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Gender and Corruption

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Abstract

Using several independent data sets, we investigate the relationship between gender and corruption. We show using micro-data that women are less involved in bribery, and are less likely to condone bribe-taking. Cross-country data show that corruption is less severe where women hold a larger share of parliamentary seats and senior positions in the government bureaucracy, and comprise a larger share of the labor force. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. JEL classification: K42, J16.

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... This hypothesis is based on the results in the literature on behavior differences between men and women. In the presence of greater corruption, women would apply less for credit than men because women are more risk averse (Byrnes et al. 1999;Croson and Gneezy 2009) and tend to be more honest (Grosch and Rau 2017;Muehlheusser et al. 2015) than men and have less experience in managing corrupt practices than men (Rheinby and Chene 2016;Swamy et al. 2001). ...
... Literature tends to show that women tolerate less corruption than men. Women have a tendency to be more honest (Capraro 2018;Grosch and Rau 2017;Muehlheusser et al. 2015), more risk averse (Byrnes et al. 1999;Croson and Gneezy 2009) than men, and lack experience in managing corrupt practices (Rheinby and Chene 2016;Swamy et al. 2001). In line with this view, many studies have confirmed that women condone less corrupt behaviors than men. ...
... Dollar et al. (2001) state that the presence of women in government reduces the level of corruption because women may be more ethical and more concerned with the common good than men. Swamy et al. (2001) find that women tolerate less corruption and are less involved in corruption than men. Torgler and Valev (2010) also confirm that women condemn corrupt behaviors more than men. ...
Article
There is evidence of a gender gap in access to finance. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that corruption discourages more female than male entrepreneurs from applying for credit. We use data on access to credit and corruption at the firm level for a large dataset of firms from 68 countries worldwide. We demonstrate that female entrepreneurs are more discouraged by corruption to ask for credit than male borrowers. We find evidence for two explanations for the gendered impact of corruption on borrower discouragement: women have less experience in management than men and as such can have less experience to deal with corruption, and gender inequality in society enhances the discouragement of female borrowers. Thus, our findings provide evidence that corruption enhances the gender gap in access to finance, enhancing gender inequality in participation in economic activity.
... We believe that it is critical to understand the gendered impact of corruption, specifically among women in firm ownership in small-sized firms, for the following reasons. While we agree with prior studies (e.g., Chen et al., 2016;Holtbrügge et al., 2015;Lund, 2008;Ramdani & Van Witteloostuijn, 2012;Swamy et al., 2001) that women are less prone to unethical behaviors than men, the relationship between gender and ethics is not as conclusive (Bampton & Maclagan, 2009). Valentine and Rittenburg (2007) argued that despite "the substantial body of research that examines the impact of sex/gender on corporate ethical decision making, the findings are not consistent enough to warrant the advancement of definitive conclusions" (p. ...
... Literature from feminist criminology has suggested that a critical limitation of IAT research is that its treatment of gender is underdeveloped (Applin & Messner, 2015). While we acknowledge competing evidence linking women with lower unethical behavior (Deshpande, 1997;Kish-Gephart et al., 2010;Swamy et al., 2001), we believe that IAT provides the basis for a positive link between the two in terms of gender ownership. Women-owned firms face many critical ceilings and challenging circumstances when trying to succeed, specifically in emerging markets. ...
... Second, we also start a new line of inquiry with the application of IAT, explicitly focusing on the connection between women's firm ownership and firm bribery behavior as an undeveloped area in the field of corruption. While most studies in the field have shown women are less prone to unethical behavior (e.g., Chen et al., 2016;Holtbrügge et al., 2015;Ramdani & Van Witteloostuijn, 2012;Swamy et al., 2001), we believe that few studies have explored the positive link between women and unethical behavior. By examining this link, we attempt to further extend IAT by filling a critical gap in gender perspective (Applin & Messner, 2015). ...
Article
While the firm bribery phenomenon has received much attention, we do not yet know how women-owned firms deal with firm bribery. We, therefore, examined whether women’s firm ownership is positively related to firm bribery in emerging markets. We hypothesized that bribery may represent an avenue for women-owned firms to tackle obstacles unique to such markets. We base our arguments on institutional anomie theory’s (IAT) premise that firm bribery is the outcome of barriers to achievement. Additionally, we examined institutional moderators. Using a sample of firms from the Business Environment Survey and combining it with country-level data, our multilevel tests supported most of our cross-level hypotheses. Findings suggest that women's ownership in a firm alone has no significant effect on firm bribing behavior. However, this firm-level relationship is negatively moderated by three social institutions consistent with IAT. Implications of our findings and future research are discussed.
... Wahlund (1992) postulated a negative association between attitude towards fraudulent behavior and age, indicating that older people have less support for fraudulent behavior. Concerning gender, several studies have found that women are generally less disposed to fraudulent behavior (Dollar et al., 2001;Swamy et al., 2001). In contrast, Amzi and Perumal (2008) found no substantial dissimilarities between males and females concerning their attitudes towards fraudulent behavior. ...
... In contrast, Amzi and Perumal (2008) found no substantial dissimilarities between males and females concerning their attitudes towards fraudulent behavior. Swamy et al. (2001), in their study, found that single participants showed a more favorable disposition towards fraudulent behaviors compared with the married ones. Wong (2008) found that men are more favorably disposed towards fraudulent behavior, while Hasseldine and Hite (2003) found that females were more unfavorably disposed towards fraudulent behavior than males. ...
... The present results further establish that female employees in Nigeria have a more favorable attitude to fraudulent behaviors than their male colleagues. This position does not support the claim of (Dollar et al., 2001;Swamy et al., 2001) who found that women are generally less disposed to fraudulent behavior, and Wong (2008) found that men are more favorably disposed towards fraudulent behaviors. This paper also established that younger employees tend to be favorably disposed toward fraudulent behavior than their older counterparts. ...
Article
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Fraud is rampant in a nation like Nigeria, reflecting virtually all national areas. Hence, organizational behavior researchers are attracted to reducing this fraudulent behavior. Therefore, this paper investigates the effect of frugality and materialism on employees' attitudes towards fraudulent behaviors within the work organization in Lagos and Oyo States of Nigeria. Moreover, it plans to reduce employees' favorable disposition towards fraudulent behaviors in Nigeria, mainly within Lagos and Oyo States. This paper adopted a survey research design. The analysis exposed that frugality, materialism, and demographic variables significantly affect employees' attitudes towards fraudulent behaviors within Nigeria's work organizations. The current study also indicates that frugality significantly negatively affects employees' attitudes towards fraudulent behaviors within the work organization in Lagos and Oyo States of Nigeria. In contrast, materialism significantly positively affects employees' attitudes towards fraudulent behaviors within the work organization in Lagos and Oyo States of Nigeria. The current findings also revealed that gender, age, marital status, and work experience contribute significantly to employees' attitudes towards fraudulent behaviors within the work organization in Lagos and Oyo States of Nigeria. Therefore, the leadership and management of work organizations should promote rewarding constrained behaviors; and train and mentor employees about the benefits of practicing self-restraint in the use of money and possessions and the value they place on them.
... The use of these data allows us to obtain more reliable information than that included in the financial statements and therefore reduces measurement errors since it is based on the actual data and not on estimated value (Devereux et al., 2018). In the empirical literature, some studies have used the aggregated tax returns of all companies (Gordon, Lee, 2001;Dwenger, Steiner, 2014), but it is not so common to find studies that have used directly the tax returns of each individual company, given the limited availability of such extensive and detailed confidential tax information. ...
... In this case, even though these findings are suggestive, the sample size is a big question mark in these surveys and for an exact conclusion, extended study, and the evidence is essential. Therefore, Swamy et al. (2001) used macro data in addition to microdata since the micro-evidence are not sufficient to obtain reliable results. In this 37th EBES Conference Proceedings -Volume I October 6-8, 2021 ...
