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Bioelectrodynamics in living organisms

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Abstract

This article introduces an interdisciplinary subject of bioelectrodynamics in living organisms and its related research challenges and opportunities. Bioelectrodynamics in living organisms is aimed to reveal critical roles of electromagnetism and mechanics in biology, to correlate biophysical functions of living organisms with biochemical processes at the cellular level, and to introduce theoretical basis and methodology, such as modeling and simulations, for stimulating technical innovations and promoting technology development in biomedicine as well as for the study of human healthcare issues related to environments among others in our modern society. The article reviews some important issues in bioelectrodynamic modeling. This includes the modeling of living cells, blood, bones and soft tissues that may have unique properties, such as active control, regulation and remodeling capabilities that are completely different from those of conventionally man-made materials. Possible biological effects and potential biomedical usages of endogenous and exogenous electromagnetic fields and mechanical stresses in living organisms are also reviewed, which indicate promising future of biomedical imaging and therapeutic methods based on bioelectrodynamic techniques. The fact that living organisms may have well-organized structures, actively controlled actions and responses, extremely sensitivity in electromagnetic fields and mechanical actions, and amazing signal amplification functions may not only cause complexity and variety of the biological world, but also create opportunities for technical innovations in biomedicine to improve future quality of human life.

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... The biological organisms from DNA to organ-systems have very complex electrical activities and magnetic fields (biomagnetism) (Shupak, 2003). It is well known that living organisms consist of a great number of cells, in particular the neural cells, which function electrically and are constantly subject to several forces, which originate from gravity, internal and external electromagnetic fields, and forces (Zhou and Uesaka, 2006;Pilla, 2013). Magnetic fields can create an electric field in the cells via induction, and these induced currents can modify the cellular behaviors and physiological functions (Santini et al., 2009). ...
... The potential efficacies of PMF on biological systems may depend on their physiological, structural, or functional abnormalities (Zhou and Uesaka, 2006). A Food and Drug Administration-approved PMF device has been used successfully for the treatment of bone formation, nonunion fractures, and osteoporosis by stimulating osteogenesis and increases bone mineral density for many years (Bassett et al., 1982;Rubin et al., 1989;Diniz et al., 2002;Vavken et al., 2009). ...
... Findings in impulse conduction in recovered nerves under PMF treatment indicate that the observed abnormal impulse patterns or aberrant ion channel functions following injury may be partially restored by PMF application (Mert et al., 2004(Mert et al., , 2006. PMF treatment may alter the expression or distribution of membrane proteins, modify the intracellular signal transduction, increase molecular transport in the cell membrane, and modulate the signal conduction activity along the damaged nerves (Zhou and Uesaka, 2006;Foletti et al., 2013). PMF may also modify the transmembrane ion channels. ...
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No satisfactory effective therapy is still available to treat trauma- or disease-induced neuropathic pain, and current available treatment options have several side effects. Pulsed magnetic field (PMF) treatments are receiving growing interest as a therapeutic approach for several neuronal diseases. Although the exact mechanism of action of PMF treatments is unknown, reported findings represent a promising alternative therapeutic choice for the management of neuropathic pain. PMF treatments can supply new strategies for the therapy of life-threatening neuropathic pain due to its antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antihyperalgesic, antiallodynic, and neuroimmunomodulatory actions. In this review, I summarized the several recent findings about antineuropathic actions of PMF treatment in experimental animals with neuropathic pain induced by disease and/or damage.
... During the PMF treatments, magnetic energy transfers to the living organisms by means of pulses with one or more specific frequencies (Zhou and Uesaka 2006;Hug and Roosli 2012;Foletti et al. 2013). In previous experimental studies examining the PMF actions, various frequencies have been used in the extremely low-frequency range between 1 and 100 Hz at low magnetic intensities from microTesla to milliTesla (Markov 2007;Pilla 2013;Mert 2017). ...
... These results suggest that the biological effects of PMF treatments may depend on the cell type and exposure conditions such as frequency. Because, in biological systems, there are various cells, and their products (e.g., cytokines, chemokines, neuropeptides, neurotransmitters, and mediators) can be differently sensitive to the PMF treated with several frequencies (Zhou and Uesaka 2006;Selvam et al. 2007;Foletti et al. 2013;Mert et al. 2015). It has also been well known that PMF can modulate the cellular functions (e.g., ionic transport, stress factors, DNA transcription rates, immune system modulation). ...
... It has also been well known that several vascular and cellular events including immune cells and various cells within the sites of inflammation can play key roles in the occurrence of the inflammatory responses such as edema, fever, and pain (Zhang and An 2007;Sandkühler 2009;Barrot 2012). Numerous investigations have repeatedly shown that PMF with very low frequencies (1-100 Hz) can have many different effects on the living system (Zhou and Uesaka 2006;Markov 2007;Pilla 2013). These studies suggested that frequencies can be manipulated to achieve many different cellular or physiologic actions. ...
Article
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In this study, we evaluated the possible effects of sequenced pulsed magnetic fields (PMF) of 1-mT treatments with designed different frequencies (PMF-1—1, 3, 5, 7 Hz or PMF-2—7, 9, 12, 14 Hz) on the inflammatory signs such as abnormal pain behaviors, hyperalgesia and allodynia, edema, and fever in carrageenan (CG)-induced hind paw inflammation model in rats. Paw tissues were also histologically examined. PMF exposure was applied 3 times in 24 h. CG injection gradually decreased the thermal latencies and mechanical threshold and caused significant increases in temperature and mass of paw. PMF treatments significantly reduced the temperature and mass in the paw of rats with inflammation. PMF-1 treatments caused significant increases in the latencies and thresholds. However, administration of PMF-2 treatment was significantly decreased the latency and threshold. Furthermore, the histological pieces of evidence also suggested the anti-inflammatory effects of PMF-1 treatments or inflammatory actions of PMF-2 treatments. Findings presented in this paper suggest that 1-mT PMF treatments may have anti-edematous and antipyretics activities in inflamed rats. However, the effects of PMF treatments on abnormal pain hypersensitivities may be different. PMF treatments may make inflammatory pain relief or worse in inflamed rats depending on the PMF frequencies in sequence.
... [119][120][121][122][123][124][125][126] Similarly, cells of all organisms are known to generate bioelectric fields and also to sensitively respond to such bioelectric fields. [127][128][129][130][131] Especially prominent bioelectric fields are generated by neurons, generating feedback loops that synchronize whole neural networks. [132][133][134][135][136] Such strong bioelecric fields extend around brains and can be routinely reorder as local field potentials (LFPs) that can be measured on electroencephalograms (EEGs). ...
... [132][133][134][135][136] Such strong bioelecric fields extend around brains and can be routinely reorder as local field potentials (LFPs) that can be measured on electroencephalograms (EEGs). 127,137,138 All such electrodynamic fields, even biophotonic ones, function as trans-membrane potentials that are crucial for sperm activation, embryonic development, cell migration, stem cell differentiation, cell regeneration and gene expression in all complex multicellular organisms. 139 Beyond internal cellular dynamics and cell-cell communication, many fields, such as EMFs, can be A c c e p t e d M a n u s c r i p t crucial external sources of cell stimulation at the macro-organic level. ...
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In the legacy of Thomas Henry Huxley, and his ‘epigenetic’ philosophy of biology, cells are proposed to represent a trinity of three memory-storing media: Senome, Epigenome, and Genome that together comprise a cell-wide informational architecture. Our current preferential focus on the Genome needs to be complemented by a similar focus on the Epigenome and a here proposed Senome, representing the sum of all the sensory experiences of the cognitive cell and its sensing apparatus. Only then will biology be in a position to embrace the whole complexity of the eukaryotic cell, understanding its true nature which allows the communicative assembly of cells in the form of sentient multicellular organisms.
