Article

Resveratrol-derivatives and antioxidative capacity in wines made from botrytized grapes

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  • State Institute for Viticulture, Oenology and Fruit Technology Weinsberg
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Abstract

Eighteen quality wines from Tokaj (Hungary) and 15 quality wines with “Prädikat” made of botrytized grapes from Germany were analyzed for their resveratrol and total polyphenol contents, and their antioxidative capacities. Levels of total resveratrol in the quality wines from Tokaj were higher than in the quality wines with “Prädikat” from Germany, due to the different winemaking technology in making Tokaji Aszú. Compared to German white wines of normal quality (resveratrol 0.5–4.4 mg/l; mean: 2.1 mg/l), the wines made from botrytized grapes from Germany had lower concentrations of resveratrol and piceid (from <0.003 to 6.3 mg/l; mean: 0.9 mg/l). The Hungarian wines had slightly higher concentrations (from <0.003 to 7.8 mg/l; mean: 2.5 mg/l) due to their production technique.The antioxidative capacities (TEAC values) for the German wines ranged from 0.6 to 2.8 mmol/l (mean: 1.4 mmol/l), while the wines from Tokaj showed much higher values: from 1.1 up to 10.8 mmol/l (mean: 4.2 mmol/l). These polyphenol-rich wines could therefore be an excellent source of polyphenols with antioxidative capacity.

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... In comparison with normal white wines, botrytized wines generally contain much higher quantities of polyphenols (Poor Nickfardjam et al., 2002) elevating their antioxidant capacity. Measuring polyphenol content, as well as antioxidant capacity as TEAC (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) value (Re et al., 1999) in German and Tokaj botrytized wines, Pour Nikfardjam et al. (2006) reported much higher values (Table 6.8) than found in nonbotrytized wines (Pour Nikfardjam et al., 1999). This probably results due to the concentrating effect of grape dehydration, and berry maceration on the skins before pressing. ...
... This probably results due to the concentrating effect of grape dehydration, and berry maceration on the skins before pressing. Due to the much longer maceration time, and the alcoholic environment during maceration, Tokaji Aszú has higher values for both parameters, sometimes comparable with those found in red wines (Kállay et al., 1999;Pour Nikfardjam et al., 2006). ...
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Botrytized wines are natural sweet wines, produced from grapes that are affected by Botrytis cinerea under particular conditions. This rare and special form of fungal infection, called noble rot, includes complex enzymatic conversions and concurrent dehydration of the grape berry and results in a highly concentrated final product. The main characteristics of the noble rotted grapes involve high sugar, acid, glycerol and mineral contents, special polysaccharides, and particular aroma composition, which are thoroughly studied. The saprophytic microbiota of the grapes is also affected. Harvest and vinification of the noble rotted grapes are difficult, having special requirements. Microbiology and biochemistry of the alcoholic fermentation in these wines have been recently studied more deeply. Depending on the grape varieties as well as vinification and ageing technologies, botrytized wines show large diversity in style. Most of them are rich in polyphenols, possessing high antioxidant capacity. Biogenic amine and micotoxine contents of these wines are no public health concerns. This chapter presents the microbiological, biochemical, and technological aspects of noble rot and botrytized wines and discusses the recent findings on these fields.
... Especially, those Tokaj wines with a high amount of botrytized berries (Tokaji Aszú) show high resveratrol levels. Obviously, the concentrating effect of the berry shrinking caused by B. cinerea and the extraction of these berries in the high alcoholic base wine lead to these high resveratrol levels (Pour Nikfardjam et al. 2006b;Magyar 2011). ...
... Folin values for these wines can reach 1700 mg/L and an antioxidative capacity (TEAC value) of 10.8 mmol/L. These are values which otherwise are only reached by red wines (Pour Nikfardjam et al. 2006b). ...
Chapter
Polyphenols represent an important family of compounds found in grapes and wine. To date, more than 9000 flavonoids have been described and structurally elucidated in plant kingdom. Research on polyphenols mainly started in the early 1930s after the discovery of vitamin P and the “ascorbic acid cofactor” by Rusznyak and Szent-Györgyi (1936). Research on these compounds was intensified especially after the development of more sophisticated analytical methods. The general interest in polyphenols was also intensified after the publication of several epidemiological studies in the early 1990s, which suggested that the negative correlation between coronary diseases and a diet rich in saturated fats in France is mainly due to the relatively high consumption rate of red wine in this country. The polyphenols in red wine have been made responsible for this effect.
... The phenolic compounds in wine range from relatively simple compounds to complex tannin-type substances with antioxidant activity. The antioxidative capacities of German wines ranged from 0.6 to 2.8 mmol/l while the wines from Tokaj showed much higher values, the mean being 4.2 mol/l (Nikfardjam et al. 2006). The antioxidant activity of wines is determined by different methods based on the elimination of radicals or measurement of the redox properties of the following substances: TEAC, DMPD, ORAC, FRAP (Fogliano et al. 1999;Fernández-Pachón et al. 2004;Lachman et al. 2007). ...
... 0.58 mg/l) or near to the detection limit (trans-resveratrol 0.05 mg/l) ( Table 1). Nikfardjam et al. (2006) found only very low concentrations of trans-piceid and transresveratrol as well, and according to them the total content of polyphenols in German white wines ranged from 248 to 747 mg/l. ...
Article
The effects of the pressing technology and clarification of white grape musts on concentrations of phenolic compounds and their antioxidative capacity were investigated. Four different varieties were processed by hydraulic or pneumatic pressing technologies. In the individual stages of pressing and after the application of different doses of the clarification agent, must samples were analysed for the content of polyphenols and the antioxidative capacity. The highest concentrations of caftaric acid were estimated in the musts made by hydraulic pressing from grapes of Welschriesling variety. On the other hand, musts made from grapes of Grüner Veltliner showed the highest contents of trans-piceid in both variants of pressing. The values of antioxidative capacity of the must samples analysed were not significantly different. The influence of clarification on the changes of phenolic substances in young red wines of Saint Laurent variety was also studied. Six various clarifiers were tested as applied in two different doses. Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone caused the highest losses of trans-resveratrol in the course of red wine clarification. The concentrations of catechin, epicatechin, and total anthocyanins as well as the colour parameters of red wines were influenced at most by the application of egg white.
... Samorodné dry, semi-dry, and varietal wines are made from grapes without cibebas and are therefore characterized by low absorbance. These observations are consistent with reports of the effect of Botrytis cinerea on the global phenolic compound content in grapes and the associated differences between botrytized and non-botrytized grape (cibeba)/wine, e.g., increasing the amount of catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate (Carbajal-Ida et al. 2016), flavan-3-ols, furfuraldehyde (Figueiredo-Gonzalez et al. 2013;Furdíková et al. 2020),p-coumaric acid dimer, vanillic acid, syringic acid (Zimdars et al. 2017), total phenols (Ballová et al. 2016;Magyar 2011;Pour Nikfardjam et al. 2003;Pour Nikfardjam et al. 2006), flavonoid glycosides, and flavanones (Magyar 2011) with the level of botrytization. These components, together with others, can contribute to the observed absorption of UV-Vis light by Tokaj wines. ...
Article
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The suitability of UV–Vis spectrometry was evaluated for the classification of undiluted and diluted Slovak Tokaj wine samples according to style (essences, Tokaj selection, varietal and other wines), grade (quantity of cibebas), and variety (Furmint, Lipovina, and Muškát žltý) using principal component analysis (PCA), variable selection (VS), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), general discriminant analysis (GDA), and support vector machine (SVM). The individual groups of Tokaj wines differed in their production process, the quantity of cibebas used in their production, and the accorded Protected Designation of Origin status, all of which determined their price. In general, it was found that better classification was obtained based on the UV–Vis spectra of the diluted samples, VS was a more suitable algorithm for reducing the number of variables than PCA, and finally, LDA/GDA was preferred over SVM. The best total correct classification (100%) was obtained using diluted wines and VS-GDA method. To achieve this result, 45, 31, and 10 variables were needed for classification by style, grade, and variety, respectively. Thus, UV–Vis spectrometry combined with chemometrics can be widely exploited for quality control and authentication of Tokaj wines because of a relative simplicity, short-time analysis, and without considerable financial expenses.
... Noble rot stimulated the production of phenolic compounds that derive from the shikimate and phenylpropanoid metabolism. This could explain the higher levels of polyphenols that are present in white botrytized wines when compared with non-botrytized white wines (Nikfardjam et al., 2006). Phenolic compounds play important roles in the flavor and aroma, color, physical mouth feel, and health-promoting properties of wine (Gawel, 1998;Boulton, 2001;Waterhouse, 2002). ...
Article
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Noble rot results from exceptional infections of ripe grape (Vitis vinifera) berries by Botrytis cinerea. Unlike bunch rot, noble rot promotes favorable changes in grape berries and accumulation of secondary metabolites that enhance wine grape composition. Noble rot-infected berries of Sémillon, a white-skinned variety, were collected over three years from a commercial vineyard at the same time fruit were harvested for botrytized wine production. Using an integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics approach, we demonstrate that noble rot alters the metabolism of Sémillon berries by inducing biotic and abiotic stress responses as well as ripening processes. During noble rot, Botrytis induced the expression of key regulators of ripening-associated pathways, some of which are distinctive to normal ripening of red-skinned cultivars. Enhancement of phenylpropanoid metabolism, characterized by a restricted flux in white-skinned berries, was a common outcome of noble rot and red-skinned berry ripening. Transcript and metabolite analyses together with enzymatic assays determined that the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is a consistent hallmark of noble rot in Sémillon berries. The biosynthesis of terpenes and fatty acid aroma precursors also increased during noble rot. We finally characterized the impact of noble rot in botrytized wines. Altogether the results of this work demonstrate that noble rot causes a major reprogramming of berry development and metabolism. This desirable interaction between a fruit and a fungus stimulates pathways otherwise inactive in white-skinned berries, leading to greater accumulation of compounds involved in the unique flavor and aroma of botrytized wines.