... In order to prevent errors and have more reliable data, this index is obtained by using 13 different sources (surveys and assessments) from 12 independent institutions specializing in governance and business climate analysis. Swamy et al. (2001) use an index called Graft Index, that is reproduced from Corruption Perception Index, and they mentioned about its reliability. The higher scores in this index represent the cleaner public sector in terms of corruption. ...
Conference Paper
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Entrepreneurship is a fundamental part of any national economy. In sea-related economies, entrepreneurship is developed using the maritime resource. In the case of Croatia, tourism, and in its component nautical tourism, are extremely important for the regional and local economy, its survival and development. Given the importance of nautical tourism, especially the marina business and all activities related to marinas, including charter, authors have conducted several studies including this one. As shown by the SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis, which was conducted during the development of the first strategy for the development of nautical tourism (2006), the conditions and circumstances of Croatian coastal sites, which relate to the marina business, differ significantly from north to south. The objective of this research was, considering the difference in development of these localities, to investigate and to compare Croatian and German model of using sea as a resource. The aim was to answer the question why Croatian entrepreneurship is significantly less developed than Germany, at least in the part of the state-entrepreneurship relationship. Besides desk research, method of analysis was used to investigate that problem, as well as method of comparison. Business data, as well as other detailed information, was collected in collaboration with Kroeslin marina (Germany). Besides that, two German laws that come as a result of the German model were analysed. To conclude on the performance of the Croatian model which uses only concession model, criterion comparison of German and Croatian model was made. In this way interesting results were obtained. Based on these research results, it was concluded that Croatia still does not have a developed model and system for the use of resources, the sea, which would support the development of marinas, as well as entrepreneurship in general. Therefore, cooperation with Germany, as well as with other developed EU economies, is of special importance for the development of the Croatian economy.
... Previous studies argued that female participant in leadership positions is associated negatively with the level of corruption in firms (Breen et al., 2017;Ponomariov & Kisunko, 2018;Trentini & Malinka, 2017). This is because women have higher ethical standards (Swamy et al., 2001), more trustworthy (Dollar et al., 2001), fewer opportunities to commit corruption (Trentini & Malinka, 2017), and more risk-adverse than men (Buchan et al., 2008;Croson & Gneezy, 2009), and therefore negatively impacts the corruption degrees in businesses. ...
... According to previous psychology research, they have a lower level of overconfidence, higher possibility of risk aversion and conservation than men to maintain their security (Beu et al., 2003;Byrnes et al., 1999;Charness & Gneezy, 2012). Moreover, they are less selfish (Eckel & Grossman, 1998;Swamy et al., 2001), more sensitive about the needs of stakeholders (Bear et al., 2010;Swamy et al., 2001), more likely to comply with the rule, more communally and altruistically (Buchan et al., 2008), less competitive and aggressive (Rosener, 2011), less deceptive (Dreber & Johannesson, 2008), and tend to follow a code of ethics rather than their male counterparts (Ibrahim et al., 2009). Thus, businesses, which are managed by female managers, are less likely to involve in decisions relating to unethical behavior such as securities fraud and tax avoidance for economic goal (Chen et al., 2016;Cumming et al., 2015;Dreber & Johannesson, 2008;Lanis et al., 2015) and more likely to follow more socially responsible decisions (Alonso-almeida et al., 2015). ...
... According to previous psychology research, they have a lower level of overconfidence, higher possibility of risk aversion and conservation than men to maintain their security (Beu et al., 2003;Byrnes et al., 1999;Charness & Gneezy, 2012). Moreover, they are less selfish (Eckel & Grossman, 1998;Swamy et al., 2001), more sensitive about the needs of stakeholders (Bear et al., 2010;Swamy et al., 2001), more likely to comply with the rule, more communally and altruistically (Buchan et al., 2008), less competitive and aggressive (Rosener, 2011), less deceptive (Dreber & Johannesson, 2008), and tend to follow a code of ethics rather than their male counterparts (Ibrahim et al., 2009). Thus, businesses, which are managed by female managers, are less likely to involve in decisions relating to unethical behavior such as securities fraud and tax avoidance for economic goal (Chen et al., 2016;Cumming et al., 2015;Dreber & Johannesson, 2008;Lanis et al., 2015) and more likely to follow more socially responsible decisions (Alonso-almeida et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Empirical evidence, regarding the impacts of female leadership on firm’s corrupt level, is lack of studies in various research context. The objective of this study is to assess whether female managers impact negatively or positively on the corrupt behavior of family SMEs (household business) and nonfamily SMEs (Small and Medium-sized Enterprises). To do that, this paper used regressions, taken from a sample of 1,720 Vietnamese SMEs (based on the survey data of UNU-WIDER), to compare the impact of female percentage in management board in family and nonfamily businesses in reducing the level of corruption of the firms for the period 2011 to 2015.The findings indicated that first, drawing on socioemotional wealth theory and Vietnam context, family SMEs (household businesses) are more likely to engage in corruption. Second, we also found that female participant in management team can promote firms to be less involved in unethical practices such as bribe. However, the positive role of female managers in reducing corruption engagement is moderated by family control. We used upper echelon theory to suggest that female managers tend to have less managerial discretion in family-controlled organizations. This study has practical contributions, especially for policymakers and owners of household businesses.
... In recent years, a gender dimension has been added to these analyses. A number of authors have argued that increased participation of women in economic and political life could also negatively impact corruption (Dollar et al.2001;Swamy et al. 2001;Goetz, 2007;Chirillo, 2013, Esarey andSchwindt-Bayer, 2019). Several theoretical arguments are often advanced to explain this negative impact. ...
... According to these studies women are often selfless than men (Eckel and Grossman, 1998;Glover et al. 1997). In the same vein as Dollar et al (2001), Swamy et al (2001) conducted a study based on micro-data from world values surveys, they showed that women are less involved in corruption and accept less bribes. Using macroeconomic data for 93 countries sample, the authors found strong evidence that a larger proportion of women in ministerial positions, in parliament and in the Labour force, results in less corruption. ...
... Finally, an alternative line of research argues that the risk averse attitude that characterizes women is also put forward to explain the gender-corruption relationship (Swamy et al (2001). ...
Conference Paper
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This paper aims to investigate the gender-corruption relationship in 13 MENA countries over the period 2006-2020. Given the presence of cross-sectional dependence and the heterogeneity of the panel, we implement the second-generation econometric panel unit root and cointegration tests. Using the ARDL-PMG approach, which is categorized as an error-corrected model, the results are broadly in line with the existing literature. We show that increase in women's involvement in economic and political sphere decrease corruption. The findings also reveal that the joint impact of women's participation and institutional variables is more effective in lowering corruption. Democracy and political stability context play an important role in explaining the negative impact on corruption, especially when women are policymakers. Finally, we provide robust evidence that when country perform in gender equality, the link gender-corruption become stronger. These results lead to several recommendations for the MENA policymakers.
... Our paper is, fourth, related to the literature on whether economics and business students behave differently than students in other disciplines when it comes to, e.g., selfishness, rationality or-in this case of particular interest-corruption (Frank and Schulze, 2000;Schulze and Frank 2003). Fifth and finally, we resort to the literature on gender effects on corruption (Swamy et al. 2001;Rivas 2013;Alatas et al. 2009; Arnantier and Boly 2011). ...
... A similar picture can be found in the literature on the gender-corruption nexus that asks which sex is more tolerant to corruption. While Frank and Schulze (2000), Breen et al. (2017), Chaudhuri (2012), Rivas (2013), Swamy et al. (2001), Torgler and Valev (2010), Stensöta et al. (2015), and Lambsdorff and Frank (2011) find a stronger tendency of males to behave more anti-social by accepting and/or offering bribes, Armentier and Boly (2011) found no difference between sexes. Alatas et al. (2009) assume a dominance of cultural over gender explanations for corrupt behavior. ...
