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Abstract

From New York to Paris, Tokyo and Sydney, hip-hop culture is a Diaspora transcending ethnic, linguistic, and geographic boundaries. As Osumare [Osumare H. Beat streets in the global hood: connective marginalities of the hip-hop globe. Journal of American and Comparative Cultures 2001;2(Spring/Summer):171–181.] indicates, “Global hip-hop youth culture has become a phenomenon in the truest sense of the word and has affected nearly every country on the map (171).” We extend our knowledge of the worldwide diffusion of hip-hop culture (Stanley TL. Cool consumption goods fit for hip-hop. Advert Age 2004;75:12 [July 12]) and employ qualitative research methods to address our research questions. Our findings identify commonalities among members of the hip-hop Diaspora and suggest that the core essence of hip-hop is shared by marginalized groups. Our data also illustrate that hip-hop is malleable and is adapted to speak to members of multiple national cultures, and localized socioeconomic and political conditions: hip-hop youth culture is glocalized.

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... This became problematic as sometimes Black culture and hip hop were imitated for its trendiness (Osumare, 2009;Wood, 1997). Despite this, hip hop resonated with youth worldwide who felt marginalized by their own society, and allowed them to musically express experiences of their own (Motley & Henderson, 2008). Hip hop has thus become "a lingua franca that binds young people all around the world, all while giving them the chance to alter it with their own national flavour" (Chang, 2007, p. 60). ...
... Therefore, rejection of some aspects of the original U.S. culture is vital so that local youth can claim cultural identity over the music . To do so, youth adopt the codes and symbols from the original U.S. hip hop subculture and add their own flair to reflect their local culture Morgan & Bennett, 2011;Motley & Henderson, 2008). ...
... In other literature, Korean hip hop is contextualized alongside other "black music" in Korea such as soul (Yang, 2017, p. 95). Finally, literature has also linked Korean people and hip hop in articles dealing with wider hip hop culture (Motley & Henderson, 2008;Wood, 1997). ...
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This article examines authenticity in South Korean hip hop culture. Building on subcultural theory and cultural hybridization theory, it explores authenticity dynamics in this scene, and the role of the local media as a cultural mediator. Data were collected using a mixed-methods approach over two stages. Stage 1 was a quantitative content analysis of seminal South Korean hip hop program, Show Me the Money. Stage 2 comprised of qualitative participant observation in Seoul hip hop night clubs, and eight semistructured interviews with rappers and journalists. Key findings suggest there is a constant struggle between authenticity and commodification, where commodification dominates the South Korean hip hop scene. This work contributes to the interdisciplinary field of journalism studies by aligning itself with cultural theory to widen the Western view of South Korean hip hop.
... Hip hop is a global tool that is transcendent of any one particular cultural group or identity (Condry, 2007) yet simultaneously flexible enough to be adapted to youth in situ and reinterpreted for the local context in which it is used-thereby deeming it a "glocal" phenomenon (Gadet, 2015;Motley & Henderson, 2008). As such, participants can engage in local hip hop culture while feeling broadly connected to a global culture. ...
... Like their South Asian American counterparts, SEAA youth turn to hip hop to find space on the margins of U.S. society and sometimes, of their home ethnic culture. Indeed, this perspective on SEAA youth participation in hip hop culture arguably reflects the core essence of hip hop, that which binds collective marginalities (Motley & Henderson, 2008). ...
... Indeed, breakdancing-as one element in hip hop culture-is both figurative and literal performance based on identity flexibility and play. For example, within a breakdancing cypher, youth alter their self-presentation, changing the content of each performance to fit the needs of the local audience (Motley & Henderson, 2008)much as immigrant youth may utilize CV to adapt their dress or language to better fit the demands of their family or peers (Ferguson et al., 2017). ...
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Southeast Asian American (SEAA) adolescents and emerging adults navigate a multicultural, global world by utilizing cultural variability to play up and play down three cultural identities: their Asian/Asian American heritage culture, the White dominant culture in which they live, and a hip hop cultural identity. The latter is a unique cultural identity rooted in the global phenomenon of hip hop that includes dance, art, and music as well as resistance to the dominant, mainstream culture. Hip hop is a meaningful cultural identity for SEAA youth because it is a cultural identity transcendent of race/ethnicity, a means toward relational and identity harmony, a form of resistance, and because it facilitates belongingness to a local and a global community.
... It is also important to note that the core elements and aesthetics of hip-hop -such as break dancing and graffiti are shared by all members of the hip-hop culture and are adapted to suit multiple national cultures and local conditions, which is calledglocalization (Motley and Henderson, 2008). Glocalization involves appropriation (i.e., hip-hop songs made to suit the local context where it is created despite its origins in the U.S.), adaptation (i.e., non-U.S. ...
... Through glocalization, artists around the globe speak to specific social issues and political concerns by tailoring the genre to fit the needs of their local audience. Following Motley and Henderson's (2008) elements of glocalization, this study employed a cross-cultural examination the themes and issues addressed in This is America and This is Nigeria, two music videos developed by hip-hop artists in the U.S. and Nigeria respectively, investigating the cultural, political, and socio-economic experiences communicated by the hip-hop artists in both music videos. Hence, we pose following research question: ...
... Because the societal issues differfrom context-to-context, they are addressed differently by the artists. Since hip-hop is a platform through which people narratively express experiences, including frustrations that artists and fans share (Motley &Henderson, 2008), it is contended in this study that This is America and This is Nigeriado not merely share similar themes related to hip-hop culture, but also reveal unique issues that the artists observe and protest in their respective social contexts. ...
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This paper investigated how hip-hop music leverages communication strategies such as narratives to raise awareness to social issues. Using Critical Race Theory and Hip-hop genre studies as theoretical foundations, the authors applied thematic analysis techniques to examine the music videos This is America and This is Nigeria. Emergent themes addressed artists' frustrations over mass killings in the U.S.and Nigeria. Findings revealed racial inequality as a prominent element in This is America, whereas ethno-religious issues were projected in the themes of This is Nigeria. The findings indicated that national, cultural, and racial context are pivotal to the interpretation and understanding of narratives, particularly when multiple narratives protest similar issues.
... Hip-hop culture has been heavily implemented within American film (Watkins, 1998). Hiphop has been closely associated with many attributes including partying (particularly street dancing and DJ-ing), graffiti, fashion (sagging, tattoos, sneakers, etc.), and African American ethnic symbolism (Motley & Henderson, 2007). Hip-hop culture also incorporates critique and commentary on ethnicity, class, and oppression, and often focuses on rebellion from authority (Motley & Henderson, 2007). ...
... Hiphop has been closely associated with many attributes including partying (particularly street dancing and DJ-ing), graffiti, fashion (sagging, tattoos, sneakers, etc.), and African American ethnic symbolism (Motley & Henderson, 2007). Hip-hop culture also incorporates critique and commentary on ethnicity, class, and oppression, and often focuses on rebellion from authority (Motley & Henderson, 2007). ...
... The role of the Black family was handled quite realistically and in a nuanced manner, featuring threat, infidelity, support, and openness unlike the Black sitcom era (Dyson, 2003;Jonas-Fowler, 2018). Hip-hop culture (and of course authority rebellion) is sprinkled throughout the film's marketing material highlighting its signature track "Glory" performed by rapper and actor Common and John Legend (Motley & Henderson, 2007). The film focused on historical accounts where Black Americans faced ethnic-specific adversity lacking fantastical features and received two Academy Awards, supporting the Oscar bait notion (Culloty, 2016). ...