... This force is able to more effectively push the charged drug molecules through the membrane when compared to passive drug delivery or pure diffusion. It was reported that cell membranes were more permeable to some charged drug molecules because of the flow direction of the electric current 28 . On the other hand, this force can make it difficult for some charged drug molecules to pass through the membrane. ...
Article
Objective: Exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) emitted from electric appliances used in daily life may cause various changes at the cellular level. Glioblastoma multiform (GBM) is an aggressive brain cancer resulting in high mortality. Despite advances in treatment methods, GBM has remained an incurable disease. It has become important that necessary precautions are taken to overcome factors that may reduce the efficiency of antineoplastic agents used for GBM patients. Irinotecan, an antineoplastic agent, is one of the second line drugs for GBM patients. The aim of this preliminary research was to examine the impact of ELF-EMF on irinotecan cytotoxicity in GBM cells. Method: GBM cells (U87) in the control group were only treated with irinotecan (0, 1, 2, 10, 25, 50, 75, and 150 µM). ELFEMF (50 Hz, 1 mT) and irinotecan were applied simultaneously for 1 h to similar cells in the study group. Cytotoxicity was determined via XTT assay. Results: While the IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) value was 14.31 µM in the control group, and 20.51 µM in the study group. Conclusion: The results of the study indicated that ELF-EMF reduced the efficiency of irinotecan in the U87 cells. Therefore, patients undergoing chemotherapy with irinotecan should be given more attention so as to avoid ELF-EMFs. The effects of ELF-EMF on irinotecan cytotoxicity in U87 cells were determined through an exactly unknown mechanism. Further studies on ELF-EMFs and irinotecan cytotoxicity are required to illuminate the topic.
... Electrical or electromagnetic fields are produced by living cells, tissues or organisms. In bioluminescent bacteria, the cell membrane potential and the electric currents that flow in nerves and muscles are a result of action potentials (Zhou and Uesaka, 2006). These shortlived electrical events occur in several types of animal cells which are called excitable cells; a category of cells include neurons, muscle cells, and endocrine cells, as well as some plant cells. ...
Article
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A 'field' according to quantum pilot-wave theory (Bush 2015) and quantum field theory (QFT) (Griffiths 2009) when applied to the working of the universe is a fluid that is spread across the universe with a value taken in that space which can change in time. New observations in the fields of quantum fluid mechanics, artificial intelligence (AI) and deep learning in machines are providing us novel insights into how quantum processing, memory creation and storage work using the laws that governs the quantum world and quantum field theories. Such an understanding can be extrapolated to the workings of the mind to see if similar processes underlie the functioning of living systems. This paper hypothesizes that the construct of the mind is the resultant of chaotic system of interacting subatomic fields driven by force fields that intersperse with the quantum vacuum; a mechanism which has not yet been fully understood. We propose that this integrated phenomenon also gives rise to the subtle mechanisms that help in the formation of memories and also the structures which store these memories as reservoirs. The future of our evolution is the mind which evolves in these boundless intermingling quantum fields and their force fields within the quantum vacuum. With computers getting intelligent we are instantaneously but naively evolving our minds, and in the future, working together with these intelligent machines will augment it further. In fact, the design and working of these AI systems are resultant of the proof of the intelligence of conscious mind. This way the working of mind is always superior to those of the artificial systems that emerge from it.
... In brief, the latest findings clearly indicate that different spatial scales (microscopic and mesoscopic) operate on the same spectral ladder, although in different spectral domains. For instance, during vital metabolic processes, the existence of biophotons and BEM dynamics (as contextual information distributed in fields) expresses some field-based information that is locally perceived and communicated by cells (Zhou and Uesaka 2006). International Journal of General Systems 435 ...
Chapter
This chapter is looking for the biologically inspired oscillating agent modeling. In other words, it searches for the experimental neuroscience-based evidences of the oscillatory nature of social agents as approximations of real humans. In this regard, we noticed from the neuroscience domain, that basic mind states, which directly influence human behavior, can be characterized by the specific brainwave oscillations. For the experimental validation (or disproof) of the biologically inspired OSIMAS paradigm we have designed a framework of EEG (electroencephalography)-based experiments. Initial baseline individual tests of spectral cross-correlations of EEG-recorded brainwave patterns for some mental states have been provided in this chapter. Preliminary experimental results do not refute the main OSIMAS postulates.
... Buna rağmen bu alanların genel olarak şiddetleri çok düşüktür. Böyle çok küçük manyetik alanların ölçülmesi için SQUID hala tek çözüm olarak önümüze çıkmaktadır [20]. ...
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Electromagnetic energy is defined in the large frequency range and it shows its existence in different manners for every frequency range. When considering history of mankind, discovery of the electricity and presence of electrical and electronics based equipments is not very old. Human beings are exposed to electromagnetic fields and waves which they aren't used to live with those fields for ages. In this connection, lots of studies were done for the thesis of that these fields can produce harmful effects on people. Although results of the studies which were done in this area point out important subjects, sufficient outputs and judgments haven't been appeared yet in general meaning. This study was done to introduce findings which support that electromagnetic energy in some frequency can have beneficial effects on the living being.
... Such membrane properties raise many questions like the origin of warm activated channel and sensitivity of such biological receptors [10,16]. For computation, the radiance and irradiance through the pit channel are reported [16,[18][19][20][21][22]. We have detailed the dynamic nature of heat or temperature transfer mechanism through the TRPA1 channel. ...
Chapter
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This article introduces the IR sensor in the living organism. Electrodynamics in the living system is aimed to introduce electromagnetic mechanism inside the biological system and correlates the bio function of living organisms. Here, we have introduced the biological accurate snake pit membrane’s modeling, simulation methodologies, and compared it with a dielectric cavity resonator model to understand the dynamic nature and taking the action due to sudden change in environmental conditions of pit membrane. This article shows the key features of the snake pit organ in terms of temperature across the membrane and Carnot cycle’s mechanism. Temperature depended on two distinct layers across the snake’s pit membrane; we have demonstrated heat or temperature propagation across the membrane in terms of a thermodynamic cycle and explained its temperature sensitivity. Here, the resonance characteristic of the snake pit organ was studied theoretically.
... With a cytoskeleton connecting its membrane to nucleus DNA [7,8], a cell also senses physical forces such as osmotic [4], mechanic [9], electric and magnetic [10][11][12][13]. Indeed, this sensing capacity is particularly important to the development, and the maintain of organized eukaryotic cells, such as within humans, and the laws of physics are known to play a key role in medicine. ...
Article
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Currently, the predominant hypothesis explains cellular differentiation and behaviour as an essentially genetically driven intracellular process, suggesting a gene-centrism paradigm. However, although many living species genetic has now been described, there is still a large gap between the genetic information interpretation and cell behaviour prediction. Indeed, the physical mechanisms underlying the cell differentiation and proliferation, which are now known or suspected to guide such as the flow of energy through cells and tissues, have been often overlooked. We thus here propose a complementary conceptual framework towards the development of an energy-oriented classification of cell properties, that is, a mitochondria-centrism hypothesis based on physical forces-driven principles. A literature review on the physical–biological interactions in a number of various biological processes is analysed from the point of view of the fluid and solid mechanics, electricity and thermodynamics. There is consistent evidence that physical forces control cell proliferation and differentiation. We propose that physical forces interfere with the cell metabolism mostly at the level of the mitochondria, which in turn control gene expression. The present perspective points towards a paradigm shift complement in biology.