Preprint
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Using an incentivized online classroom experiment, we assess the effectiveness of deontological vs. consequentialist moral reminders. Participants were told that they are the responsible public servant for acquiring a Covid-19 vaccine, providing them with the opportunity to generate some extra private income by accepting a bribe. Our findings indicate that a deontological moral reminder ("corruption is immoral") leads to a significant reduction in accepting bribes. A consequentialist moral reminder, pointing out that bribes are costly to taxpayers, shows no significant effect. Furthermore, we do not find any empirical support that male participants are more corrupt in comparison to female participants. Students majoring in economics or business/management show more corrupt behavior than students studying to become economics school teachers, but the difference is not statistically significant. A person's disposition towards risk appears to have a strong dissuading effects. Our experiment was conducted before and after the unexpected announcement by pharmaceutical companies BioNTech and Pfizer on November 9th, 2020, that they will be able to provide an effective Covid-19 vaccine. This announcement does not correlate with a changed level of bribe-taking.
... For instance, weak ties are found to be facilitating (Li, 2011;Tanzi, 1994), neutralizing (Kingston, 2008), or inhibiting (Persson et al., 2013) corrupt exchanges. Females seem more (Alatas et al., 2009;Alhassan-Alolo, 2007), less (Dollar et al., 2001;Goetz, 2007;Swamy et al., 2001), or indifferently (Esarey & Chirillo, 2013;Sung, 2003) corruptible than male counterparts. The reconciliations likely rest on how individuals in different settings and with different demographics weigh their corruptibility against corruption risks (Alatas et al., 2009;Esarey & Chirillo, 2013;Swamy et al., 2001). ...
... Females seem more (Alatas et al., 2009;Alhassan-Alolo, 2007), less (Dollar et al., 2001;Goetz, 2007;Swamy et al., 2001), or indifferently (Esarey & Chirillo, 2013;Sung, 2003) corruptible than male counterparts. The reconciliations likely rest on how individuals in different settings and with different demographics weigh their corruptibility against corruption risks (Alatas et al., 2009;Esarey & Chirillo, 2013;Swamy et al., 2001). When the contradictory effects are canceled out or lean toward one direction at cost of the other, the overall effect may be a priori that is only to be determined by specific contexts. ...
Article
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This inquiry aims to investigate how the relational dynamics are imprinted on two critical dimensions of bribe-taking: corruptibility and corruption risks. Two treatments were randomly administered to 1400 subjects: single vs. repeated interactions and strangers vs. weak ties. The findings suggest that repeated interactions induce bigger bribe sizes, but also increase risks from whistleblowing and internal auditing. Weak ties mitigate bribe-taking willingness. Nevertheless, when coupled with repeated interactions, weak ties suppress the risks from whistleblowing, testifying the bifurcated effects. The tensions between corruptibility and corruption risks suggest that bribe-taking decisions are fraught with internal tensions, with the overall effects likely being a priori determined only in specific contexts. Such tensions are more intensified among true bureaucrats as they tend to claim bigger bribes and report more risks from internal auditing. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Similarly, human resource management studies find disparities in the workplace, such as those related to age (Abrams et al., 2016); gender (Alkadry & Tower, 2011); and race (Riccucci & Saldivar, 2014). Citing theoretical and practical limitations of viewing these demographic attributes in isolation, Bearfield (2009), Stivers (2002), and others advocate for social equity research that accommodates intersectionality (Crenshaw, 1989(Crenshaw, , 1991 and the reality of simultaneous membership in multiple socially constructed identity categories and its effects on lived experiences. This perspective is consistent with the approaches of recent public administration studies, such as those examining interaction effects of race and gender on disparities in work assignments (Christensen et al., 2012) and government contracting (Fernandez et al., 2013). ...
... However, some scholars find gender stereotypes contribute to negative associations between women and public perceptions of corruption (Barnes et al., 2018;Barnes & Beaulieu, 2014, 2019. Some cross-national studies suggest governments with greater numbers of women in positions of power experience less corruption (Dollar et al., 2001;Swamy et al., 2001). Others push back against the notion of women as incorruptible and the strategies that instrumentalize women as anti-corruption agents (Esarey & Chirillo, 2013;Goetz, 2007). ...
... Studies examining the link between gender inequality and corruption suggest that gender equality is associated with less corruption on the part of women (Dollar et al., 2001;Swamy et al., 2001). As Kasser-Tee (2021, p.478) suggests, if statistics show that Ghanaian men are more corrupt than women, it is because they have "more access to power, networks, influence, and financial resources." ...
... One primary method is the experiment (Alatas et al., 2009;Armantier & Boly, 2011;Rivas, 2013;Schulze & Frank, 2003). Another method used is a survey (Agerberg, 2014;Alolo, 2007;Dollar et al., 2001;Sung, 2003Sung, , 2012Swamy et al., 2001). Beaulieu (2014, 2019) used survey experiments to examine whether stereotypes of female candidates or female politicians influence people's perceptions of corruption. ...
Article
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The question as to whether women are less corrupt than men has been the focal point of an intense and ongoing debate. While some studies show that women are more risk-averse than men—and, as a result, less likely to engage in corruption—others point to the contrary. This study aims to answer two key questions: (1) are women more or less likely than men to engage in bribery? And (2) are women more or less likely than men to believe that one can report corruption without retaliation? Our results show that, compared to men, women are less likely to offer bribes, and they are also less likely to believe that one can report corruption without retaliation. Since women are less likely to engage in bribery, it is recommended that women’s representation in positions of power be increased.
... Do women behave as corruption cleaners? Experimental evidence suggests an affirmative answer, showing that females generally are less likely than males to engage in corrupt acts (Alatas et al., 2009;Fisar et al., 2016;Jha & Sarangi, 2018;Rivas, 2013; for excellent surveys, see Abbink, 2006;Frank et al., 2011;Chaudhuri, 2012;Stensöta & Wängnerud, 2018), and that female voters tend to punish corrupt politicians and their parties more harshly than male voters (Eggers et al., 2018). 1 In line with those experimental results, several survey-based studies document a stark, negative correlation between being female and corruption levels or tolerance of corruption (Alexander, 2018;Alexander & Bågenholm, 2018;Bauhr & Charron, 2020;Dollar et al., 2001;Esarey & Chirillo, 2013;Esarey & Schwindt-Bayer, 2018;Lee & Guven, 2013;Sundström & Wängnerud, 2016;Swamy et al., 2001;Torgler & Valev, 2010;Vijayalakshmi, 2008). 2 While the literature suggests a possible gender-corruption link, the mechanisms through which this link evolves remain under-explored. First, prior research has not clearly identified when gender matters, i.e., the specific corruption conditions under which men and women behave differently. ...
... 6 Other contributions examine elites' and citizens' willingness to sanction corruption as a proxy for tolerance of corruption (Chang & Kerr, 2017;Heidenheimer, 2002). exploring attitudes towards unethical behaviors-including corruption and tax evasionprovide evidence of females behaving more ethically (being more concerned with the socalled public good than their own) than males (Chaudhuri, 2012;Swamy et al., 2001;Torgler & Valev, 2010). By contrast, males may not object to corruption if it increases their private gains because they are more selfish than females (Andreoni & Vesterlund, 2001;Eckel & Grossman, 1998). ...
Article
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We use experimental data to explore the conditions under which males and females may differ in their tendency to act corruptly and their tolerance of corruption. We ask if males and females respond differently to the tradeoff between the benefits accrued by corrupt actors versus the negative externality imposed on other people by corruption. Our findings reveal that neither males nor females uniformly are more likely to engage in, or be more tolerant of corruption: it depends on the exact bribery conditions—which can reduce or enhance welfare overall—and the part played in the bribery act. Females are less likely to tolerate and engage in corruption when doing so reduces overall welfare. On the other hand, males are less tolerant of bribery when it enhances welfare but confers payoff disadvantages on them relative to corrupt actors. Females’ behavior is consistent across roles when bribery reduces welfare, but apart from that, gender behavior is strongly role-dependent.
