The Creative Experience Questionnaire (CEQ): A brief self-report measure of fantasy proneness

Department of Experimental Psychology, Maastricht University, PO Box 616, 6200, MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
Personality and Individual Differences (Impact Factor: 1.95). 10/2001; 31(6):987-995. DOI: 10.1016/S0191-8869(00)00201-4


The current article describes the psychometric qualities of the Creative Experiences Questionnaire (CEQ), a brief 25-item self-report measure of fantasy proneness. Findings indicate that the CEQ demonstrates adequate test-retest stability and internal consistency. CEQ scores appear not to be related to social desirability. The CEQ was found to be strongly correlated with a concurrent measure of fantasy proneness. Furthermore, there are substantial correlations between the CEQ and standard measures of absorption, schizotypy, and dissociation. Bearing in mind that these constructs are thought to be intimately linked to fantasy proneness, this pattern of correlations supports the validity of the CEQ. The CEQ might be fruitfully used as a brief research scale in several domains (e.g. studies on pseudomemories).

    • "apparent telepathy) or spirit guides during demonstrations of mediumship (seeIrwin & Watt, 2007). By comparison, escapist fantasising is not employed for this purpose presumably because prolonged daydreaming (Merckelbach et al., 2001) has little relevance to paranormal/New Age concepts. A second possibility is that vivid/realistic and make-believe fantasising tap into other concepts relevant to SUBs such as deficiencies in reality monitoring (cf.Irwin, 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: This study examines the degree to which varieties of childhood maltreatment (in)directly predict adult paranormal and New Age worldviews. Mediation analyses were performed with maltreatment types serving as potential predictors, facets of fantasy proneness as potential mediators and aspects of adult paranormality (anomalous experiences, beliefs, abilities and fears) plus a general New Age Orientation as five separate criteria measures. Several hypotheses were (partially) supported. First, child sexual abuse directly predicted more self-reported anomalous experiences, with parental threats of rejection directly predicting fewer anomalous fears in adulthood. Second, indirect relationships between childhood neglect, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and instrumental parentification emerged for all criteria except anomalous fears, with these relationships mediated by at least one facet of fantasy proneness; either vivid/realistic and/or make-believe fantasising. These findings are consistent with Irwin's (2009) Psychodynamic Functions Hypothesis; the notion that adult paranormality offers an adaptive, needs-serving mechanism for coping with sense of diminished control often stemming from childhood trauma. Contrary to Irwin's model, childhood physical abuse, emotional parentification and parental threats of both abandonment and punishment failed to predict any outcome measure either directly or via more pronounced fantasising. Theoretical implications, methodological issues and ideas for future research are discussed
    No preview · Article · Apr 2016 · Personality and Individual Differences
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    • "Other measures asked about memory for their negative emotions in the week following 11 September 2001. In addition to those questions, participants also completed a number of measures, including an alcohol-use scale (modified from LaBrie, Hummer, Grant, & Lac, 2010), the Creative Experiences Questionnaire (fantasy proneness; Merckelbach, Muris, & Rassin, 1999; Merckelbach, Horselenberg, & Muris, 2001), and the DES-C (Wright & Loftus, 1999). Session 1 typically took participants about 35 minutes to complete. "
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    ABSTRACT: Previous crashing memory studies have shown that adults can be led to believe they witnessed video footage of news events for which no video footage actually exists. The current study is the first to investigate adults' tendency to report memories of viewing footage that took place when they were children: the plane crash in Pennsylvania on 11 September 2001. We found that in a computer questionnaire, 33% indicated a false memory with at least one false detail. In a more detailed face-to-face interview, only 13% of the group described a detailed false memory. Familiarity with the news story, fantasy proneness, alcohol use, and frequency of negative emotions after 9/11 were all associated with a Persistent False Memory. Participants who had received prior suggestion were more likely to later report false memories in the subsequent interview. We discuss our novel results and the importance of the paradigm.Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Applied Cognitive Psychology
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    • "The second orientation was related with the memories that individuals recovered about developmental antecedents. This structure of two components was different from other structures found previously—one component by Merckelbach et al. (2001) and three components by Sa´nchez-Bernardos and Avia (2004). Given that the samples of the aforementioned studies were different in age, the discrepancies between our findings and previous research might be due to the developmental processes that take place in fantasy activity. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study was aimed to analyze the relationships of fantasy proneness with the personality domains encompassed within the Five-Factor Model of personality in an adult sample. A 15-item scale from the Creative Experiences Questionnaire with adequate internal consistency was used to measure fantasy proneness. The results showed two components of fantasy proneness. First one was characterized by vividness-intensity of imaginings that remained hidden for other people; the second component was composed of developmental antecedents of pretense and make-believe activities. Both components were correlated with Neuroticism (anxiety, depression, and impulsivity), Openness to Experience (fantasy, aesthetics, and feelings), and with general psychological distress and severe psychopathological symptoms. However, only the first component was associated with low Conscientiousnees (competence, order, dutifulness, and self-discipline), and only the second one was correlated with Extraversion (activity, excitement seeking, and positive emotions). Our results fitted with the notion that fantasy proneness might be a multidimensional construct.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Imagination Cognition and Personality
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