... It is challenging to model interactions in the mesoscopic scale (10 À7 me10 À4 m) since classical analysis begins to be modified by quantum mechanics. According to the quasi-static nature of EMF at low frequencies, such RF electric and magnetic fields act independently of one another (Habash Riadh, 2006) and bioelectric or biomagnetic phenomena are commonly modeled as quasi-static cases in which electric and magnetic fields can be studied separately (Zhou and Uesaka, 2006). Dielectric response of biological materials is related to membrane and cell boundaries, molecular dipoles, together with associated ionic fluids and counterions (Baker-Jarvis and Sung, 2012). ...
... where µ m and µ e are the magnetic permeability of magnetite and the host E. coli, respectively. In general, the magnetic permeability of biological samples such as E. coli (µ e ) is similar to that of free space, [42] whereas the magnetic permeability of magnetite is about 70. [43] The magnetic flux density describes the number of field lines per unit area, which decreases sharply with increasing distance from the magnet. ...
... 27 EMFs are not unique to humans, or even mammals, and can be measured in all living organisms. 28 It is interesting to note that EMFs are now being used in conventional cancer treatment settings. For example, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of low-frequency alternating electric fields for the treatment of refractory glioblastoma multiforme, and for treatment of other cancers. ...
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Biofield therapies have gained popularity and are being explored as possible treatments for cancer. In some cases, devices have been developed that mimic the electromagnetic fields that are emitted from people delivering biofield therapies. However, there is limited research examining if humans could potentially inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells and suppress tumor growth through modification of inflammation and the immune system. We found that human NSCLC A549 lung cancer cells exposed to Sean L. Harribance, a purported healer, showed reduced viability and downregulation of pAkt. We further observed that the experimental exposure slowed growth of mouse Lewis lung carcinoma evidenced by significantly smaller tumor volume in the experimental mice (274.3 ± 188.9 mm³) than that of control mice (740.5 ± 460.2 mm³; P < .05). Exposure to the experimental condition markedly reduced tumoral expression of pS6, a cytosolic marker of cell proliferation, by 45% compared with that of the control group. Results of reversed phase proteomic array suggested that the experimental exposure downregulated the PD-L1 expression in the tumor tissues. Similarly, the serum levels of cytokines, especially MCP-1, were significantly reduced in the experimental group (P < .05). Furthermore, TILs profiling showed that CD8⁺/CD4⁻ immune cell population was increased by almost 2-fold in the experimental condition whereas the number of intratumoral CD25⁺/CD4⁺ (T-reg cells) and CD68⁺ macrophages were 84% and 33%, respectively, lower than that of the control group. Together, these findings suggest that exposure to purported biofields from a human is capable of suppressing tumor growth, which might be in part mediated through modification of the tumor microenvironment, immune function, and anti-inflammatory activity in our mouse lung tumor model.
... In living organisms, cells and tissues are constantly subject to electromagnetic forces arising from molecular interactions, environmental and externally applied electromagnetic fields (EMFs) (Zhou and Uesaka, 2006). EMFs, especially extremely lowfrequency (ELF) ones are one of the most common environmental factors that can influence living systems. ...
Article
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The aim of the present study was to systematically investigate the effects of chronic exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on electrophysiological, histological and biochemical properties of the diaphragm muscle in rats. Twenty-nine newly weaned (24 days old, 23–80 g) female ( n = 15) and male ( n = 14) Wistar Albino rats were used in this study. The animals were randomly divided into two groups: the control group and the electromagnetic field (EMF) group. The control group was also randomly divided into two groups: the control female group and the control male group. The EMF exposure group was also randomly divided into two groups: the ELF-EMF female group and the ELF-EMF male group. The rats in the ELF-EMF groups were exposed for 4 h daily for up to 7 months to 50 Hz frequency, 1.5 mT magnetic flux density. Under these experimental conditions, electrophysiological parameters (muscle bioelectrical activity parameters: intracellular action potential and resting membrane potential and muscle mechanical activity parameter: force–frequency relationship), biochemical parameters (Na ⁺ , K ⁺ , Cl ⁻ and Ca ⁺² levels in the blood serum of rats; Na ⁺ -K ⁺ ATP ase enzyme-specific activities in muscle tissue; and free radical metabolism in both muscle tissue and serum) and transmission electron microscopic morphometric parameters of the diaphragm muscle were determined. We found that chronic exposure to ELF-EMF had no significant effect on the histological structure and mechanical activity of the muscle and on the majority of muscle bioelectrical activity parameters, with the exception of some parameters of muscle bioelectrical activity. However, the changes in some bioelectrical activity parameters were relatively small and unlikely to be clinically relevant.
... Applied to living biological systems the phrase refers to the remarkable selective sensitivities of living organisms to certain power and frequency combinations. The logic that: 'if a strong field has no effect, then a much weaker one will not either' applies quite reasonably to non living systems of inert matter, but this is not always true once we are dealing with living systems [7][8][9][10]. Thus while strong oscillating electromagnetic fields have shown no easily measurable or obvious effects on humans or living systems, much weaker oscillating fields have been shown to affect living systems in often dramatic ways [11]. ...
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While planning exploratory trials in micro-current stimulation, a number of philosophical issues were encountered. This paper briefly explores the philosophical context within which trials in complementary medicine in general may be placed. The paper embarks on a short discussion of philosophical underpinnings for complementary VS traditional Western medicine, outlines some of the difficulties of evaluating complementary medicine by standards designed for a different system and then proceeds to describe a very basic pilot study into micro-currents applied to the human body.
... Electrical or electromagnetic fields are produced by living cells, tissues or organisms. In bioluminescent bacteria, the cell membrane potential and the electric currents that flow in nerves and muscles are a result of action potentials (Zhou and Uesaka, 2006). These shortlived electrical events occur in several types of animal cells which are called excitable cells; a category of cells include neurons, muscle cells, and endocrine cells, as well as some plant cells. ...
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Because of its superior information processing capability, previous authors have proposed that phase conjugation holography offers a feasible mechanism to explain various aspects of human perception. These previous models focused on the relationship between the perceived image of an object and the actual object with little attention to the anatomical location of the phase-conjugation mirror. The present article proposes that phase-conjugation mirrors exist in the brain as 3D networks of organic molecules previously observed to exhibit phase-conjugation behavior. In particular rhodopsin photoreceptor molecules are proposed to form extra-retinal, deep brain networks which function as phase-conjugation mirrors which are distributed throughout the brain. Furthermore, such networks are proposed to convert endogenous biophotons into virtual holograms which function to store cognitive information in the brain. Such a system offers a new functional definition of the mind.
... Besides their well-known responses to gravity, living organisms are also responsive to external magnetoelectric fields-the second force in the cosmos after gravitation (Brown 1969;Żurbicki 1973;Galland and Pazur 2005;Zhou and Uesaka 2006;Ahmad et al. 2007). Therefore, in addition to δg, the effects of two other cosmic variables known to contribute to the Earthly geomagnetic flux (Maeda 1968) were introduced into our analysis of treestem diameter variation. ...
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Our initial objective has been to examine the suggestion of Zürcher et al. (Nature 392:665–666, 1998) that the naturally occurring variations in stem diameter of two experimental trees of Picea alba were related to near simultaneous variations in the lunisolar tidal acceleration. The relationship was positive: Lunar peaks were roughly synchronous with stem diameter peaks. To extend the investigation of this putative relationship, additional data on stem diameter variations from six other tree species were gathered from published literature. Sixteen sets of data were analysed retrospectively using graphical representations as well as cosinor analysis, statistical cross-correlation and cross-spectral analysis, together with estimated values of the lunisolar tidal acceleration corresponding to the sites, dates and times of collection of the biological data. Positive relationships were revealed between the daily variations of stem diameter and the variations of the lunisolar tidal acceleration. Although this relationship could be mediated by a 24.8-h lunar rhythm, the presence of a solar rhythm of 24.0 h could not be ruled out. Studies of transpiration in two of the observed trees indicated that although this variable was not linked to stem diameter variation, it might also be subject to lunisolar gravitational regulation. In three cases, the geomagnetic Thule index showed a weak but reciprocal relationship with stem diameter variation, as well as a positive relationship with the lunisolar tidal force. In conclusion, it seems that lunar gravity alone could influence stem diameter variation and that, under certain circumstances, additional regulation may come from the geomagnetic flux.
