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Sectoral Systems Of Innovation And Production

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Abstract

The concept sectoral system of innovation and production provides a multidimensional, integrated and dynamic view of sectors. It is proposed that a sectoral system is a set of products and the set of agents carrying out market and non-market interactions for the creation, production and sale of those products. A sectoral systems has a specific knowledge base, technologies, inputs and demand. Agents are individuals and organizations at various levels of aggregation. They interact through processes of communication, exchange, co-operation, competition and command, and these interactions are shaped by institutions. A sectoral system undergoes change and transformation through the co-evolution of its various elements.

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... A partir da compreensão sistêmica, surgiram vários conceitos que se concentravam nos diferentes níveis de análise, como o Sistema Nacional de Inovação (FREEMAN, 1987;LUNDVALL, 1992;NELSON, 1993), Sistema Regional de Inovação (COOKE et al., 1997) e Sistema Setorial de Inovação (MALERBA, 2002). ...
... Além da dimensão nacional e regional, outro recorte foi apresentado e tem sido muito utilizado na abordagem de sistemas de inovação: Sistema Setorial de Inovação (SSI). O SSI foi apresentado por Malerba (2002) a partir das contribuições de Nelson e Winter (1982). Assim como as abordagens anteriores, o SSI foca na maneira pela qual uma multiplicidade de atores interage nos processos de aprendizagem e inovação, influenciando a dinâmica de transformação e o desempenho do sistema. ...
... Assim como as abordagens anteriores, o SSI foca na maneira pela qual uma multiplicidade de atores interage nos processos de aprendizagem e inovação, influenciando a dinâmica de transformação e o desempenho do sistema. No entanto, diferentes regimes tecnológicos (condições de oportunidades tecnológicas; conjunto de conhecimentos necessários para inovar; acessibilidade dos conhecimentos) exercem grande influência na dinâmica evolucionária setorial (MALERBA, 2002). ...
Conference Paper
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A Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (CT&I) estão no cerne da dinâmica do sistema econômico e atuam como direcionadores do progresso de países e regiões. Nesse sentido, a mensuração da CT&I torna-se necessária para a identificação de lacunas e para a construção de estratégias com vistas ao desenvolvimento científico, tecnológico e inovativo. Diante disso, este artigo tem como objetivo propor um conjunto de indicadores de Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação aderentes ao contexto das Instituições públicas e privadas brasileiras envolvidas com a temática. Para tanto, foi realizada uma pesquisa exploratória conduzida sob a forma de Revisão Sistemática da Literatura, a partir da qual foram investigadas as experiências nacionais e internacionais na proposição de indicadores de CT&I no período de 2016 a 2021. Os achados permitiram a proposição de um conjunto de indicadores divididos em quatro pilares, doze dimensões e 28 indicadores. Tal conjunto constitui-se em informações basilares para definição de estratégias de atuação das Instituições nacionais envolvidas direta e indiretamente com CT&I.
... The sectoral innovation system concepts are applied in different sectors as it can help to understand and explain differential innovation dynamics across sectors in terms of the knowledge base, the actors involved in innovation, the links and relationships among actors, and the relevant institutions that shape interaction (Malerba, 2002). In the case of the rice sector in Thailand, the study by Thitinunsomboon et al. (2008) also applies the sectoral innovation system concept to the rice sector in Thailand to understand the emergence of innovative technologies on rice, exploring interactions and activities within the rice sector that support the technologies. ...
... A sectoral system of innovation concept of Malerba (2002) is defined as a set of new and established products for specific uses and the set of agents carrying out market and non-market interactions for the creation, production and sale of those products. ...
... All of the indicators used to perform our statistical analysis are listed in Table 1, which provides further details of each of the variables employed. By adopting these variables, we were able to capture the degree of innovativeness, structural preconditions (industrial structure) and multi-scalar knowledge flows (collaboration with regional, national and international partners), as suggested by EEG (Martin and Sunley 2006;Boschma and Iammarino 2009;Neffke, Henning, and Boschma 2011), RIS (Asheim and Coenen 2005;Nilsen and Karlstad 2016;Schulze-Krogh and Calignano 2020) and SIS (Malerba 2002;Nilsen and Njøs 2022), when studying regional development. Similarly, critical elements, such as institutional support, human capital, geographical centrality and urbanization were taken into account in order to provide a comprehensive, detailed and multifaceted taxonomy of the Norwegian situation. ...
... The regions that are dominated by highly innovative firms and sectors seem also to be characterized by dense networks, and this is an aspect that is consistent with the SIS approach (Malerba 2002(Malerba , 2005Nilsen and Njøs 2022). The industrial structure in the regions, their technology paths, and how the knowledge flows are structured within sectors have been of less interest to the conventional explanations from the EEG and RIS approaches, according to which territorial characteristics (e.g. ...
Article
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Increasing attention is being paid towards the influence of regional contexts on innovation activities within regional development studies. Some of the literature in economic geography tends to consider the various peripheral areas as being homogenous and partly characterized by their remote location, weak innovation inputs and lack of knowledge exchange. This paper questions this approach by examining the role of innovation activities in peripheral regions. We offer a detailed and multifaceted taxonomy of the Norwegian economic regions. From an empirical viewpoint, the adoption of cluster analysis and a broad set of innovation, economic and territorial indicators allowed us to provide a nuanced picture of the current fabric of Norwegian innovation and economic-production. With the benefit of insights from relevant strands of literature (e.g. regional development, innovation systems and multi-scalar innovation networks), the case of Norway presented in our paper contributes to the scholarly debate on the role of structural preconditions for the innovation of firms in diverse peripheral areas.
... The sectoral configuration of the industry consists of a technology value chain and all actors that produce these technologies, often from different sectors that supply key inputs or intermediary goods (Malerba, 2002;Hipp and Binz, 2020). This technology value chain contributes to improving technological learning at each step by providing critical tangible and intangible inputs (Stephan et al., 2017). ...
... The resulting "National Innovation System" framework (Lundvall, 1992;Nelson and Rosenberg, 1993;Freeman, 1987) has attracted significant attention among both researchers and policymakers, resulting in the increased importance of the larger field of Innovation Systems (IS) research (Rakas and Hain, 2019). Subsequent research generated a cascade of different IS frameworks differing in their analytical and conceptual focus, highlighted elements and dimensions, system boundaries, and units of analysis, such as regional (Cooke, 2001;Malmberg and Maskell, 2002), sectoral (Breschi and Malerba, 1997;Malerba, 2002Malerba, , 2005, technological (Carlsson and Jacobsson, 1997;Bergek et al., 2008;Hekkert et al., 2007), business (Whitley, 2000), and social systems of innovation and production (Amable, 2000), as well as national systems of entrepreneurship (Acs et al., 2014). Its community of users has expanded along the same lines as researchers from adjacent fields have become interested in a systemic approach to studying innovation. ...
Article
Technological learning within national innovation systems (NIS) stands at the core of technological upgrading at the firm and economy level. The common understanding is that NIS are the primary source of technological knowledge acquisition for innovating firms, but the opening of economies, the globalization of innovation networks, and the rapid internationalization of innovative firms challenge this view-especially with respect to small open economies in transition. We applied PLS-SEM to data from 131 R&D intensive firms responding to a survey investigating the mediating role of international networks for technological learning within Lithuania's NIS. The findings demonstrate a full mediating role of global innovation system networks in facilitating technological learning within NIS, partially contradicting the prevailing understanding of the primary importance of NIS based networks for firm learning. Technological learning of firms, and thus the upgrading of the NIS they are embedded in, relies more on international networks than previously assumed. These results call for a more careful design and facilitation of technological learning networks, recognizing global networks as a complementary and necessary component in NIS upgrading. This study contributes to the literature of technological learning within national innovation systems, with a special focus on R&D intensive firms leading the technological upgrading of a country's NIS.
... Given the complexity of ICI implementation and the multifaceted nature of the resulting published studies, a guiding conceptual framework is needed to systematically categorize and analyze the studies that have examined the determinants of ICI. We have adopted Malerba's (2002) sectoral system of innovation perspective. The vision of the sectoral system of innovation is inspired by the basic concepts of the evolutionary theory and the innovation system approach, and assumes that innovation is based on knowledge, technology, inputs, and also demand-all of which are specific to each sector. ...
... The first theoretical contribution of our paper concerns the application of the theoretical framework of the Sectoral system of innovation perspective of Malerba (2002) to the creative sector, providing a comprehensive analysis of the existing literature on ICI, which contributes to a holistic understanding of the drivers and barriers to ICI. This perspective highlights ICI and its factors that are specific to the cultural sector. ...