... A genre that popular in the late 1980s throughout the world was rap. The music which is coming from the urban black culture in the Bronx United States has appropriated as a result of differences of the socio-cultural background with the affected countries (Motley & Henderson, 2008). American rap appropriation in many countries become an integral part of the global rap and emerged as a diaspora form of expression. ...
... Based on the concept of pull and push in the hip hop culture (Motley & Henderson, 2008;Trapp, 2005), push factors in local hip hop is the strength of technoscape and financialscape to market new music by using Mediascape as agents such as radio, television, and cinemas. The ideology (ideoscape) of resistance and freedoms within the spirit of hip hop then transformed in accordance with idioscape and ethnoscape of the receiver. ...
Article
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Globalization causes the spread of pop culture beyond geographical boundaries. Rap music as a form of pop culture spread around the world in the 1990s through the mass media that was driven by the transnational music industry. Its popularity was not just happened in big cities, but in peripheral regions like in Manggarai of East Nusa Tenggara as well.This article uses the transnational concept in American studies and theory of landscape advanced by Arjun Appadurai. The concept of Transnational American Studies is used to analyze the influence of American culture beyond its territory, while the theory of landscape is used to analyze the conflicts that occured between the global and the local rap music in Manggarai music spaces.This analysis shows that the process of appropriation carried out by local rapper against global rap music is a form of negotiation to adapt to local tastes as well as of creativity to face global music. The strategies undertaken in the struggle for spaces of music can be seen in the form of themes, language, dialect, or mode of production. Contestation between the global and the local is always transformed through the development of music consumers in the area.Keywords: Contestation, Rap, Transnational, Globalization
... Arguably, hip hop is more than just a form of popular culture; it provides the basis of a thriving source of contemporary consumerism. Hip hop is having a significant impact on youth cultures, influencing individual behaviours, fashions, lifestyles and even social policies As one of the world's most accessible and popular global cultures hip hop has grown to span ethnic, linguistic and cultural boundaries (Motley and Henderson, 2008). ...
... As a global commodity hip hop is consistently argued to be localised within particular cultural contexts (Motley & Henderson, 2008 fashions. Although they claimed to acknowledge the existence of a localised hip hop culture, the American influences are pervasive. ...
... In addition to similarities, we also expected differences. Motley and Henderson (2008) have characterized the hip-hop youth culture as a glocalized phenomenon, as it is malleable to local politics and socioeconomic conditions, which makes the genre's local expression a hybrid form of original elements and local cultural elements. Thus, as hip-hop becomes part of the cultural fabric around the world, some of the associations, even central concepts such as ethnicity, may vary from country to country. ...
... Within this context, hip-hop originated within the USA's Black subculture, creating a strong association between the music and the ethnicity in U.S. listeners' minds. These results are consistent with the literature suggesting that the hip-hop genre is composed of both localized (or culture-dependent) and global (or culture-independent) aspects, turning it into a glocalized construct (e.g., Motley & Henderson, 2008). Future research should further explore which aspects of music genre schemas can be described as global versus local. ...
Article
This causal comparative study examined the consistency with which listeners from two cultures (Germany and the USA) associate extra musical concepts with four popular music genres (German folksy, country, punk, and hip-hop). The results showed that for internationally recognized genres (country, punk and hip-hop), the two countries made similar association patterns for all eight concepts measured (ethnicity, rural vs. urban culture, age, trustworthiness, expertise, attractiveness, friendliness, and political ideology). The study also revealed instances where the countries differed, such as hip-hop's association with ethnicity and most of the German folksy associations. The results are discussed in light of models of musical meaning. Furthermore, an integration of societal-level and individual-level theories predicts these similarities and differences. The theories include massification, glocalization, and cognitive schemas.
... Lacher and Mizerski, 1994), heavy metal (e.g. Henry and Caldwell, 2007) and hip hop (e.g. Motley and Henderson, 2008). Another strand of literature has highlighted the importance of audience segmentation and development strategies for different musical genres (e.g. ...
... Kristen & Shevy (2010) also found evidence of distinct popular music cognitive schemas when they tested the association of these same concepts plus expertise and attractiveness with hip-hop, country, punk, and German folksy music. They used musicology, mass media theories such as cultivation (Gerbner et al., 2002) and glocalization (Motley & Henderson, 2008), and social group theory (e.g., Tajfel, 1981) to predict patterns in the extramusical associations along with similarities and differences in those patterns between German and American listeners. ...
... Th e key elements which at that time came together and started to form an emerging Hip Hop culture are DJing (deejaying), MCing (rap music), graffi ti art and dance (most notably breaking or break dancing). Motley and Henderson (2008) gave useful short defi nitions of all main hip hop elements. 'Graffi ti is the visual art and break dancing is an element of the performance art of the hip hop culture. ...
Article
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Among its other manifestations, the globalization has brought unparalleled development of the music platforms, logistically supported by the widespreadness of Internet. This article elaborates on the specific type of music-based diplomacy: hip hop diplomacy. After placing in the theoretical and practical context, the author analyzes the usage of hip hop diplomacy by the United States, particularly, in the Muslim world. I argue that while hip hop diplomacy seems to be a smart 'new edition' to the US cultural diplomacy portfolio, it suffers from the same systemic paradox as its Cold War's predecessor-jazz diplomacy.
... «Nel rap s'invecchia presto, si tramonta, si passa il testimone, si diventa storia… Il rapper è uno che dice quello che pensa» (Fedez, 2013). Caratteristica maggioritaria è la giovane età, talvolta veri e propri adolescen- ti appartenenti al sottoproletariato urbano, che si esibiscono con indumenti specifici rappresentanti uno stile di vita e di comportamento, ricoperti da ta- tuaggi come segni di distinzione e non come espressione di arte o mera de- corazione del corpo (Motley e Henderson, 2008). ...
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Il contributo è centrato sull’analisi dell’esperienza di produzione e fruizione di materiale simbolico musicale da parte di giovani italiani ma di origine straniera, noti come immigrati di seconda generazione, protagonisti di una continua riconfigurazione dell’identità. È stata condotta un’indagine tra i giovani al fine di riflettere su come essi individuino in certe forme di espressione culturale quale la musica rap uno strumento di articolazione identitaria. Sono stati presi in esame testi del rapper Amir per illustrare la tematica della migrazione nella costruzione dell’identità offrendo e fornendo le opportunità per intuire l’identità multiculturale e l’autorappresentazione come affermazione del sé, superando stereotipi o modelli omogeneizzanti.
... Mainstream rap is heavily filtered through music industry decision makers likely concerned more with profits than maintaining the authentic voice of the artist (Belle, 2014;Light, 2004;Oware, 2014). This is especially true of gangsta rap, a subgenre of hip-hop music (see Chang, 2005;Keyes, 2002), which has been celebrated as a medium for minority youth worldwide to explore their collective marginalities and commonalities (Motley & Henderson, 2008;Osumare, 2009), but also criticized for promoting deviance and depravity to such an extent that its followers become instruments of their own oppression (Stephens & Wright, 2000). ...