... It is challenging to model interactions in the mesoscopic scale (10 À7 me10 À4 m) since classical analysis begins to be modified by quantum mechanics. According to the quasi-static nature of EMF at low frequencies, such RF electric and magnetic fields act independently of one another (Habash Riadh, 2006) and bioelectric or biomagnetic phenomena are commonly modeled as quasi-static cases in which electric and magnetic fields can be studied separately (Zhou and Uesaka, 2006). Dielectric response of biological materials is related to membrane and cell boundaries, molecular dipoles, together with associated ionic fluids and counterions (Baker-Jarvis and Sung, 2012). ...
Article
This study aims to elucidate the interactions between water, subjected to electromagnetic waves of very low frequency (VLF) (kHz) with low strength electromagnetic fields (3.5 mT inside the coils), and the development of microbial biofilms in this exposed water. Experimental results demonstrate that in water exposed to VLF electromagnetic waves, the biomass of biofilm is limited if hydraulic continuity is achieved between the electromagnetic generator and the biofilm media. The measured amount of the biofilm's biomass is approximately a factor two lower for exposed biofilm than the non-exposed biofilm. Measurements of electromagnetic fields in the air and simulations exhibit very low intensities of fields (<10 nT and 2 V/m) in the biofilm-exposed region at a distance of 1 m from the electromagnetic generator. Exposure to electric and magnetic fields of the quoted intensities cannot explain thermal and ionizing effects on the biofilm. A variable electrical potential with a magnitude close to 20 mV was detected in the tank in hydraulic continuity with the electromagnetic generator. The application of quantum field theory may help to explain the observed effects in this case. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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A continuum theory of studying transport phenomena of ions and polarizable molecules in multi-component systems in the presence of electromagnetic fields is developed in this article. Physical effects of mass diffusion, heat conduction, mechanical motion, polarization and polarization relaxation in the mixture of the multi-component system, including their coupling effects, are formulated in accordance with the basic laws in non-equilibrium thermodynamics and continuum electrodynamics. A generalized Poisson–Nernst–Planck theory is introduced as a special case where thermo-mechanical effects are negligible. It is shown that electrodiffusion processes of mobile ions and polarizable molecules are generally coupled among diffusion fluxes as well as with the polarization of the molecules. For time-varying fields, the polarization relaxation of the molecules may also affect the electrodiffusion process. It is shown that the classical Poisson–Nernst–Planck theory can be recovered if these coupling effects are ignored in cases where such a simplification is justified. The generalized PNP theory formulated in the article may therefore offer a theoretical means to investigate the polarization–diffusion coupling effects of potential importance in the electrodiffusion processes of mobile ions and polarizable molecules at electrostatic cases as well as in time-varying fields, which could be of particular interest for revealing possible effects of exogenous time-varying fields on the ion transport properties and related functions of living cells. In general, the formulated theory may also be used to analyze some transport phenomena of nano-drug carriers in drug delivery systems as well as other molecular transport problems in engineering applications. While the theory is generally nonlinear, the linearization of the theory is possible in some cases. Illustratively, a coupled electrodiffusion wave problem is analyzed with a linearized model and its solution is discussed.
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In previous work, it was found that the bovine serum albumin (BSA) could obviously be damaged by nano-sized TiO2 powder as a sonocatalyst under ultrasonic irradiation. In this work, metronidazole (MTZ) was adopted as a sensitizer to intensify the damage of BSA molecules. It was found that the damage degree of BSA molecules in the presence of MTZ was more serious than in the absence of MTZ. That is, under ultrasonic irradiation combined with nano-sized TiO2 powder, the addition of MTZ could remarkably aggravate the damage to BSA molecules. Meanwhile, the damage degree was also affected by some influence factors, such as ultrasonic irradiation time, ultrasonic irradiation power, MTZ concentration, solution acidity, ionic strength and solution temperature. In addition, the damage site of BSA molecules was also estimated by synchronous fluorescence spectra. It was found that the damage site of BSA molecules was mainly at tyrosine (Tyr) residue.
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Bioelectrodynamics is an interdisciplinary subject that offers a pathway for nursing to develop a new patient care strategy in health care. The application of bioenergy to living organisms has the potential to advance medical science in the areas of prevention, cancer, wound care, pain, and many other chronic diseases.
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An analysis is given in the article for the study of ion channel behavior in time-varying fields based on the generalized Poisson-Nernst-Planck theory, in which possible effects of the polarization relaxation and the effects of coupling among ion species, their diffusive fluxes and polarization in the mixture of ions can be evaluated. Analytical expressions for ion currents and voltages of the ion channel across a membrane are derived for the one-dimensional configuration both in time-independent steady state and in time-varying fields. While the results recover the classical Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz current and voltage equations in the time-independent steady state, it is shown that in time-varying fields, both the ionic current and the displacement current contribute to the total current in the ion channel, which depends not only on the equilibrium susceptibility of the mixture of the ions, but also on the dissipative polarization relaxation as well as the effect of coupling between the polarization and diffusive fluxes of the ions in the mixture. At the linear approximation, dissipative admittances that may characterize effectively the frequency responses of the ion channel in time-harmonic fields are also derived analytically for the one-dimensional case.
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The biological effects of high-gradient magnetic fields (HGMFs) have steadily gained the increased attention of researchers from different disciplines, such as cell biology, cell therapy, targeted stem cell delivery and nanomedicine. We present a theoretical framework towards a fundamental understanding of the effects of HGMFs on intracellular processes, highlighting new directions for the study of living cell machinery: changing the probability of ion-channel on/off switching events by membrane magneto-mechanical stress, suppression of cell growth by magnetic pressure, magnetically induced cell division and cell reprograming, and forced migration of membrane receptor proteins. By deriving a generalized form for the Nernst equation, we find that a relatively small magnetic field (approximately 1 T) with a large gradient (up to 1 GT/m) can significantly change the membrane potential of the cell and thus have a significant impact on not only the properties and biological functionality of cells but also cell fate.
Conference Paper
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Almost every single existing Medical Imaging techniques available nowadays is dealing with captured noninvasive radiations spectrum (NIR) in digital image form to aid the visualization probes for disease diagnosis and treatment process. Electrophotonic Imaging is one among them. In this paper, a preliminary study on the Kirlian image and its current applications are carried out and proposed the Kirlian effects to process numerically by blob extraction and segmentation technique using mathematical morphology of digital image processing. This pilot study is principled to analyze an insight conclusion of digital analysis on Kirlian spectrum by introducing a pre-processing procedure to extract the effects texture as the radiation energy signature based on its most significant glow (digitally imaged isolines) used for medical biometric and disease interpretations. This paper achieved to simplify the procedure of blob extraction for Kirlian effect digitally to defines four (4) parameters as the image feature, subsequently introduce it as Kirlian `digital signature'.
