative examples or stories will be shared.
This chapter presents an account of the ongoing development of a vocabulary learning resource, VocPAL (Vocabulary: Progressive Autonomous Learning), for French learners of English in a university context. The chapter describes the background to the resource, its theoretical underpinnings, and its presentation features. These include pictures, sound, an association test, and context sentences forming a story. A questionnaire was administered to college students (N = 115) to assess reactions to VocPAL in an online learning environment. Further insights were gained from interviews with users of the resource. Both questionnaire and interview data suggest that, while the resource is judged favourably overall, improvements can be made to make the story more appealing and to add more interactivity. Results are discussed in terms of future development options, limitations to the study, and some broader issues regarding computer-assisted vocabulary learning.
Used 91 sales representatives to test a process model that assessed the relationship of conscientiousness to job performance through mediating motivational (goal-setting) variables. Linear structural equation modeling showed that sales representatives high in conscientiousness are more likely to set goals and are more likely to be committed to goals, which in turn is associated with greater sales volume and higher supervisory ratings of job performance. Results also showed that conscientiousness is directly related to supervisory ratings. Consistent with previous research, results showed that ability was also related to supervisory ratings of job performance and, to a lesser extent, sales volume. Contrary to expectations, 1 other personality construct, extraversion, was not related to sales volume or to supervisory ratings of job performance. Implications and future research needs are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The authors used 91 sales representatives to test a process model that assessed the relationship of conscientiousness to job performance through mediating motivational (goal-setting) variables. Linear structural equation modeling showed that sales representatives high in conscientiousness are more likely to set goals and are more likely to be committed to goals, which in turn is associated with greater sales volume and higher supervisory ratings of job performance. Results also showed that conscientiousness is directly related to supervisory ratings. Consistent with previous research, results showed that ability was also related to supervisory ratings of job performance and, to a lesser extent, sales volume. Contrary to expectations, 1 other personality construct, extraversion, was not related to sales volume or to supervisory ratings of job performance. Implications and future research needs are discussed.
Training in self-management was given to 20 unionized state government employees to increase their attendance at the work site. Analyses of variance revealed that compared to a control condition (n = 20), training in self-regulatory skills taught employees how to manage personal and social obstacles to job attendance, and it raised their perceived self-efficacy that they could exercise influence over their behavior. Consequently, employee attendance was significantly higher in the training than in the control group. The higher the perceived self-efficacy, the better the subsequent job attendance. These data were significant at the .05 level.
Eight experiments were conducted to explore the relationships between goal level, valence, and instrumentality. Valence, measured in terms of anticipated satisfaction across a range of performance levels, was strongly but negatively related to goal level. This finding was explained by showing that low goals entail using less stringent standards for self-evaluation than do high goals. Instrumentality was positively associated with goal level. Subjects believed that trying for hard goals would be more likely to give them a sense of achievement, develop their skills, and prove them competent than would trying for easy goals. Subjects also believed that high goals would lead to more practical (job and life) benefits, as well as more pride and self-respect, than would low goals.
This study was designed to replicate conceptually and to explain the goal-level vs. incentive-type interaction reported by Mowen, Middlemist, and Luther (1981) based on goal setting and social cognitive theories. Mowen et al. found that subjects performed more poorly with hard goals than medium goals under a bonus pay system, the opposite of what was found for a piece-rate system. In the present study, an hourly pay condition was added. Mowen et al.'s interaction was replicated using a two-trial design in which subjects could obtain feedback about their ability to attain the incentive bonuses between trials. The experimental effects were completely mediated by personal goals and self-efficacy. Goal commitment was related to performance, but did not mediate the experimental conditions. The implications for the design of incentive systems are discussed.
Two studies are reported on an aspect of goal setting that has not been explicitly researched to date, namely, intra-individual goal conflict. The first study utilized an experimental, laboratory design using student teams in which conflicting goals (quantity vs. quality) were assigned. The second study was a correlational, field study of college professors which measured conflict between teaching and research. In both studies conflict was negatively related to at least one performance outcome. This negative association was not mediated by goal commitment, goal priority, goal level or task strategies in either study. In both cases, the main source of the conflict was pressure.
This paper summarizes and integrates research concerned with a long-neglected topic in psychology: the relationship between conscious goals and intentions and task performance. The basic promise of this research is that an individual's conscious ideas regulate his actions. Studies are cited demonstrating that: (1) hard goals produce a higher level of performance (output) than easy goals; (2) specific hard goals produce a higher level of output than a goal of “do your best”; and (3) behavioral intentions regulate choice behavior. The theory also views goals and intentions as mediators of the effects of incentives on task performance. Evidence is presented supporting the view that monetary incentives, time limits, and knowledge of results do not affect performance level independently of the individual's goals and intentions. A theoretical analysis supports the same view with respect to three other incentives: participation, competition, and praise and reproof. Finally, behavioral intentions were found to mediate the effects of money and “verbal reinforcement” on choice behavior. It is concluded that any adequate theory of task motivation must take account of the individual's conscious goals and intentions. The applied implications of the theory are discussed.