... 65 Hence, methyl jasmonate treatment might be an effi cient natural strategy to both protect grapevine berries in the vineyard and increase trans-resveratrol content in grapes and wines. Analogically Nikfardjam and colleagues 66 investigated trans-resveratrol content in quality Hungarian and German wines from botrytized grapes and determined these values as very high, which is particularly true for the Tokay wines. Another approach is use of an organic way of cultivation. ...
Article
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Jaromír Lachman, Miloslav Šulc, Katerina Faitová, Vladimír PivecDepartment of Chemistry, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Czech RepublicAbstract: Phenolic compounds in wines, especially in red wines, possess strong antioxidant activity, have the largest effect in decreasing atherosclerosis by both hypolipemic and antioxidant mechanisms. The long-term uptake of red wine has a positive impact on antioxidant activity (AA) of blood plasma in rats in vivo and increases AA by 15%–20% compared to a control group. In the article the effect of total phenolics (TP), total anthocyanins (TA), individual anthocyanins, procyanidins and phenolics contained in red grapes, musts, grape seeds and skins and wines on the AA is discussed. Significant impact of varieties, viticultural regions and locations, climate conditions and vintage has been shown. Likewise, the ways and individual stages of the vinification technology process, and storage conditions affect color, TP, TA, and AA and health aspects of produced wines. Resveratrol, another free radical scavenger mainly contained in the skins of grapes, inhibits the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Higher amounts of trans-resveratrol (RES) have been found in wines from cool and wet climate regions and lesser amounts are typical for warm and dry regions. Changes in the TP content and AA affected by grape variety, vineyard location and winemaking process in white and blue varieties from different vineyards of the Czech Republic were studied. Significant differences in TP among varieties were found. Analysis of variance showed statistically high differences among red and white wines and growing locations. Wines differed significantly in TP content and AA increased significantly during the winemaking process. Statistically significant differences in AA values were found among growing areas, wines and varieties. Significant positive correlations between TP and AA were determined. Total antioxidant status (TAS) of white and red wines (white and blue vine varieties) determined by DPPH and ABTS assays revealed significant differences in AA between white and red wines. Moreover, differences were ascertained between individual varieties of red wine. The results obtained supported the assumption that variety plays a considerable role in TAS; the blue vine varieties showed a much higher TAS. Analysis of variance in AA showed statistically high significance between red and white wines. AA increased during the winemaking process, the highest increase was determined during fermentation and maturation stages of red wine.Keywords: wine, grape, antioxidants, antioxidant activity, DPPH, ABTS, extrinsic and intrinsic factors
... Phenolic compounds include many different molecules, ranging from phenolic acids to complex polyphenols, which are investigated in studies aiming at structure/ function based research (Flamini, 2003). The class of phenolic acids contains the series of benzoic acids and the series of hydroxy cinnamic acids (Lee & Jaworski, 1989) Resveratrols belong to the class of stilbenes and are known for their positive effect on cardiovascular diseases (Pour Nikfardjam, Lásló, & Dietrich, 2006). They are generated in grapes in response of fungal parasites and their content varies significantly between different countries and cultivars (Goldberg, Karumanchiri, Soleas, & Tsang, 1999). ...
Article
Full-text available
A rapid LC–MS/MS method for quantification of phenols and polyphenols in authentic wine samples with unrivalled sensitivity was developed. Excellent limits of detection in the low μg L−1 range were achieved. Reversed phase HPLC employing sub-2 μm particles as stationary phase allowed high-throughput analysis with analysis times of 10 min for 11 compounds. The phenolic pattern was assessed in 97 authentic wine samples (stored under identical conditions without further treatment or modification) comprising eleven geographical Austrian regions, six grape varieties and five vintages. Canonical discriminant analysis was applied to the data set showing the suitability of the (poly)phenolic spectrum for classification of the wine samples. The method allowed a geographic discrimination of several grape varieties and a grape variety based discrimination of four regions. As a novel finding excellent (poly)phenol-based differentiation of the five investigated vintages (2003–2007) was achieved.
... The Galician white wines showed, in general, values that were ten times higher in trans-resveratrol than in the Portuguese wines (de Revel et al., 1996;Ribeiro de Lima et al., 1999), although the contents in cis-resveratrol were similar and the concentrations were much higher in comparison to the values determined in wines from the Canary Isles (Darias-Martín et al., 2000;Rodríguez-Delgado et al., 2002), Japaneses (Romero-Pé rez et al., 1999), Greeks (Dourtoglou et al., 1999;Gerogiannaki-Christopoulou et al., 2006), and Turkishs (Gü rbü z et al., 2007), even though similar or lower to the contents cited for Brazilian wines (Vitrac et al., 2005), German wines (Nikfardjam et al., 2005), and wines from other European sources . ...
Article
Content in resveratrol (trans and cis) present in commercial white and red wines of the five Galician Controlled Denomination of Origin (CDO Monterrei, CDO Rías Baixas, CDO Ribeira Sacra, CDO Ribeiro and CDO Valdeorras) has been determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorimetric detection. The wines were filtered and directly injected, and also the samples were analyzed after the addition of two known amounts of the two standard isomers. The results obtained showed that the content in cis-resveratrol found in white and red wines ranged from 0.12 to 0.06 mg/L, respectively, whereas the concentration of trans-resveratrol was highest in the red wines (mean=12.68 mg/L), elaborated mainly from varieties such as Mencía, and practically null in the white wines (mean=2.51 mg/L), except in Godello and Albariño wines.
... Some authors have suggested that vinification techniques have a great influence on resveratrol and piceid levels in wine ( Bavaresco et al., 2000;Yasui et al., 2002). Clarifying and filtering lead to a decrease in resveratrol and piceid levels (Nikfardjam et al., 2006). Trans-resveratrol concentration shows marked fluctuations, which are temperature-dependent. ...
Article
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The moderate consumption of red wine has a relatively great benefit in the prevention of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CDH). Resveratrol, quercetin, and other polyphenolic flavonoids constitute the phenol content of wine, which have also been reported to be cancer preventive agents. The grape varieties, climate, soil, the use of agronomic techniques, the health of grapes and wine making processes are the most important factors on the phenolic content of red wine. In this research, direct injection high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is applied for the determination of trans-resveratrol and some phenolic antioxidants (catechin, epicatechin, quercetin and rutin) in sample wines. The wines are mostly known traditional Turkish red wines produced from different grape varieties originated from different geographical regions.
... Norizan et al. (2012) have reported the phenolic content of Shorea acuminate, Shorea leprosula, Shorea resinosa, Shorea macroptera and Shorea bracteolate (2731, 2615, 2461, 2461 and 2423 mg/100 g). Similarly they reported the total antioxidant property of the methanol extracts in the following order: Shorea macroptera> Shorea leprosula> Shorea resinosa> Shorea acuminate>Shorea bracteolate at 98. 68, 78.42, 71.11, 57.47 Resveratrol and its derivatives are powerful antioxidants (Pour Nikfardjam et al. 2006). This much higher activity may be due to the presence of above mentioned high molecular weight phenolic compounds which are resveratrol derivatives, have number of aromatic rings and hydroxyl groups. ...
Article
Full-text available
A detailed study has been performed on the antioxidant activity of the acetone and methanol extracts of the stem bark of the plant, Shorea roxburghii. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the extracts were determined by DPPH, radical scavenging, ferric ion reducing power, hydroxyl radical, ABTS(.) radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities. Reducing efficiency of the S. roxburghii towards silver nanoparticles has been evaluated using surface plasmon resonance and transmission electron microscope. Spherical shapes of particles with 4-50 nm have been reported. Formation of silver nanoparticles ascertains the role of the water soluble phenolic compounds present in S. roxburghii. Both acetone and methanol extracts of S. roxburghii stem bark was found to be a potent antioxidant. This work provides a scientific support for the high antioxidant activity of this plant and thus it may find potential applications in the treatment of the diseases caused by free radical. The extract of this plant could be used as a green reducing agent for the synthesis of Ag nanoparticles.
... Phenolic compounds include many different molecules, ranging from phenolic acids to complex polyphenols , which are investigated in studies aiming at structure/ function based research (Flamini, 2003). The class of phenolic acids contains the series of benzoic acids and the series of hydroxy cinnamic acids (Lee & Jaworski, 1989) Resveratrols belong to the class of stilbenes and are known for their positive effect on cardiovascular diseases (Pour Nikfardjam, Lásló, & Dietrich, 2006). They are generated in grapes in response of fungal parasites and their content varies significantly between different countries and cultivars (Goldberg, Karumanchiri, Soleas, & Tsang, 1999). ...
... Folin values for these wines can reach 1,700 mg/L and an antioxidative capacity (TEAC value) of 10.8 mmol/L. These are values which otherwise are only reached by red wines (Pour Nikfardjam et al. 2006b). ...