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Female ageing is associated with sexual decline and well-documented symptoms of decreased metabolism, increased visceral fat deposits, decreased mobility, increased incidence of body aches and impaired self-confidence, which can lead to depression, marital dissatisfaction, conflicts or apathy. Sexual decline becomes more prominent with diabetic females suffering from neuropathy that is usually a challenge, since traditional methods usually offer temporary pain relief. Hormone replacement interventions treat only part of the systemic hormonal imbalance problem, ignoring the fact that disruption in the hormonal network signifies a disruption in the entire microcosmos of cellular communications leading to bio-disorganisation and health deterioration. New vaginal rejuvenation methods aspire to resolve a complex psychophysiological issue by merely improving vaginal laxity and dyspareunia, via invasive or minimally invasive methods that often reduce sexual sensation for women, while increasing male satisfaction during intercourse. Here, we offer a more comprehensive model of female sexuality, and discuss two new research studies performed entirely on female subjects. Both studies are discussed with respect to the multi-faced, psychophysiological, composite of female sexuality, which cannot show meaningful improvement without treating both its physiological and psychological components.
Article
Thirteen million cancer deaths and 21.7 million new cancer cases are expected in the world by 2030. Glioblastoma is the most common primary malignant tumor of the central nervous system which is the most lethal type of primary brain tumor in adults with the survival time of 12–15 months after the initial diagnosis. Glioblastoma is the most common and most malignant type of brain tumor, and despite surgery, chemotherapy and radiation treatment, the average survival of patients is about 14 months. The current research showed that the frequency magnetic field (FMF) and static magnetic field (SMF) can influence cancer cell proliferation and coupled with anticancer drugs may provide a new strategy for cancer therapy. At the present study, we investigated the effects of FMF (10 Hz, 50 G), SMF (50 G) and Temozolomide (200 μm) on viability, free radical production, and p53 followed by p53 protein expression in the human glioblastoma cell line (A172) by MTT, NBT, RT-PCR and Western blot. Results showed that the effect of Temozolomide (TMZ) with SMF and FMF together increased the cytotoxicity, free radical production, and p53 followed by p53 protein expression in the human glioblastoma cell line (A172).
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This study was conducted to investigate the effect of magnetic water treatment on growth characteristics of pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants. One week old pepper plants were selected and divided into four groups in a complete randomized design. In our study, we took normal tap water and divided it into four parts. The first group received given non-magnetically treated water (as a control), while the remaining groups received magnetized water at 3, 6, and 9 magnets, respectively. Four pipes and 18 permanent magnets with a flux density of 70 mT were used for this system. The results of the current study showed that magnetized water caused significant increases in all studied parameters, except plant length and dry weight, when compared to non-magnetized water. The results revealed that magnetizing water with 6 magnets was effective than others in increasing the number of fruits and leaves per plant, whereas magnetizing water with 9 magnets was effective than others in increasing the fresh weight of produces fruits. The impact of magnetic water treatment depends on the number of magnets used to magnetizing water. It appears that the utilization of magnetically treated water can lead to improving the quantity and quality of pepper fruits. Therefore, applying magnetized water could be one of the most promising ways to enhance agricultural production in an environmentally friendly way.
Article
A significant improvement over conventional attenuation-based X-ray imaging, which lacks contrast in small objects and soft biological tissues, is obtained by introducing phase-contrast imaging. As recently demonstrated, phase-contrast imaging is characterized by its extraordinary image quality, greatly enhanced contrast, and good soft tissue discrimination with very high spatial resolution down to the micron and even the sub-micron region. The rapid development of compact X-ray sources of high brightness, tuneability, and monochromaticity as well as high-resolution X-ray detectors with high quantum efficiency and improved computational methods is stimulating the development of a new generation of X-ray imaging systems for medical applications. The present paper reviews some intrinsic mechanisms, recent technical developments and potential medical applications of two-, three- and four-dimensional phase-contrast X-ray imaging. Challenging issues in current phase-contrast imaging techniques and key clinical applications are discussed and possible developments of future high-contrast and high spatial and temporal resolution medical X-ray imaging systems are outlined.
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The piezoelectric effect of bone has been observed similarly to the case of wood or ramie. The specimens were cut out from the femur of man and ox, and dried completely by heating. The piezoelectric constants were measured by three different experiments, that is, measurements of the static direct effect, the dynamic direct effect and the dynamic converse effect. The piezoelectric effect appears only when the shearing force is applied to the collagen fibres to make them slip past erch other. The magnitude of piezoelectric constant depends on the angle between the applied pressure and the axis of the bone. The maximum value of piezoelectric constant amounts to 6x 10-9c.g.s.e.s.u., which is about one-tenth of a piezoelectric constant du of quarts crystal. The specimens which were boiled in hot water and afterwards dried completely showed little change in the piezoelectric effect, the fact ascertaining that the effect is not of biological origin. The origin to piezoelectricity in bone may be ascribed to the piezoelectric effect of the crystalline micelle of collagen molecules. The consideration of the symmetry of the configulation of collagen fibres in the bone texture shows the existence of effects which are represented by only two piezoelectric constants d14 and d25, which are the same in magnitude but opposite in sign.
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Animals use the geomagnetic field in many ways: the magnetic vector provides a compass; magnetic intensity and/or inclination play a role as a component of the navigational 'map', and magnetic conditions of certain regions act as 'sign posts' or triggers, eliciting specific responses. A magnetic compass is widespread among animals, magnetic navigation is indicated e.g. in birds, marine turtles and spiny lobsters and the use of magnetic 'sign posts' has been described for birds and marine turtles. For magnetoreception, two hypotheses are currently discussed, one proposing a chemical compass based on a radical pair mechanism, the other postulating processes involving magnetite particles. The available evidence suggests that birds use both mechanisms , with the radical pair mechanism in the right eye providing directional information and a magnetite-based mechanism in the upper beak providing information on position as component of the 'map'. Behavioral data from other animals indicate a light-dependent compass probably based on a radical pair mechanism in amphibians and a possibly magnetite-based mechanism in mammals. Histological and elec-trophysiological data suggest a magnetite-based mechanism in the nasal cavities of salmonid fish. Little is known about the parts of the brain where the respective information is processed.
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Chronic low back pain associated with myofascial trigger point activity has been historically refractory to conventional treatment (Pain Research and Management 7 (2002) 81). In this case series study, an analysis of 22 patients with chronic low back pain, of 8.8 years average duration, is presented. Following treatment with frequency-specific microcurrent, a statistically significant 3.8-fold reduction in pain intensity was observed using a visual analog scale. This outcome was achieved over an average treatment period of 5.6 weeks and a visit frequency of one treatment per week. When pain chronicity exceeded 5 years, there was a trend toward increasing frequency of treatment required to achieve the same magnitude of pain relief.In 90% of these patients, other treatment modalities including drug therapy, chiropractic manipulation, physical therapy, naturopathic treatment and acupuncture had failed to produce equivalent benefits. The microcurrent treatment was the single factor contributing the most consistent difference in patient-reported pain relief.These results support the observation that rigorously designed clinical investigations are warranted.
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IMAGING with hard X-rays is an important diagnostic tool in medicine, biology and materials science. Contact radiography and tomography using hard X-rays provide information on internal structures that cannot be obtained using other non-destructive methods. The image contrast results from variations in the X-ray absorption arising from density differences and variations in composition and thickness of the object. But although X-rays penetrate deeply into carbon-based compounds, such as soft biological tissue, polymers and carbon-fibre composites, there is little absorption and therefore poor image contrast. Here we describe a method for enhancing the contrast in hard X-ray images of weakly absorbing materials by resolving phase variations across the X-ray beam1-4. The phase gradients are detected using diffraction from perfect silicon crystals. The diffraction properties of the crystal determine the ultimate spatial resolution in the image; we can readily obtain a resolution of a fraction of a millimetre. Our method shows dramatic contrast enhancement for weakly absorbing biological and inorganic materials, compared with conventional radiography using the same X-ray energy. We present both bright-field and dark-field phase-contrast images, and show evidence of contrast reversal. The method should have the clinical advantage of good contrast for low absorbed X-ray dose.