Article
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The creative industries have attracted the attention of both decision-makers and researchers since the end of the 1990s due to their economic, cultural, and societal potential. The literature on these industries showed the prominent role of innovation within them. Given its importance, innovation in the creative industries (ICI) has been therefore the subject of numerous articles because of its specificities and the complexity of its implementation. Relying on a systematic review of empirical studies published between 1998 and 2021, this article firstly analyzes how innovation is defined in the creative industries. Secondly, it proposes a framework that brings together a large spectrum of factors driving or hampering innovation in these industries. The analysis of the 137 selected articles reveal that ICI is best defined by adopting a holistic view, considering its sources, the industries in which it takes place, and its outcomes. Furthermore, the results show that seven groups of factors were recurrently associated with ICI, namely: financial-related factors, market-related factors, organizational-related factors, individual-related factors, technological-related factors, institutional-related factors, and natural factors. Moreover, ICI is described as the result of a combination of factors, among which artistic creativity is the fundamental element, and its presence is a prerequisite. Therefore, we consider this innovation approach as a creativity innovation mode. These results would help managers and policymakers to better foster innovation in the creative industries. Finally, the theoretical implications and research avenues identified in this study will help researchers to better channel their efforts in studying this phenomenon.
... The framework seeks to provide an opportunity to understand how innovation activities could be coordinated at the national level through policies, governance and institutional strengthening (Rajalahti, 2012). To narrow the concept and make it applicable to specific units within the national context, the sectoral innovation system (SIS) was developed to provide an integrated and multidimensional view of the various sectors in an economy (Joseph 2009;Malerba 2002;Malerba and Mani 2009). An SIS is composed of a set of agents who create, produce and distribute products by carrying out both market and non-market interactions; products; knowledge learning and transmission process; networks; institutions; technologies/inputs; platforms for interactions; and a process of competition and selections (Joseph 2009;Malerba and Mani 2009). ...
... Technological opportunities differ across sectors and hence it is important to analyze the structures and frameworks of different sectoral systems to find a point of convergence through interactions, if any. Every sector has a dynamic learning process and the point of complementarities is also one key component of the SIS (Malerba 2002) since it defines the boundaries of each sectoral system. Individual SIS differ in the set of agents, technologies/inputs and platforms of interaction. ...
Article
The low level of technological innovation adoption among farmers has been a development concern. However, not much attention has been paid to how agricultural innovation system actors contribute to the adoption of technological innovations among farmers. This paper, therefore, analyzed the factors that drive the adoption of technological innovations using the agricultural innovation system concept. The study adopted a mixed method approach where qualitative data from focus group discussions were used to triangulate findings obtained from the quantitative data analyzed. A two-period panel data of 3486 observations of randomly sampled agricultural households across Ghana was analyzed using descriptive statistics and the multinomial logit regression model. Findings showed that farmers with strong ties in the innovation system had a higher probability of adopting multiple sets of innovations, compared to those with weaker linkages. Platforms that encourage actor interactions such as innovation platforms should be strengthened to increase the innovative performance of smallholder farmers. This study is one of the few that have quantified the effect the agricultural innovation system has on the adoption of innovations and hence makes a positive contribution to the budding literature regarding the importance of unpacking actor interactions whilst considering a holistic inquiry of the agricultural innovation system.
... Other forms of innovation systems perspectives were introduced to overcome the limitations of the national innovation systems perspective. The regional innovation systems perspective by Cooke [20] expanded the discussions on industry clusters in geography studies, while the sectoral innovation systems perspective by Malerba [21] influenced the economics of the industry life cycle. However, the national innovation systems perspective stands still and is positioned as the basis of the innovation systems perspective. ...
Article
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This paper raises the question of whether global innovation systems (GIS), the expanded networks of actors beyond national boundaries, could be a new sibling of innovation systems perspectives. We argue that in today’s globalized world, it is idoneous to analyze innovation activities in a global context rather than a national or regional one. To confirm this argument, first, previous research is reviewed to understand how the GIS perspective has emerged and what different aspects have enabled these discussions. Distinct gaps from a body of literature are identified, such as the lack of a united definition, leading causes, and empirical evidence of GIS. With this understanding of the GIS perspective’s background, this research aims to overcome the challenge of filling out these gaps using two-stage approaches. The first approach suggests three building blocks of the GIS perspective (global institutions, global actors and networks, and a global knowledge-base). Using the open innovation concept, the second approach measures the openness of national innovation systems (NIS) of the OECD DAC (Development Assistance Committee) member countries to represent the tangibility of the GIS perspective. The paper concludes that the GIS approach would provide us with a valuable viewpoint for analyzing current innovation activities in today’s globalized economy as the form of GIS perspective is observed when measured.
... Levinthal and March (1993) and Lewin et al. (1999) asserted that environmental aspects, especially competitiveness, moderate the relationship between firm performance and explorative innovation [1] as well as exploitative innovation [2]. EJMS Numerous studies provide evidence for the external environment's influence on firm innovation (see Malerba, 2002;Tian et al., 2019;Cao and Chen, 2019;Fu et al., 2021). Huang (2011) shows that a competitive environment has no direct impact on the innovation activities of firms, but it well has an indirect one by interacting with in-house R&D (while missing the knowledge competencies dimension). ...
Article
Purpose Knowledge competencies and (R&D) activities are one of the most important sources of innovation and have been widely discussed in the literature. In comparison, the role of the competitive environment for the innovation activities of firms is still open to debate and has not been fully understood yet. Therefore, this paper intends to provide new evidence on the interaction between knowledge competencies and R&D activities of firms on the one side and their competitiveness in the market environment on the other. In particular, the moderating function of market competition is explored. In this respect, the analysis covers the main innovation types as well as both sectors, manufacturing and services. Design/methodology/approach The empirical analysis is based on a three years panel dataset of German manufacturing and service firms obtained from Mannheim Innovation Panel (MIP) and Community Innovation Surveys (CISs: 2011, 2013 and 2015). For the estimation, a binary instrumental variable treatment model with Heckman selection method is used. Also, it provides a suitable approach to estimating the binary variables in order to cope with endogeneity concerns. Findings The estimation results show that R&D activities and knowledge competencies are positively related to innovation activities of different types conditioned on firms' specific perception of their competitive environment, in terms of outdated products/services as well as strong competition from abroad. Most importantly, the results from the moderation estimation reveal that there is a significant difference between the manufacturing and service sector. Service firms engage more in internal R&D activities on generating product innovations while the manufacturing firms conduct more external R&D on specific types of innovation. Further, the authors find that strong competition from abroad positively and significantly reinforces the effect of knowledge competencies on innovation activities for more types in services than in manufacturing. In contrast, outdated products and services tend to decline the effect of knowledge competencies for some innovation types in both sectors. The authors also observe a positive and significant reinforcement effect on knowledge competencies. However, it is found more beneficial for service firms since they can employ more innovation strategies. Originality/value The focus of the study is mainly on the impact of firms' competitive environment on innovation activities in various types through its interaction with knowledge competencies and R&D activities, across manufacturing and service firms.
... This framework can explain how sustainable technologies have been developed and diffused into a society (Carlsson and Stankiewicz, 1991, p.111). It has been applied at national (Freeman, 1995), regional (Cooke et al., 1997), sectoral (Malerba, 2002) and technological levels (Bergek et al., 2008). However, TIS has received six major critical issues, including being inward-oriented, thereby neglecting the importance of external contextual structures, and lacking clarity about how TIS could be delineated . ...
Article
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Digital technologies, in particular, Building Information Modelling (BIM), are claimed to provide an effective and efficient solution for tackling the plethora of problems in the UK construction industry, including time and cost overruns, low quality, and inefficient use of resources. Despite the potential benefits and government promotion, the adoption of digital innovation in the construction sector remains low. An extensive range of existing literature has discussed the constraints hampering the widespread uptake in the construction industry. However, most provide quantitative data, preferring to focus on the technical constraints; only a few examine the theoretical framework underpinning the barriers to increased adoption. This study responds to the call of Davis et al. (2014) to apply socio-technical theory to new areas, and uses a qualitative approach to explore the non-technical barriers to the take up of digital innovation in the construction industry. A number of non-technical barriers that constrain industry uptake (e.g., sociocultural, individual) were identified in a series of interviews, and are grouped under six analytical dimensions, encompassing people, culture, process and procedure, technology, goals and infrastructure. Our findings show that collaborative culture, driven leaders with a human-centric mindset who believe in the changes being implemented, and workforce training and upskilling are all needed for the successful adoption of digital technology in construction firms. Making managers and the wider workforce aware of the benefits of digital innovation results in enhanced perceptions of, and openness to, the adoption of new technologies. Creating a clear digital strategy, early involvement of the supply chain, keeping employees on board during the digitisation journey, and effective communication and coordination, help construction companies to tackle challenges related to process and procedure.