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This study contributes to an emerging literature both detailing Internet usage among street gangs and gang members and exploring how street life is presented in underground rap music. We present a content and cultural analysis of 78 rap videos posted on YouTube by gang members in Buffalo, New York, between 2009 and the first few months of 2015. Violence was the most dominant and consistent theme in the videos. We find that online space operates like a virtual street corner enabling individuals and groups to perform social and collective gang identities that emphasize and exaggerate their capacities for lethal violence. Online gang rap videos use violent imagery, revisit violent events, and reference gang conflicts to enhance both gang myth-making and social or collective identity development. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/07418825.2017.1341542
... Hip-hop originated in the 1970s in the Bronx, New York, and has since become the lifestyle of American culture. Cheeseman (1998, cited in Motley & Henderson, 2008) argued that hip-hop has become a tool through which the voice of the ethnic minority and youth, who protest for political issues as well as discrimination, can be aired and heard. ...
Article
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The main purpose of this paper is to examine how women are described in rap/hip-hop songs. Five rap artists are chosen from the Billboard " s Top Rap Airplay Artists in 2013 and 2014 and their songs " lyrics are analyzed to answer these questions: What misogynistic choices are found in these rap songs? What do these choices of words, phrases and clauses imply? The analysis of the rap song lyrics revealed that women are described as subordinate gender, and treated as mere sexual objects, and that hip-hop/rap music described women in a demeaning way and therefore has reinforced sexism and discrimination of women through its misogynistic lexical choices.
... Preference for Hip Hop music has been associated with increased tobacco use risk among youth (Mulder et al., 2009(Mulder et al., , 2010, and studies of Hip Hop music videos report portrayals of substance use, including tobacco (Cranwell et al., 2015;DuRant et al., 1997;Gruber, Thau, Hill, Fisher, & Grube, 2005;Primack, Dalton, Carroll, Agarwal, & Fine, 2008). However, Hip Hop is more than a genre of music; it is a powerful "peer crowd," or culture, that influences millions of people, including many African American and Hispanic youth, given the culture's roots in these communities (Chang, 2005;Motley & Henderson, 2008). In fact, tobacco companies have historically utilized Hip Hop culture to market tobacco products in minority communities through promotional activities aligning Hip Hop cultural values with tobacco use (Cruz, Wright, & Crawford, 2010;Hafez & Ling, 2006). ...
Article
Introduction: Peer crowds, peer groups with macro-level connections and shared norms that transcend geography and race/ethnicity, have been linked to risky health behaviors. Research has demonstrated that Hip Hop peer crowd identification, which is common among multicultural youth, is associated with increased risk of tobacco use. To address this, the FDA Center for Tobacco Products created Fresh Empire, the first national tobacco education campaign tailored for Hip Hop youth aged 12-17 who are multicultural (Hispanic, African American, Asian-Pacific Islander, or Multiracial). As part of campaign development, peer crowd (Hip Hop, Mainstream, Popular, Alternative, Country) and cigarette smoking status were examined for the first time with a nationally recruited sample. Methods: Youth were recruited via targeted social media advertisements. Participants aged 13-17 (n = 5153) self-reported peer crowd identification via the I-Base Survey™ and cigarette smoking status. Differences in smoking status by peer crowd were examined using chi-square and followed up with z-tests to identify specific differences. Results: Alternative youth were most at risk of cigarette smoking, followed by Hip Hop. Specifically, Hip Hop youth were significantly less likely to be Non-susceptible Non-triers than Popular, Mainstream, and Country youth, and more likely to be Experimenters than Popular and Mainstream youth. Conclusions: Representative studies show that Alternative is relatively small compared to other high-risk crowds, such as the Hip Hop peer crowd. The current research underscores the potential utility of interventions tailored to larger at-risk crowds for campaigns like Fresh Empire.
... Movies and television sitcoms have utilized and capitalized on hip-hop culture across drama, comedy, and animation projecting various hip-hop cultural themes and influencers, including DJ Khaled, Kanye West, Cardi B, and more. And it is not just localized in the United States; as Motley and Henderson (2008) remind us, "From New York, to Paris, Tokyo, Sydney and localities in between, hip-hop culture is a Diaspora spanning ethnic, linguistic, and geographic boundaries" (p. 243). ...
... This also involves the visual aspect. However, despite the obvious origins of the hip-hop genre, we have to acknowledge that the appropriation of this "foreign" culture results in something that is altogether new (Motley and Henderson 2007). The novelty comes mainly in the form of the synthesis with local cultural imaginaries. ...
Article
This article examines youth, rap music, and alcoholism in Malawi. Alcohol abuse is one of the pressing social problems and has led to death in several instances. Government efforts to stem the problem are confronted to a prominent discourse among Malawian youth that extols the virtues of alcohol consumption. Focusing on hip-hop music, this paper draws upon the notion of waithood to explain this youthful glorification of alcoholism. I suggest that for the young artists and their followers in Malawi, alcohol and drug abuse are means of escape from their disillusionment with the state and society. Withdrawn into a fantasy world of their own that takes them away from the realities of poverty and lack of opportunities in Malawi, I argue that this abuse and glorification of alcohol in popular music is a form of subversive agency that challenges conventional structures of public authority (represented mainly by the government).
... While the girls do not necessarily believe that these stereotypes hold true for all members of the group, they offer similar descriptions of each group whether they considered themselves to be a member of the group or not. These descriptions are also consistent with literature on these groups (Miklas and Arnold 1999;Moore 2004;Motley and Henderson 2008;Trapp 2005). The following quotes illustrate some peer group stereotypes from our data: PREPS: If they are wearing pretty, bright clothes and tight clothes, they are pretty much Prep. ...
Article
For adolescents in a formative stage of development, peer groups have a strong influence on teenage girls’ store image formation. Using qualitative interviews, we develop an understanding of how girls rely on stereotyping to develop their categorization of stores and then develop an bioinity for, or identify with, various stores based on this stereotypical categorization using peer group associations. We use our qualitative research and social identity theory (and its subtheories of stereotyping theory and group identification theory) to develop a concept we refer to as social store identity (SSI), which represents how much a girl likes a store and considers it part of her in-group. Then with a larger empirical study, we find that SSI plays a pivotal role in the formation of adolescent girls’ store image perceptions and in their store attitudes and behaviors. We use the findings to develop theoretical and managerial implications of the research.
... This ability causes its elements to gradually improve. Motley and Henderson (2008) stated that, "the elements "can be combined by limitless factors to create culture and community" (p. 246). ...
Article
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This study examines seven movies that are based on characters created by Duane Adler. They are two Save the Last Dance and five Step Up movies. This discussion is a library research which is conducted within the framework of American Studies approach under the scope of history, social, and culture. This research uses Barthes’ semiotics theory on myth to analyze the depiction of American phenomena in the movies.The objectives of this study are to examine the portrayal of Hip Hop in United States of America and to analyze the reflection of American values through movies. The discussions on the topic reveal that Hip Hop becomes the source for movies’ narratives. It is manifested in hip hop related scenes of the movies. They portray signs of rebellion and juvenile delinquency in the first order-semiological system. These portrayals reflect American values of rebellion and freedom. Moreover, life struggle and American belief in the land of opportunity play the signs in Barthes’ second order-semiological system. The American values reflected through the discussions are competitiveness, hard work, determined, optimism, and materialism.Keywords: Hip Hop, hip hop, popular culture, semiotics, American values
... Whereas some viewers might find it appropriate for a user or company to promote themselves on Instagram (see Johnson et al., 2019), they might deem the tactic of co-opting a prosocial movement for self-promotion less morally acceptable (see Hudders et al., 2017). In general, the perceived commercialization and appropriation of prosocial or cultural messaging has garnered criticism and negative reactions in different contexts such as the commercialization and appropriation of hip-hop (Motley & Henderson, 2008;Rodriquez, 2006) and the commodification of social issues for corporate profit (Tinic, 1997). Similar critiques have been leveled against the commodification of the body-positive movement specifically (Cwynar-Horta, 2016;Miller, 2016). ...
