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The new Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, is a wide-ranging international agreement to address the crime of trafficking in persons, especially women and children, on a transnational level. It creates a global language and legislation to define trafficking in persons, especially women and children; assist victims of trafficking; and prevent trafficking in persons. The trafficking in persons protocol also establishes parameters of judicial cooperation and exchanges of information among countries. Although the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children anticipates accomplishing what national legislation cannot do on its own, it is also intended to jumpstart national laws and to harmonize regional legislation against the trafficking in women and children.This article summarizes the key points of the new trafficking in persons protocol, the debate over the definition of trafficking, which was the most contentious part of the Protocol, how the Protocol is being interpreted, and its implications for regional and national policy against human trafficking. The article also addresses the connections between prostitution and trafficking for sexual exploitation, arguments of those who would dispute these connections, and policy and legislative trends in countries that are seeking to legalize/regulate prostitution as “sex work.”
... In addition, and following considerable debate during the finalization of the definition, the Protocol does not pronounce specifically on the issue of prostitution to which trafficking has traditionally been linked, and instead it has sought to encompass all non-consensual, economicexploitative slavery like conditions and relations of work and life at any stage in the migration process (Pearson, 2004). The Palermo Protocol identifies exploitation as the key actionable element; however it leaves nation states to deal with the definition of sexual exploitation and the legality of prostitution (Doezema, 1998;Raymond, 2002;Saunders, 2005). A further limitation is that while the Protocol's definition has been used as a reference point for a range of exploitation related to movement within the country, the issues that trigger and are triggered by such movement for instance economic need, have not been adequately addressed by it. ...
... The definition of human trafficking of the UNODC additional 'Trafficking Protocol' was the outcome of mainly informal and ideological battles led by two coalitions: one defending migrants' and sex workers' rights (GAATW), and the other anti-prostitution abolitionists (CATW) backed by statutory agendas of borders' protection (Doezema, 2010, p. 114). The ideological influence on the Protocol has had relevant consequences on how it has been implemented via governmental policies and non-governmental activities (Ditmore, 2012;Doezema, 2002Doezema, , 2005Raymond, 2002;Saunders, 2005;Sullivan, 2003). The final version of the Protocol was substantially a compromise reached by allowing the definition of human trafficking to be ambiguous enough to accept opposite interpretations, in particular regarding prostitution and the exact meaning to be attributed to 'sexual exploitation', 'abuse of power' and 'position of vulnerability' (Chuang, 2006a;Doezema, 2010, pp. ...
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During the past sixteen years, since the ‘Trafficking Protocol’ entered into force in 2003, a dramatic escalation of research, writing, debating, and practice in the realm of human trafficking and modern slavery has occurred. While human trafficking and modern slavery belong to two distinct genealogies (Allain, 2018; Lazzarino, 2015; O’Connell Davidson, 2017), they are nonetheless frequently used as synonyms to refer to an ample array of conditions of human-to-human exploitation and dependency. Significantly, around these two terminologies, complex local, national, and international apparatuses have evolved. These apparatuses - devoted to identifying, preventing, and ultimately eliminating exploitation - involve experts, stakeholders, and social actors. As a re-elaboration and reflection on the contributions to an international symposium on human trafficking , this article makes two consecutive steps in modern slavery studies. The first step is a snapshot compilation of the complexity of problems involved in the discourse of human trafficking and modern slavery. I concentrate this discourse under two pillars, disjuncture and drift, which offer images of the often detrimental effects, as well as the equally negative “ineffectiveness” (Bravo, 2017), of many anti-slavery apparatuses. Secondly, this article envisions a walkable avenue for a decolonization of the discourse of human trafficking and modern slavery inasmuch as this discourse has been monopolized by the center (referring to a few powerful countries of the global north). Journal Name: JOURNAL OF MODERN SLAVERY A Multidisciplinary Exploration of Human Trafficking Solutions,
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Sexuality scholars have historically understudied the link between disability, sexual exclusion, and social justice, including equal rights for people living with disabilities (PLWD) to enjoy a sexual and intimate life in adulthood. There have been some recent efforts to rectify this situation, with studies emerging concerning strategies for promoting their sexual rights. Our Target Article explores one contentious service option—the possibility of “sexual assistance” for PLWD, which ranges in meaning across countries from sex surrogacy to physical contact with paid sexual assistants. We conducted a knowledge synthesis using a scoping review methodology to identify the breadth of the academic scholarship available and assess its alignment with current ethical and moral debates and recent policies and practices surrounding the sexual scripts of PLWD as they relate to sexual assistance. We categorized the relevant articles in our scoping review into two broad classes: those that support sex-negative perspectives (i.e., framing sexuality as risky, adversarial, etc.) and those that support sex-positive perspectives (i.e., framing sexuality as normative, consensual, etc.). Our results show that sex-negative cultural scripts call for limitations of the sexual rights of PLWD due to their inherent vulnerability as having disabled sexualities and/or due to their heightened risk of exploiting sexual partners, especially cis women who sell sexual services. The sex-positive cultural scripts understand PLWD as having the same rights to sexual citizenship as non-disabled individuals and that to achieve this, equitable access to sexual health services in decriminalized and regulated service environments is needed. We conclude with limitations of our investigation and recommendations for further research on this understudied topic, including the possible integration of positive disabled sexuality and abuse prevention.