... See Annex A for a clarification of those economic sectors, their corresponding NACE codes, and the number of firms included in the sample. 2 See for instance:Malerba (2002Malerba ( , 2004 andCooke et al. (1997). ...
... A number of studies have shown marked, similar and persistent differences among sectors in the sources and directions of technological change (Pavitt, 1984;Malerba, 2002). They can be summarised as follows: ...
Article
Incremental innovation has become the norm as the influence of business and management disciplines and functions have come to dominate research and practice—for example, standard processes for product development, design-thinking to improve existing user practices and superficial business model variations. Such incremental approaches to managing innovation have merit, and can result in significant cumulative changes over time. However, the way in which such incremental innovation is resourced, organised and managed is fundamentally different to that for radical innovation, which is critical to address more significant commercial and social challenges. The cases of new product development (NPD) and business model innovation (BMI) are examined to identify the challenges researchers and managers face. We argue that to acquire a deeper understanding of how radical innovation works, more ambitious cross-disciplinary research is needed, rather than the current direction of travel in the literature towards single discipline studies and standard processes that apply primarily to incremental commercial innovations.
... Pavitt (1984), who classified industries according to the sources of innovation, has an essential place in the development of this particular approach. In more detail, SSI can be defined as an integrated structure, made up of the interactions of the actors in the market and non-market, actors who are inclined to develop, produce and market a product group, as well as these products for specific use (Malerba, 2002). ...
Chapter
This research aims to assess British and Russian tourists’ consumer attitudes and preferences concerning Cretan cuisine as a driving force for selecting Crete for vacations, evaluating at the same time the overall gastronomic experience. For this purpose, we clarified crucial factors leading to the aforementioned final choice. Taking into consideration relative previous studies, a bilingual three-part questionnaire was created (British and Russian), and distributed to 249 respondents, of whom 126 were British, and 123 were Russian tourists. The vast majority of Russian and British tourists were satisfied with the island’s overall gastronomic experience. More specifically, the most significant factor, extracted from the Principal Component Analysis (PCA), for selecting Crete as a final destination for vacation, was the Cretan cuisine. British tourists are more willing to experience it and visit local restaurants. However, Russian visitors had a better knowledge of Cretan cuisine and gastronomy issues and were more ready to order a dish they had never tried before. Russian tourists expressed their intention to adopt Cretan foodstuff and recipes in their homeland and revisit Crete in the near future. This is not the case for the British at the same intention level. The educational level of the respondents is significantly interrelated with the importance of Cretan cuisine and an alternative gateway to get in touch with the traditions and culture of the island. Finally, it is evident that Russians emphasize the aforementioned issues more than the British.KeywordsConsumer behaviourFoodTourismCretan cuisinePrincipal Component AnalysisAgriculture
... However, a sectoral approach may also be used, for example, comparing the health sector against other sectors, or sectors within health. Globalisation may blur national boundaries within sectoral systems of innovation, but a likely greater challenge is to define which components and relationships should be included when defining a sector (Malerba, 2002). ...
Article
Our understanding of medicine is being revolutionised by the pace of science. But not all the potential innovations in life sciences and medical technology are taken up into everyday practice in healthcare, even when they are shown to be beneficial. For the poorest people in the world, many innovations are not accessible because they are either unaffordable or unsuitable for their health systems. Tackling this gap requires the development of appropriate and affordable health technologies and novel business models. In the more advanced health systems there is a disconnection between the effort on research and development (R&D) and how much of this makes it into mainstream healthcare practice. Even the most evidence-based and affordable innovations can fail or are only taken up patchily, whether we compare across countries, or between localities or health organisations within countries. And technological innovation can be a problem for those responsible for paying for health systems. New technologies often increase costs because they allow us to treat more people for a longer part of their lives. Yet the general view amongst politicians, managers and others involved in healthcare is that health systems across the world need new thinking. They are increasingly facing escalating demand from an ageing population and the growing incidence of chronic disease. Healthcare is consuming an ever-increasing share of gross domestic product (GDP). The search is on for ways of providing the best quality healthcare as affordably as possible. The health technology industries – pharmaceutical and biotechnology, medical devices, information technology and the built environment (design, engineering and construction) – drive much of the innovation that takes place in healthcare. They are very big business. Collectively these companies have global revenues in the order of USD 2 trillion a year, about a quarter of overall global spending on healthcare. But they too are experiencing a changing landscape – an evolving market for their products, a changing balance of power across health systems as governments and payers seek to control costs, hence pressure on their business models. Innovation is regarded by economists and politicians as one of the main drivers of economic growth. It helps to explain why some companies, regions and countries perform better than others in terms of higher productivity and income. For companies involved in the health technology sector, and governments in countries where they are located, there is concern to ensure that their business models are sustainable and continue to successfully deliver new products to the market.
... Numerous approaches to the typology of innovation systems can be found in the literature. The most popular typology of innovation systems considers national innovation systems (Lundvall, 1992;Fagerberg & Srholec, 2008), regional innovation systems (Asheim et al., 2003;Cooke, et al., 1997Cooke, et al., , 2010, sectoral and technological innovation systems (Carlsson & Stankiewicz, 1991;Malerba, 2002;Njøs & Jakobsen, 2016) and innovation clusters (Porter, 1998A;Engel, 2015;Cheng et al., 2017;Pucci et al., 2017;Pan et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Research background: Innovations are introduced by competitive companies. One of the most common methods, increasingly used by companies, is organizing clusters or cluster initiatives operating within a specialized sector, competing with each other, exploiting the potential of cooperation and its impact on creating new business ideas. However, these efforts could be unviable due to the lack of an effective leader of the group. One should underline a crucial role of the leader in such an organized network, since the leader makes improvements and takes initiatives for all the network and its partners. These concepts prompt us to undertake the research on the role of clusters' characteristics on enhancing willingness to innovate in general. This study aims to point out the main characteristics of clusters and to investigate their impact on companies' innovativeness. The main problem to address is the magnitude of specific effects that might boost introducing new solutions in firms' networks. Purpose of the article: The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of factors describing cluster environment (characteristics like cooperation within clusters and beyond them, incentives of a leader, and localization factors) that might affect the innovativeness of companies. Methods: The authors collected data using questionnaire. This type of primary source enables the authors to construct a model consisting of latent variables such as incentives of coordinator of cluster or cluster initiative, cooperation of firms with local authorities, cooperation between entrepreneurs, or localization. The results are subject to the Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) analysis. Findings & value added: The conducted analysis leads to several findings. Firstly, incentives provided by the cluster coordinator enable companies to increase the willingness to introduce innovations in general. Secondly, however, the influence of other cluster characteristics on the propensity to innovate for firms functioning within specific Polish business clusters is scant. These findings point to the fact that actions leading to assign the official coordinator of a cluster need to be done, as it should result in better flow of knowledge, more symmetric information among companies within cluster, and more productive and innovative way of functioning firms in general. Regarding innovation clusters (and regional innovation systems), these actions need to be supported by forming policy on regional level, because effective clusters would induce more competitive regional economy in long-term scenario.
... Policy interventions that are enabling the successful development of biomimicry-related activities in leading countries have indeed gone far beyond fixing markets and instead are shaping the accumulation of technological capabilities. Those findings demonstrate the need for a systemic policy approach, in line with the literature on national innovation ecosystems, which highlights the role public institutions for R&D support, technological incubation, transfer, and diffusion (Andreoni and Chang, 2016;Lee, 2013;Lundvall, 2010;Malerba, 2002;Nelson and Winter, 1982). Public financing and the availability of long-term funding to support biomimicry R&D is particularly critical, which is in line with the scholarship on the role of public funding in stimulating the early-stage development of low-carbon technologies, especially when profits from innovation can only be expected far into the future (Mazzucato, 2013a(Mazzucato, , 2013b(Mazzucato, , 2016Semieniuk and Mazzucato, 2019). ...