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Proponents of the body positivity (BoPo) movement prominently use social media to promote body appreciation and normalize marginalized bodies. However, companies and social media users have increasingly commodified the movement for self-serving reasons or economic gain. Providing a unique test of the persuasion knowledge model, this experiment examined (a) how the commodification of a prosocial movement can undermine its efficacy and (b) how the symmetry between visual and text-based messaging can influence viewer reactions. Results indicated that body positive posts on Instagram that contained self-promotion or promoted products were viewed as less morally appropriate and were less effective at promoting body appreciation and inclusivity. Practical implications are discussed and a novel boundary condition for the persuasion knowledge model is presented.
... Price (2006) argues that hip-hop culture provides us with the opportunity to explore and better understand the diverse, influential and rapidly growing youth culture. Motley and Henderson (2007) describe the global nature of hip hop as the "global hip hop diaspora" spanning major cities and localities in the world, a diaspora spanning ethnic, linguistic, and geographic boundaries. ...
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Ntebaleng Mpetsi is a postgraduate researcher in Communication Studies at the University of Limpopo. Her research interest focuses on gender issues in communication, specifically the representation of women and how women are situated in cultural spaces. Toks Oyedemi teaches in the communication programme at the University of Limpopo. Aspects of his research interests are the political economy of global media and the media shaping of culture and identity. Ntebaleng Mpetsi Toks Oyedemi ABSTRACT In many hip-hop music videos, women's value is reduced to sensuous display of sexuality. As a result visual pleasure is created through the representation of women as eager and willing sexual objects. This article assesses the techniques and ways women are sexualised in South African hip-hop music videos, and how their representation attempts to create visual pleasure for those that consume these videos. Four critical elements are adopted from Laura Mulvey's seminal theoretical discourse about the positioning of women in narrative cinema, to study the gender representation and sexual presentation of women in two popular South African hip-hop music videos. The analysis reveals that appealing to the male gaze, processes of objectification, gender division of labour and camera techniques are ways of presenting a sexualised spectacle of women for the visual pleasure of male characters and audiences of the videos.
... T. Clark 2015;M. K. Clark 2013;Ekdale 2018;Fadipe 2016;Kuznetsov 2009;Motley and Henderson 2008;Shipley 2013), some studies have also focused on the negative roles of hip-hop music as a tool for cultural imperialism and the promotion of deviant behaviour among youths (Fei 2014;Mobolaji and Ojebuyi 2020;Oloruntoba-Oju 2011;Richardson and Scott 2002). ...
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Hybridisation, that is, the blending of different cultural elements to create a new cultural form and identity, has become a significant linguistic feature of hip-hop music in Nigeria. Existing studies have focused largely on the negative roles of hip-hop music describing it as a tool for cultural imperialism and fostering deviant behaviour among youths. However, sparse scholarly attention has been paid to the cultural significance of hybridisation in Nigerian hip-hop music for promoting indigenous cultural values, especially among the youths in such a culturally complex country. This article reports on a study that was designed to examine hybridisation in Nigerian hip-hop music with a specific focus on the Yoruba language which is prominently used in the genre. This was done to establish how the linguistic process has challenged the notion of cultural hegemony in a way capable of changing youths’ perception of their indigenous cultural values. Using a mixed-methods approach, the researchers administered 255 copies of a 17-item questionnaire to students at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. They also conducted five in-depth interviews with purposively selected hip-hop artistes and music producers in Ibadan, while they analysed the contents of 40 randomly selected Nigerian hip-hop music videos produced between 2010 and 2015. The findings of the study revealed a high level of hybridisation manifested as the blending of Yoruba cultural content into Nigerian hip-hop music. The study also established that hybridised hip-hop music, as a form of communication, exerts a positive influence on youths’ perception of indigenous culture and values.
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In this conversation that samples his journey, Bengaluru-based rapper Smokey the Ghost shares his views on the relevance of observations by selected global hip hop scholars about the development of hip hop as a movement in the Indian context. This interview was conducted as part of a pilot survey for a research project that studied the elements of ‘glocalization’ (Motley and Henderson 2008: 248) in Indian hip hop.
Conference Paper
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World music and the narratives it produces are at the very centre of a formerly transnational production and consumption process. However, the shortened distance between the sites of production and consumption of this good, brought on by migration and greater participation, has created a dilemma for the UK-based artists who perform it: how to maintain authenticity without the added value of ‘distance’. Therefore, the aim of this article is to examine the ways in which musicians and other participants attempt to overcome this problem and in doing so (re)-construct particular aspects of their identity. Rather than being just another critique on authenticity, this article uses distance as an organizing concept in understanding the challenges facing world music production in the UK.
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I situate this essay in the sociopolitical turmoil of contemporary India around issues of national identity and belonging and discourses of patriotism in a multicultural, democratic republic (Vaishnav, Religious nationalism and India’s future. The BJP in power: Indian democracy and religious nationalism. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. https://carnegieendowment.org/2019/04/04/religious-nationalism-and-india-s-future-pub-78703, 2019). I first examine the aesthetic foundations of poetry and music as artforms in the Indian subcontinent, then provide historical examples of poetics as creative forms of protest and resistance in the region, in order to provide a background to their development as acts of mediation, intervention, and agency in social life. I then present contemporary examples of hybrid forms of poetic protest and activism from India that specifically focus on the influence of rap and hip-hop on local chants, poetry, and spoken-word protest anthems, made viral by their presence on social media platforms. I contextualize these examples as demonstrative of a transnational poetics of resistance and as acts of solidarity in a digital remixing of spatial and temporal borders. Next, I frame these presentations as relevant to arts education by examining how they illustrate participatory networks that lead to the formation of new hybrid communities of creative practice and mentorship, in a call-and-response form of artistic exchange. In conclusion, I present some curricular and pedagogical possibilities of this call-and-response method, to show how art educators might use this strategy to engage students in dialogue with current sociopolitical events through new media and technologies toward a more global understanding of artistic and political awareness.KeywordsIntermediaNational identityDhvaniAzaadiSpoken-word poetryProtest anthemsHip-hopSocial mediaProtest cultureSouth AsiaAesthetic theoryPoetic protestActivismCall-and-response methodArts education
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Hip-Hop-Based Education (HHBE) has resulted in many positive educational outcomes, ranging from teaching academic skills to teaching critical reflection at secondary levels. Given what HHBE initiatives have accomplished, it is troubling that there is an absence of attention to these methods in education programs for elementary and early childhood educators. For that reason, I intend to use theories of sociocultural learning to examine how young urban children’s Hip Hop communities of practice influence their early learning and identities. Through personal narratives, this work theorizes young urban children’s Hip Hop identities by utilizing children’s situated learning activities. The goal of the work is to begin a dialogue for the application of HHBE in early childhood and elementary education pre-service teacher programs.
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This paper attempts to critically analyze the role of Bollywood in “assimilating” the underground Hip Hop aesthetic into the mainstream. Besides distinguishing between the mainstream and the underground, the paper analyzes the various causes and effects of this assimilation.