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In a multi-facet study we evaluated the efficacy of P6 electroacupuncture (10 Hz applied for 5 min) as an antiemetic in patients receiving a variety of cancer chemotherapy drugs. The study involved 130 (15 in an open pilot study, 10 in a randomized placebo controlled crossover study and 105 in a definitive study) patients who had a history of distressing sickness after previous treatment, and who, on the basis of a previous survey, would be expected to have a 96% chance of this with subsequent therapy. Sickness was either completely absent or reduced considerably in 97% of patients and no side effects were encountered. The limited crossover study, using a 'dummy' acupuncture (ACP) point showed that the beneficial effects were limited to the P6 point. Logistic and ethical considerations excluded the possibility of carrying out a larger placebo-controlled study. While in our hands P6 ACP was an effective antiemetic in patients having cancer chemotherapy, because of the time involved and the brevity of the action (8 h) an alternative approach to electro-ACP is required before this technique is adopted clinically.
Article
Despite the age-old belief that most anti-cancer agents kill tumor cells by necrosis, recent findings have demonstrated that photosensitizers could also kill tumor cells by triggering genetically programmed series of events termed apoptosis. Cell death by apoptosis is a very neat way to eliminate unwanted cells: no traces are left and the cell contents are never released or accessible to the immune system. Hence there is no inflammation. This is in contrast to death by necrosis. Under these conditions, normally the cell swells and then, when membrane integrity comes under attack, the cell collapses like a balloon and the contents spill out into the extracellular milieu. This may result in an inflammatory response. Because of the relatively clean nature of the apoptotic process, it is desirable to identify compounds that effectively activate the apoptotic pathway. Photodynamic therapy (PDT), a new mode of treatment, is based on the combined use of light-absorbing compounds and light irradiation. Recent developments in understanding the mechanisms of the PDT effect of photosensitizers indicate that a critical factor in the success of the agent is the ability to induce apoptosis in the malignant cell population. Hypericin and Hypocrellins are perylquinones, which are novel natural photosensitizers characterized by high absorption around 470 nm and high singlet oxygen yield. To study the signaling mechanism in vitro we have investigated uptake kinetics, intracellular localization. mode of cell death and mechanisms involved in the photodynamic action following PDT in human cell lines of poorly differentiated (CNE2) and moderately differentiated (TW0-1) nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and also poorly differentiated colon (CCL-220.1) and bladder (SD) cells.
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Pulsed electromagnetically induced current (PEMIC) has been shown to stimulate the healing of delayed and non-union fractures [1–17]. In addition many cell, tissue and animal systems have been affected by PEMIC having specific waveform parameters [18–65]. It is important to consider the origins of the choice of these waveform parameters in order to relate these to the mechanism of the PEMIC bioeffects. One of the authors (AAP) was profoundly influenced by the early work of Becker [66] who proposed that electric fields play a substantial role in generation. Bassett [67] then applied this idea to bone healing stating that the pathway through which bone adaptively reponds to mechanical input may be electrical. Pilla took the findings of these authors and used an electrochemical approach to predict a set of waveform parameters based on electrochemical kinetic interactions at the cell’s surfaces [68–75]. This approach ultimately led to the creation of PEMIC waveforms now in widespread clinical use for orthopaedic applications. It is now clear, however, that when discussing the physical mechanisms of interaction of electromagnetic fields at the cellular level it is necessary to consider the targets of both the electric and magnetic components. To explain electrical effects the electrochemical kinetic model considers the role of ions as transducers of information relevant to cell function [75–76]. Coupling of the current to membrane sites is determined at least in part by their dielectric properties [77]. The kinetics of this coupling has been described by considering ion binding as a trigger for follow-up biochemical steps [75, 76, 78, 79] or by a random-walk model wherein an electrical field having the correct frequency spectrum could impose a directional drift on a charged species near a binding site [80].
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In spite of major research and development efforts in transdermal systems and the many advantages of the transdermal route, impermeability of the human skin is still a major problem that limits the usefulness of the transdermal approach. It is well accepted that the stratum corneum is the major rate-limiting barrier to molecular diffusion through the mammalian epidermis.1,2 Because most drugs do not permeate the skin in therapeutic amounts, chemical and physical approaches have been examined to lower the stratum corneum barrier properties and enhance transdermal permeation.3,4
Article
Transcranial magnetic stimulation(TMS) is a new technique capable of stimulating the brain with some advantages over existing ones. TMS is painless, non-invasive, simple to apply and, more importantly, it is considered of low risk for research in human. This new tool has been proposed to be used in several neurologic and psychiatric diseases -depression included. TMS could act in depression balancing the interhemispheric asymmetry of the prefrontal lobes that is seen in major depression. In this fashion, TMS could be a non convulsive treatment for medication-resistant major depression, avoiding the use of electroconvulsivetherapy (ECT). Many animal and human studies have been done to evaluate the efficacy of TMS in the treatment for depression. Most of these studies, with impressive positive results, makes TMS a very promising tool. Nevertheless, TMS is still experimental and more work is needed, but in the future, TMS may become a major therapeutic and diagnostic tool in neuropsychiatry. The objective of the authors is to review the basic principles of TMS and discuss the results of published studies about TMS in the treatment of depression.
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At the present time it is generally impossible to show evidence of the „informational character“ of any signals, since agreement about what „information” is does not exist. According to Shannon’s accepted theory, one of the necessary conditions of „information“ is a reduction of the lack of knowledge about an expected outcome. In that case we would have to say in every case what outcome, what knowledge, what lack and what reduction we speak about.
Article
Iontophoresis enhances transdermal drug delivery by three mechanisms: (a) the ion-electric field interaction provides an additional force which drives ions through the skin; (b) flow of electric current increases permeability of skin; and (c) electroosmosis produces bulk motion of the solvent itself that carries ions or neutral species, with the solvent 'stream'. The relative importance of electroosmotic flow is the subject of this review. Experimental observations and theoretical concepts are reviewed to clarify the nature of electroosmotic flow and to define the conditions under which electroosmotic flow is an important effect in transdermal iontophoresis. Electroosmotic flow is bulk fluid flow which occurs when a voltage difference is imposed across a charged membrane. Electroosmotic flow occurs in a wide variety of membranes, is always in the same direction as flow of counterions and may either assist or hinder drug transport. Since both human skin and hairless mouse skin are negatively charged above about pH 4, counterions are positive ions and electroosmotic flow occurs from anode to cathode. Thus, anodic delivery is assisted by electroosmosis, but cathodic delivery is retarded. Water carried by ions as 'hydration water' does not contribute significantly to electroosmotic flow. Rather electroosmotic flow is caused by an electrical volume force acting on the mobile counterions. The simple 'limiting law' theory commonly given in textbooks and some research articles is a very poor approximation for transdermal systems. However, several extensions of the limiting law are compatible with each other and with the available experimental data. One of these theories, the Manning theory, has been incorporated into a theory for the effect of electroosmotic flow on iontophoresis, the latter theory being in good agreement with experiment. Both theory and experimental data indicate that electroosmotic flow increases in importance as the size of the drug ion increases. The 'ionic' or Nernst-Planck effect is the largest contributor to flux enhancement for small ions. Increased skin permeability or the skin 'damage effect', is a significant factor for both large and small ions, particularly for experiments at high current density. For monovalent ions with Stokes radii larger than about 1 nm, electroosmotic flow is the dominant flow mechanism. Because of electroosmotic flow, transdermal delivery of a large anion (or negatively charged protein) from the anode compartment can be more effective than delivery from the cathode compartment.