Social determinants of health, which can be protective or risk factors, influence the preconception period and therefore the health of future children and generations. These factors cover a wide range such as housing, working conditions, socio-economic status, exposure to noise or air pollution, safety, poverty, or interpersonal and sexual violence. Violence against women is experienced by millions of women and girls all around the world and can occur from prebirth to old age. Violence against women and girls is a fundamental violation of women’s rights and is grounded in power inequalities, which are based on harmful and strict gender norms justifying male dominance and control over women.
Part II of the book offers a more rigorous examination of macro-level determinants that explains anti-trafficking enforcement across the globe. In this chapter, these determinants are identified via quantifiable global measures. They capture how country-level lack of equality, unwillingness to follow the standards of international law, the lack of political culture, state capacity and liberal democracy, and high demand for vulnerable people might hinder effective anti-trafficking enforcement.
Internationally, there is no consensus concerning the legal and moral judgment of sex work. Nevertheless, there is an overwhelming agreement on the need to fight against forced sex work. This paper uses a formal economic model in order to analyze how a law – introduced to punish clients of commercial sex services – affects market outcomes. More specifically, it examines how the so-called “neo-abolitionism” or “Nordic” prostitution regime impacts forced sex work. The theoretical analysis reveals that this effect is ambiguous and crucially depends on the size of the deterrence effect and on local properties of the market demand. In addition, it highlights the conditions under which the composition of clients changes toward more risk-seeking individuals. Policy implications that arise are identified and discussed.
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Human trafficking has become a key site for intervention in global politics. Although anti-trafficking claims to mobilize resources for the combat against structural inequality within labour relations, anti-trafficking is intertwined with a fixation with the “trafficking survivor” resulting in notable individuated policy responses. Based on long-term ethnographic research of anti-trafficking interventions in the Mekong region, this essay suggest biolegitimacy is a fruitful heuristic device as it elucidates how anti-trafficking constructs “life” along multiple modalities and expressions. This in turn helps explain why anti-trafficking constitutes a mixed assemblage comprising actors with different ideological, moral and political positions. As such, anti-trafficking constitutes an important case study of how life legitimates and is legitimated within transitional networks of governance.
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La traite des êtres humaines affecte presque toutes les nations d'Afrique pour lesquelles nous disposons de données, que ce soit les pays d'origine ou celles qui servent de destination. Le rapport étudie les informations recueillies dans 53 pays africains et procède à une analyse des schémas et des racines profondes de la traite, ainsi que des pratiques et mesures efficaces prises au niveau national et régional. On a pu observer les phénomènes suivants: la traite est facilitée par l'effondrement du milieu protecteur de l'enfant suite à un conflit armé, des difficultés économiques ou des pratiques discriminatoires. Les attitudes and pratiques traditionelles, le mariage précoce et le fait que les naissances ne soient pas enregistrées rendent estrêmement difficile l'identification des victimes.
this report will predominantly focus on trafficking in women. Moreover, information on trafficking in children to the United States is limited. It is also necessary to treat trafficking in adult women and children separately as children receive different kinds of rights and protections than adults, both internationally and domestically. Children also generally exercise less decision-making control to fully exercise their rights.
Unpublished Paper on Swedish Legislation of Prostitution. Publication forthcoming
  • Gunilla Ekberg
Ekberg, Gunilla, 2001. Unpublished Paper on Swedish Legislation of Prostitution. Publication forthcoming. Contact
Sex slavery. Thailand to New York: Thousands of indentured Asian prostitutes may be in U.S
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Goldberg, Carey (1995, September 11). Sex slavery. Thailand to New York: Thousands of indentured Asian prostitutes may be in U.S. New York Times (late ed., Section B1).
Informal Note submitted to the 4th Session of the Ad Hoc Committee on the Elaboration of a Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime (A/ac.254/16)
UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (1999, June 1). Informal Note submitted to the 4th Session of the Ad Hoc Committee on the Elaboration of a Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime (A/ac.254/16). United Nations, Vienna, Austria, pp. 1 -6.
Gatuprostitutionen minskar I Stockholm
  • Sanna Bjorling
Bjorling, Sanna (2001, February 16). Gatuprostitutionen minskar I Stockholm. Dagens Nyheter.
Integration of the Human Rights of Women and the Gender Perspective. Submitted to the Commission on Human Rights
UN Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women (2001, February 6). Integration of the Human Rights of Women and the Gender Perspective. Submitted to the Commission on Human Rights, 57th Session (E/CN. 4/2001/73/ Add. 2). United Nations, Geneva, Switzerland, pp. 1 -44.
Report on Contemporary Forms of Slavery. 52nd Session of the UN Commission of Human Rights
UN Working Group on Contemporary Forms of Slavery and UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights (2000, August 15). Report on Contemporary Forms of Slavery. 52nd Session of the UN Commission of Human Rights. (E/ CN.4/Sub.2/2000/L.22). United Nations, Geneva, Switzerland, pp. 1 -14.