... A handful of studies have explored the relationship between women's representation in government and governmental transparency. First, studies find that women legislators and elected leaders are less prone to corruption (Dollar et al., 2001;Swamy et al., 2001). Overall, women tend to be less tolerant toward governmental corruption in places where it is stigmatized, such as the USA (Esarey and Chirillo, 2013). ...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to explore the availability of information on law enforcement websites in the state of Wisconsin. Design/methodology/approach The study conducted a content analysis of all 179 county and municipal local law enforcement agency websites within Wisconsin. The authors then implemented a comparative analysis that explored whether the quantity and quality of information available on law enforcement websites are similar to those of local governments and school districts. The authors then estimated models to test whether there is a relationship between the population size served and gender distribution of law enforcement departments to the availability of information on law enforcement websites. Findings Law enforcement websites contain a noticeable lack of information. The finding is even more apparent when comparing law enforcement websites to the websites of local governments and school districts. Finally, the authors show a positive link between information sharing on law enforcement websites and the proportion of the civilian staff at an agency that are women. Originality/value Past studies that reviewed the make-up of law enforcement websites analyzed large law enforcement departments rather than local law enforcement departments, which notably represent the majority of most law enforcement departments. The authors also explicitly demonstrate that the commitment to information sharing is lagging within law enforcement websites compared to local-level governments. Future scholarship and law enforcement departments may benefit from exploring the employment of female civilians.
... We also expect female CEOs to make fewer risky corporate choices than male CEOs do. (Dollar et al., 2001;Swamy et al., 2001). For instance, Lam et al. (2013) documented that female CEO participation is on the rise and is considerably more visible in firms with private controls. ...
Article
We examine the effects of managerial compensation (i.e., inside debt holdings of chief executive officer, CEO) on price efficiency, proxied by the measures of stock price delay. Based on a sample of 2,617 firm-year observations for the 2006–2017 period, we find that CEO inside debt holdings have a significant positive effect on price efficiency. Furthermore, we find that stock liquidity plays a critical role in the effect of inside debt on price efficiency. Moreover, our study underscores the importance of CEO characteristics for understanding the relationship between CEO inside debt holdings and price efficiency. Consistent with our expectation, additional analyses show that this positive association is stronger for firms managed by CEOs who are male, older, and have longer tenure. Our study deepens the understanding of how managerial compensation shapes managerial incentives and offers insights to policymakers interested in enhancing price efficiency in shaping managerial incentives.
... Although there is much evidence on individual differences of unethical behavior (such as dishonesty) in individual settings (e.g., [18,19]), our knowledge about individual differences in collaborative settings, such as bribery (which by definition requires at least two parties working together for attaining benefits), is underexplored [13]. To date, beyond a small stream of work that has examined the role of sociodemographic characteristics of the individuals acting corruptly, notably the individual's gender, age, education, or cultural background (e.g., [10,[20][21][22]), only a few scholars have started to pay more attention to psychological characteristics and intrapersonal dynamics of the individual who acts corruptly (e.g, [12,15,16,23]). ...
Article
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Corruption is ubiquitous in practice and has severe negative consequences for organizations and societies at large. Drawing on a laboratory experiment, we propose that individuals high in moral commitment are less likely to engage in corrupt behaviors and prefer foregoing financial benefits. Specifically, we posit that individuals refrain from corruption (i) the more they endorse integrity (incorruptibility) as a protected value and (ii) the higher their level of Honesty-Humility. The results of a two-step experiment largely support our expectations: people who treat compromises to integrity as unacceptable were less willing to accept bribes, and Honesty-Humility decreased bribe-giving. The findings are robust to demographic variables (e.g., age, gender, cultural background) and additional personal characteristics (e.g., risk tolerance, dispositional greed) and have important implications for ongoing theory-building efforts and business practice.
... While representation of women in parliament has significant effect on both sub-dimensions of EPI, the effect both with OLS and IV 2SLS regressions is quantitatively more sizeable for environmental health. The findings are broadly consistent with the attendant literature on the relevance of gender inclusion in favorable economic development externalities, inter alia, the importance of women's political empowerment in mitigating climate change vulnerability ; the perspective that engaging more women in decision-making owing to their responsiveness to natural disasters is conducive to formulating and implementing policies that are against global warming (Alber and Roehr, 2006;Gaard, 2015); the engagement of women in political and administrative spheres leading to reduced corruption levels (Swamy et al., 2001) and the contingent importance of enhancing gender inclusion to reduce gender inequality (Asongu and Odhiambo, 2020). ...
Article
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This study explores the empowerment of women in politics on the environmental sustainability. Using data for the period 2015-2019 from 179 countries, we investigate the link between representation of women in parliament and the Environmental Performance Index (EPI). To explore the causal effect, we rely on gender quotas, language intensity and land suitability for agriculture as instruments for the share of women in parliament. Our results suggest that 10 percentage points increase in instrumented proportion of women in parliament leads to 7.1 points increase in the EPI. The results remain robust to a number of robustness checks.
... Participation of women in the labour force, parliament, and other divisions of the state may help to reduce corruption. These findings are supported by Swamy et al. (2001), Azfar et al. (2001), Dollar et al. (2001) and many others. ...
Article
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This study engages with new kinds of policies to combat corruption with real-life examples. Most of the corruption literature concentrates on the impact of corruption and is done at the macro-level. Studies on the causes and remedies are few. This article has focused on remedial measures as well as theoretical issues, measurement issues, types of corruption, causes and effects. Using a descriptive method of research this study introduces some innovative ideas. I have redefined the actors in the agency structure, which is absolutely novel. Existing definitions are unclear or confusing. I suggest that tools have to be set up so that bureaucrats or politicians cannot be corrupt even if they want to. Policy makers and experts will be able to develop insights from this article.
... The stronger negative effect of organized crime infiltration on female politicians' quality compared to males is detrimental for the whole society given women's recognized role in improving the quality of political institutions. Indeed, women are shown to prevent government corruption ( Dollar et al., 2001, Swamy et al., 2001Kudva, 2003;Goetz, 2007;Jha and Sarangi, 2018 ). 3 Moreover, empirical evidence also shows that women tend to vote according to social issues ( Goertzel, 1983 ), are more pro-redistribution than men ( Alesina and Giuliano, 2011 ) and finance more public goods . 4 Finally, women also affect the composition of public spending by allocating a greater budget to projects such as childcare, healthcare, and educational institutions ( Chattopadhyay and Duflo, 2004;Marit, 2007;Funk and Gathmann, 2015;Clots-Figueras, 2011 ). ...
Article
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Organized crime targets politicians with discretionary power over public resources, increasing the perceived risk of a political career and lowering its expected payoff. Since experimental evidence shows that women are more risk averse than men, organized crime infiltration should prove more effective in discouraging highly qualified women to take part in politics compared to men with the same level of power. The difference-in-differences estimates, which exploit the municipal government dissolution for mafia infiltration as an exogenous shock to the involvement of organized crime in local politics, reveal that organized crime has a stronger negative effect on the quality of female politicians compared to men. However, our results are compatible with alternative mechanisms such as organized crime influence on voters’ culture and on parties’ recruitment policies. Since our analysis is not conclusive, further research is needed to clearly identify the most likely driver of our results.
... Corruption is a phenomenon widely acknowledged within the context of biodiversity conservation and wildlife trafficking (e.g., Robbins, 2000;Gore et al., 2013). Some literature on the gendered nature of corruption relates findings about the purported tendency of women to be more averse to corrupt practices than men, for example, taking bribes to illegally secure paper to cross an international border (see Dollar et al., 1999;Swamy et al., 2001). This assumption is echoed in conversations about the potential of including more women in male dominated legacy roles such as policing, while failing to elucidate the practical dynamics of corruption (e.g., Goetz, 2007). ...
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The gender dimensions of wildlife trafficking remain understudied even though the problem is of great socio-environmental significance. Data about the roles of women in wildlife trafficking offer critically needed indicators that can contribute to building evidence and setting targets for, and monitoring progress of, sustainable and equitable futures. We set three objectives for this research filling a major gap in conservation knowledge: (1) explore expert perceptions of primary roles that women may play in wildlife trafficking, (2) explore expert perceptions of secondary roles that women may play in wildlife trafficking, and (3) explore variability in roles for women in wildlife trafficking. We used an online survey to conduct expert elicitation in February 2020 to achieve objectives. Experts ( N = 215) identified key assumptions associated with six primary and 32 secondary roles for women in wildlife trafficking. Results highlight the impacts of wildlife trafficking manifest in varied contexts across society, including persons harmed at local levels such as family members in general, widows and orphans. The perceived roles of women in the wildlife trafficking networks may be factored into transformative solutions to help combat wildlife trafficking and data from expert elicitation can inform future hypotheses and inferences on this topic of broad socio-environmental significance.