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One of the most important challenges of the 21st century is the quest for economic development models that respect the planet's ecosystem. Rather than imposing our industrial systems on nature, why not let nature influence our industrial and innovation systems? From wind turbine blades to bullet trains and solar cells, many of the technologies we rely on today have been inspired by solutions found in nature. Although relatively widespread in the fields of architecture and engineering, biomimicry/biomimetics remains largely overlooked in economics, public policy, and development studies. This is paradoxical because the world's remaining biodiversity stock-a knowledge bank of solutions to both current and unknown challenges- is largely held in developing economies and can be leveraged as a source of inspiration for -and entry door to- industrial innovation. This paper, therefore, investigates the relevance of biomimicry in the formulation of sustainable development strategies in biodiverse developing countries and maps out the national policy landscapes that can advance it. Several findings arise from this study. First, despite the exponential growth of biomimicry as a field and our understanding of its economic impact, what drives nature-inspired innovation remains elusive. Second, the biomimicry innovation landscape is dominated by industrialised economies that have relied on proactive policy interventions, while virtually no developing country has adopted biomimicry as an innovation strategy, consolidating the exploitation of the biodiversity in the developing world by firms in high-income nations. Third, by drawing on empirical evidence from a selection of Latin American countries, this paper shows that while biomimicry presents tremendous opportunities to leapfrog towards high value-added knowledge-intensive activities by using local biodiversity and related expertise as factor endowments, policy, and institutional factors have led to the persistence of important coordination failures that hinder the expansion and commercialization of biomimicry-based R&D. This paper concludes by discussing the public policies needed to support the integration of developing nations at the innovation frontier through biomimicry.
... The first concerns the main characteristics and factors of innovation. On the basis of previous studies, the following success factors for innovation activity can be identified in the model of "closed" innovations [20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29]. They are: ...
Chapter
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The previous decade is rightfully called the era of digital transformation. The purpose of the study is to assess the impact of global trends on innovation activity, as well as to identify new factors influencing innovation models. A conceptual approach to the analysis of the evolution of innovation models based on the transformation of information and communication technologies for innovation based on the bibliographic analysis and integration of existing concepts and theories of innovation, digitalization and sustainable development is created. With the help of the factor method, the analysis of the main innovation models is carried out and a promising innovation model is determined. It is found out that digital technologies are the technological basis of the modern model of the innovation ecosystem. The result of the research is the author’s classification of modern factors of innovation activity that determine the directions and types of implemented innovations, as well as the role of innovation in society. The peculiarity of the study is that it has a conceptual nature, does not use the collection of empirical data, but is based on the integration of previously developed concepts and theories.
... Therefore, to address shortcomings of linear evaluation approaches, a better understanding of the systemic impacts of digitalisation can help to strengthen the transformational nature of technological development towards sustainable development (Herrero et al., 2020;Macpherson et al., 2022;Smith et al., 2021). Different frameworks already exist to design system-oriented approaches to assess digital agricultural innovations (Malerba, 2002(Malerba, , 2004Schnebelin et al., 2021). For instance, Kernecker et al. (2021) frame the trajectory of smart farming as a dynamic, circular process determined by the interactions among actors, their roles, constellations, and activities. ...
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CONTEXT It is still an open question how to assess the contribution of digitalisation in agriculture to the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals, and how digitalisation then can be done in a responsible way. A socio-cyber-physical system (SCPS) concept can help this analysis, but little experience exists with its operationalisation and application, and its integration with the Responsible Research and Innovation approach. OBJECTIVE To address this gap, this paper has a twofold purpose: a) operationalise the SCPS concept within an integrated assessment framework adaptable to multiple levels of analysis, contexts, and purposes (e.g. ex-ante, ongoing, ex post evaluation) to shed light on impacts of digitalisation in relation to SCPS entities, relationships, and activities; b) apply the designed framework in 21 multi-stakeholder platforms (Living Labs), which were established to explore needs and expectations in specific subjects relevant for European agriculture, forestry and rural areas. METHODS Impacts were assessed through interviews (158 respondents), focus groups (378 participants), online surveys (273 respondents), and other secondary data. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS The findings indicate that the SCPS framework enables elucidating relationships between digital and broader sustainable development goals and needs, and can sharpen earlier assessments, going beyond a pessimistic or optimistic dichotomy associated to digitalisation by specifying effects and trade-offs in terms of enabling, disenabling, boosting and depleting impacts of digital agriculture. However, the framework being comprehensive and open to emerging socio-cyber-physical interactions, makes that Livings Labs doing participatory impact assessments struggled with the complexity and multiple dimensions of the topic. SIGNIFICANCE The paper provides both conceptual and operational knowledge to set up impact evaluations of responsible digitalisation in agriculture and outline concepts that can help anticipating the consequences and trade-offs.
... A series of year dummies are included to control the time effect because R&D investment levels in companies may change over time depending on general market and economic conditions (Katila and Ahuja, 2002). The dummy variables for each industry account for unobserved heterogeneity in R&D spending across industries (Breschi et al., 2000;Malerba, 2002;Shapiro et al., 2015). ...
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Research & Development (R&D) investments have gained momentum in companies worldwide; it strengthens a firm’s competitiveness and enhances its long-run performance. However, they vary among companies due to the inherent risk in generating returns. This paper explores the factors that determine the level of R&D investments in a panel data of 368 Indian listed companies over eleven years from 2011 to 2021, and examines the immediate as well as lagged effect of R&D intensity on firm performance using a dynamic GMM estimator. The results found a positive impact of firm’s age on its R&D intensity but the firm’s size and its debt ratio are the negative determinants of R&D investments. The findings show a higher level of R&D investments as a potential source of insecurity among investors; evident by positive impact of R&D intensity on firm’s current financial performance (ROE) and negative impact on its market value (Tobin’s Q). Based on the evidence obtained in the context of developing countries, the study provides useful implications for facilitating R&D investments in emerging markets.
... Namely, inter-organizational knowledge networks among actors have been cited as one of the key factors involved in achieving comparative advantages of national/industrial innovation capacity (Freeman, 1987;Nelson, 1993;Lundvall 1992). From a sectoral perspective, organizational and learning capacity significantly affect industrial competitiveness (Liu & Guan, 2015;Malerba, 2002;Pavitt, 1984;Scarazzati & Wang, 2019). ...
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This paper addresses knowledge production patterns in the research and development of quantum technologies, perhaps one of the most promising advances in modern times. Using a publication data and innovation system framework, this paper investigates and compares the knowledge production patterns of China and the US in quantum technology. Empirical evidence suggests that China’s scientific knowledge production focuses relatively more on domestic research collaboration, and ‘communication’ technology, and core-periphery collaboration partners, while US knowledge production focuses on both domestic and international collaboration, and specializes more in ‘computing’ technology, and more collaborations with OECD countries through their institutional assets. This study contributes to understanding the different knowledge production patterns of China and the US in quantum technology, with implications for other countries. Several implications and a future research agenda are discussed.
... This initial concept evolved to give form to the National Innovation Systems, which aggregated actors responsible for innovation, their activities, and interactions from a national perspective, favorable to the dissemination of localized knowledge and to the promotion of relationships based on the geographical and cultural proximity between the institutions (Lundvall, 1988(Lundvall, , 1992Nelson, 1993). However, given the inability of capturing the full interactions among such actors, other innovation systems with different degrees of aggregation have been introduced, such as: -Regional innovation systems (Asheim and Gertler, 2006;Braczyk et al., 1998;Cooke et al., 1997), in which the regional dimension comprises a more homogenous socioeconomic, cultural, institutional and relational identity that better promotes innovation, especially in medium and large countries (Estevan, 2011); -Sectoral innovation systems (Breschi and Malerba, 1997;Malerba, 2002), in which an analysis bound to the institutions of a sectoral activity is fostered, regardless of their location and type of technology used (Estevan, 2011); -Technological innovation systems (Carlsson and Stankiewicz, 1991), which are focused on actors developing relationships based on a certain technology or set of technologies (Ranga and Etzkowitz, 2013). As presented, these systems are appropriate to analyze phenomena with welldefined boundaries; however, another perspective is required if discontinuous innovation phenomena are under analysis. ...
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Since the emergence of the Triple Helix, expansions to Quadruple, Quintuple, N-tuple helices, and models decomposing higher-order helices into multiple interrelated triple helices, or two-layer triple helices have been proposed. Albeit presenting alternative conceptual frameworks these different Helix models seem unsuited to address internal boundaries to the institutional spheres of the university, industry, and government. Addressing this circumstance, the present article pursues the research purpose of conceptualizing a perspective that opens the possibility of analysis to occur between but also within the boundaries of the institutional spheres. To that effect it advocates the application of different reference frames (scopes) to capture the dynamics that empirically emerge from the system under research. The novelty of this study is that it expands the existing theory by proposing that adding “scopes” (instead of introducing new helices) can increase the analytical potential of the Triple Helix.