Article
The topic of bio-informational aspects of photon emission has a history of more than eighty years. It is an example of a research topic that is inadequately studied within mainstream biology. This article reviews the re- search activities during the three main phases of this line of this research. The first period is characterized by Gurwitsch-type experimentation on mitoge- netic radiation. Radiation was detected by changes in biological organisms that function as radiation detectors. The second phase is characterized by the development and application of sensitive photomultiplier tubes for the detec- tion of radiation from organisms and cells. These studies were extended with the question about the chemical and enzymatic origin of radiation. In this phase hardly any attention was paid to the question of radiation with a bio-in- formational character. In the third period research is again focussed on the in- formational aspects of photon emission. This bio-photon research is hardly recognized in mainstream science so far, but in the opinion of the author it de- serves careful consideration. For this reason this article presents an overview of the literature which might be helpful for giving careful consideration to the bio-informational character of bio-photons.
Article
The basics of magnetoencephalography (MEG), i.e. the measurement and the analysis of the tiny magnetic fields generated outside the scalp by the working human brain, are reviewed. Three main topics are discussed: (1) the relationship between the magnetic field and its generators, including on one hand the neurophysiological basis and the physical theory of magnetic field generation, and on the other hand the techniques for the estimation of the sources from the magnetic field measurements; (2) the instrumental techniques and the laboratory practice of neuromagnetic field measurement and (3) the main applications of MEG in basic neurophysiology as well as in clinical neurology.
Article
The healing response is the vital means by which an organism marshals its diverse repair strategies in reaction to injury or disease. This article discusses the question of how much energy may be necessary to stimulate or ‘jump start’ the repair of injuries, or to reverse disease processes. The question obviously is of major clinical importance. Clinical and behavioral research validates the ‘less is more’ principle of energetic interactions. Convincing evidence came in 1975, when a number of scientists confirmed that extremely weak low frequency electric fields can have significant effects on important regulatory processes in the brain. These findings led to the concept of the power/frequency window, the narrow range of signal properties that will produce a maximum biological effect. This was a turning point in a lingering controversy over beneficial vs harmful environmental field effects on physiology and behavior and the applications of subtle energies in healing.
Article
Since its coming of age in the mid 1960s, continuum biomechanics has contributed much to our understanding of human health as well as to disease, injury, and their treatment. Nevertheless, biomechanics has yet to reach its full potential as a consistent contributor to the improvement of health-care delivery. Because of the inherent complexities of the microstructure and biomechanical behaviour of biological cells and tissues, there is a need for new theoretical frameworks to guide the design and interpretation of new classes of experiments. Because of continued advances in experimental technology, and the associated rapid increase in information on molecular and cellular contributions to behaviour at tissue and organ levels, there is a pressing need for mathematical models to synthesize and predict observations across multiple length- and time-scales. And because of the complex geometries and loading conditions, there is a need for new computational approaches to solve the boundaryand initial-value problems of clinical, industrial, and academic importance. Clearly, much remains to be done. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to review a few of the many achievements in the biomechanics of soft tissues and the tools that allowed them, but, more importantly, to identify some of the open problems that merit increased attention from those in applied mechanics, biomechanics, mathematics and mechanobiology.
Article
It has been proposed that the electromechanical properties of bone influence bone remodeling processes. In dry bone the electromechanical effect is known to be due to the piezoelectric behavior of collagen. However, there has been some question whether the stress induced voltages observed in wet bone are due to a piezoelectric effect. Evidence is presented which indicates that the magnitude of the signals observed in bent wet bone are several orders of magnitude larger than one would expect from a piezoelectric effect. This result, along with other experimental observations, implies that the electromechanical effect observed in wet bone is not a piezoelectric effect. Therefore it is suggested that two different mechanisms are responsible for the electromechanical effects in wet and dry bone.
Article
Studies of the effects of environmental low frequency electromagnetic fields on isolated cellular systems and tissue preparations derived from brain, bone, blood, and pancreas are reported. Behavioral effects of 60 Hz fields were examined in monkeys. Bioeffects of low level microwave fields modulated at 60 Hz and other ELF frequencies were also examined. Findings in the present studies emphasize a key role for cell membrane surfaces in detecting ELF environmental fields. Two broad groups of exposure techniques have been utilized. In the ELF spectrum, 60 Hz environmental fields were imposed on monkeys during behavioral task performance. Field intensities from 50 to 1000 V/m were tested in different experiments. The monkeys were exposed to a horizontal electric field. In tissue and cell culture preparations, ELF electric fields were generated by passing current between electrodes in the solutions bathing the tissue. Tissue and cell preparations were also tested with low frequency, pulsed magnetic fields by placing the biological preparation inside Helmholtz coils. For ELF dosimetry measurements in tissue preparations, electric gradients were measured directly in relation to specific axes of tissue and cell preparations. Exposures to ELF modulated 450 MHz microwave fields were conducted in two different systems, one uses a large anechoic horn chamber, the other utilizes a Crawford cell, a double-tapered coaxial system.Environmental field levels and tissue components of these fields were studied collaboratively using implantable tissue probes developed by BRH. Concurrent environmental field levels were based on measurements with other BRH probes and a NARDA microwave probe system. (ERB)
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The authors focus on that which seems to be the central scientific issue emerging from current ELF research in epidemiology and in the laboratory; namely, can ELF electromagnetic fields interact with biological systems in such a way as to increase cancer risk The authors examine how cancer risk might be related to two reproducible biological effects of ELF exposure: effects on the pineal gland and circadian biology, and effects on calcium homeostasis in cells. Because they are concerned with the possible biological mechanisms of carcinogenesis, epidemiological studies are only briefly reviewed.
Article
An international seminar was held June 4–6, 1997, on the biological effects and related health hazards of ambient or environmental static and extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields (0–300 Hz). It was cosponsored by the World Health Organization (WHO), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), the German, Japanese, and Swiss governments. Speakers provided overviews of the scientific literature that were discussed by participants of the meeting. Subsequently, expert working groups formulated this report, which evaluates possible health effects from exposure to static and ELF electric and magnetic fields and identifies gaps in knowledge requiring more research to improve health risk assessments. The working groups concluded that, although health hazards exist from exposure to ELF fields at high field strengths, the literature does not establish that health hazards are associated with exposure to low-level fields, including environmental levels. Similarly, exposure to static electric fields at levels currently found in the living and working environment or acute exposure to static magnetic fields at flux densities below 2 T, were not found to have demonstrated adverse health consequences. However, reports of biological effects from low-level ELF-field exposure and chronic exposure to static magnetic fields were identified that need replication and further study for WHO to assess any possible health consequences. Ambient static electric fields have not been reported to cause any direct adverse health effects, and so no further research in this area was deemed necessary. Bioelectromagnetics 20:133–160, 1999. © 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article
Three aspects of electroreception in catfish were investigated and discussed. 1) The distribution of the electroreceptive small pit organs over the skin was mapped (Fig. 2). Small pit organs occur all over the body with the exception of the barbels. The total number of small pit organs per fish has to be estimated at several thousands. 2) Some examples of the potential pattern of the bioelectric field ofIctalurus are given (Fig. 4, 5). It was found that the opening or closing of the mouth, and contractions of the anal sphincter result in variations in this bioelectricfield, that might be of significance in behaviour. 3) The skin resistance of catfish proved to be constant in electric fields from d.c. to 10 Hz, and to behave frequency dependent from 10 Hz upwards. The resistive behaviour of the fish's body varies with the direction of the body axes. In dorso-ventral direction the insulating properties of the body are greatest, which suggest a greater electro-sensitivity in this direction than in others (Fig. 6, 7). The relatively small deformation of external homogeneous a.c. fields, caused by the insulating character of the swim bladder, suggests that a subdermal conductive layer screens the inner structures and might function as a potential reference.