Previous experimental studies of participation have typically examined its motivational (especially commitment) benefits. These studies showed that these benefits are neither large nor consistent. The present study focused on the cognitive benefits of participation in decision making (pdm) and on the role of a different motivational mediator, self-efficacy. Unlike previous research which claimed to study the cognitive (informational) effects of participation, the present experiment: (a) allowed the information concerning task strategies to emerge from group discussion rather than being manipulated by the experimenter; (b) measured the actual strategies that were developed and used by subjects in the pdm condition; and (c) measured self-efficacy which was associated with the discovery and use of these strategies. It was found that the strategies developed by the subjects and their self-efficacy completely mediated the effect of participation on performance. Further, participation in setting goals, consistent with previous studies, did not affect performance but did affect self-efficacy.
On the basis of 7 charismatic and transformational leadership theories, 3 core components (vision, vision implementation through task cues, and communication style) were identified. A laboratory simulation manipulated the 3 components in a completely crossed experimental design, where 2 trained actors portrayed the leader. Participants were 282 students in upper level business classes who performed a simulated production task. The vision of high quality weakly affected performance quality but significantly affected many attitudes. Vision implementation, in the form of task cues, affected performance quality and quantity. Charismatic communication style affected only the perception of charisma. Mediation was not found; rather, an exploratory path analysis found a 2-part causal sequence, where the vision of quality and vision implementation each affected self-set goals and self-efficacy, which, in turn, affected performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
In this monograph we describe a unique method for resolving scientific disputes: the joint design of crucial experiments by the antagonists themselves with the help of a mediator. This method was applied to the issue of the effect of participation on goal commitment and performance. In research on this topic, Latham and his colleagues had obtained markedly different results from those obtained by Erez and her colleagues. With Locke serving as a third party mediator, Latham and Erez designed four experiments to resolve the discrepancies. The experiments were conducted at the University of Washington and the University of Maryland. The results revealed that the major reason for the difference was that Erez gave very brief
tell instructions to her assigned goal subjects, whereas Latham used a
tell and sell approach. Four additional factors also contributed to the earlier difference in findings: goal difficulty, setting personal goals before goal treatments were introduced, self-efficacy-inducing instructions, and instructions to reject disliked goals. It was concluded that (a) the differences between Latham and Erez can be explained on the basis of differences in specific procedures, and (b) the method used to resolve this dispute should be used by other investigators. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Intentional behavior Knowledge as a determinant of the effects of participation on performance and attitudes. Organizational Behavior & Human Decision Pro-cesses
T A Ryan
E A Locke
Ryan, T. A. (1970). Intentional behavior. New York: Ronald Press Scully, J., Kirkpatrick, S., & Locke, E. A. (1995). Knowledge as a determinant of the effects of participation on performance and attitudes. Organizational Behavior & Human Decision Pro-cesses, 61,276-288.
In 1956 AT&T decided to undertake a study of managerial lives unparalleled in its comprehensiveness and duration. This ambitious and unique research was not limited to studying the participants as managers, but examined the totality of their adult lives. In time, a second study was designed that addressed the abilities and motivations of a new generation of managers.
This parallel longitudinal study provided another group, separated by twenty years from the subjects of the first study, so that individual development could be distinguished from societal change. This book is an account and evaluation of AT&T's monumental thirty years of research written by the studies' current director and her predecessor.
As comprehensive and ambitious as the studies with which it is concerned, "Managerial Lives in Transition" includes social and cultural analyses as well as substantial statistical data. The authors examine the impact of recent history on management, from the dominance of white males to the emergence of women, and the growing representation of racial and ethnic minorities.