... It is usual for companies with production capability to offer products and services with relatively higher quality to their competitors at a higher price and thus have a good place in the market share (Andreoni, 2013). A company that acts with the logic of effective production system and low-cost resource transition achieves the success of making standard products at relatively lower costs than its competitors (Malerba, 2002). With this variable, it is measured by its capability to offer lower prices than its competitors, to produce products at a lower cost than its competitors and to increase capacity. ...
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of production capabilities, competition intensity and marketing and sales capabilities on the export and production performances of textile companies engaged in export-oriented production return to normal life from the pandemic. Design/methodology/approach Within the scope of the research, a sample of 683 white-collar expert participants was taken and a scale consisting of 29 statements in total was presented to them. The structural equation modeling (SEM) model was analyzed with the study SmartPLS. At the first stage, the relations between the scale expressions and the variables were given with factor loads and weights, validity/reliability analyzes were made for the model, and finally, the research model was tested. Findings As a result of the analysis in the research, it can be explained that the production capabilities and marketing and sales capabilities are important for the performance of the companies, at the same time the intensity of competition keeps the companies in a dynamic structure and the intensity of competition is also important for the companies to develop themselves. Research limitations/implications Considering the limitations of the research, data were collected from white-collar employees working in export-oriented textile companies in Istanbul. Because in order to answer the questions about the variables representing the research model, expert and authorized employees were required. Practical implications It can be explained that the performance of companies in the production sector is positively affected if they discover opportunities in risky environments so that they can gain an advantageous position over their competitors in an intense competitive environment. Because it can be assumed as a result of the analysis that textile companies want to evaluate the opportunities in the competitive environment by using their production, marketing and sales abilities during the pandemic process. Originality/value The research is unique in that it sets an example for future studies by examining the effects of production capabilities, competitive intensity and marketing and sales capabilities, which are likely to affect the performance of textile companies in the return of normal life from pandemic conditions.
... In addition, notably, SMEs are readily equated to entrepreneurial enterprises that play the role of entrepreneurship and bring vitality to an industry (Schumpeter, 1934;Malerba, 2002). It must be acknowledged that SMEs face the risk of rapid market updates and ease of replacement. ...
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This study explores, through the lens of the resource-based view (RBV) and Schumpeter’s innovation theories, the role of innovation in sustainable performance in the context of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that practice the circular economy (CE). Drawing from the RBV theory, we find that R&D and patents are positively related to sustainable performance. We focus on the internal mechanisms and contingent conditions of the relationships between innovation and social, environmental, and economic performance in achieving the sustainable development goals. The results show that innovation is positively related to social and environmental performance. Meanwhile, R&D investment can improve economic performance. Moreover, the study verifies the mediating role of social and environmental performance, indicating that patents and efficient innovation can indirectly enhance SMEs’ profitability through social performance, while environmental performance does not. Furthermore, firm age and ownership type moderate the relationship between innovation and economic performance. This study extends our knowledge of the relationship between innovation and sustainable performance and provides theoretical guidance for successful SME innovation practices that contribute to sustainable development.
... The institutionalisation of new advisory practices at farm level could lead to gradual and invisible changes in the structure and functioning of AKIS at meso-and macro-levels. This is also consistent with research in other sectors, that emphasise the need to zoom in at the micro scale to understand the dynamics of innovation system (Malerba 2002). Hence, there is a need for innovative research methodologies (e.g. ...
... However, our knowledge of the multiscalarity of restructuring is still limited (Trippl et al. 2020). For instance, while the effects of multiscalar phenomena on the RIS have been studied, there has not been a lot of emphasis on how the sectoral system of innovation (SSI) (Malerba 2002) is affected, and how it in turn affects agency. ...
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Bioclusters' promise of helping achieving sustainable bioeconomies has invoked great interest among policymakers and academia. However, bioclusters are not intrinsically sustainable. If they are to fulfil their promise, bioclusters must undergo green-restructuring. While cluster-research has elaborated on green regional development, we need more clarity on how clusters transition to normatively desired states; we need more evidence of how green-restructuring unfolds. In this study, we conduct a longitudinal analysis to demonstrate how a biocluster green-restructures through the interactions of agency, regional and industrial structures, and phenomena at (supra-)national levels. To execute this analysis, we created a novel cluster-evolution framework that treats clusters, and the regional innovation system and sectoral systems of innovation that contain the cluster, as complex adaptive systems. We applied this framework to study the greening of the Basque pulp-and paper-biocluster, over four phases between 1986 and 2019. Our analysis helped us discover patterns of agency, structural dynamics, and of agency-structure interactions and how supra-regional phenomena shaped structures and agency over the four phases. Based on our findings, we recommend policymakers encourage not only green-tech entrepreneurs, but also institutional-entrepreneurs and place-leaders who can help shape both (supra-)regional and industrial structures.
This study explores how China’s solar photovoltaic (PV) industry can catch up so rapidly without radical technological innovation. Through the grounded theory method, we found it was the industrial innovation ecosystem construction and industrial innovation ecological relationship maintenance that made China’s solar PV industry gain competitive advantages. From the perspective of the industrial innovation ecosystem, clustering and colocation provided a foundation for industrial innovation ecosystem construction. China’s solar PV enterprises maintain the ecological relationship among the actors of the industrial innovation ecosystem through several ecological strategies, including resource orchestration and co-opetition. Hub firms played an important role in overcoming the liability of newness and putting forward the vision of shared fate in the early stage of industry development. Local governments and industry associations provided institutional support, coordination, and intermediary to enterprises.
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This study draws a historical picture of conceptual linkages of innovation systems (IS) and global value chains (GVC). We used a co-citation technique to map the evolution of these two fields since 1990. We highlighted the connecting nodes over the past three decades. The first decade witnessed a connection between national innovation systems(NIS) and GVC, mediated by regional studies related to industrial clusters and district-based innovation. The tradeoff between tacit sticky local and codified transferable global knowledge and innovation and learning’s importance in upgrading in GVC generated two new routes in the second decade. In the last decade, although these routes are retained, their mediating nodes have changed with the literature on technology and sustainable transition from IS and the path dependency role in the evolution of districts in global production networks. Recent trends indicate that evolutionary views on economic geography and catch-up may open new opportunities to link the two, and some lessons highlight the need for more structured interactions in the future.
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Successful catch-up is an important channel to achieve sustainable development for emerging economies; however, it is a great challenge to catch up in complex products and systems (CoPS). Studies show limited evidence on how successful catch-up occurred in CoPS for emerging economies. This study holds the view that CoPS catch-up means a narrower gap in the innovation ecosystem between latecomers and leaders. This study disentangles the CoPS innovation ecosystem and uses China’s high-speed railway (HSR) as a longitudinal case with abundant data to explore how successful catch-up in CoPS is achieved. The results show that the CoPS innovation ecosystem presents a dynamic evolution in the technology innovation subsystem, the value creation subsystem, and the habitat. Four types of forces from the innovation ecosystem mix together to drive CoPS catch-up. Finally, this study proposes a CoPS catch-up process model following the basic logic of start point, activities, and performance, and CoPS industrial standards are used to measure CoPS catch-up performance. The study on CoPS catch-up from an innovation ecosystem perspective provides new insights and useful implications for governments and entities in CoPS of emerging economies.
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Transport systems are not purely about technology. In terms of the social functions of transport, new technologies in transport brought society to a different level of spatial interaction and socio-economic development.