... La literatura sobre la corrupción apunta a diferentes dimensiones de la relación desigualdad-corrupción. Estudios empíricos multinacionales, por ejemplo, que tienden a enfocarse en la distribución de ingresos y percepciones de corrupción, señalan que los países con mayor desigualdad económica tienden a sufrir ma yores niveles de corrupción (Casas-Zamora y Carter, 2017;Husted, 1999;Swamy et al., 2001;You y Khagram, 2005). 2 Explican la relación sosteniendo, por un lado, que los sectores con más recursos económicos poseen mayores oportunidades para influir en el gobierno por medio de la corrupción (Ariely y Usla ner, 2017; Bardhan y Mookherjee, 2000;Gleaser et al., 2003;You y Kaghram, 2005). 3 A nivel estructural, esto incluye el uso de sus recursos para capturar al Estado o sus instituciones. ...
... 2. Less corrupt. A study by Swamy et al (2001) revealed that women in political positions tend to be less corrupt than their male counterparts. Given the devastating impact, corruption has on different societies, it is worth giving more women leadership roles if that will help reduce the loss of public funds. ...
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How do women perform in Turkish local government elections? Existing studies have delved on the subject of participation and representation of women in political activities and the main concern has been to assess the factors responsible for the underrepresentation of women in politics. However, previous studies have largely focused on the representation of women in national legislative assemblies seemingly to assert that political representation of women is confined to national politics and their representation in local governments is largely overlooked. This paper seeks to fill the lacuna in the literature by focusing on participation and representation of women in local government in Turkey. By using the supply and demand-side framework, we seek to understand factors that have contributed to the low representation of women in local governments in Turkey.
... Raširenost Interneta, mjerena brojem korisnika na 100 stanovnika, smatra se odnedavno važnim alatom za suzbijanje korupcije na više načina jer Internet ubrzava širenje informacija, što povećava rizik otkrivanja nedoličnog ponašanja (Andersen et al., 2011). Konačno, neke studije (Swamy et al., 2001) sugeriraju da bi veća prisutnost žena na tržištu rada mogla negativno djelovati na korupciju, možebitno zbog njihove veće averzije prema riziku, odnosno procjene da je veća vjerojatnost otkrivanja koruptivnog djela. Stoga se kao varijabla uzima i uključenost žena u tržište rada. ...
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The state by forming a tax system and by determining its numerous factors, such as the tax regulations clarity, the level of official’s salaries, corruption penalization, administration transparency and so on, affects the degree of corruption in a particular country. Research on this relationship, both in Croatia and in other countries, is relatively scarce. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of the tax system i.e. its complexity and the ratio of direct and indirect taxes, on corruption, on the sample of EU member states over the last decade. The results obtained by linear regression analysis show that countries with more complex tax systems face a higher level of corruption, as well as those countries that rely more on indirect taxes. Thus, the research results indicate that, in order to reduce corruption level, the tax system should be simplified, and the importance of direct taxes increased, while not neglecting the economic and redistributive effects of such changes.
... To empirically assess the relationship, we start with logit specifications following studies (using firm-level data) such as Wellalage and Thrikawala (2021), Dutta, Kar and Beladi (2022), Webster and Piesse (2018), and Swamy et al. (2001). In the presence of binary dependent variables, the ordinary least squares (OLS) method is likely to suffer from challenges such as predicted probabilities lying outside the unit interval. ...
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Do firms with majority female ownership differ from firms with minority female ownership or male‐owned firms in terms of perceived constraints on accessing finance? Using World Bank Enterprise Survey (WBES) data for Indian firms, our results show that there is no significant difference in male‐ and female‐owned firms in terms of their perceptions about accessing finance. Yet, this is true only for firms with minority female ownership (less than 50%). Firms with majority female ownership do perceive more constraints on accessing finance relative to firms with minority female ownership or zero female ownership. Based on demand‐ and supply‐side factors relating to business inexperience, weaker networking, and lender perceptions, as suggested by signalling and gender congruity theories, the results imply that majority‐female‐owned firms need to negotiate more for financing access, as they need to display positive signals for those investors who might possess stereotypical and gendered beliefs about the abilities of entrepreneurs. We also find that in relation to funding sources being one's own retained earnings or money from family and friends or advances from clients, majority‐female‐owned firms do not perceive financial barriers differently from male‐owned firms or firms with minority female ownership.
... Second, the samples in the present research were biased toward females. Although our findings are consistent with some research suggesting that men and women do not differ in their bribery intention (Bai et al., 2016;Gu et al., 2021;Li, et al., 2021), other research has revealed gender differences in terms of bribery (Lan & Hong, 2017;Swamy et al., 2001;Tan et al., 2016). Hence, in future research, a gender-balanced sample could be used to check the robustness of our key findings. ...
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The present research examined the effect of personal control on bribery intention and the mediating role of reciprocity beliefs in this relationship. In Study 1, we used questionnaires to investigate the correlational relationships among personal control, reciprocity beliefs, and bribery intention, and the results provided primary evidence for the mediated model. In Study 2, using a measurement-of-mediation design, we manipulated personal control to explore its effects on reciprocity beliefs and bribery intention. In Study 3, by adopting a moderation-of-process design, we examined whether increased levels of reciprocity beliefs weakened the relationship between personal control and bribery intention. Overall, these three studies showed that a decreased level of personal control resulted in stronger reciprocity beliefs, in turn promoting bribery intention. The results indicated that enhancing the sense of personal control and weakening reciprocal beliefs might be potential approaches to decrease bribery.
... According to Chen et al. (2020), we assume that an urban population increases R&D expenditure by increasing the educational level of the population. As a result, we think that the female parliamentarians boost research and development investment by cutting down on corruption in the field (see Swamy et al., 2001). ...
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There is a large body of work documenting the non-consensual effects of natural resources. Despite this extensive literature and the importance of innovation on economic outcomes, surprisingly little is known about the effect of natural resources on the research sector. This study proposes to fill this gap by examining the effect of natural resources on research and development expenditure. Using data from 82 developed and developing countries, we show that natural resources have on average a negative effect on research and development investment. We also find that natural resources are negatively associated with research and development expenditure in the public sector, higher education, and business sector. Distinguishing between different natural resources, we find that only point resources have a negative effect on the priorities given to research investments. Nevertheless, our results show that institutional quality and human capital are mechanisms to mitigate this trend.
... To ll this research gap, we control for these e ects by including dummy variables (mass media, the grapevine news, and Internet) in the regression model. We also control for the demographic variables of gender, 56 age, 57 education, 58 political a liation, 59 ethnic group, and urban or rural residency. Table 1 reports the statistical descriptions and covariance balance check of these variables. ...
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Governments must fight corruption to maintain legitimacy. However, anti-corruption campaigns do not necessarily convince citizens that corruption is less prevalent. This study analyzes how variations in the content of anti-corruption information reported in the media affect perceptions of corruption. We conduct a survey experiment in China and find that information about corruption cases, which is often sensa- tional and thus disseminates rapidly, may have a negative impact on public perceptions of corruption by exposing more corruption. By contrast, information on routine anti-corruption work, which is less dramatic, may positively influence perceptions of corruption. This study advances our understanding of corruption perceptions and has practical implications for controlling and preventing the practice.
... Female Mayor: Parts of the existing literature on corruption imply that a greater influence or proportion of female politicians reduces corruption levels (Dollar et al., 2001;Swamy et al., 2001). 31 Thus, I control for the gender of the mayor. ...