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This article describes the language of the hip hop culture and how it differs from Black English rather than being merely a subcategory of it. Since the 1970s, when hip hop began to develop in the streets of New York City, people inside and even outside the hip hop community have been using its language. Now being among the best examples for globalization, hip hop has spread to almost any country in the world creating not only local interpretations of the original American English version but a greater acceptance for the whole or certain parts of the culture, such as the language. Its linguistic complexity clearly separates it from a simple accumulation of slang terms.
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Although previous research has investigated consumer mythopoesis (consumers’ identity work using marketplace myths), little is known about its enactment involving ambiguous myths. Here, we investigate the myth of the witch (predominantly depicted by dominant mythmakers as a villain but recently repositioned more positively) and describe how consumers reclaim the empowering and heroic aspects of the ambiguous witch myth. Based on a qualitative study using archival data and in-depth interviews with self-proclaimed witches, we argue that the witch’s ambiguity originates in different mythopoetic cycles. Then, we describe the following processes through which consumers reclaim positive cycles: incarnating the myth, coming out to selected others and practising myth-related craft. Finally, we show that reclaiming results in new forms of heroic agency that amplify the myth’s ambiguity and identity value. Our results reveal that consumers cope with market-wide paradoxical injunctions, stressful situations and marginalisation by transforming these pressures into acts of self-heroism.
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This chapter engages in an examination of the well-established and prolific relationship between Rap1 music, as one of the elements of Hip-Hop culture, and politics within the context of Aboriginal2 Australia.
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The emotional experience of children and adolescents is unique; this emotional process is a result of the environment, parental modeling, and the resources available for emotional expression (Calkins & Hill, 2007). Youth living in lower SES neighborhoods are vulnerable to trauma exposure, victimization, and limited access to resources, all of which can impact their psychological functioning, development, and adjustment.
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Since 2002 hip hop fans not only from the Czech Republic but also from Slovakia, Poland, Hungary, Germany and other countries come together on the third weekend in August at Hradec Králové region near the giant mountains of Krkonoše, more than 100 kilometres east of Prague, to celebrate the biggest event of the summer, the Hip Hop Kemp.1 Ranking among the ‘50 greatest summer music festivals’ according to CNN (Bremner, 2013) Hip Hop Kemp offers three days of performances by old-school legends and up-and-coming stars from the USA as well as domestic and European musicians. There are dance competitions, freestyle battles, live graffiti showcases, DJ sets till early morning and a hip hop market offering vinyl, CDs and other merchandise from artists and labels. Whether on the main stage, at the smaller hangar or at a random cypher inside and outside the camp area, hip hop enthusiasts speaking the same language are offering their version of ‘real’ hip hop in a local vernacular.
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When the forces of globalisation brought B-boying (or breakdancing) to Korea, the traditionally conservative mainstream society looked askance at the practice. The government, concerned with building a strong national culture, set restrictive policies to protect Korean society from what it saw as a disruptive foreign influence. Nevertheless, a marginalised Korean B-boy subculture developed; rejected locally, Korean crews began competing globally. When they swept major international competitions, B-boying exploded in Korea and the government began to support and deploy it as iconic of Korea’s youthful and dynamic art world. Thus, B-boying in Korea has undergone two major cycles of globalisation and Korean government intervention since the 1980s. In this paper, we trace how a marginalised subculture came to be institutionalised as a point of national pride by the government and the role that glocalisation has played in this dramatic reversal of the fortunes of the B-boys in Korea.
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Hip-hop has become a platform for young Khwe Bushmen to negotiate restrictive urban spaces following the tribe’s resettlement near the city of Kimberley in the Northern Cape province of South Africa. Previous studies on music discovery tend to ignore the plight of indigenous and rural youth who struggle to keep up with the pace of global trends. Using qualitative data obtained through participatory observation, interviews, and focus group discussions, I argue that class remains a significant factor in the discovery of music. In many African indigenous communities, a few persons with higher socioeconomic status play a significant role in the acculturation and distribution of digital music and music cultures.
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This article, produced as the final submission of the project, analyzes the paradigm shift in the representational aesthetics of Hip Hop music in Bollywood cinema.
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This ethnographic research on embodied hip hop pedagogies bridges the fields of dance studies, hip hop, and education. This dissertation sheds light on the transgressive possibilities of embodied hip hop pedagogies, a curricular and pedagogical model I developed, which resists traditional Western teaching and learning systems by placing students’ realities at the center and capitalizing on the multidisciplinary, kinesthetic, and engaged nature of hip hop culture. In this dissertation, I perform choreographic readings of Western pedagogical and institutional spaces such as missionary buildings or classrooms and participate in action research in schools in the Inland Empire. I am particularly interested in the tensions between hip hop and Western hegemonic epistemologies. My analysis focuses on how bodies navigate their agency in these Western institutional spaces and how they resist and challenge such spaces through movement and hip hop. This research introduces the concepts of choreography of the classroom and critical moving and reinterprets the concept of the otherwise through a new valance (otherwise cypher, call-and-response and knowledge otherwise). The overall aim of this dissertation is to improve the current Eurocentric and disembodied culture of education through hip hop and movement. Embodied hip hop pedagogies can help future scholars, educators, and community leaders connect with students through popular culture and non-static teaching and learning. By placing hip hop—an African diasporic and once marginalized culture— and movement at the center of the curriculum, this research helps legitimize non-dominant knowledges, challenges the Cartesian mind and body split, and revalidates people’ s identities, narratives, and bodies.
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Despite the ubiquity of music in consumers’ lives and its potential to sell nonmusical products, qualitative research examining brand placements in music is rather limited. Especially absent is research on consumers’ perceptions of brand placements in music videos. This study serves to address our understanding of brand placements in music and music videos by examining how consumers interpret music and brand placement in music videos. Using a naturalistic methodology and representative informant comments, we explain how music videos can help build loyalty, introduce brands, and reinforce or modify consumers’ knowledge about brands. In addition, we introduce the concept of “authenticity of brand reference” and explain how consumers assess the credibility of a brand placements in music videos. We conclude by discussing the findings and identifying related managerial implications.
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This paper explores how local linguistic resources can transform into indexes of transnational subcultures. Drawing on indexicality and chronotopic frame theory, we examine how the lyricists of two Asian extreme metal bands selectively draw on Chinese, Taiwanese, and Japanese language features to reproduce a metal affect known as ‘brutality’, expanding the chronotopic configuration of forms formerly considered strictly local to communicate with a global participation framework and create complex layers of social meaning. The findings illuminate new directions for superdiversity research by questioning the presumed necessity of presupposed ‘international’ languages or explicit ‘borrowings’ in participating within a translocal scene.
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Best known for his ideas of ahimsa and satyagraha, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was a prominent figure in the Indian freedom movement. Even today, he is highly revered for his philosophy of non-violence which was also an integral part of India's freedom struggle. Gandhi was responsible for making non-violent protests an important part of the movement. Now famous as a global expressive culture including forms of dance and music, Hip Hop, too, was conceived as a reaction to the violence that pervaded the gang culture of the late-1960s to early-1970s in The Bronx, New York City. Drawing from this thread of similarity, this article fleshes out parallels between the ideas of Gandhi and Hip Hop culture. Divided into three sections, it begins by establishing the cultural linkages between Gandhi, the Gandhian foundations of Hip Hop, and marking out the rationale of the study. The following section goes on to discuss the intertwining strings between Gandhi's perceptions of knowledge and the significance of knowledge in Hip Hop culture. Finally, the third section discusses references to and representations of Gandhi in selected works of 21 st century Hip Hop. In doing so, the article posits that Gandhism and Hip Hop culture belong to a similar lineage of ideas, if not the same one.