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The agricultural sector plays a unique and strategic role in a country’s economic development, and thus in policymaking, not only because of its vitality as a food supply sector but also because of its interconnection and linkages with various activities in the food industries’ supply chain. As digitalization makes its way into the agri-food sector, new technologies provide the conditions for increasing agricultural output and efficiently dealing with some of the world’s most serious issues, such as population increase, climate change, and the COVID-19 pandemic. In this paper, we will investigate the extent to which digitalization issues are integrated into related European Union (EU) policies, such as the Green Deal and the Farm to Fork Strategy under the new Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), which will enter into force in 2023, using the Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS) approach, given the agricultural sector’s unique characteristics. In other words, the paper intends to highlight specific parameters of the AIS, focusing on relevant initiatives undertaken by an involved actor of major special weight, namely the EU, for the purposes of digitalization of the agricultural sector.KeywordsAgricultural sectorDigitalizationAISCAP
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China’s entry into and industrial upgrading within global value chains (GVC) was facilitated by foreign direct investment (FDI) in subsidiaries of foreign, especially Taiwanese, enterprises. These investments brought specific capabilities, as well as development challenges, which have continued to shape the performance of domestic Chinese enterprises. In the aftermath of the Global Financial Crisis of 2007–2008, China’s role in GVCs has evolved with an increasingly important role for domestic firms and declining competitiveness in labor-intensive buyer-driven value chains. Most importantly, a new generation of China-oriented FDI in digital and value-added services is adding new life to the manufacturing economy and concentrating investment again in China’s coastal urban areas. While the rise of domestic firms has shifted the ownership of production assets across existing electronics GVCs, rather than whithering, Taiwanese investment has moved to new industrial niches in Mainland China. This sets the stage for several potential avenues for development in an era of trade protectionism and technology nationalism.KeywordsGlobal value chainsManufacturing investmentService investmentUpgradingRegional economic transition
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It is well known that innovation in the modern economy is driven by interactions among the stakeholders that make up the innovation system. Effective interactions among key actors in an innovation system foster flow of knowledge and resources development and commercialization of new products. This study assesses the depth of research and development (R&D) and level of interaction existing among key elements in the Nigerian pharmaceutical industry. Data were obtained from thirty-two manufacturing pharma firms, and sixty-nine researchers from faculties of pharmacy across Nigerian universities and three key research institutes with drug-related mandates. The results reveal poor synergy in research among the actors, and weak academia-industry interaction as only about one-third of industrial firms indicated active collaboration with knowledge institutions. More pertinently, over two-third of researchers in universities rated research-industry collaborations on most of the key aspects considered to be at least weak, Contract research and joint R&D activities were equally rated weak. The study concludes that the pharma innovation system in Nigeria requires serious government interventions by creating robust platform to promote productive interactions between these actors.
Article
This research investigates recent trends and developments in the scope and impact of international collaboration in research publications. A number of prior studies in the field of Research & Development (R&D) have outlined the factors influencing an increasing internationalization in R&D. We transfer these findings in a complete sample of publication data from the years 2008–2015 in order to find out and describe how researchers in the two academic fields Health Care/Clinical Medicine and Business & Economics collaborate with foreign-based colleagues. We analyze how this research by international teams performs in terms of received citations, compared to their national counterparts. We find that international teams generally receive more citations than national ones. Furthermore, we outline how the number of countries with relevant publication numbers has grown and diversified over the last years, and author teams generally became larger and more international. In a last step, we show how emerging countries built up competence and knowledge over time, as an increase in received publication citations follows at a delayed pace to an increase in publication numbers. While there are some differences between the two academic fields Health Care/Clinical Medicine and Economics & Business, with, for example the former having approximately around ten times more publications per year, than the latter, the major structural trends and developments are similar in both fields, outlining the robustness of our analysis.
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Purpose This study explores the impact of institutions, policies, and regulations at the global, national, and sectoral levels on digitalisation within the Italian and Australian wine industries. Design/methodology/approach Drawing on qualitative research data collected from interviews with key personnel in the wine industry, this study shows that both jurisdictions are at a similar stage of emergent digital development despite very different settings. Findings Accordingly, the authors find that digitalisation is constrained by common policy and regulatory issues emanating at the global and national levels, such as a lack of data infrastructure and data governance, and the need for institutions at the local and regional levels to spur innovation, especially with SMEs. Originality/value This is the first study to analyse the role of policy, regulation, and institutional arrangements in digital diffusion using a cross-country comparison of the wine sector.
More than 30 years ago, Robert Solow provided the first evidence of the paradoxical low return of technological progress to productivity. Today, in an era of radical technological changes, characterized by disruptive socio-economic transformations in businesses and society, the puzzle is far from being solved. This paper offers additional reflections on this issue. Stemming from the recognition that in European regions a productivity paradox still persists, this study systematically defines and empirically tests some of the sources that could explain the weak association between the adoption of new technologies and the growth of regional labour productivity. Our findings indicate that, in general, new technologies do have a positive impact on the productivity of the sectors of adoption. The propagation of this effect to the whole regional economy, however, is mitigated by employment reallocation effects towards less productive sectors.
Article
Research background: While the Sectoral Innovation System (SSI) anticipates technology-related similarities in innovation patterns in the same sectors across countries, the distance to the frontier suggests that there are important differences with respect to the level of national technological development. Most contemporary analyses of sectoral innovation systems are focused on well-developed economies. In contrast, the evidence from developing countries including new EU members are scared and lack dynamics. Purpose of the article: The purpose of this paper is to identify and compare product and process innovation patterns in Polish low and high technology systems. The main assumption is that divergence and convergence in innovation patterns of low- and medium-low technology (LMT) and high technology (HT) systems evolve over time and are strongly influenced by the characteristics of firms, their linkages with other system participants, existing demand, and institutional conditions. Methods: According to the third edition of the Oslo Manual (OECD, 2005), we employ a harmonized questionnaire and methodology to collect unique micro data on innovation. The survey concerns 5252 firms including 873 firms from HT sector. The scope of the research relates to product and process innovation at least new to the firm. Findings & value added: Our results show that although the intensity of product and process innovation is higher in HT system, both business support institutions and public financial instruments better support firms in LMT sectors. On the other hand, existing demand and market structure favor the emergence of new innovations at the firm level (imitations), but with more emphasis on LMT. The key source of innovation is suppliers, with foreign suppliers in HT and national ones in LMT. In contrast to leading economies, LMT plays a key role in long term economic growth in Poland.
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How emerging-market firms can catch up with forerunners from advanced economies is a key issue in the economic and technology literature. Research has suggested that acquisitions are a viable tool for firms in emerging markets to reduce the productivity gap with global leaders, but the empirical evidence on this matter is still far from conclusive. Contributing to this debate, this paper examines the impact of cross-border vs. domestic acquisitions on the labor productivity of firms across different sectoral environments. Studying the acquisitions pursued by Chinese listed firms over one decade, we find that cross-border acquisitions are positively associated with firms' labor productivity and that this effect is particularly strong in high-tech sectors and among leading firms. We also find that domestic acquisitions are positively associated with firms’ labor productivity and that this effect is particularly strong in low-tech sectors and among laggards. We further investigate the mechanisms underlying the acquisition–productivity link and contend that “technological innovation” is the primary mechanism by which acquisitions enhance firm productivity in high-tech sectors, whereas “enhancing operating efficiency” is the primary mechanism by which acquisitions enhance firm productivity in low-tech sectors.
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Pandemi COVID-19 yang melanda dunia turut membawa pola perubahan kebiasaan baru masyarakat, salah satunya dalam menjalankan wirausaha dari rumah. Kondisi ini mengakibatkan perlunya kajian yang dapat mendukung kegiatan para pelaku wirausaha yang bekerja menggunakan internet khususnya di era pandemi COVID-19 ini seiring juga dengan hadirnya internet sebagai salah perangkat digital yang mampu memudahkan dan mengefisienkan pekerjaan mereka. Tujuan dari kajian ini adalah untuk mengetahui karakteristik wirausaha yang bekerja menggunakan internet di Indonesia selama pandemi COVID-19 sehingga pemerintah dapat menghasilkan strategi yang mampu mendukung kegiatan mereka. Metode penelitian yang digunakan dalam kajian ini yaitu statistika deskriptif serta wawancara mendalam dengan berbagai unsur baik dari kalangan pemerintah, maupun non pemerintah yang terkait dengan wirausaha, juga termasuk para pelaku wirausaha itu sendiri yang telah memanfaatkan internet untuk menjalankan usahanya. Dari hasil temuan kajian diperoleh bahwa terjadi peningkatan jumlah wirausaha yang bekerja menggunakan internet selama pandemi COVID-19. Situasi ini semakin menyadarkan kita akan pentingnya transformasi digital sebagai upaya wirausaha untuk menghadapi pandemi COVID-19 ini utamanya. Selebihnya, pemerintah perlu melakukan berbagai upaya salah satunya dengan memberikan pelatihan dan pendampingan untuk menjalankan usahanya dengan memanfaatkan perkembangan teknologi seperti internet kepada para pelaku wirausaha, sehingga mereka bisa mengefisienkan biaya yang perlu dikeluarkan serta tetap bisa menjalankan usahanya meski dalam kondisi pandemi. Adapun pelatihan ini perlu dilakukan secara terpisah bagi mereka yang baru akan menjalankan wirausaha menggunakan internet dengan mereka yang sebelumnya sudah berpengalaman, agar memudahkan peserta dalam memahami materi pelatihan.