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Could imperial rule affect state institutions at the national, regional, and local level differently? No systematic theory exists, which is surprising given the importance that is attributed to foreign rule for political-administrative organization around the world. The effectiveness of imperial rule may differ along the administrative hierarchy because empires are often subject to financial constraints, limits on organizational capabilities, and informational asymmetries. Therefore, a commonly used approach—aggregation at the national level—may yield erroneous findings about colonial legacies by ignoring vital nuance. To address this gap, I develop a novel theory of imperial pervasiveness and test it through a number of statistical analyses. Leveraging an original dataset of citizen perceptions of state institutions in Romania, this study reveals vastly different long-term effects of historical Habsburg rule at the regional and local levels. The results indicate that we need to rethink the study of colonial origins.
... Although extant findings generally point to a lower propensity for corruption among women compared to men (Dollar, Fisman and Gatti, 2001;Rivas, 2013;Swamy et al., 2001), some studies identify gender as an intervening factor for the propensity of corruption: Firstly, the deterrent effect of increased risk of detection on corruption is stronger among women (Schulze and Frank, 2003). Secondly, the effect of gender on the propensity of corruption was found to depend on country culture (Alatas et al., 2009b). ...
Article
The development of effective anti-corruption measures relies on a sound understanding of underlying country-specific cultural patterns of corruption. However, finding these patterns faces the problem of ecological fallacies when tracing back the results of comparative macro-studies to the national level or of using ex-post explanations for cultural variances in experimental research designs. Thus, we ask how cultural patterns can explain country differences in the propensity to act corrupt without neglecting the aforementioned problems. Based on institutional theory, we model path-dependent cultural patterns at the macro, meso and micro levels promoting propensity to act corrupt in Poland and Russia. The results of experimental data gathered from students in Poland and Russia show that the extent to which legal nihilism and ethical dualism are institutionalized at the macro level, as well as the micro factors of gender-specific socialization and studying law, has a significant effect on the propensity to act corrupt.
... Some scholars find women less corrupt while others argue that there is no difference. When examining data on attitudes towards corruption, Swamy et al. (2001) find significant evidence that women are less tolerant to corruption than men. Conversely, an experimental study conducted in Australia, India, Indonesia and Singapore shows that women are less tolerant of corruption only in Australia but there are no significant differences in attitudes towards corruption in other countries. ...
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Purpose The aim of the study is to examine the effect of public attitude on petty corruption. Design/methodology/approach This is a survey study on customers of a licenses providing authority ( N = 390) in Cairo, Egypt. The authors use Akers social learning theory of crime and deviance and take into consideration criticisms of it. The authors control for individual and organizational level determinants that are identified by scholars as influencing people's attitudes toward corruption and which could be known through the authority customers' experiences. Because the dependent variable is binary, whether a person paid a bribe during last transaction with this authority or not, the authors use binary logistic regression. Findings The findings indicate that people are more likely to engage in petty corruption when they see it as acceptable, have previous petty corruption experience and when they use a mediator. Also, of those who dealt with that civil service authority during and directly after the 25th of January Revolution ( N = 161) 31% reported that they did not engage in petty corruption in comparison to previous years. They referred this to a change in attitude at the time. Originality/value The policy implications of the research are important. Social science theories could generate cultural and policy relevant solutions for petty corruption; however, they have not been taken full advantage of. Also, experience-based country-specific corruption survey studies are important input for an effective anti-corruption policy.
... To explore these possibilities, our instrumenting strategy is as follows: Beginning with CORRUPTION, we use the idea that relevant personal characteristics, captured by the variable GENDER, may be associated with higher corruption rates. Our use of this variable is inspired by earlier evidence collected by several authors (Dollar et al., 2001;Swamy et al., 2001;Schulze & Frank, 2003;Seligson, 2006) that women are less likely to condone corruption compared to men since women can be more risk-averse than men and/or may have higher social norms regarding bribery than men and/or may experience greater social pressures against 'taboo' corrupt behaviours. We use another control, PRIVILEGE, as a positive proxy for collusion enforcement: monitors are more fearful of reneging on agreements with individuals with powerful social and political relationships. ...
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Water theft carried out by manipulating water meters constrains the implementation of water-saving technologies, which themselves affect the incentives for theft. Using a theoretical model of centralized management, we show that theft is more likely when water prices and monitoring costs are high and punishment levels are weak. Adoption of water-saving technologies is more likely when monitoring costs are low and water prices are high, though only within the range of low to medium prices. The basic analysis is extended to allow for collusion between cheating farmers and the monitor. In the model, we show that collusion is more likely when punishments are weak. We test the model predictions, using data from Tunisia for the years 2012–18, relying on instruments that proxy for unobservable monitoring costs. We use the inverse probability weighting (IPW) method to correct for the potential bias arising from non-random sample selection. Although the econometric evidence supports the majority of the theoretical findings, various economic, socioeconomic, physical, and geographical factors can counteract or supplement these effects. HIGHLIGHTS The adoption of water saving-technologies under moral hazard (the farmer's intake is her private information).; The interaction of regulatory instruments designed to reduce the moral hazard behaviour of farmers and those to encourage technology adoption, in the sense that instruments aimed at mitigating moral hazard issues also affect technology adoption incentives and vice versa.; Collusion between farmers and monitors and how this collusive behaviour influences the incentives for technology adoption.;
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This paper studies the relationship between people’s beliefs about the quality of their institutions, as measured by corruption perceptions, and preferences for redistribution in Latin America. Our empirical study is guided by a theoretical model which introduces taxes into Foellmi and Oechslin’s (2007) general equilibrium model of non-collusive corruption. In this model perceived corruption influences people’s preferences for redistribution through two channels. On the one hand it undermines trust in government, which reduces people’s support for redistribution. On the other hand, more corruption decreases own wealth relative to average wealth of below-average-wealth individuals leading to a higher demand for redistribution. Thus, the effect of perceived corruption on redistribution cannot be signed a priori. Our novel empirical findings for Latin America suggest that perceiving corruption in the public sector increases people’s support for redistribution. Although the wealth channel dominates in the data, we also find evidence for the trust channel —from corruption to demand for redistribution via reduced trust.
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This paper examines the role of inflation targeting as a price signaling mechanism reducing price information asymmetry and potentially reducing incentives for corruptive actions through its direct control on the inflation rate, thus simultaneously increasing institutional quality. The obtained evidence suggests that adopting inflation targeting lowers corruption in a sample of 61 developing countries for the period between 1990 and 2018. Countries that have adopted inflation targeting experience lower corruption levels, as measured by the corruption perceptions (CP) index, controlling for other relevant determinants of corruption identified in the empirical literature, such as inflation, level of income, income distribution, trade openness and the rule of law. This result is sensitive to the type of inflation targeting adopted. Soft (unofficial) inflation targeting has no significant effect on the corruption level, giving support to the claim that strong institutional commitment, accompanied by transparency and constant communication with regards to inflation targets by the central bank, provides an adequate price signaling mechanism. In addition, the analysis provides evidence that an efficient rule of law reduces corruption levels significantly, although its effects are rather modest to support the claims that it can solely lessen corruptive behavior in the sample of developing countries.
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There is no clarity in the literature on the extent to which the personality and gender factors influence the propensity of individual employees to engage in corruption. This topic is gaining importance not only in theory but also in practice due to increasing scandals and violations of regulations. In this paper, the influence of personality and gender on corruption propensity and corrupt behavior is investigated using an experimental design of 2×2 groups. A study of 134 students from different universities in 2020 served as the sample. It was found that there are significant differences in corruption propensity and corrupt behavior between subjects. The case underlying the experiment involved a company where the subjects of the experiment worked. As a result, they were asked by the CEO of the company to hand over a suitcase of money containing bribes. It was found that women showed a higher degree of conscientiousness than men, but a significantly lower propensity to corruption overall than the male subjects.