Chapter
Polyphenols represent an important family of compounds found in grapes and wine. To date, a plethora of polyphenols has been identified in various parts of the grape, although typically only 20-30 polyphenols are identified in grapes and must using standard analytical methods, such as HPLC/UV-Vis. The biosynthesis of these compounds follows the route: the shikimic acid, the phenylpropanoid, and the flavonoid pathway. The products of these pathways are the hydroxybenzoic and the hydroxycinnamic acids, the stilbenes and the flavonoids.
... The authors are aware this is the only investigation of resveratrol content in wine in the region, except the one involving botrytized Hungarian wines. Total resveratrol content was from < 0.003 to 7.8 mg/mL with a mean value of 2.5 mg/mL (46). In this case, high fungus pressure caused by Botrytis cinerea showed slightly higher content of resveratrol, which may be due to the long skin contact during production. ...
Article
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Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) is a phytoalexin produced by grapevines in response to fungal infection, particularly to Botrytis cinerea. It has been shown that it possess various biological effects such as prevention of cardiovascular diseases and anti-inflammatory and anticancerogenic properties. Red wines are a primary source of resveratrol. Although a number of investigations have focused on the determination of resveratrol in wines of different countries, there is no similar study about the wines produced in Serbia. As authors are aware, the only study concerning resveratrol content in wine in the Balkan region was conducted in Greece. In this study, the trans- and cis-resveratrol content in samples obtained from 18 commercial Serbian wines (10 red, 7 white, and 1 rose) were analyzed. Analyses were performed after solid-phase extraction by high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detection system using an RP-C(18) column with gradient elution [solvent A: acetonitrile-acetic acid-water (20:2:78 v/v), solvent B: acetonitrile-acetic acid-water (90:2:8 v/v)]. Detection of trans- and cis-resveratrol was performed on 306 and 286 nm, respectively. It was clearly established that there was a presence of trans-resveratrol isomers in all analyzed wines (0.11-1.69 mg/L) except in one white wine. Cis-resveratrol was present in 12 from 18 samples in different amounts (0.12-1.49 mg/L).
... Besides that, vine pruning and training system and phytosanitary conditions of the grapes can also affect their phenolic composition. Trellising has a significant influence on grape maturity that, in turn, affects the phenolic content of grapes and wines (Cortell & Kennedy, 2006;Gómez-Alonso, García-Romero, & Hermosín-Gutiérrez, 2007;Nikfardjam, Laszlo, & Dietrich, 2006;Pastor del Rio & Kennedy, 2006). ...
... Hence, methyl jasmonate treatment might be an efficient natural strategy to both protect grapevine berries in the vineyard and increase trans-resveratrol content in grapes and wines. Analogically Nikfardjam et al. (2006b) investigated trans-resveratrol content in quality Hungarian and German wines from botrytized grapes and determined these values as very high, which is particularly true for the Tokay wines. Another approach is use of an organic way of cultivation (Dani et al., 2007). ...
... Tab.15. Podmínky pro mobilní fáze A a B pro stanovení derivátu resveratrolu[46] ...
... A number of studies hypothesise that piceid may have biomedical properties similar to those above mentioned for resveratrol: anticarcinogenic effects [12,13] and inhibition of platelet aggregation [14,15] and of oxidation of LDL [16]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The antioxidant activities of trans-resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) and trans-piceid (trans-5,4'-dihydroxystilbene-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside), its more widespread glycosilate derivative, have been compared measuring their inhibitory action on peroxidation of linoleic acid (LA) and the radical scavenging ability towards different free radicals (such as DPPH) and radical initiators. It has been found that the two stilbenes have similar antioxidant capacity, while the comparison with BHT (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E, vit. E), taken as reference, points out a slower but prolonged protective action against lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, piceid appears more efficacious than resveratrol as a consequence of the reaction of the latter with its radical form. The DSC profiles of phosphatidylcholine liposomes of various chain lengths, and EPR measurements of spin labelled liposomes demonstrated that the susceptible hydroxyl group of these compounds are located in the lipid region of the bilayer close to the double bonds of polyunsaturated fatty acids, making these stilbenes particularly suitable for the prevention and control of the lipid peroxidation of the membranes.
... Noble rot stimulated the production of phenolic compounds that derive from the shikimate and phenylpropanoid metabolism. This could explain the higher levels of polyphenols that are present in white botrytized wines when compared with non-botrytized white wines (Nikfardjam et al., 2006 ). Phenolic compounds play important roles in the flavor and aroma, color, physical mouth feel, and health-promoting properties of wine (Gawel, 1998; Boulton, 2001; Waterhouse, 2002). ...
... In another study, a significantly high amount of trans-resveratrol was induced by the 2nd day of B. cinerea infection, followed by the rapid decline in the levels by the 5th day after infection [27,28]. Surprisingly, a lower concentration of resveratrol was found in wine made from botrytized grapes, as compared to the wine from healthy grapes in Germany, while slightly higher resveratrol was reported in Hungarian wines prepared from B. cinerea infected grapes than those from healthy grapes [29]. Recently, 4-5 times induced accumulation of resveratrol in leaves, shoots, and flowers, was noted in the blooming stage, following three days after B. cinerea inoculation [30] (Table 1). ...
Article
Full-text available
Resveratrol is the most important stilbene phytoalexin synthesized naturally or induced in plants, as a part of their defense mechanism. Grapes and their derivative products, including juice and wine, are the most important natural sources of resveratrol, consisting of notably higher amounts than other natural sources like peanuts. Consumption of red wine with its presence of resveratrol explained the "French Paradox". Hence, the demand of resveratrol from grapes is increasing. Moreover, as a natural source of resveratrol, grapes became very important in the nutraceutical industry for their benefits to human health. The accumulation of resveratrol in grape skin, juice, and wine has been found to be induced by the external stimuli: microbial infection, ultrasonication (US) treatment, light-emitting diode (LED), ultra violet (UV) irradiation, elicitors or signaling compounds, macronutrients, and fungicides. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase, coumaroyl-CoA ligase, and stilbene synthase play a key role in the synthesis of resveratrol. The up-regulation of those genes have the positive relationship with the elicited accumulation of resveratrol. In this review, we encapsulate the effect of different external stimuli (biotic and abiotic stresses or signaling compounds) in order to obtain the maximum accumulation of resveratrol in grape skin, leaves, juice, wine, and cell cultures.
... Besides that, vine pruning and training system and phytosanitary conditions of the grapes can also affect their phenolic composition. Trellising has a significant influence on grape maturity that, in turn, affects the phenolic content of grapes and wines (Cortell & Kennedy, 2006;Gómez-Alonso, García-Romero, & Hermosín-Gutiérrez, 2007;Nikfardjam, Laszlo, & Dietrich, 2006;Pastor del Rio & Kennedy, 2006). ...
Article
The aim of this study is to monitor the evolution of the principal phenolic compounds throughout the fermentation stage of white wines treated with different enzymes. The effect of five commercial enzymes on the evolution of the phenolic profile during the alcoholic fermentation of white wines obtained from Fetească regală and Sauvignon blanc varieties was evaluated. Physicochemical properties of resulted wine samples have been analyzed according to OIV standards and regulations. The evolution of the principal phenolic compounds was carried out using HPLC method. Enzymatic treatments did not significantly affect the physicochemical composition of the obtained wines. The analyzed samples showed different variations on the phenolic compound content, depending on the type of added enzyme and grape variety. The statistical analysis confirms that enzymes significantly contributed to the enrichment of the wines with phenolic compounds, especially with p-coumaric, gentisic, caftaric, and protocatechuic acids.
... nd: not detected Landrault et al. (2002) have reported the presence of viniferin (stilbene oligomers having chemopreventive activity) only in red and botrytized sweet white wines with levels between 0.1 and 1.63 mg/L. Nikfardjam et al. (2006) have reported higher levels of polyphenols in white botrytized wines as compared to nonbotrytized white wines. The antioxidative capacities (TEAC values) for the German wines ranged from 0.6 to 2.8 mmol/L, while the wines from Tokaj showed much higher values ranging from 1.1 up to 10.8 mmol/l. ...
Article
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Botrytized wines are the sweet wines made from grapes that have been botrytized with the fungus Botrytis cinerea Pers. (B. cinerea). This fungus grows on grapes and are responsible for causing Botrytis bunch rot and/or grey mould rot in many vineyards around the world. Under specific climatic conditions fungus produces pourriture noble or noble rot which is a desirable stage for the production of botrytized wines from these infected berries. The infection has been found to cause dehydration of the grape berries along with other significant modifications like skin-cell degradation, glucose degradation and generation of glycerol and aromatic compounds. During rotting aromatic compounds have been found to be highly modified and lead to the formation of characteristic compounds like 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2-furanone, furfural, benzaldehyde, phenylacetaldelyde and benzyl cyanide which are known for their distinctive aroma. To exploit the higher concentration of various chemical constituents including sugars the sweet white table wines are produced commercially from these infected berries. The botrytized wines are rich source of polyphenolic antioxidants which provide various health benefits to the cosumers.
... The current study provides a scientific support for the high antioxidant activity of this plant, and thus, it may find potential applications in the treatment of the diseases caused by free radical [55]. Several studies confirmed that the plant containing flavonoids, phenols, and polyphenols are responsible for free radical scavenging activity of herbal drugs and it is may be responsible for antioxidant activity of this plant resin [56][57][58][59][60]. ...