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This book investigates the discursive and performative strategies employed by Australian Indigenous rappers to make sense of the world and establish a position of authority over their identity and place in society. Focusing on the aesthetics, the language, and the performativity of Hip Hop, this book pays attention to the life stance, the philosophy, and the spiritual beliefs of Australian Indigenous Hip Hop artists as ‘glocal’ producers and consumers. With Hip Hop as its main point of analysis, the author investigates, interrogates, and challenges categories and preconceived ideas about the critical notions of authenticity, ‘Indigenous’ and dominant values, spiritual practices, and political activism. Maintaining the emphasis on the importance of adopting decolonizing research strategies, the author utilises qualitative and ethnographic methods of data collection, such as semi-structured interviews, informal conversations, participant observation, and fieldwork notes. Collaborators and participants shed light on some of the dynamics underlying their musical decisions and their view within discussions on representations of ‘Indigenous identity and politics’. Looking at the Indigenous rappers’ local and global aspirations, this study shows that, by counteracting hegemonic narratives through their unique stories, Indigenous rappers have utilised Hip Hop as an expressive means to empower themselves and their audiences, entertain, and revive their Elders’ culture in ways that are contextual to the society they live in.
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Penelitian ini membahas fenomena musik rap di Manggarai dan representasi lokalitas yang ada di dalam lagu-lagunya. Untuk melihat hal itu dipergunakan teks lagu sebagai obyek kajiannya. Lagu “Ruteng is da City” karangan Lipooz dipilih sebagai bahan kajian untuk melihat elemen-elemen lokal di dalam teksnya itu direpresentasikan dalam lagu sebagai pembentuk identitas rap Manggarai. Untuk membahas elemen lokalitasnya dipergunakan konsep cultural-melding-and-mediation oleh Lull. Sementara untuk mempertajam analisis representasi lokalitas dipergunakan teori Collective Representation dari Durkheim. Berdasarkan penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa melalui teks lagu “Ruteng is de City” dapat dilihat pengalaman kolektif masyarakat, kebiasaan khas, kode yang merupakan simbol kota Ruteng, dan barang yang menjadi produk lokal wilayah itu. Elemen-elemen lokal itu merepresentasikan budaya Manggarai yang berisi kepercayaan, norma-norma, nilai dan pandangan filosofis masyarakat yang membentuk identitas masyarakat Manggarai. “Ruteng is da City”: Representation of Locality in Manggarai Rap Music. This research discusses the phenomenon of rap in Manggarai and the representation of locality of the songs. To figure out this phenomenon, the textual examination on the song lyrics of “Ruteng is da City” composed by Lipooz is particularly selected as the object of study to identify the local elements of the text (lyric) which are represented in the song as the form of the identity of Manggarai rap. The identification of local elements is based on cultural-melding-and-mediation concept proposed by Lull. Meanwhile, in analyzing the representation of locality in the text, Durkheim’s theory of Collective Representation is adopted. According to the research result, it is concluded that the song text of “Ruteng is d City” contains the collective experience of the community, norms, the symbolic code of the town (Ruteng), and the local commodities of the town. The local elements found in the song represent Manggarai traditional culture that includes beliefs, norms, values and philosophical views of Manggarai society which essentially form the identity of Manggarai people.
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To live in the wake of slavery is to be vulnerable to violence known and unknown to ourselves and to always have those violent possibilities legally and scientifically justified. This research asks in what ways do Black people communicate care for each other while living in structures of racial oppression? I look to the Black performative arena, specifically hip-hop, to explore the ways Black hip-hop lyrics provides an avenue to care for lost Black lives in ways not possible by state-institutions. This research uses ethnographic content analysis of posthumous released songs about Nipsey Hussle to explore the ways he has been engaged in the wake of his death. I argue that in the wake of Nipsey’s passing hip-hop served as a form of wake-work praxis and has cared for Nipsey by keeping his voice alive, changing the discursive contours of contemporary hip-hop using his brand, and named him in ways that challenge how the state-institutions position Black subjectivity.
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Recently, several Brazilian chefs engaged in redefining the country’s cuisine by rediscovering its roots through the commercialization of Amazonian ingredients. These chefs, who belong to a dominant culture in Brazil, envisioned an ethnic cuisine based on elements denoting traces of authenticity—e.g., geographical origin—disregarding other aspects of the producers’ ethnicities. This scenario of ‘eating the Other’, a process through which difference is commercialized for the benefit of a dominant culture, imposes challenges to ethnic producers, who face a process of adjusting (or resisting) their forms of production. In this paper, we explore the conflicts endured by ethnic producers who have been Othered in the commercialization of their ethnicities. Our findings, emerging from a multi-method qualitative study, explore their reactions, which vary according to their level of compliance with the envisioned ethnic cuisine. We conclude by discussing the positions that ethnic producers can take in the commercialization of their ethnicities.
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Baseball and rap music are often not considered culturally or historically synonymous, but a shift appears underway. This research examines how 239 rap lyrics reach across the formerly confined (mostly racialized) boundaries of baseball to engage the sport through its reference to 128 baseball players. A thematic analysis explores how the languages of baseball and rap culture intersect through linguistic translation. The authors develop a broad understanding of the positive and negative “baller” references, and how it could affect the future growth of baseball role models for Black youth athletes. Thus, baseball “text” as a source language translates to rap “text” as a target language to form a commonly constructed language at an intersection of music, sports, and masculinity.
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This chapter stems from discussions on the abuse of alcohol by the youth in Malawi. An interesting development is how hip-hop music takes on the discourse surrounding abuse of alcohol by the youth. Specifically, this chapter examines the glorification of alcohol that is prevalent in the emerging genre of hip-hop music on the Malawian scene. Drawing from the notion of the public sphere popularised by theorist Jurgen Habermas, the chapter advances the central argument that the young musicians forge an identity around alcohol and drug abuse as an escape mode into a fantasy world that elides the realities of poverty and lack of opportunities in the African nation.