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Over the past three decades, China has experienced rapid economic growth and a fascinating transformation of its industry. However, much of this success is the result of industrial imitation and China's continuing success now relies heavily on its ability to strengthen its indigenous innovation capability. In this book, Xiaolan Fu investigates how China can develop a strategy of compressed development to emerge as a leading innovative nation. The book draws on quantitative and qualitative research that includes cross-country, cross-province and cross-firm analysis. Large multi-level panel datasets, unique survey databases, and in-depth industry case studies are explored. Different theoretical approaches are also used to examine the motivations, obstacles and consequences of China's innovation with a wider discussion around what other countries can learn from China's experience. This book will appeal to scholars and policy-makers working in fields such as innovation policy, technology management, development and international economics and China studies.
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Regulatory processes can directly impair or enhance telecommunications innovation, according to Dr. Garcia-Murillo. Using the telecommunications sector in Argentina as a case study, and based on extensive interviews and analysis, her paper demonstrates the relationship between regulation, resources, and innovation. Regulatory independence, transparency, and accountability enhance innovation, but investment in telecommunications innovation also requires timely and predictable policy decisions, and Dr. Garcia-Murillo concludes that these must be fairly enforced.
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The article considers methodical approaches to the development and implementation of innovation policy in Russia. It introduces an analysis of the current state of domestic sectoral innovation policy, its regulatory and legal framework, levels, institutions, criteria, and performance indicators. The author believes that the low innovation activity of economic agents in Russia is caused by the poor theory and methodology of innovation policy, which also affects the innovative potential of the domestic economy. The current sectoral mechanisms of support and implementation of innovative solutions is also ineffective. The author reviewed available publications on innovation policy and various strategic documents, as well as analyzed the foreign experience of sectoral innovation policy. The paper also contains a diachronic analysis of the innovation policy in Russia. The author developed a matrix approach to innovation policy mechanisms in terms of levels, strategic perspectives, and implementation. This simple and visual three-vector matrix provides an efficient analysis of mechanisms of sectoral innovation policy.
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Abstract: This review article aims to analyze some of the main contributions regarding evolutionary economics and innovation made by Richard Nelson and Sidney Winter. We reviewed, in particular, the main issues covered in the books published in 1982, such as search, routine, and selection, and 2018, such as the new and important elements of the debate that are still poorly addressed by evolutionary theory. We also focus on the discretionary firm differences and the mechanisms of appropriability, which are themes related to sector and company levels, and investigate the relationship between science, innovation, and economic development, which are themes at macro level.
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"Nowhere does history indulge in repetitions so often or so uniformly as in Wall Street," observed legendary speculator Jesse Livermore. History tells us that periods of major technological innovation are typically accompanied by speculative bubbles as economic agents overreact to genuine advancements in productivity. Excessive run-ups in asset prices can have important consequences for the economy as firms and investors respond to the price signals, resulting in capital misallocation. On the one hand, speculation can magnify the volatility of economic and financial variables, thus harming the welfare of those who are averse to uncertainty and fluctuations. But on the other hand, speculation can increase investment in risky ventures, thus yielding benefits to a society that suffers from an underinvestment problem.
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The profitability and growth of business firms is increasingly dependent upon the development and astute deployment of intangible (knowledge) assets. Wealth creation in an open world economy depends critically on technological innovation, and this in turn involves developing, owning, and astutely orchestrating knowledge assets and intellectual property. This is what is meant by dynamic capabilities. The value‐enhancing skills required in management are gravitating away from the administrative towards the entrepreneurial. The determinants of a firm's innovative capacity are rooted in organizational design, incentives, human resources, internal culture, and external linkages. Profiting from innovation is always a challenge, requiring the right business model, integration strategy, and organizational form. Licensing is one of many ways to capture value from innovation, but is generally not the most profitable, except when intellectual property rights are secure. Imitators are prolific and the survival and prosperity of the innovator requires the astute orchestration of intellectual property rights, and complementary assets. Managers designing market entry strategies must also be mindful of the evolution of standards. This book develops the principles involved in firm management and illustrates the interplay of these ideas.
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An expanded paradigm is needed to explain how competitive advantage is gained and held. Firms resorting to 'resource-based strategy' attempt to accumulate valuable technology assets and employ an aggressive intellectual property stance. However, winners in the global marketplace have been firms demonstrating timely responsiveness and rapid and flexible product innovation, along with the management capability to effectively coordinate and redeploy internal and external competences. This source of competitive advantage, 'dynamic capabilities', emphasizes two aspects. First, it refers to the shifting character of the environment; second, it emphasizes the key role of strategic management in appropriately adapting, integrating, and re-configuring internal and external organizational skills, resources, and functional competences toward changing environment. 5 Only recently have researchers begun to focus on the specifics of developing firm-specific capabilities and the manner in which competences are renewed to respond to shifts in the business environment. The dynamic capabilities approach provides a coherent framework to integrate existing conceptual and empirical knowledge, and facilitate prescription. This paper argues that the competitive advan is tage of firms stems from dynamic capabilities rooted in high performance routines operating inside the firm, embedded in the firm's processes, and conditioned by its history. It offers dynamic capabilities as an emerging paradigm of the modern business firm that draws on multiple disciplines and advances, with the help of industry studies in the USA and elsewhere.
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This paper focuses on patterns of technological change and on the impact of technological breakthroughs on environmental conditions. Using data from the minicomputer, cement, and airline industries from their births through 1980, we demonstrate that technology evolves through periods of incremental change punctuated by technological break-throughs that either enhance or destroy the competence of firms in an industry. These breakthroughs, or technological discontinuities, significantly increase both environmental uncertainty and munificence. The study shows that while competence-destroying discontinuities are initiated by new firms and are associated with increased environmental turbulence, competence-enhancing discontinuities are initiated by existing firms and are associated with decreased environmental turbulence. These effects decrease over successive discontinuities. Those firms that initiate major technological changes grow more rapidly than other firms.
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Perspectives on Technology consists of papers written by Nathan Rosenberg over a ten-year period, from the early 1960s to the early 1970s. Their origin was in Professor Rosenberg's interest in long-term economic growth processes and, especially, in the behaviour of industrializing societies. The form and direction which this book has taken reflect two basic influences: (1) a growing awareness of the centrality of technological phenomena in generating economic growth, and (2) a growing sense that, in spite of the basic and genuine insights into technological phenomena provided by the neo-classical economics, a deeper and richer understanding of the phenomena can only be achieved by a willingness to step outside the limited intellectual boundaries of this mode of reasoning.
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This book describes and analyzes how seven major high-tech industries evolved in the USA, Japan, and Western Europe. The industries covered are machine tools, organic chemical products, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, computers, semiconductors, and software. In each of these industries, firms located in one or a very few countries became the clear technological and commercial leaders. In a number of cases, the locus of leadership changed, sometimes more than once, over the course of the histories studied. The focus of the book is on the key factors that supported the emergence of national leadership in each industry, and the reasons behind the shifts when they occurred. Special attention is given to the national policies which helped to create, or sustain, industrial leadership.
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Economists have long treated technological phenomena as events transpiring inside a black box and, on the whole, have adhered rather strictly to a self-imposed ordinance not to inquire too seriously into what transpires inside that box. The purpose of Professor Rosenberg's work is to break open and examine the contents of the black box. In so doing, a number of important economic problems be powerfully illuminated. The author clearly shows how specific features of individual technologies have shaped a number of variables of great concern to economists: the rate of productivity improvement, the nature of learning processes underlying technological change itself, the speed of technology transfer, and the effectiveness of government policies that are intended to influence technologies in particular ways. The separate chapters of this book reflect a primary concern with some of the distinctive aspects of industrial technologies in the twentieth century, such as the increasing reliance upon science, but also the considerable subtlety and complexity of the dialectic between science and technology. Other concerns include the rapid growth in the development of costs associated with new technologies as well as the difficulty of predicting the eventual performance characteristics of newly emerging technologies.
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This book examines the role of competence, organization and strategies of firms in industrial dynamics linking economic, management and historical perspectives. In the first part of the book, a series of economic and managerial contributions discuss the concepts, dimensions and effects of routines, competence, adaptation, learning, organizational structure and strategies in the evolution of industrial enterprises at the theoretical and empirical levels. In the second part of the book, a series of historical papers examine these issues in a longterm perspective for the United States, Japan and several European countries.