Article
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Shorea robusta is regarded as an important medicine in Ayurveda. S. robusta Gaertn. f. belongs to family Dipterocarpaceae, and traditionally, it is used to treat wounds, ulcers, leprosy, cough, gonorrhea, earache, and headache and many more. The use of different parts of this plant such as leaves, resin, and bark as a medicament for the treatment of various conditions is well documented in literature. It is the rich source of flavonoids, saponins, steroids, tannins, phenols, etc. Mainly triterpenoids, which play the prominent role for their therapeutic potential in the drug. These compounds are believed to be responsible for the pharmacological activities of plant extract. The present review clarified the main active ingredients and pharmacological effects of S. robusta as a promising plant as a result of effectiveness and safety. Further studies should be carried out this plant to discover the unrevealed part of it which may serve for the welfare of humankind.
... Five butt Aszú wines from vintages between 1999 and 1993 showed decreased amounts of polyphenols and also antioxidative activity due to much longer aging period in which more oxidative degradation could have occurred. Consequently, lower amounts of polyphenols and antioxidative activity were determined for six butt Aszú wine from 1981 season (Pour Nikfardjam, L aszl o, & Dietrich, 2003;Pour Nikfardjam, L aszl o, & Dietrich, 2006). The five and six butt Aszú wines as well as Furmint wines contained gallic, protocatechuic, caftaric, and coutaric acids as well as catechin in the mg/L range, higher total polyphenol content and antioxidative activity were observed for butt Aszú wines than Furmint wines (Pour Nikfardjam et al., 2003). ...
... Εκχυλίζεται κυρίως κατά την αλκοολική ζύμωση των ερυθρών οίνων. Η συγκέντρωσή της κυμαίνεται από 1-3 mg/L και έχει διαπιστωθεί πως είναι ευεργετική για την υγεία(Κοτσερίδης, 2006, Ribéreau-Gayon et al., 2006, Dell'Agli et al., 2004, Nikfardjam et al., 2006: Το μόριο της ρεσβερατρόλης ...
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Changes in the principal phenolic compounds during the vinification process and storage under modified atmosphere of Greek wines have been investigated. HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS was used for the identification and quantification of more than 30 principal phenolic compounds, namely anthocyanins (malvidin, etc.), flavonols (quercetin, myricetin, etc.,), flavan-3-ols (catechin) and hydroxycinnamates (caftaric and coutaric acid). The existence of some of these molecules (laricitrin, syringetin and isoramnetin), was confirmed for the first time in Greek wines. During maceration, the most polar molecules, like anthocyanins, were extracted imminently, while the flavan-3-ols followed at a lower rate after a lag phase. In all varieties, the total phenol content reached a maximum within 2-8 days. The effect of vinification processes, like cold maceration and addition of pectolytic enzymes, has been studied. Both processes enhanced the extraction of grape polyphenols during the vinification. Moreover, during cold maceration, due to the low ethanol content and the obstruction of the fermentation, the more polar and water soluble constituents presented increased extraction rates, whereas the extraction of flavan-3-ols was suspended. On the other hand, the use of pectolytic enzymes did not appear to affect the extraction rates of phenolic compounds. Comparing the variation of metals at maceration process, with the variation of monomeric anthocyanins and flavonols, an inverse relationship was noticed that can be attributed to complexing reactions of polyphenols with particular trace elements. During one year storage, the concentration of total phenols remained practically constant and even samples stored under a thin atmospheric air layer, retained up to 80% of their initial phenolic content. On the contrary, free anthocyanins, participated in polymerization reactions with flavan-3-ols and their concentration declined almost tenfold during a few months, following 1st order kinetics. Also, enzymatic hydrolysis of other phenolic compounds like flavonol glycosides and tartaric esters that lead to the respective aglycones and hydroxycinnamic acids was observed. The modified atmosphere had little effect on the observed changes of phenolic constituents, except for the decrease of monomeric anthocyanins. The rate constants of the reactions presented a significant difference (p<0.05) between the MAP stored samples and the blind samples that were packaged with atmospheric air. Considering the evolution of color during storage, the indexes of color intensity (CI) and brilliance (dA%) declined, while the hue index (T) followed an increasing trend during storage of red wines. The statistical evaluation of the results did not detect significant differences on color parameters due to storage under different modified atmosphere. Copigmentation of anthocyanins accounts for over 30% of the fresh red wine color, while during storage, the color of polymeric pigments formed between anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins predominates. Rosmarinic acid and natural extracts rich in hydroxycinnamic acids, obtained from aromatic plants (Origanum vulgare and Satureja thymbra), were examined as cofactors to fresh Merlot wine and the effect on anthocyanin copigmentation and wine color was studied during storage for 6 months. An increase of the copigmented anthocyanins that enhanced color intensity by 15–50% was observed, confirming the ability of complex hydroxycinnamates to form copigments. The samples with added cofactors retained higher percentages of copigmented anthocyanins and higher color intensity, compared to the control wine, up to 3 months. However, the change in the equilibrium between monomeric and copigmented anthocyanins that was induced by added cofactors, did not affect the rate of polymerization reactions during storage.
... Noble rot stimulated the production of phenolic compounds that derive from the shikimate and phenylpropanoid metabolism. This could explain the higher levels of polyphenols that are present in white botrytized wines when compared with non-botrytized white wines (Nikfardjam et al., 2006). Phenolic compounds play important roles in the flavor and aroma, color, physical mouth feel, and health-promoting properties of wine (Gawel, 1998;Boulton, 2001;Waterhouse, 2002). ...
... Noble rot stimulated the production of phenolic compounds that derive from the shikimate and phenylpropanoid metabolism. This could explain the higher levels of polyphenols that are present in white botrytized wines when compared with non-botrytized white wines (Nikfardjam et al., 2006 ). Phenolic compounds play important roles in the flavor and aroma, color, physical mouth feel, and health-promoting properties of wine (Gawel, 1998; Boulton, 2001; Waterhouse, 2002). ...
... Noble rot stimulated the production of phenolic compounds that derive from the shikimate and phenylpropanoid metabolism. This could explain the higher levels of polyphenols that are present in white botrytized wines when compared with non-botrytized white wines (Nikfardjam et al., 2006). Phenolic compounds play important roles in the flavor and aroma, color, physical mouth feel, and health-promoting properties of wine (Gawel, 1998;Boulton, 2001;Waterhouse, 2002). ...
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The present work studies the use of nanofiltration for the production of red wine concentrate with low alcohol content. Factorial design was applied to measure the influences of transmembrane pressure (10-20 bar) and temperature (20-40 ℃) on the retention of valuable components such as anthocyanins and resveratrol, and on the nanofiltration membrane performance. The highest retention of anthocyanin and resveratrol was achieved at low temperature (20 ℃), while the high transmembrane pressure (20 bar) was found to increase the permeate flux considerably. The experiments demonstrated that nanofiltration appears as a valid technique for the production of low alcohol content red wine concentrate. Reduction of volume by a factor of 4, leads to 2.5-3 times more anthocyanins and resveratrol in the wine concentrates. The final new wine products - obtained by using various forms of reconstitution of the concentrated wine - had low alcohol content (4-6 % by volume) and their sensory attributes were similar to those of the original wine.
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The present paper documents the uses of plants in traditional herbal medicine for treatment of human and veterinary ailments in four village development committees in the Humla district of western Nepal. It also determines the homogeneity of informant's knowledge on medicinal plants suitable for different ailment categories and the most preferred plant species used to treat each ailment category in the study areas. The ethnobotanical information was collected through semi-structured interviews and key informant discussion. The data were analyzed through informant consensus factor (ICF), fidelity level (FL) and use value (UV). We documented 161 plant species belonging to 61 families and 106 genera used for treating 73 human and 7 veterinary ailments. We also documented culinary uses and additional uses for 67 and 33 species of medicinal plant species respectively. Most medicines were prepared in the form of powder and used orally. Roots were most frequently used plant parts. The uses of 93 medicinal plants were not mentioned in any previous studies. Gastro-intestinal ailments have the highest ICF (0.40) whereas opthalmological uses have the lowest (zero) ICF. Mentha spicata and Rumex hastatus has the highest FL (100% each) both being used for gastro-intestinal ailments and Delphinium himalayai has the lowest (47.4%) for veterinary uses. ICF values indicated that there was high agreement in the use of plants in gastro-intestinal ailment category among the users. FL or UV values indicated the most preferred plant species used in study areas. These preferred plant species could be prioritized for conservation and subjected to further studies related to chemical screening for their authenticity. Most of the medicinal plants of the region are collected in the wild and are often harvested for trade. Sustainable harvesting methods and domestication of the highly traded species is thus needed in the study areas.