Concerned with issues such as the nature of management potential, the course of adult life, and the young managers of today, this book will be of interest to psychologists, business readers, human resource managers, and students of corporate culture. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Comments on the book by K. A. Ericsson and H. A. Simon (see record
1980-24435-001) concerning verbal reports as data. The current status of verbal report methodologies in psychological research, and improvements in the methods for collecting and interpreting verbal report data, are discussed. The use of concurrent and retrospective verbal report procedures in conjunction with improved collecting and encoding procedures will continue to yield important data for improving psychological models. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Determined the long-term effects of self-management training given to 20 unionized state government employees to increase their job attendance in a 6-month follow-up study. A repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that enhanced self-efficacy and increased job attendance were effectively maintained over time. Perceived self-efficacy at the end of training predicted subsequent job attendance. The control group (
n = 20) was then given the same training in self-management by a different trainer. Three months later, this group showed the same positive improvement as the original training group with regard to increased self-efficacy and job attendance. These findings lend support to a self-efficacy based theory of job attendance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Whether you're a manager, company psychologist, quality control specialist, or involved with motivating people to work harder in any capacity—Locke and Latham's guide will hand you the keen insight and practical advice you need to reach even your toughest cases. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Investigated the effects of goal setting, self-efficacy, competition, and personality on the performance of a sit-up task. Prior to testing, Ss were administered the Sport Orientation Questionnaire (SOQ). 60 participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: competition, medium goal; competition, high goal; no competition, medium goal; and no competition, high goal. A 5th group from the same population was added and served as the do-best comparison group. The main effect of goal level was borderline significant, and this effect was fully mediated by personal goal level and self-efficacy. Both the medium and hard goal groups significantly outperformed the do-best group. Competition did not affect performance, personal goals, commitment, or self-efficacy. The SOQ was significantly related to performance, but its effects were fully mediated by personal goals and self-efficacy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Training in self-management was given to 20 unionized state government employees to increase their attendance at the work site. Analyses of variance revealed that compared to a control condition (
n = 20), training in self-regulatory skills taught employees how to manage personal and social obstacles to job attendance, and it raised their perceived self-efficacy that they could exercise influence over their behavior. Consequently, employee attendance was significantly higher in the training than in the control group. The higher the perceived self-efficacy, the better the subsequent job attendance. These data were significant at the .05 level. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This study contrasted goal setting and self-management training designs for their effectiveness in facilitating transfer of training to a novel task. Behavioral measures of performance were used to assess transfer in terms of skill generalization, skill repetition and overall performance level. Skill generalization was more limited among the goal-setting trainees as compared to the self-management trainees. While goal-setting trainees generalized fewer skills to the novel task context, these skills tended to be used more repeatedly. In contrast, self-management trainees exhibited higher rates of skill generalization and higher overall performance levels on the transfer task, even after the effects of outcome goal level were controlled. Implications are discussed for future research on training transfer.
Control theory has been propounded as an original and useful paradigm for integrating a number of theories of human (especially work) motivation. This paper challenges that claim. First, it is shown that the original, mechanical control theory model is not applicable to human beings. Second, it is shown that the two approaches used by control theorists to remedy its limitations did not succeed. One approach involved incorporating propositions drawn from other theories with the result that there was nothing distinctive left that was unique to control theory. The other approach involved broadening the scope of control theory by adding deduced propositions; however, these propositions were inconsistent with what was already known about the phenomena in question based on empirical research. The control theory approach to theory building is contrasted with that of goal setting theory (Locke & Latham, 1990). Goal-setting theory is a grounded theory (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) which evolved from research findings over a 25-year period. Goal theory developed in five directions simultaneously: validation of the core premises; demonstrations of generality; identification of moderators; conceptual refinement and elaboration; and integration with other theories. It is hypothesized that the grounded theory approach is a more fruitful one than the approaches used by control theory.
The present experiment tested the hypothesis that self-regulation of refractory behavior varies as a function of goal proximity. Obese subjects were assigned to conditions in which they either monitored their eating behavior, monitored their eating behavior and set subgoals for reducing the amount of food consumed, or received no treatment. Within the goal-setting conditions, subjects adopted either distal goals defined in terms of weekly goal limits or proximal goals specifying the goal limits for each of four time periods during each day. Goal setting enhanced self-directed change as measured by reductions in both eating behavior and weight. The higher the goal attainments, the greater were the losses in weight. Proximal and distal goal setting yielded comparable overall results because the majority of subjects assigned remote goals altered this condition by adopting proximal goals to augment control over their own behavior. Within the distal goal-setting condition, the adherents to distal goals achieved relatively small changes, whereas those who improvised proximal subgoals for themselves attained substantial reductions on the multifaceted measures of self-directed change. The combined evidence lends support to the motivational and regulative functions of proximal intentions and highlights the reciprocal influence processes that operate in self-directed change.
This study investigated the relationship between Type A behavior and the research productivity of university faculty. The research also examined the roles played by various Type A subfactors (job involvement, competitiveness, and impatience) and by three hypothesized intervening variables (self-efficacy, performance goals, and working on multiple projects) in the Type A—productivity relationship. Results showed a direct relationship between Type A behavior and both quantity and quality indices of faculty research productivity. Findings also supported self-efficacy, goals, and working on multiple projects as variables intervening between the display of Type A behavior and performance. Job involvement was found to be the only Type A subfactor related to productivity.