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Provides a systematic presentation of the economic field of industrial organization, which is concerned with how productive activities are brought into harmony with the demand for goods and services through an organizing mechanism, such as a free market, and how variations and imperfections in the organizing mechanism affect the successful satisfying of an economy's wants. Of the three market mechanisms (tradition, central planning, and free markets), the field of industrial organization deals primarily with the market system approach. This book primarily emphasizes the manufacturing and mineral extraction sectors of industrialized economies, with less discussion of wholesale and retail distribution, services, transportation, and public utilities. Beginning with a discussion of the welfare economics of competition and monopoly, the structure of industries in the U.S. and abroad and their determinants are described, including motives for mergers and their effects. Extended analysis of pricing, product policy, and technological innovation then follows. Antitrust, price fixing, related restraints, structural monopolies, regulation, and price discrimination are examined, as are the complex policies governing pricing relationships between vertically linked firms. The role of advertising in product differentiation and the roles of market structure and product variety are identified. Innovation, patents, and their relation to market structure are explored. Overall, this analysis seeks to identify attributes or variables that influence economic performance and to build theories about the links between these attributes and end performance. (TNM)
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With the publication of his best-selling books "Competitive Strategy (1980) and "Competitive Advantage (1985), Michael E. Porter of the Harvard Business School established himself as the world's leading authority on competitive advantage. Now, at a time when economic performance rather than military might will be the index of national strength, Porter builds on the seminal ideas of his earlier works to explore what makes a nation's firms and industries competitive in global markets and propels a whole nation's economy. In so doing, he presents a brilliant new paradigm which, in addition to its practical applications, may well supplant the 200-year-old concept of "comparative advantage" in economic analysis of international competitiveness. To write this important new work, Porter and his associates conducted in-country research in ten leading nations, closely studying the patterns of industry success as well as the company strategies and national policies that achieved it. The nations are Britain, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Singapore, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States. The three leading industrial powers are included, as well as other nations intentionally varied in size, government policy toward industry, social philosophy, and geography. Porter's research identifies the fundamental determinants of national competitive advantage in an industry, and how they work together as a system. He explains the important phenomenon of "clustering," in which related groups of successful firms and industries emerge in one nation to gain leading positions in the world market. Among the over 100 industries examined are the German chemical and printing industries, Swisstextile equipment and pharmaceuticals, Swedish mining equipment and truck manufacturing, Italian fabric and home appliances, and American computer software and movies. Building on his theory of national advantage in industries and clusters, Porter identifies the stages of competitive development through which entire national economies advance and decline. Porter's finding are rich in implications for both firms and governments. He describes how a company can tap and extend its nation's advantages in international competition. He provides a blueprint for government policy to enhance national competitive advantage and also outlines the agendas in the years ahead for the nations studied. This is a work which will become the standard for all further discussions of global competition and the sources of the new wealth of nations.
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In 1987 the Swedish National Board for Technical Development (STU, later becoming the Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development, NUTEK) initiated a study of Sweden's Technological Systems and Future Development Potential. A comprehensive, interdisciplinary study was envisioned, yielding not only useful insight but also a permanent competence base for future analyses of technological systems and technology policy in Sweden. Three leading Swedish research institutes were invited to participate: the Industrial Institute for Economic and Social Research in Stockholm, the Department ofIndustrial Management and Economics at Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg, and the Research Policy Institute at the University of Lund. I was invited to direct the project. The project group decided to focus initially on a particular technological system, namely factory automation, to be followed by similar studies of other systems. Numerous publications have resulted from the project thus far. The current volume represents a summary of our work on factory automation. It consists of several original essays and of some previously published papers which have been edited, in some cases substantially, in order to form a comprehensive and coherent picture of a technological system. To our knowledge, this is the first in-depth analysis of a technological system designed as a component of a systematic study of technological systems more generally. At the time of this writing, three further studies on electronics and computers, pharmaceuticals, and powder technology are under way, to be published in a later volume.
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Examines the historical record of the ascendancy of science-related technology in modern economies, and presents an economic theory of innovation based on that record and it implications for policy-makers. Part One reviews the growth of the chemical, synthetic materials, and electronics industries with particular emphasis on costs, patent rates, firm sizes, marketing efforts, timing decisions. These data support a general theory presented in Part Two concerning the importance of professionalized research and development (R&D) capabilities and market awareness. Empirical data and analysis, including the results of Project SAPPHO, are used to provide further support for the theory. Characteristics of successful innovating firms include R&D strength, marketing abilities, understanding of user needs, and management strength. Implications for optimal firm size and the consequences of and reactions to uncertainty are treated in the remainder of Part Two. Uncertainty is responsible for a continuum of six strategies that firms take to meet the need to innovate, and leads to private under-investment in R&D. Part Three takes up the role of government and national science and technology policies and considers the social effects of technological innovation in terms of business cycles and unemployment figures, using a framework based on Schumpeter and Kondratiev. (CAR)
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There is a large intellectual discrepancy between most formal growth models described by economists and descriptions of growth in economic history. This paper draws on an evolutionary theory of economic growth that brings together appreciative theorizing regarding growth and formal theorizing. It aims to piece together a relatively coherent appreciative theoretical account of economic development at a sectoral level by laying out a story of the growth, and development, of a manufacturing sector, from birth to maturity, and perhaps until death, that seems to fit many cases and which can serve as a target for formalization. The paper first describes and tries to link two broad bodies of appreciative evolutionary theoretic writing. The first proposes that a new technology develops along a relatively standard track from the time it is born, to its maturity, and that firm and industry structure 'coevolve' with the technology. The other is concerned with the development of institutions in response to changing economic conditions, incentives, and pressures. The paper then considers 'punctuated equilibrium' before concluding with a consideration of two economic developmental implications that appear to flow from the analysis. One concerns the pattern of change of productivity, of capital intensity, and relative variables associated with economic growth, as a technology and industry structure develop. The other is concerned with implicitly cross-country comparisons, and is focused on how 'comparative advantage' develops in a new industry.
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The world's largest, technologically active firms are more diversified in their technological competencies than in their product range, and this diversity is increasing over time. These firms invest beyond their distinctive core technological competencies in order to manage and co-ordinate technical change with their suppliers of components, equipment, and materials as well as to explore and assess the major new opportunities emerging from the knowledge base. A firm's technological competencies are "distributed" among technological fields, among different parts of the corporation, and among different corporate objectives. As a consequence, corporate policies that apply to products do not apply to technological competencies. Corporate performance can be significantly improved with increasing technological diversity.
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We investigate the impact of two kinds of integration-internal and external-on dynamic capability. We use product development activities as a lens with which to focus on the capability-building process in a firm. We first develop a conceptual model of the capability-building process that relates specific problem-solving activities to the generation of organizational capabilities. We derive a measure, 'ynamic performance', that estimates the level of dynamic capability in an organization based on the consistency of its performance. Furthermore, we use the model to motivate a series of hypotheses which link specific processes to the achievement of high dynamic performance. We conjecture that the capacity to integrate diverse knowledge bases through problem solving is the basic foundation of knowledge building in an organization, and is therefore a critical driver of dynamic performance. The hypotheses are tested by drawing on extensive cross-sectional empirical studies of product development in the automobile and mainframe computer industries. The work follows by providing detailed longitudinal cases describing the impact of integration on competence-building processes at Nissan and NEC.
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The investigation 1 An earlier version of this paper was presented at the Workshop on New Issues in Industrial Economics at Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, Ohio, June 7–10, 1987. View all notes is arranged in three sections: The first explains to what kind of analytical framework the ‘development block’ concept belongs. This concept is then defined, differentiated and related to others within the same framework. The definitions and differentiations have been derived from studies of industry and trade with the aim of striking a balance between, on the one side, economic history research with only little, mostly implicit, theory and, on the other side, very explicit theory with empirical data being used mainly to test more or less sophisticated models. There will be no attempt to outline a “general theory” which could possibly be tested empirically, i.e. by econometrics, but instead we shall seek to provide a sort of tool-box with analytical instruments, including the development block concept, which have proved useful in historical analyses. In a second section examples are given of Swedish industrial developments which have been analyzed and interpreted with the aid of such a tool-box. In the final section it is demonstrated how the results may be helpful in perceiving possible effects of various economic policies. It is argued that the macrotheoretical basis of economic policy measures has a drawback in its lack of microunderpinning worthy of the name industrial economics and even less that of industrial dynamics.