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Fourteen quality wines from Tokaj area of Slovakia were analysed for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. All Tokaj wines showed very good antiradical effect (against DPPH radical), more than 50%, Tokaj essence (75.72%) and Tokaj 6 puttony (72.7-78%) showed the best antiradical activity. Antioxidative (antiradical) effect of wines expressed in % inhibition ranged from 57.61 to 78.00. The year of grape cultivation and botrytization of grape showed important influence on antioxidant status of wines. The antimicrobial (antifungal) activity of Tokaj wines against fungi Alternaria infectoria, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, Trichophyton ajelloi and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied using the agar well diffusion method as well. The inhibition zones at Alternaria infectoria strains varied from 15.50 +/- 1.87 mm at Tokaj grade wine variety Furmint to 20.33 +/- 2.07 mm at Tokaj wine 6 puttony and 20.33 +/- 3.78 mm in the Tokaj Lipovina dry. The inhibition zones at Scopulariopsis brevicaulis strains varied from 17.33 +/- 3.01 mm, in the Tokaj wine Furmint dry to 24.67 +/- 7.89 mm in the Tokaj wine 4 puttony. At Trichophyton ajelloi strains inhibition varied from 21.33 +/- 4.50 mm in the Tokaj wine Furmint dry to 32.67 +/- 4.72 mm in the Tokaj wine spontaneous dry. The inhibition zones at Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains varied from 4.40 +/- 1.34 mm in the Tokaj grade wine variety Furmint to 8.17 +/- 1.72 mm in the Tokaj wine Furmint dry.
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Undesirable effects of the pathogen Botrytis cinerea include reduced quality and quantity of wine grapes. Winemaking is also complicated by the formation of a protein haze in white wines and oxidative browning of red wines. We analyzed proteins in experimental Moravian white wines characterized by their instability and haze formation in bottles during storage despite prior bentonite treatment. To study the relationship of wine proteins and haze we carried out proteomics on hazy and clear white wines produced with partly or largely botrytized grapes and standard reference wines. Wine proteins were identified after their extraction, electrophoresis and tryptic digestion by reversed‐phase liquid chromatography of peptides, coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Plant defense proteins, yeast glycoproteins and various enzymes from Botrytis, particularly hydrolases, were found. As the content of the known haze‐active thaumatin‐like proteins and chitinases was visually low on stained gels (missing bands) compared to previous studies with unfined wines, other proteins are discussed in terms of the haze formation. As the main novelty, this work reveals the role of high proline‐containing proteins in the propensity of white wines to turbidity following prior Botrytis damage of grapes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method with diode array detection was developed for the determination of trans- and cis-resveratrol in red wines. Separation was achieved after direct injection by the use of a BDS Hypersil C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm) with gradient elution (solvent A: acetic acid 2%, solvent B: acetonitrile). Detection of trans- and cis-resveratrol was performed at 306 and 286 nm, respectively. The retention times of trans- and cis-resveratrol were 22.2 and 26.1 min, respectively. Good linearity and precision were obtained for the two isomers. Detection limits of 0.004 mg/L for trans-resveratrol and 0.02 mg/L for cis-reveratrol were obtained. The developed method was applied to determine cis- and trans-resveratrol in 30 red wines produced in Oltenia (southwestern Romania). The wines came from different vineyards harvested in various vintages. The concentration of trans-resveratrol ranged from 0.287 to 7.188 mg/L, while the content of cis-resveratrol ranged from 0.718 to 6.587 mg/L. The highest amount of trans-resveratrol was found in Merlot from Vanju Mare, Mehedinti (7.188 mg/L), followed by Sirah from Corcova, Mehedinti (4.738 mg/L), both from the 2010 harvest. The paper also approaches the study of the transformation of trans-resveratrol into the cis form after ultraviolet irradiation through glass and quartz. At the irradiation of a trans-resveratrol solution through quartz, the formation of another two compounds apart from cis-resveratrol was observed.
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Epidemiological data indicate that moderate red wine consumption leads to less coronary heart disease and shows anti-carcinogenic effects. Especially, red wine phenolics have been linked to these effects. Sixty-seven red wines from the Hungarian Villány region, of vintages from 1996 to 2003 were analysed for their polyphenolic and anthocyanin composition by means of RP-HPLC/UV–Vis. Varieties with generally high concentrations of polyphenols are Kékfrankos, Merlot and Zweigelt, while anthocyanin content was highest in Shiraz, Oportó, Kékfrankos and Zweigelt. In agreement with other authors, our results show that trans-resveratrol content is mainly dependent on variety and vintage year. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that flavan-3-ols and delphinidin- and petunidin-3-glucosides are mainly responsible for the separation of wines according to polyphenolic composition. We could not discriminate between varieties or wineries based on polyphenol content, but could for vintage years.
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Growing knowledge on the health-promoting impact of antioxidants in everyday foods, combined with the assumption that a number of common synthetic preservatives may have hazardous side effects has led to increased investigations in the field of natural antioxidants, principally those found in plants. Food industries normally discard plant residues that could benefit the human health and diminish undesirable environmental impact. Once estimated the content of antioxidants in these residues, advantageous economical and social alternatives to the discard are possible, for example, their use for preparation of nutraceuticals to be offered to low-income populations. We present here a broad, although not complete, account of the continuously growing knowledge on the antioxidant capacity of whole fruits, seeds and peels, cereals, vegetal oils and aromatic plants, at several physical forms, as well as a description of the usual methods for evaluating their antioxidant capacity and examples of agroindustrial processes that could be harnessed for the production of antioxidant supplement food, along with research perspectives in the area.
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Analysis of (poly-)phenols in commercially available red wines by means of LC-MS. Our aim was to verify if quantities in a selected phenolic profile, consisting of 20 phenols, can be used for geographical allocation and varietal specific characterisation of 50 commercially available red wines, with special interest in wines from the region of Vienna. The first task was the development of a fast, reproducible and accurate method for the chromatographic separation of (poly)phenols. The second task was their quantification by means of liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (LC-MS) and the third task was data analysis by means of discriminant statistical methods. The used separation method was reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). After the examination of several column materials our choice was a material with a particle size of 1.8 mu m. It was superior to other samples regarding the most important characteristics for HPLC separation (capacity factor, height of a theoretical plate and chromatographic resolution). The detection via MS was performed on a time-of-flight and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, both equipped with electro spray ionization (ESI) as ionization method. The final measurements were performed with the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, because of its higher signal to noise ratio and larger linear and dynamic range. The results of the statistical examination confirmed that most wine samples could be grouped properly according to their geographical origin and variety. It was even possible to distinguish between different producers within the region of Vienna.
Chapter
The German wines Beerenauslese and Trockenbeerenauslese are made with botrytized grape juices containing more sugar than is converted to alcohol during fermentation. The wines are correspondingly sweet and low in percentage alcohol (generally between 6 to 8% vol.). Typically, there is just one sweet style produced in Sauternes, whereas there are several botrytized styles produced in Germany. Stored products were evaluated for grape colonization in grape bioassays and in field trials, and for Botrytis cinerea density using colony-forming unit analyses and a nucleic-acid-based method. The environmental management of vineyards and inoculum history play an important role in the production of botrytized wines.
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We report here, for the first time, the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of resveratrol using KNO(3)-aggregated citrate-reduced silver (Ag) colloids. The technique provided a substantial spectral enhancement and therefore good quality spectra of resveratrol at parts per million (ppm) concentrations. The detection limit was found to be <1 mu M, equivalent to <0.2 ppm. The SERS profile additionally closely resembled its normal solid-state Raman spectrum with some changes in relative intensity. These intensity changes, together with a precise band assignment aided by density functional theory calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level, allowed the determination of the structural orientation of the adsorbed resveratrol on the surface of the metal nanoparticles. In particular, the SERS spectra obtained at different resveratrol concentrations exhibited concentration-dependent features, suggesting an influence of surface coverage on the orientation of the adsorbed molecules. At a high concentration, an adoption of close-to-upright orientation of resveratrol adsorbed on the metal surface through the p-OH phenyl ring is favoured. The binding structure is, however, altered at lower surface coverage when the concentration decreases to a tilted orientation with the trans-olefin C=C bond aligning closer to parallel to the surface of the Ag nanoparticles.
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Resveratrol, occurring as trans- and cis- isomeric forms, is a phytoalexin existing in grape vines, as well as the product, wine, and a large number of plants. Owing to its diverse pharmacological activities, including anticancer and anti-cardiovascular disease activity as well as life span increasing properties, quantification methods of resveratrol are evolving rapidly, including high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with various detectors, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) related techniques. In the present review, our interests are focused on analytical methods of resveratrol determination based on separative techniques, and the advantages and disadvantages of each method are summarized and compared.
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Natural sweet wines are mainly characterised by their high sugar concentration which can be achieved by over-ripening of grapes and/or a previous process of grape dehydration. Although the quality of these sweet wines is determined essentially by aroma compounds, few reports on phenolic compounds and colour of sweet wines have been published. Phenolic composition and colour of natural sweet wines are described now in this review from two points of view: influence of drying or dehydration process on colour and phenolic composition of grapes for producing natural sweet wines; and also, influence of grape sugar process on colour and phenolic composition of their respective sweet wines. Grapes and wines are simultaneously grouped according to the dehydration -on or -off-vine. The grape drying process should be studied in greater depth to know mechanisms involving phenolic compounds that directly affect the colour, stability and ageing of natural sweet wines.
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Antioxidant herbal wines were made from 13% cassava starch. Natural flavor and color was extracted from 1% dried herb with boiled water and used them for wine making. Gelatinized starch was hydrolyzed by Sumizyme for 2 h in rotary shaker at 30°C after that time dried yeast was added for converting sugar to ethanol. At the end of fermentation process, the characteristics of wine including total phenolic compound (TPC) and DPPH radical scavenging activity (DPPH activity) were also analyzed. Ethanol concentration of herbal wines were around 48-52 g/l. TPC and DPPH activity were higher than control wine (no herb extracted). The highest DPPH activity and TPC were detected from herbal wines making from the bud of Nymphaea lotus.