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Research on gender biases in politics and society finds security affairs to be a ‘stereotypically masculine’ issue area. Traditionally, men are seen as more credible sources of knowledge and authority in arenas such as crime and the military, while women are assumed to be more credible in ‘stereotypically feminine’ ones like childcare and health. But women’s roles in politics, media, and other influential sectors are rapidly changing in the Mediterranean and Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. To test the conventional wisdom on gender and issue competency stereotypes in the media sector, we conducted an original public opinion survey of a nationally representative sample in Jordan (n = 885) assessing beliefs about the suitability of men versus women to report and offer commentary on national security affairs – specifically, an internal security threat described as a high-profile bank robbery. Strong patriarchal norms in Jordan suggest considerable bias should exist against women as sources of authority in stereotypically masculine domains and issue areas. Our survey results, however, do not support the conventional wisdom in public assessments of credibility, instead pointing to egalitarianism and even a modest credibility advantage for women on attributions of expertise. Given that theories of modernization, political knowledge, and social identity do not explain these counterintuitive findings, we make a theoretical contribution by proposing three novel explanations for why women in patriarchal contexts may at times avoid classic sexist backlash, and perhaps achieve greater credibility, as authorities on stereotypically masculine issue areas such as national security.
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Researchers have long theorized that characteristics of education systems impact both perceived and experienced corruption in public schools. However, due to insufficient cross-national survey data with measures on corruption in education and unassembled yet publicly available institutional data, there are few empirical tests of this theory. This article provides the rare direct test of the relationship between corruption in European public schools and three education system factors: government expenditure on education, education staff compensation, and teacher workload (pupil–teacher ratio). With a newly constructed harmonized data set for European countries, and controlling for national economic factors and individual characteristics, results of multilevel analyses suggest partial support for the theory that specific institutional characteristics of education systems impact public school corruption. The theorized institutional factors have different effects that depend on whether we examine bribe-giving experience or corruption perception. Results show that bribe-giving experience in public schools of Europe is weakly yet significantly related to education staff compensation. For corruption perception, low levels of government expenditure on education and a lopsided pupil–teacher ratio (too few teachers per student) increase the probability that people view corruption as prevalent.
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Nowadays, questions on the low female participation in senior management are considered and analysed not only within the academic community, but are also discussed and debated by politicians and business representatives. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the key issues and possible approaches to the topic. In the first part, the author focuses on leadership styles: contemporary issues, theoretical considerations and empirical research results. Based on the findings that support the comparative advantages of diverse leadership teams, the author deals with the recommendations on the optimal gender composition of senior management teams. As empirical data are not in line with the recommendations, the author draws attention to the challenges related to talent recognition in the case of potential women leaders and the unequal opportunities in manager selection, such as important factors of low female representation in senior management. Academic articles on terminology, alternative values, special contributions, meritocracy and the social and cultural aspects of unequal opportunities are covered in order to highlight the main factors of the topics discussed.
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This article tests gender system as a mediator in the relationship between gender and corruption. Using data from World Values Survey we find a robust, significant link between acceptance of patriarchy and acceptance of corruption. We also find a significant link between acceptance of male superiority and acceptance of corruption. In the relationship between gender and attitudes toward corruption, gender system is a consistently statistically significant predictor of acceptance of corruption whereas gender is not. The predictive power of acceptance of patriarchy and male superiority on corruption holds even with extensive controls. These results provide insight into the link between gender and corruption and suggest some of the wide‐ranging effects of gender system on the political system.
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Does the perception of high corruption lower the probability of innovation for Indian firms? Using World Bank Enterprise Survey's firm level data, we show that a unit rise in corruption perception of firms in India could lower innovation rate by about one percent. The result is important in terms of policy implementation since recent studies have shown that perceived obstacles can affect firms’ probability to innovate. Such analysis is missing in the Indian context where both big and petty corruption are rampant. Our results further show that perceptions about financial barriers matters only when firms also view corruption to be bad. Perceived difficulty in accessing credit in conjunction with corruption perception lowers probability of innovation by 4%. This is also true for perceived non-financial obstacles for firms. The results remain to robust to alternate identification strategies.
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This study investigates the role of institutional quality in human capital development using a panel of 49 African countries over the period 1996-2018. The study employs a dynamic model based on a two-step system generalized method of moments. The results show that improving institutional quality promotes access to primary, secondary, and tertiary education overall and for females. In particular, government effectiveness, control of corruption and political stability, and the absence of violence, including terrorism, are the most important dimensions that foster human capital development. The results suggest that fostering these particular institutional quality dimensions is critical to improving human capital development in Africa.
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We examine the correlation between gender and bureaucratic corruption using two distinct datasets, from Italy and from China. In each case, we find that women are far less likely to be investigated for corruption than men. In our Italian data, female procurement officials are 22% less likely than men to be investigated for corruption by enforcement authorities; in China, female prefectural leaders are 81% less likely to be arrested for corruption than men. While these represent correlations (rather than definitive causal effects), both are very robust relationships, which survive the inclusion of fine-grained individual and geographic controls, and based on Oster’s (2019. “Unobservable Selection and Coefficient Stability: Theory and Evidence,” 37 Journal of Business & Economic Statistics 187–204.) test unlikely to be driven by unobservables. Using data from a survey of Italian procurement officials, we present tentative evidence on mechanism: the gender gap is partly due to women acting more “defensively” in administering their duties.
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Corruption is a complex, widespread phenomenon with harmful economic and societal effects. Drawing upon theories in social psychology, political science, and communication, this study examines the direct and joint effects of mediated exposure to grand corruption and the presence of monetary incentives on people’s likelihood to engage in dishonest behavior. In a 2 × 2 factorial design (N = 404), half of all participants were exposed to a newscast about political corruption and one half was offered a reward for correctly answering questions about the newscast. Findings suggest that incentivizing was highly effective in predicting chances of cheating while news exposure to corruption was not. The data also indicate cheating is more common among certain sociodemographic groups.
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In the 2014–2020 programming period, cohesion policy funding made a major contribution to sustaining public investment in the EU in the context of fiscal consolidation following the economic and financial crisis; this was especially so in cohesion countries. Although EU Member States in many cases have significant nationally financed policies to tackle regional disparities, cohesion policy is the main source of financing for regional development policies in less developed Member States. Public investment, whether from the EU or national sources, is essential for regional development, especially when it triggers additional private investment to reinforce the process. Policies that shift economic activity into higher-value-added sectors and improve productivity and competitiveness, together with investment in human capital, transport infrastructure and improved governance, seem most effective in reducing regional disparities. Public finances improved steadily across the EU from the aftermath of the financial crisis of 2008–2009 up until 2019. However, the restrictions imposed to control the COVID-19 pandemic necessitated extraordinary policy measures to counter the economic downturn it induced and to safeguard jobs, worsening the budget balance in all Member States. At the onset of the COVID-19 crisis, public investment in the EU was lower than before the financial crisis of 2008–2009, particularly in many cohesion countries, raising concerns about the effect on their long-term growth potential and convergence towards GDP per head in the rest of the EU. Regional and local authorities executed almost a third of total general government expenditure and the majority of public investment in the EU (58% in 2019), though there were marked differences between Member States. Regional and local autonomy indicators suggest that spending and investment decisions are more centralised in cohesion countries than in the rest of the EU. Although the difference narrowed between 1990 and 2010, it has widened again over the past decade.
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To what extent does the gender of Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) matter in the relationship between home country corruption and firm exports? Drawing on post-structural feminist and institutional theories, we employ self-reported micro-level and cross-country data from 4714 firms in 75 countries during 2008-2015 to examine how differences in institutional contexts affect firms exports in men- and women-led firms. We find that pervasive and arbitrary corruption types have different effects on firm exports, and that female CEOs mitigate the effects of corruption in two distinct ways. Our results contribute to institutional and post-structural feminist literature, and are robust when controlling for economic development and the quality of gender institutional characteristics. Our study suggests that female CEOs in developing and emerging economies will be less vulnerable to predictably-corrupt institutions than to uncertain institutions.