Living organisms exhibit various levels of self-regulation, the highest of which is man's ability to regulate the operation of his conceptual faculty. Ayn Rand's theory of free will, the basis of this article, identifies this level of self-regulation with volition. The locus of direct volitional choice is placed in the choice “to think or not to think,” where thinking is understood as rational, purposefully directed cognition. The nature of this choice is analyzed in detail, with special emphasis on Rand's concept of mental “focus.” The epistemological status of the theory is discussed, including the role of introspective evidence in its behalf. It is argued that one's volitional control over one's own thinking has the status of an axiom, and that any attempted denial of this control is self-refuting.
Examines the motivation for achievement as a psychological factor that shapes economic development. Refuting arguments based on race, climate, or population growth, the book instead argues for cultural customs and motivations - especially the motivation for achievement - as the major catalysts of economic growth. Considering the Protestant Reformation, the rise of capitalism, parents' influences on sons, and folklore and children's stories as shaping cultural motivations for achievement, the book hypothesizes that a high level of achievement motivation precedes economic growth. This is supported through qualitative analysis of the achievement motive, as well as of other psychological factors - including entrepreneurial behavior and characteristics, and available sources of achievement in past and present highly achieving societies. It is the achievement motive - and not merely the profit motive or the desire for material gain - that has advanced societies economically. Consequently, individuals are not merely products of their environment, as many social scientists have asserted, but also creators of the environment, as they manipulate it in various ways in the search for achievement. Finally, a plan is hypothesized to accelerate economic growth in developing countries, by encouraging and supplementing their achievement motives through mobilizing the greater achievement resources of developed countries. The conclusion is not just that motivations shape economic progress, but that current influences on future people's motivations and values will determine economic growth in the long run. Thus, it is most beneficial for a society to concentrate its resources on creating an environment conducive to entrepreneurship and a strong ideological base for achievement. (CJC)
3 laboratory experiments are reported which stem from Ryan's approach to motivation. The fundamental unit is the "intention." The experiments examined the relationship between intended level of achievement and actual level of performance. A significant linear relationship was obtained in all 3 experiments; the higher the level of intention, the higher the level of performance. The findings held both between and within Ss and across different tasks. The implications for the explanation of behavior are discussed. (19 ref.)
This essay argues: (1) that the fundamental conflict between the behaviorist and cognitive approaches to psychology are philosophical, not scientific; (2) that the philosophical premises underlying behaviorism (materialism, epiphenomenalism, functional model of causality, and the rejection of concepts referring to conscious states and processes) are false; and (3) that an objective, scientific approach to psychology must take consciousness and volition as axiomatic starting points.
Participation has been a concern of both theorists and practitioners for many decades, but sophisticated analyses of the literature have been inconclusive with respect to its performance and affective benefits (Wagner & Gooding, 1987). The present study used an experimental design to test the hypothesis that the effectiveness of participation in promoting high performance would depend upon the locus of knowledge. Thus, high performance would result if (a) there was no participation and the supervisor had correct information, and if (b) there was participation and at least one party had correct information and neither had incorrect (i.e., conflicting) information. Lower performance would result under other conditions. We also tested the hypothesis that supervisors and subordinates under participation would have more positive affect than those who did not. These hypotheses were supported in a 2 × 3 × 3 experiment varying participation (Participation and No Participation), supervisor information (Correct, Incorrect, and No Information), and subordinate information (Correct, Incorrect, and No Information). Both supervisors and subordinates reported more positive affect and perceptions under Participation (versus No Participation) regardless of their degree of correct knowledge.
In order to investigate what makes people feel closer to making a change decision, female undergraduates were asked to employ mental exercises on two unresolved personal problems, one being easy to implement (e.g., subscribing to a newspaper) and one being difficult to implement (e.g., breaking up with a boyfriend). In an exhaustive predecisional exercise subjects deliberated on the expectancies and values of making a change decision. Two less exhaustive predecisional exercises required that subjects imagine enjoying the incentives of having made a change decision either in a realistic or fantasy-like manner. In an exhaustive postdecisional exercise subjects had to come up with a plan on how to implement the decision not yet made and were to imagine themselves executing it. Two less exhaustive postdecisional exercises required subjects either to imagine the execution of one single implemental action, or to deliberate solely on various possible action steps. Both the exhaustive pre- and postdecisional exercises were found to be more effective in increasing subjects' perceived proximity to the act of a change decision than the respective nonexhaustive exercises. This effect was not less pronounced for difficult-to-implement problems than for easy-to-implement problems. In both exhaustive cases, the facilitative effect was not mediated by increases in outcome value or outcome expectancy. For the exhaustive postdecisional exercise, however, the effect was mediated by the formation of implemental intents. Results are interpreted in terms of a phase model of action which conceives of decisions as volitional acts that propel the individual from a deliberative state of mind (weighing) to an implemental state of mind (willing).