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Since the pioneering work of Siemann and Creasy, reporting that resveratrol is present in wine and may protect against heart diseases, much interest has been focused upon this compound which is produced by grapevines in response to fungal infection. We have investigated here the influence of aging on the resveratrol content of wine through the analysis of wines of different ages. Resveratrol appears relatively stable in wine. The relationship between the level of resveratrol in a wine and the fungal disease pressure in the vineyard for a given vintage has also been examined. It is suggested that conditions leading to infection by Botrytis cinerea enhance resveratrol production, but that extensive grey mold development may destroy the induced phytoalexin. Thus years with low levels of disease are associated with maximum wine concentration of resveratrol. Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) is a stress metabolite produced by grape leaves as a response to fungal infection or injury (21,22). It was also found in grape berry skins upon infection or stress (6,14,23). Siemann and Creasy (29) have reported that the reduced serum lipid levels observed in humans as a result of drinking wine might be attributed to the presence of this compound in wine. As a result, much interest has been focused upon the analysis of resvera-trol in wine (12,15,20,31,32). There is now considerable evidence that wine phe-nolics and namely resveratrol (33) inhibit low-density lipoprotein oxidation (9,10) and reduce platelet aggre-gation (5), two major parameters implicated in atherothrombogenesis. This provides a possible explanation for the cardioprotective action of wine and now constitutes an active field of research. Because previous work had been almost exclusively carried out on young wines (15,20,29), this study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of aging on the resveratrol content of wine through the analysis of wines of different ages. As resveratrol is a phytoalexin related to grape disease resistance (1,4,6,7,8,
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Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene), a grapevine phytoalexin related to grey mold resistance, is produced by grape berries of Vitis vinifera L. and Vitis labrusca L. in response to UV-irradiation; its production decreases during fruit ripening. In vinifera varieties, the resveratrol content of whole berries steadily declined between the green stage and complete maturity, nearing zero in ripe fruit, while a pronounced decrease was observed in the berries of V. labrusca after veraison. On the other hand, resveratrol synthesis was found to be located in the skin, thus showing that the principal resistance of grapes to fungal attacks takes place at this level. Finally, the decrease of resveratrol production during maturation was also confirmed by the fact that there is a clear negative correlation between the resveratrol content of grape skin and the developmental stage of berries measured by the sugar concentration of juice.
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The influence of two different yeast strains and the effect of malolactic fermentation on the content of cis- and trans-resveratrol and resveratrol glucoside isomers in wine was studied, as well as the effect of gelatin and PVPP fining. The analyses of trans-, cis-resveratrol and resveratrol glucoside isomers were carried out by RP-HPLC separation. The yeasts with higher 8-glucosidase activity significantly increased (p < 0.001) the concentrations of cis- and trans-resveratrol and decreased the concentration of trans-resveratrol glucoside, while malolactic fermentation had less effect on their concentrations (p < 0.05). Treatment of wine with gelatin had no effect, neither on free nor on glucosidic forms. The aglycone forms showed significant binding to PVPP (up to 90%), but glycosides showed less binding (up to 10%).
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Resveratrol has attracted interest as a wine constituent that may reduce heart disease. Published data on the molar absorptivity and chemical stability of cis- and trans-resveratrol have varied greatly. Accurate values for UV absorbance for trans-resveratrol [UV λmax (EtOH) nm (ε) 308 (30 000)] and cis-resveratrol [UV λmax (EtOH) nm (ε) 288 (12 600)] were determined and are used to improve chromatographic quantitation methods. Trials conducted under a variety of commonly encountered laboratory conditions show that trans-resveratrol is stable for months, except in high-pH buffers, when protected from light. cis-Resveratrol was stable only near pH neutrality when completely protected from light. Keywords: Antioxidant; phenolic; wine; grape; stilbene; isomer; UV spectroscopy; absorptivity
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The major natural polyphenols of wine are flavonoids. Red wine also contains a natural phytoalexin called resveratrol which recently has been the subject of conflicting reports regarding its protective role against cardiovascular diseases. We have investigated the free radical scavenging capacity of resveratrol, its effects on xanthine oxidase (XO) activity, spontaneous membrane lipid oxidation, and DNA cleavage. Resveratrol showed a dose-dependent free radical scavenging activity, significant inhibition of XO activity, an anti-lipoperoxidative capacity, and a protective effect on DNA cleavage. The antioxidant capacity of resveratrol is ascribed to the concomitant activities of scavenging free radicals, metal chelating, and inhibition of some enzymes involved in free radical generation.
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ABSTRACT Observations using light microscopy showed that approximately 30% of Botrytis cinerea conidia treated with semi-lethal concentrations (i.e., 60 mug/ml) of the grapevine phytoalexin resveratrol possessed intracellular brown coloration. This coloration was never observed in the absence of resveratrol or in conidia treated with resveratrol together with sulfur dioxide (antioxidant compound) or sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (inhibitor of laccase action), suggesting that discoloration resulted from the laccase-mediated oxidation of resveratrol. Further studies using transmission electron microscopy enabled the observation of particular intravacuolar spherical vesicles and of granular material deposits along the tonoplast. These observations are likely to be related to the oxidation of resveratrol by an intracellular laccase-like stilbene oxidase of B. cinerea.
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Content of resveratrol-derivates was analyzed in commercial grape juices. The obtained results were compared with experimental juices of pure varieties. In white commercial samples only little amounts of resveratrol-derivates could be found (mean: 0.5 mg/l; max. 2.2 mg/l; min. < 0.1 mg/l), in red juices significantly more (mean: 3.1 mg/l, max. 12.5 mg/l, min. < 0.1 mg/l). In white variety pure juices the amounts were also low (mean: 0.2 mg/l, max. 0.5 mg/l, min. < 0.1 mg/l), in red juices again quite high (mean: 6.3 mg/l, max. 15.3 mg/l, min. < 0.1 mg/l). In variety pure juices the resveratrol-content depended on the variety as reported for wine. Blending of red with white juice could not he proved by resveratrol-content, but possibly by the percentile content on polyphenols, because e.g. commercial samples contain rather small concentrations of anthocyanins (13% of whole polyphenol content, in variety pure juices more than 60%). The antioxidative capacity is quite higher in the variety pure juices (mean: 16.1 mmol/l, max. 36.2 mmol/l) than in the commercial ones (mean: 5.0 mmol/l, max. 12.9 mmol/l). These parameters, in combination with the polyphenol content (estimated by Folin-method), could eventually been used to prove a blending of red grape juice with white ones.
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Ripe cluster stems of V. vinifera L. cvs. Barbera and Nebbiolo were extracted with methanol in order to check resveratrol contents. Different stem to hydroalcoholic solution ratios (0.3, 0.6, 0.9 g 100 mL(-1)) were tested to simulate the time-course (2, 3, 4, 8 days) of resveratrol extraction that might occur during alcoholic fermentation, due to dropping of stem pieces into the must during destemming and crushing. Average trans-resveratrol contents of Barbera and Nebbiolo fresh cluster stems were, respectively, 802 and 332 mu g.g(-1); cis-resvertarol was not found. Increasing ratios between cluster stems and hydroalcoholic solution enhanced trans-resveratrol extraction. The average transfer of trans-resveratrol from the stems to the synthetic wine was 740 and 1,114 mu g.L-1 for Barbera and Nebbiolo, respectively; the highest contribution (2,802 mu g.L-1) occurred in the case of Barbera, 0.9 g stems . 100 mL(-1) at day 4.
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A method for the screening of antioxidant activity is reported as a decolorization assay applicable to both lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants, including flavonoids, hydroxycinnamates, carotenoids, and plasma antioxidants. The pre-formed radical monocation of 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS*+) is generated by oxidation of ABTS with potassium persulfate and is reduced in the presence of such hydrogen-donating antioxidants. The influences of both the concentration of antioxidant and duration of reaction on the inhibition of the radical cation absorption are taken into account when determining the antioxidant activity. This assay clearly improves the original TEAC assay (the ferryl myoglobin/ABTS assay) for the determination of antioxidant activity in a number of ways. First, the chemistry involves the direct generation of the ABTS radical monocation with no involvement of an intermediary radical. Second, it is a decolorization assay; thus the radical cation is pre-formed prior to addition of antioxidant test systems, rather than the generation of the radical taking place continually in the presence of the antioxidant. Hence the results obtained with the improved system may not always be directly comparable with those obtained using the original TEAC assay. Third, it is applicable to both aqueous and lipophilic systems.
Article
In most countries, high intake of saturated fat is positively related to high mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD). However, the situation in France is paradoxical in that there is high intake of saturated fat but low mortality from CHD. This paradox may be attributable in part to high wine consumption. Epidemiological studies indicate that consumption of alcohol at the level of intake in France (20-30 g per day) can reduce risk of CHD by at least 40%. Alcohol is believed to protect from CHD by preventing atherosclerosis through the action of high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, but serum concentrations of this factor are no higher in France than in other countries. Re-examination of previous results suggests that, in the main, moderate alcohol intake does not prevent CHD through an effect on atherosclerosis, but rather through a haemostatic mechanism. Data from Caerphilly, Wales, show that platelet aggregation, which is related to CHD, is inhibited significantly by alcohol at levels of intake associated with reduced risk of CHD. Inhibition of platelet reactivity by wine (alcohol) may be one explanation for protection from CHD in France, since pilot studies have shown that platelet reactivity is lower in France than in Scotland.