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El presente artículo propone que, para contribuir a generar modelos de gobernanza, es fundamental incluir la perspectiva de género y fomentar la igualdad en todos los niveles de gobierno con la finalidad de garantizar que las mujeres y los hombres, los niños y las niñas participen y se beneficien de forma equitativa e igualitaria del proceso de gobernanza y desarrollo. En este sentido, el trabajo tiene como objetivo aportar información que genere conciencia sobre la gran responsabilidad que tiene el gobierno respecto al fomento de la igualdad de género. Para el desarrollo del presente artículo se empleó un análisis de data cuantitativa, mediante el uso de fuentes secundarias. A partir de este análisis se llegó a la conclusión de que, a pesar de los avances realizados por el gobierno en la materia, todavía estamos lejos de lograr el objetivo. El rol de la mujer en la participación política, el empleo y la educación está muy por debajo del varón.
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Wie kann der Rechnungshof die von der Verfassung vorgeschriebene Gleichstellung umsetzen? Wie soll Gleichstellung geprüft werden? Der Artikel stellt die Umsetzung innerhalb der Organisation dar und analysiert die Empfehlungen, die der Rechnungshof für die von ihm geprüften öffentlichen Stellen ausspricht. Im Anschluss wird die Frage behandelt, wie mehr Gleichstellung auch in der Korruptionsbekämpfung von Bedeutung sein kann. Denn die wissenschaftliche Literatur sieht einen deutlichen Zusammenhang zwischen mehr Frauen in Entscheidungspositionen einerseits, und weniger Korruption andererseits.
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A key to understand the evolution of an economy is the property rights institution and the contracting institution that the government set up to shape the business environment of private firms. Focusing on China during its crucial two decades of transition (from the early 1990s to the early 2010s), this paper documents how the country's business environment and the characteristics of entrepreneurs evolved, along with the role played by local governments. Relying on multiple comprehensive data sets, the paper shows that many aspects of local business environments improved: infrastructure, development of the court system, and access to external finance. Meanwhile, the share of politically connected private firms remained large, and their advantage in accessing key resources increased. Under this dual-track private sector development, private firms became larger and more innovative and adopted more formal corporate governance mechanisms. Entrepreneurs became better educated, with more diverse sectoral experiences. Market competition increased over time, especially after China's World Trade Organization entry. The paper offers suggestive evidence that this dual track development had negative consequences, such as a lower tendency to innovate by politically connected firms.
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With the data (N = 9718) from Nepal National Governance Survey 2017/18 of those who took public services in a year, this article examined the factors that drove service users to pay bribes to service providers. The result showed that the perception of service users that service providers comply with the rules; they are responsive to inform/listen/respond to the service users’ concerns; they simplify the process of the service; they receive adequate salary for their jobs; they have prior connections/networks to the service users have a negative effect on paying a bribe whereas the perceptions of service users that service providers deliver services to them on time; they require additional income, they deliver services in multiple attempts; they work in the land revenue office have a positive effect on paying a bribe. Therefore, it is high time to consider the factors for corruption-free service delivery.
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I analyze the link between partisan alignment of local politicians and the incidence of political corruption, using novel hand-collected data on local political corruption in Ghana. The empirical analysis, based on 205 districts observed over the period 2013–2018, suggests significantly lower levels of political corruption in aligned districts. Partisan alignment reduces corruption by 1.9 percentage points, equivalent to about half of the mean-level in non-aligned districts. In line with political ambition theory, I attribute this result to local politicians aligned with the national government having incentives to control fiscal irregularities within their localities in order to appease their national party leaders and preserve their party’s reputation. Alternative explanations are considered through empirical means and can be excluded. The estimated effect is more pronounced in districts that (i) are party strongholds, (ii) have better financial endowments, and (iii) have female local parliamentarians. It appears that political centralization and a politicized bureaucracy, as observed in Ghana, are important explanations for this finding.
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The corporate governance literature focuses on the firm-level corrupt environments of firm performance and does not pay sufficient attention to the importance of competition and CEO gender. Motivated by recent developments integrating a bribery perspective with contextual moderators in firm efficiency studies, this study attempts to present empirical evidence regarding the bribery-efficiency relationship in Vietnamese small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) from 2011 to 2015. Using the stochastic frontier approach to estimate firm technical efficiency scores, we find that an environment characterized by a high level of bribery has an adverse effect on firm efficiency. We also find that a dispersed business environment characterized by considerable heterogeneity in corruption perception is associated with an increase in firm efficiency. Furthermore, the results suggest that firms facing competitive forces are associated with less efficiency relative to firms without pressure. Moreover, efficiency tends to be greater for firms with a lower propensity to behave corruptly, such as firms managed by females. To investigate whether the effects of bribery on efficiency are dependent on firm competitive pressure and gender attitudes, we check whether these relations are particularly strong for firms highly pressured by competition and firms run by a female CEO; our results show strong support for this conjecture. The effects of competition and gender are particularly strong for firms operating in provinces with a low level of transparent competitiveness, while no effect is observed for firms that operate in provinces with a high level of competitive governance.
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This paper analyzes a newly assembled data set consisting of subjective indices of corruption, the amount of red tape, the efficiency of the judicial system, and various categories of political stability for a cross section of countries. Corruption is found to lower investment, thereby lowering economic growth. The results are robust to controlling for endogeneity by using an index of ethnolinguistic fractionalization as an instrument. Copyright 1995, the President and Fellows of Harvard College and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
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This paper complements a separate study in this Series ("Government Employment and Pay: A Global and Regional Perspective,"Policy Research Working Paper 1771, May, 1997) by providing the detailed statistical and econometric evidence on which that separate study is based. The authors briefly summarize the key findings of the earlier paper for the reader's convenience and to permit this paper to stand alone. However, the purpose of the paper is to provide the couintry-by-country statistics. The reader is referred to the companion paper for a description and analysis of the main findings.
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In recent years the growing interest of academics and policymakers in governance has been reflected in the proliferation of cross-country indices measuring various aspects of governance. The authors explain how a simple variant of an unobserved components model can be used to combine the information from these different sources into aggregate governance indicators. The main advantage of this method us that it allows quantification of the precision of both individual sources of governance data and country-specific aggregate governance indicators. The authors illustrate the methodology by constructing aggregate indicators of bureaucratic quality, rule of law, and graft for a sample of 160 countries. Although these aggregate governance indicators are more informative about the level of governance than any single indicator, the standard errors associated with estimates of governance are still large relative to the units in which governance is measured. In light of these margins of error, it is misleading to offer very precise rankings of countries according to their level of governance: small differences in country rankings are unlikely to be statistically - let alone practically - significant. Nevertheless, these aggregate governance indicators are useful because they allow countries to be sorted into broad groupings according to levels of governance, and they can be used to study the causes and consequences of governance in a much larger sample of countries than previously used (see for example the companion paper by the authors,"Governance matters", Policy Research Working Paper no. 2196).
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A central question for empirical economics, particularly economic growth, is which explanatory variables to include and exclude in the regressions. This paper aims to identify variables strongly correlated with provincial income growth in the Philippines by applying robustness procedures in determining which variables are strongly correlated with income growth. The extreme bound analysis (EBA) and Bayesian Averaging of Classical Estimates (BACE) were applied to fifteen determinants of income growth from a data set consisting of 74 Philippine provinces for the period 1985 to 2003 to test which among the explanatory variables are strongly correlated to growth. The tests show that among the fifteen variables, five variables stand out as being robust. The log of initial income, the ARMM indicator, the expenditure GINI and its square and the proportion of young dependents are all considered as strongly correlated to growth.
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This essay is concerned with the impact on society of the fact that an increasing number of men in the United States neither marry nor live with children. The author notes that between 1986 and 1993 the fraction of men 25 to 34 who are householders living with children declined from 66% to 40%. He makes the case that the increase in social pathology as evidenced by rising crime rates declining marriage rates increases in births outside marriage and increasing drug abuse may not be due to economic factors such as the rise in welfare payments or the decline in job opportunities alone. Rather he suggests that social changes such as the decline in the popularity of marriage are primarily responsible for these adverse effects. He argues that welfare is a response to poverty not its cause and that societys response to the disintegrating family should be to try to replace the income that has disappeared rather than trying to reduce the level of welfare.
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