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During the 1990s, hip-hop established itself in most European countries as a new cultural territory that emerged through a process of reterritorialization. Hip-hop culture and rap music are transmitted to new societies and gain fans there (transculturation). They are then actively performed and adjusted to local conditions (hybridization), and eventually become integrated into native cultural repertoires (indigenization). Two aspects of this complex process have been examined in more detail in this article. First, our study looked at hip hop and rap as a new niche in the music and media market, and discussed a number of factors that distinguish "big" markets (such as France, Germany, and Italy) from "smaller" ones (such as Spain and Greece). Second, characteristic patterns of the hybridization and indigenization of rap were examined. The results of this study suggest that there is a variety of appropriation procedures on different levels of textual organization. Each of them reveals a different facet of the interplay of "global" and "local" aspects of rap discourse. Self-positioning as a "local" (e.g., Italian, French, or Greek) rap band can begin with the graphic design of a CD's cover and booklet. With regard to music, the use of local citations next to U.S. ones is an important, and salient, component of hybridization. On a content level, rap in Europe follows traditions established U.S. rap, but is not identical to it, because one of the imperatives of rap discourse is to express local concerns and to reflect local social realities. In terms of language style, the use of regional or social dialects or migrant languages is consonant with the genre's vernacular orientation; however, these resources are quite specific to their respective society. The importance of English for reterritorialized rap discourse is at once referential, sociosymbolic, and aesthetic. Finally, we suggested that the popularity of rap in Europe established a new form of lyrical tradition, which is related neither to other pop genres nor to traditional poetry. To the extent that rapping initiates or strengthens an interest in formal and aesthetic text production among young people with no particular connection to "high" poetry, rap can be said to trigger a renaissance of vernacular lyrics in Europe. Overall, our findings confirm, and vividly illustrate, Lull's conception of cultural reterritorialization as a "process of active cultural selection and synthesis drawing from the familiar and the new" (161). If all facets of appropriation examined in this article could be summarized under one prevailing label, then this could be the double bond of European rap discourse between a global and a local pole. Being a local representative of a global cultural discourse is, we believe, fundamental to European rappers' self-understanding and discursive action. Our study increases awareness of the fact that this double bond can be expressed in every single verse of rap. To close with one more Italian example by Articolo 31: "e per favore non diciamo che in testa abbiamo il sogno americano/ al limite il sogno di Cologno" (and please don't think we have in mind the American dream/it's the Cologno dream at best). 11 Here, the choice of the word Cologno is multiply motivated: as a place name-a subway station in Milan-it locates the artists as inhabitants of one of the main sites of Italian hip-hop culture. The phrase "il sogno di Cologno" stands, through its juxtaposition with "il sogno mericano," for a claim of indigenization and emancipation from rap's "mother" culture; and, of course, Cologno rhymes with sogno.
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Consumer research using distinctiveness theory implies that targeted advertisements are most effective in contexts in which the targeted group is a numeric minority. The authors investigate the influence of group social status in addition to numeric status in a study of South African consumers. Results demonstrate that when social dimensions are incorporated, targeted advertisements can be effective even in contexts in which the targeted group is a numeric majority. Results also illustrate how consumer distinctiveness may exist at multiple levels of analysis. The authors discuss the implications of the results for understanding the influence of social context on consumer distinctiveness and responses to targeted marketing efforts.
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The authors develop and evaluate a framework for investigating and understanding ethnic product crossover, that is, when a product intended for one ethnic minority group gains significant penetration among consumers outside the referent ethnic group. In three studies, the authors investigate how a product's characteristics, the promotion and distribution decisions made for the product and consumers' propensity for diversity influence the product's likelihood of crossing over from the intended ethnic target market to mainstream white consumers. Product characteristics interact with both other marketing decisions and consumers' diversity-seeking tendencies to influence whether consumers will be interested in ethnic products and the social context in which they are willing to consume them. The authors discuss the implications of the findings for theory and practice and provide directions for further research that include consideration of the product's ethnic embeddedness, the context in which the product will be consumed, and consumers' diversity-seeking tendencies.
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Asserting that hip hop culture has become another locus of postmodernity, Osumare explores the intricacies of this phenomenon from the beginning of the Twenty-First century, tracing the aesthetic and socio-political path of the currency of hip hop across the globe.
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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We examine consumers' memories of and meanings associated with stereotypical depictions of African Americans in advertisements and other marketing memorabilia. Although research has discussed the evolution of depictions of African Americans in advertisements over time, there is little academic literature addressing the meanings associated with these images. Our analysis suggests that collecting black memorabilia demonstrates a means of both self and collective recollection, with the meanings of the images/objects differing by individual and social group. These meanings are understood by exploring two secondary themes: the good, the bad, and the ugly but important and black marketing memorabilia as symbols and preservers of the past. Evident in this discussion is that people remember the past in the context of tangible evidence (e.g., promotional items, packaging). People remember the past the way they want and need to remember it, and even images perceived as bad or ugly are important in reconciling with and learning from the past.
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Activities and pursuits in leisure worlds often occur within subcultural contexts. Subcultural studies, however, have often premised the formation and existence of subcultures on the local. Wider local cultures have often been thought to have an impact on these subcultures. Even where subcultures have been ‘imported’ into a particular locality from another local setting, the focus has often been on how the subculture has been ‘localized’ by the ‘importing’ locality. This study offers an alternative perspective on leisure subcultures, with reference to the advent of the Internet as a new Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The Internet will be shown here to allow subcultural identities to be made flexible, where various local subcultural identities are able to fuse into a global subcultural identity, or retain their local flavours, as the situation permits. The case study of hip‐hop music consumers in Singapore and their involvement in virtual communities on the Internet will be used to show the fluidity in identity formation and maintenance brought about by this new ICT. It will be shown here that local cultures and the globalized hip‐hop culture which is associated with African American culture is evoked variably according to the specifics of the interactions of these hip‐hop consumers in virtual communities.
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This paper studies two specific examples of the rap artist persona as resistance strategy, and builds upon several theories of hip‐hop identity and resistance. Using Tricia Rose's26. Tricia Rose 1994 Black Noise: Rap Music and Black Culture in Contemporary America Middletown CT Wesleyan UP View all references concept of rap music as hidden transcript, and Russell A. Potter's25. Potter Russell A 1995 Spectacular Vernaculars: Hip‐Hop and the Politics of Postmodernism Albany NY SUNY P View all references idea of rap's postmodern play‐as‐resistance, I argue that certain hip‐hop acts intentionally split or obscure their artist identities to subvert material conditions for the rap performer, and to negotiate their own position within the conflicting standards of authenticity and marketability put forth by the ghetto and recording industry.
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This essay analyzes the relationships between culture, power, and politics in contemporary Cuba through the lens of hip-hop. In particular, I look at the interactions between Cuban rappers, the Cuban socialist state, and diverse transnational networks in a moment of economic crisis, increasing racial disparities, and Cuba's changing global position. The essay explores how the Cuban state has harnessed the energy of the growing hip-hop movement as a way of bolstering its popularity; I highlight forms of appropriation and collaboration between transnational cultural forms and the nation-state that have generally been absent from accounts of cultural globalization. But I also suggest that Cuban rappers' participation in transnational networks allows these rappers some autonomy to continue promoting messages of racial egalitarianism and to develop alternative strategies in a moment of declining options for black youth.
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In his article ‘Rock music and politics in Italy’, Umberto Fiori deploys the example of an open-air concert by Genesis in Tirrenia in the province of Pisa, promoted in the summer of 1982 by the Italian Communist Party (PCI) as part of its annual Feste dell'Unita , as a summary example of de-politicisation of the consumption and production of rock music in Italy, and the institutionalisation of the oppositional, dissenting aspects of rock music that had previously been so potent there throughout the 1970s. To Fiori, the Genesis concert represented an unmistakeable step forward in the slow process of the ‘normalisation’ of the relationship between rock and politics in Italy. Explosive material until a few years before, rock music in the 1980s seems to have returned to being a commodity like any other, even in Italy. The songs are once again simply songs, the public is the public. The musicians are only interested in their work, and the organisers make their expected profits. If they happen to be a political party, so much the better: they can also profit in terms of public image and perhaps even votes. … Italy now learnt how to institutionalise deviation and transgression. An ‘acceptable’ gap was re-established between fiction and reality, desire and action, and music and political practice. (Fiori 1984, pp. 261–2)
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This article offers an ethnographic account of the significance of rap music and hip hop culture for white youth in the city of Newcastle upon Tyne in north-east England. Although white appropriations of black music in Britain have been well documented in sociological work, there is currently very little research on white responses to rap and hip hop. During the course of this article I identify two distinct responses on the part of white Newcastle youth to rap and hip hop. I then go on to argue that, despite their differing nature, each of these responses can be seen as bound up with issues of locality and local experience.