Article
Using an HPLC method with diode array detection, we have measured the concentrations of flavan 3-ols (catechin and epicatechin), trihydroxystilbenes (the cis and trans isomers of polydatin and resveratrol), flavonols (quercetin and rutin), and the hydroxy acid p-coumaric in 644 white wines from the major wine-producing regions. Quercetin and rutin were detectable in very few of these wines, and the latter could not be unequivocally distinguished from isoquercitrin, which was not specifically measured in this study. One or more of the hydroxystilbenes were measurable in most, but the cis isomers of polydatin and resveratrol were not frequently detectable. Among Chardonnay wines, those from Australia had the highest concentrations of both flavan 3-ols, while those from California were highest in p-coumaric acid and trans-resveratrol. For Sauvignon blanc wines, those of South Africa had the highest content of both flavan 3-olso for Riesling wines, those from France (Alsace) were highest in (+)-catechin and trans-resveratrol, German wines in (-)-epicatechin, and Canadian wines in trans-polydatin. French wines from Pinot (blanc and gris) were higher in all constituents than North American, while Italian wines from this cultivar were the lowest. There were no significant differences in polyphenol concentrations between Gewurztraminer wines from France and North America. Low concentrations of polyphenols were found in miscellaneous white wines from Central Europe and Italy. When analyzed by cultivar rather than by region, highest flavan 3-ol concentrations were observed in wines from French hybrid grapes (Vidal blanc and Seyval blanc) and lowest in Gewurztraminer, whereas the former had lowest concentrations of p-coumaric acid and trihydroxystilbenes. In all instances, the concentrations of the polyphenols measured in white wines were 5% to 25% those of red wines (with quercetin and cistrihydroxystilbenes being undetectable in most) and do not explain why white wines may have the same potency as red wines in certain biological functions. Climatic factors that appear to modulate polyphenol coricentrations in red wines such as stress, fungal pressure and sunlight do not seem to be important for white wines. The intrinsic properties of the individual cultivars or clones together with regional differences in enological techniques may be the most important factors.
Article
Resveratrol (RT) has been suggested to have a protective effect against cardiovascular diseases. We analyzed the concentration of RT in red wine samples at early stages of aging and old vintage wines, by a combination of normal and reverse phase HPLC. Although we have previously reported that RT contents in red wine samples, made from eight grapevines grown in Hokkaido, Japan, after malolactic fermentation were generally higher than those measured at the end of alcoholic fermentation, the increasing level of RT in the wines was shown to continue until 8 months after malolactic fermentation accompanied by a decrease in piceid (RT glucoside) probably due to β-glucosidase produced by lactic acid bacteria. During further storage period the RT level was presumed to little change. In analysis of red vintages (from 1982 to 1992) made from the same grapevine, considerable amounts of RT (1.8-3.5 mg/l) were present. Although there was a decrease of cis-RT content with aging years, there was no correlation between trans-RT content and aging years, suggesting that trans-RT level in wines would be stable during aging period. The relationship between trans-RT levels in the vintages and weather conditions at the vineyard from June to September of harvest years showed trend where the concentrations of trans-RT decreased when the temperature was high. Thus, it was found that much of the variation in RT content in red wines, reported in the literature, could be partially explained by weather conditions during the grape berry development as well as by intrinsic properties of grapevines from which wines were vinted.
Article
Resveratrol, a grapevine phytoalexin, is metabolized by a laccase-like stilbene-oxidase of Botrytis cinerea, the causal organism for grey mould. Characterization of one major metabolite formed during this degradation process as a resveratrol dehydrodimer allowed us to precize the reaction mechanism of this enzyme on stilbenes.
Article
Stilbenes have been shown to have cancer chemopreventive activity and to protect lipoproteins from oxidative damage. A method is described for their direct determination in different types of wine using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. In a survey of 120 commercial wines from Portugal and France, the highest concentrations of stilbenes were found in red wines. The glucosides of resveratrol were present in higher concentrations than the free isomers. Isolation from wine and characterization of trans-astringin in a large quantity are described for the first time. Keywords: Astringin; resveratrol; piceid; wine; Vitis vinifera
Article
A novel method for measuring the antioxidant activity using N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD) was developed. The radical cation of this compound gives a stable colored solution and a linear inhibition of color formation can be observed in the presence of 0.2−11 μg of TROLOX. The experimental protocol, which is rapid and inexpensive, ensures sensitivity and reproducibility in the measure of antioxidant activity of hydrophilic compounds. The effectiveness of the DMPD method on real foods was verified by evaluating the antioxidant ability of wine samples coming from different areas of Campania, Italy. Antioxidant capacity of wines is strictly related to the amount of phenolic compounds. The results obtained by the DMPD method are very similar to those obtained on the same samples when the radical cation of 2,2‘-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) (Miller et al., 1996) was used. Keywords: Antioxidant activity; DMPD; radical cation; ABTS; wine
Article
The resveratrol monomers (trans-piceid, cis-piceid, trans-resveratrol, and cis-resveratrol) have been previously identified and quantified in red wines. Here, the levels of these compounds in Spanish white and rosé wines are described. For white wines, a concentration step was needed to quantify the four resveratrol isomers. The recovery and reproducibility of this procedure were very good. These white wines had levels between 0.051 and 1.801 mg/L. Rosé wines had an average level of 2.15 mg/L, in between those of red and white wines. Keywords: Resveratrol; piceid; glucosides; white wine; rosé wine
Article
Isolation from red wine and characterization of trans- and cis-resveratrol, trans-resveratrol p-Dglucopyranoside, and cis-resveratrol P-D-glucopyranoside are described. Extraction from grape skin and chemical changes of the four compounds during a conventional red wine vinification were monitored, showing the close relationship among the contents of the compounds. Factors influencing the model, such as the ethanol concentration, the hydrolytic cleavage of glucose moieties in glucosides and trans/cis isomerization, are discussed on the basis of the experimental data.
Article
Resveratrol has been identified as a wine component related to moderate wine consumption and a reduction in serum cholesterol levels. Processes such as wine fining that result in loss of resveratrol during winemaking are therefore of interest, and led to these present studies. A number of agents were compared and were found to lower resveratrol levels in all wines to some extent. Results from two studies (1996 and 1997) are reported. The standard addition method was used in combination with High Pressure Liquid Chromatography to calculate resveratrol levels. In Study 1 (1996), recommended maximum levels of all fining agents (Level 3), bentonite, egg white, gelatin + kieselsol and polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP), lowered resveratrol levels significantly compared to controls (Level 0). Nevertheless, addition of fining agents at Level 0 resulted in resveratrol levels that were significantly higher than those at Level 3, but resveratrol levels in wine from Level 0 were not significantly different from Level 1. In Study 2 (1997), carbon + egg white, and gelatin + kieselsol fining was studied, and their effects differed according to grape variety. Least removal of resveratrol by carbon fining occurred in wine from Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera) whereas most removal occurred in wines from Cynthiana (Vitis aestivalis) and Noble (Vitis rotundifolia). Resveratrol levels of control wine were significantly higher than resveratrol levels of wine treated with recommended maximum addition of fining agent in all varieties. Taken overall, any addition of any fining agent lowered resveratrol levels in all wines to some extent, but complex interactions between fining agent and wine variety resulted in different regression trends. While recognising the constraints set by our particular data that could reflect unique circumstances, we are nevertheless able to infer from these trends that low levels of fining agents can be used without statistically significant loss of resveratrol.
Article
Resveratrol is a naturally occurring phytoalexin, present in grapes and other food products, with important antioxidant properties. Although still under debate, it is generally assumed that resveratrol has protective effects against heart diseases and probably tumor development. Lipoxygenase is a dioxygenase with peroxidase activity involved in the synthesis of mediators in inflammatory, atherosclerotic, and carcinogenic processes. Lipoxygenase activity is also involved in the generation of flavors and aromas in foods from animal or vegetal sources. The results presented here show that resveratrol was a potent inhibitor of the dioxygenase activity of lipoxygenase, with an IC(50) = 13 microM. Simultaneously, resveratrol was oxidized by the peroxidase activity of lipoxygenase with a V(max) = 0.28 microM min(-1) and a k(M) = 16.6 microM. Furthermore, oxidized resveratrol was as efficient a lipoxygenase inhibitor as in its reduced form. From the data obtained it can be concluded that both resveratrol and its oxidized form can act as inhibitors of the dioxygenase activity of lipoxygenase. In contrast, the hydroperoxidase activity of lipoxygenase was not inhibited by resveratrol. These results suggest that resveratrol may be used as an antioxidant food additive and as a pharmacological agent to prevent the generation of eicosanoids involved in pathological processes.
Article
To evaluate prospectively the effect on mortality of wine drinking in Eastern France, we conducted an analysis on 34,014 consecutive middle-aged men coming for a comprehensive health appraisal between 1978 and 1983. We evaluated education, physical activity, smoking, and drinking habits by a questionnaire. Electrocardiogram, blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, and gamma-glutamyltransferase level were routinely measured. Seventy-seven per cent of the subjects drank wine; there was little difference between social classes in this proportion. We evaluated mortality over 10-15 years of follow-up. We estimated the relative risk (RR) of death by Cox proportional hazard models using nondrinkers as the reference and adjusting for six covariables. For an intake of 22-32 and 33-54 gm of alcohol per day, the RR of all-cause death was 0.70 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.59-0.82] and 0.76 (95% CI = 0.66-0.87), respectively. The lower mortality resulted from fewer deaths from cardiovascular disease and cancer. Above 128 gm per day of alcohol consumption, the RR was 1.37 (95% CI = 1.16-1.61). A moderate intake of wine (2-5 glasses per day) was associated with a 24-31% reduction in all-cause mortality, a proportion that was similar for smokers, ex-smokers, and nonsmokers.