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Primeness of nD polynomial matrices is of fundamental importance in multidimensional systems theory. In this paper we define a quantity which describes the “amount of primeness” of a matrix and identify it as the concept of grade in commutative algebra. This enables us to produce a theory which unifies many existing results, such as the Bézout identities and complementation laws, while placing them on a firm algebraic footing. We also present applications to autonomous systems, behavioural minimality of regular systems, and transfer matrix factorization.
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This study illustrates the applicability of subjective personal introspection via a photographic essay that draws on written memoirs as a path to insights concerning the role of customer value in the consumption experience. Extending earlier work in this direction, the present research explores a set of sixty-year-old Kodachrome slides taken by the author's grandfather to develop interpretations bolstered and corroborated by the narrative accounts in this late gentleman's logbook. Arguably, this approach taps aspects of the Three Fs (fantasies, feelings, and fun) as they contribute to customer value in ways not accessible to methods of modeling the consumer as a rational economic decision maker nor to advanced techniques for studying the consumption experience by means of laboratory experiments, quantitative surveys, and multivariate statistics.
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I examine the symbolic meaning associated with participation in shared consumption rituals in terms of developing and maintaining social relationships among buyers. Ten depth interviews with consumers of the live performing arts are used to explore the social context of this particular form of shared consumption. Conclusion: common participation in shared consumption rituals, even if not performed face-to-face, can be used actively to manage the social relationships that bind consumers together in “small worlds.” The major managerial implication of this finding is that the knowledge that one will share a consumption experience with friends and acquaintances affects brand choice. Other managerial implications with respect to target markets and positioning strategies for products that are consumed jointly are discussed, as well as directions for further research on “relational” influence in a variety of product markets.
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In this engaging and provocative book, S. Craig Watkins examines two of the most important developments in the recent history of black cinema—the ascendancy of Spike Lee and the proliferation of "ghettocentric films." Representing explores a distinct contradiction in American society: at the same time that black youth have become the targets of a fierce racial backlash, their popular expressive cultures have become highly visible and commercially viable. "Watkins is at his most sophisticated and persuasive when he explains the surprising success of hyper-talented, entrepreneurial, and energetic black artists."—Archon Fung, Boston Book Review
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Issued without accompanying CD-ROM. Thesis (Ph. D.)--Yale University, 1999. Includes bibliographical references (p.284-296). Photocopy.
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The report serves to analyze the organizational culture within the manufacturing firms in Singapore specifically focusing on the dimenision of inidividualism/collectivism. More importantly, the report found a relationship between individualism/collectivism and innovation. Research results has also identified factors such like decision-making and problem solving to influence innovation within the firms.
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Many researchers have noted that special possessions can represent personally relevant events, people, places, and values. Semiotics provides a useful theoretical base for understanding the representation processes that support these meanings. We apply the semiotic concept of indexicality to extend our understanding of how meanings are embedded in irreplaceable special possessions. The results of two empirical studies support the proposition that these possessions establish a semiotic linkage, which enables consumers to verify self-selected moments from their personal history. Our research also reemphasizes the value of semiotic frameworks as applied to research on possession ownership and sheds additional light on the value of authenticity to consumers. Copyright 2000 by the University of Chicago.
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This article presents a framework for thinking about the fundamental activities of inference--data analysis and interpretation--by researchers using qualitative data. I contrast these two activities. For analysis I describe seven operations: categorization, abstraction, comparison, dimensionalization, integration, iteration, and refutation. For interpretation I suggest metaphor and other literary devices as models for understanding the meanings of others, identifying patterns in these meanings, and representing how systems of meanings reproduce culture. The purpose of these descriptions is to suggest a vocabulary for and stimulate discussion about how researchers using qualitative analytical techniques arrive at conclusions and make sense of data. Copyright 1994 by the University of Chicago.
Article
In psychological research on cultural differences, the distinction between individualism and collectivism has received the lion's share of attention as a fundamental dimension of cultural variation. In recent years, however, these constructs have been criticized as being ill-defined and "a catchall" to represent all forms of cultural differences. The authors argue that there is a conceptual confusion about the meaning of ingroups that constitute the target of collectivism. Collectives are rarely referred to in existing measures to assess collectivism. Instead, networks of interpersonal relationships dominate the operational definition of "ingroups" in these measures. Results from a content analysis of existing scales support this observation. To clarify and expand the individualism-collectivism distinction, a theoretical framework is proposed that draws on M. B. Brewer and G. Gardner's (1996) conceptualization of individual, relational, and collective selves and their manifestation in self-representations, beliefs, and values. Analyses of data from past studies provide preliminary support for this conceptual model. The authors propose that this new theoretical framework will contribute conceptual clarity to interpretation of past research on individualism and collectivism and guide future research on these important constructs.
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At the beginning of the 21st century there is a growing interest in the renewal of current thinking about managing and organizing. This study joins that search for novelty with an exploration of what can be learned from the theatrical rehearsal for the development of new possibilities for organizational performance and design. What insights for organizational renewal emerge from the dynamics of the rehearsal as a practice of artful making? We describe the rehearsal around the four distinct organizing principles of responsiveness, workability, unsettledness and embodiment. Taken together these principles expand the existing repertoire for organizational and managerial practice. The rehearsal shows how to nurture form giving processes in organizations through which innovative performance alternatives can be shaped and performed Key words: organizational renewal, theatre and organization, managing as designing, organizational aes
Oscar winner hits angry chord
  • Avis Thomas
  • Lester
Avis Thomas-Lester. Oscar winner hits angry chord, vol. B03. The Washington Post; 2006. March 7
Japanese hip-hop and the globalization of popular culture Urban life: readings in the anthropology of the city. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press; 2001a. p. 372–87 rCondry I. A history of Japanese hip-hop: street dance, club scene, pop market Global noise
  • I Condry
  • G Gmelch
  • Zenner
Condry I. Japanese hip-hop and the globalization of popular culture. In: Gmelch G, Zenner W, editors. Urban life: readings in the anthropology of the city. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press; 2001a. p. 372–87. 252C.M. Motley, G.R. Henderson / Journal of Business Research 61 (2008) 243–253 rCondry I. A history of Japanese hip-hop: street dance, club scene, pop market. In: Mitchell T, editor. Global noise. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press; 2001b. p. 222–47
Oscar winner hits angry chord The Washington Post Bennett A. Rappin' on the Tyne: white hip hop culture in northeast England: an ethnographic study
  • . Avis Thomas-Lester March
March]. Avis Thomas-Lester. Oscar winner hits angry chord, vol. B03. The Washington Post; 2006. March 7. Bennett A. Rappin' on the Tyne: white hip hop culture in northeast England: an ethnographic study. Sociol Rev 1999;47:1–25
Japanese hip-hop and the globalization of popular culture Urban life: readings in the anthropology of the city
  • I Condry
Condry I. Japanese hip-hop and the globalization of popular culture. In: Gmelch G, Zenner W, editors. Urban life: readings in the anthropology of the city. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press; 2001a. p. 372–87.