Article
In most countries, high intake of saturated fat is positively related to high mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD). However, the situation in France is paradoxical in that there is high intake of saturated fat but low mortality from CHD. This paradox may be attributable in part to high wine consumption. Epidemiological studies indicate that consumption of alcohol at the level of intake in France (20-30 g per day) can reduce risk of CHD by at least 40%. Alcohol is believed to protect from CHD by preventing atherosclerosis through the action of high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, but serum concentrations of this factor are no higher in France than in other countries. Re-examination of previous results suggests that, in the main, moderate alcohol intake does not prevent CHD through an effect on atherosclerosis, but rather through a haemostatic mechanism. Data from Caerphilly, Wales, show that platelet aggregation, which is related to CHD, is inhibited significantly by alcohol at levels of intake associated with reduced risk of CHD. Inhibition of platelet reactivity by wine (alcohol) may be one explanation for protection from CHD in France, since pilot studies have shown that platelet reactivity is lower in France than in Scotland.
Article
Bioassay-directed fractionation of a medicinal plant, Polygonum cuspidatum (Polygonaceae), has led to the discovery of a hydroxystilbene, resveratrol [1], as an inhibitor of a protein-tyrosine kinase (p56lck) partially purified from bovine thymus. Both trans and cis isomers of resveratrol possess comparable protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity. Comparison of the IC50 values of resveratrol for protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity with those of piceid (resveratrol-O3-beta-glucoside) [2] and resveratrol-O4'-beta-glucoside [3] shows the requirement of free hydroxyl groups on both phenyl rings for the protein-tyrosine kinase inhibition. Protein kinase C inhibitory analysis suggests the requirements of two free hydroxyl groups on one phenyl ring only.
Article
Alcoholism is a possible cause of dementia, mainly through associated nutritional deficiencies and, rarely, through acute direct toxicity. However alcohol consumption was not found to be a risk factor in previous epidemiologic studies. We prospectively studied 3,777 community residents aged 65 and over, in the districts of Gironde and Dordogne. Average daily alcoholic consumption was recorded at baseline. Incident cases of dementia and Alzheimer's disease were screened at follow-up with explicit criteria. At 3 years, 2,273 subjects not demented at baseline were still available for follow-up. Wine was the only alcoholic beverage reported by more than 95 p. 100 of regular drinkers. In the 318 subjects drinking 3 to 4 standard glasses per day (> 250 and up to 500 ml), categorized as moderate drinkers, the crude odds ratio (OR) was 0.18 for incident dementia (p < 0.01) and 0.25 for Alzheimer's disease (p < 0.03), as compared to the 971 non-drinkers. After adjusting for age, sex, education, occupation, baseline MMSE and other possible confounders, the ORs were respectively 0.19 (p < 0.01) and 0.28 (p < 0.05). In the 922 mild drinkers (< 1 to 2 glasses per day) there was a negative association only with AD, after adjustment (OR = 0.55; p < 0.05). The inverse relationship between moderate wine drinking and incident dementia was explained neither by known predictors of dementia nor by medical, psychological or socio-familial factors. Considering also the well documented negative associations between moderate wine consumption and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in this age group, it seems that there is no medical rationale to advise people over 65 to quit drinking wine moderately, as this habit carries no specific risk and may even be of some benefit for their health. Advising all elderly people to drink wine regularly for prevention of dementia would be however premature at this stage.
Article
A method for the screening of antioxidant activity is reported as a decolorization assay applicable to both lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants, including flavonoids, hydroxycinnamates, carotenoids, and plasma antioxidants. The pre-formed radical monocation of 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS*+) is generated by oxidation of ABTS with potassium persulfate and is reduced in the presence of such hydrogen-donating antioxidants. The influences of both the concentration of antioxidant and duration of reaction on the inhibition of the radical cation absorption are taken into account when determining the antioxidant activity. This assay clearly improves the original TEAC assay (the ferryl myoglobin/ABTS assay) for the determination of antioxidant activity in a number of ways. First, the chemistry involves the direct generation of the ABTS radical monocation with no involvement of an intermediary radical. Second, it is a decolorization assay; thus the radical cation is pre-formed prior to addition of antioxidant test systems, rather than the generation of the radical taking place continually in the presence of the antioxidant. Hence the results obtained with the improved system may not always be directly comparable with those obtained using the original TEAC assay. Third, it is applicable to both aqueous and lipophilic systems.
Article
Resveratrol is an antioxidant found in grapes, grape products, and some other botanical sources with antiinflammatory and anticancer properties. In grapes and wine, it occurs both as free resveratrol and piceid, the 3beta-glucoside of resveratrol. Here we report a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method to analyze total resveratrol (including free resveratrol and resveratrol from piceid) in fruit products and wine. Samples were extracted using methanol, enzymatically hydrolyzed, and analyzed using reversed phase HPLC with positive ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mass spectrometric detection. Following APCI, the abundance of protonated molecules was recorded using selected ion monitoring (SIM) of m/z 229. An external standard curve was used for quantitation, which showed a linear range of 0.52-2260 pmol of trans-resveratrol injected on-column with a correlation coefficient 0.9999. The coefficient of variance of the response factor over the same concentration range was determined to be 5.8%, and the intra-assay coefficient of variance was determined to be 4.2% (n = 7). The limit of quantitation, defined as signal-to-noise 10:1, was determined to be 0.31 pmol injected on-column. The extraction efficiency of the method was determined to be 92%. The stability of resveratrol under different conditions was also examined. For example, resveratrol was stable for up to 5 days at 4 degrees C in the dark but was not stable at room temperature without protection from light. Resveratrol was detected in grape, cranberry, and wine samples. Concentrations ranged from 1.56 to 1042 nmol/g in Concord grape products, and from 8.63 to 24.84 micromol/L in Italian red wine. The concentrations of resveratrol were silmilar in cranberry and grape juice at 1.07 and 1.56 nmol/g, respectively.
Article
The grapevine (Vitis) secondary metabolite resveratrol is considered a phytoalexin, which protects the plant from Botrytis cinerea infection. Laccase activity displayed by the fungus is assumed to detoxify resveratrol and to facilitate colonization of grape. We initiated a functional molecular genetic analysis of B. cinerea laccases by characterizing laccase genes and evaluating the phenotype of targeted gene replacement mutants. Two different laccase genes from B. cinerea were characterized, Bclcc1 and Bclcc2. Only Bclcc2 was strongly expressed in liquid cultures in the presence of either resveratrol or tannins. This suggested that Bclcc2, but not Bclcc1, plays an active role in the oxidation of both resveratrol and tannins. Gene replacement mutants in the Bclcc1 and Bclcc2 gene were made to perform a functional analysis. Only Bclcc2 replacement mutants were incapable of converting both resveratrol and tannins. When grown on resveratrol, both the wild type and the Bclcc1 replacement mutant showed inhibited growth, whereas Bclcc2 replacement mutants were unaffected. Thus, contrary to the current theory, BcLCC2 does not detoxify resveratrol but, rather, converts it into compounds that are more toxic for the fungus itself. The Bclcc2 gene was expressed during infection of B. cinerea on a resveratrol-producing host plant, but Bclcc2 replacement mutants were as virulent as the wild-type strain on various hosts. The activation of a plant secondary metabolite by a pathogen introduces a new dimension to plant-pathogen interactions and the phytoalexin concept.
Article
The objective of this study was to determine the influence of certain factors on the resveratrol content of Palomino fino grapes, cultivated in the Jerez-Xérèz-Sherry area, at the moment of harvest. The results show that the resveratrol content is highly influenced by the climatic conditions prior to the period of maturation of the fruit. On the other hand, the gray mold pressure in the vineyard, a fungal infection caused by Botrytis cinerea, increased the resveratrol contents at the early stages of fungal development. When Botrytis development was extensive, the resveratrol content tended to decrease in the juice but tended to increase in the skin. Physiological stress of the plant leads to increases in the resveratrol content, caused as much by the climatic conditions of the vintage as by biotic factors. In this case resveratrol is present mainly in the glycosylated form.
In Good laboratory practice (glp) -for HPLC, CE and UV/Vis-spectroscopy
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In Magyar borkalauz Budapest: Corvina. Lamuela-Raventó s Direct HPLC analysis of cis-and trans-resveratrol and piceid isomers in Spanish red Vitis vinifera wines
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Antioxidant activity of wine phenolic compounds in inhibiting oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins
  • J M Mérillon
  • B Fauconneau
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Polyhydroxystilbenes from Vitis vinifera L. cells: Inhibitory effect on human platelet aggregation and molecular modeling
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Investigation of german grape juices on their content of resveratrol-derivatives
  • M Pour Nikfardjam
  • K Schmitt
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Pour Nikfardjam, M., Schmitt, K., Rü hl, E. H., Patz, C.-D., & Dietrich, H. (2000). Investigation of german grape juices on their content of resveratrol-derivatives. Deutsche Lebensmittel Rundschau, 96(9), 319-324.
Alcohol and mortality in middle-aged men from Eastern France
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  • J Schenker
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