Article
1. In the afferent nerve fiber of the electroreceptors (“small pit organs”, “ampullary organs”) of the catfish (Ictalurus nebulosus) a change in impulse frequency is observed at the onset and termination of a rectangular current stimulus. This change in impulse frequency decreases with the length of the stimulus (Fig. 2). 2. If stimulated with high frequency trains of short, monopolar pulses, the small pit organ responds only to changes in the average d.c. value (Fig. 3). 3. The conduction velocity of the afferent fiber of small pit organs is low (10 m/sec) compared to normal lateral line nerve fibers (Fig. 4). 4. These findings are more suitable for informing the catfish about slow changes of electric fields than about rapid changes. 5. D.c. fields have been found to originate from fresh-water fish (trout,Salmo gairdneri; tench,Tinca tinca; catfish,Ictalurus nebulosus). The steepest voltage gradients are found close to the mouth (cathode) and the gill slits (anode). 6. An electroreceptor is subjected to slow changes of these fields: a) when the catfish is moving relative to another fish; b) during respiratory movements (alternate opening of mouth and gill slits) of another fish (Fig. 9). 7. The small pit organs can respond to such changes if the distance between two fish is 7 cm or less (Figs. 5–8, 10, 11). 8. It is assumed that by means of its ampullary organs the catfish perceives other fish (same species, predators, prey).
Article
A point‐contact (SQUID) magnetometer was used inside a shielded room to record the magnetic field of the human heart, without noise‐averaging. The resulting magnetocardiograms, with the peak signal at about 3 × 10<sup>-7</sup> G had a noise level of about 1 × 10<sup>-9</sup> G (rms, per root cycle). They approach good medical electrocardiograms in clarity, and are an order‐of‐magnitude improvement in sensitivity over previous magnetic detectors of the heart. These results suggest new medical uses for this magnetometer.
Article
A theoretical model is developed to predict the elastic properties of very soft tissues such as glands, tumors and brain. Tissues are represented as regular arrays of polyhedral (cubic or tetrakaidecahedral) cells, surrounded by extracellular spaces of uniform width. Cells are assumed to be incompressible, with very low resistance to shear deformation. Tissue shear rigidity is assumed to result mainly from the extracellular matrix, which is treated as a compressible elastic mesh of interconnected fibers. Small-strain elastic properties of tissue are predicted using a finite-element method and an analytical method. The model can be used to estimate the compressibility of a very soft tissue based on its Young's modulus and extracellular volume fraction.
Article
In 1964, Giuseppe Moruzzi (1910–1986), a prominent neurophysiologist of worldwide fame with a scholarly interest in the history of science, published an extensive and insightful analysis of the work and personality of Carlo Matteucci, a 19th century Professor of Physics at the University of Pisa who had worked on “animal electricity” in the great tradition of Galvani. By discovering fundamental phenomena such as the demarcation potential and action current in muscle and nerve, Matteucci paved the way for the development of modern electrophysiology. Being written in Italian and having appeared in a not easily available journal of history of science, Moruzzi's essay has been lost to most members of the international neuroscience community. An English translation of it is published here with two aims: first, to make known to a large audience of neuroscientists a fascinating account of the origins of electrophysiology as seen through a perceptive interpretation of the successes and failures of a brilliant scientist and passionate man; and second, to pay tribute to the memory of Giuseppe Moruzzi and his everlasting contributions to learning and science on the occasion of the 10th anniversary of his death.
Article
The effects of iontophoresis on biological aspects of the skin have received little experimental attention, despite the long history of this therapeutic mode. The clinical literature supports the contention that, in general, iontophoresis is a safe procedure. Nevertheless, unwanted cutaneous effects can occur, ranging from erythema through small punctate lesions to painful burns. Possible mechanisms by which these arise involve the transfer of ions, a direct effect on nerves and high current density associated with skin appendages. Ways to counteract these cutaneous effects have been proposed.
Article
Diffraction-enhanced imaging is a recently developed X-ray imaging technique that has demonstrated enhanced contrast for dense, highly absorbing materials of interest in materials science and medicine. The implementation of this technique in experiments at the National Synchrotron Light Source and at the Advanced Photon Source is described in detail.
Article
Magnetic field variations from the human brain produced by visual stimulation have been observed in a normal laboratory setting with a superconducting quantum interference device and no magnetic shielding of the subject. Previously unknown temporal and spatial features of the field near the scalp are reported.
Article
THE manufacture of predefined specific antibodies by means of permanent tissue culture cell lines is of general interest. There are at present a considerable number of permanent cultures of myeloma cells1,2 and screening procedures have been used to reveal antibody activity in some of them. This, however, is not a satisfactory source of monoclonal antibodies of predefined specificity. We describe here the derivation of a number of tissue culture cell lines which secrete anti-sheep red blood cell (SRBC) antibodies. The cell lines are made by fusion of a mouse myeloma and mouse spleen cells from an immunised donor. To understand the expression and interactions of the Ig chains from the parental lines, fusion experiments between two known mouse myeloma lines were carried out.
Article
BHK cells were inoculated sparsely on one face ("sparse- or s-face") of a thin glass film whose opposite face was covered with a 2- to 3-day-old confluent layer of BHK cells ("confluent- or c-face"). After 7 hr of attaching and spreading in the absence of visible light, most of the cells on the s-face traversed with their long axes the direction of the whorls of the confluent cells on the c-face directly opposed. The effect was inhibited by a thin metal coating of the glass films. The results suggest that the cells were able to detect the orientation of others by signals that penetrated glass but not thin metallic films and, therefore, appeared to be carried by electromagnetic radiation. In contrast, the effect was not influenced by a thin coat of silicone on the glass, suggesting that the wavelength of this radiation is likely to be in the red to infrared range. The ability of cells to detect the direction of others by electromagnetic signals points to a rudimentary form of cellular "vision."
Article
The conversion of mechanical loads to bioelectrical signals in bone have been suggested to control repair and remodeling. These signals in wet bone are attributed to the electrokinetic behavior where mechanical forces cause electrical signals due to motion of an ion carrying extracellular fluid in the bone matrix (streaming potentials). Streaming potential experiments were performed on control and chemically treated intact wet bone plugs in aphosphate and phosphate buffers to examine the contribution of bone constituents to the electrokinetic behavior of bone tissue. Data indicate that the organic constituents of bone dominate streaming potentials. Slopes of streaming potential vs pressure are related to the electrokinetic (zeta) potential. The slopes should be analyzed in the low pressure region where data is mainly linear. Comparisons of estimated zeta potentials from streaming potentials with existing data obtained by particle electrophoresis showed similar trends.
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Application of a high-voltage electrical impulse (5 kV/cm, 2 msec) after bleomycin administration resulted in a significant size decrease of subcutaneously inoculated AH-109A hepatocellular carcinoma in Donryu rats. The tumor size decreased to an average of 17% of the initial mass 4 days after the treatment. Neither the high-voltage electrical impulse nor bleomycin administration alone showed an inhibitory effect on the tumor growth. It was concluded that the concomitant use of a high-voltage electrical impulse and an anticancer drug has the potential to be applicable for cancer treatment.
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An effective resistivity is defined for axisymmetric flow through a circular tube with a uniform electric field in the longitudinal direction. The resistivity of flowing blood is found to be a function of the shear rate profile. Under axisymmetric conditions shear rate profiles are a function of a single parameter: the reduced average velocity, which is the average velocity divided by the radius of the tube. The resistivity of human blood was investigated while the blood was in laminar flow in a circular tube with different constant flow rates. The relative change in resistivity in % is given by: -0.45.H.(1 - exp[-0.26.((v)/R)0.39]); where H is the packed cell volume in % and (v)/R is the reduced average velocity in s-1. In accelerating flow the resistivity change is synchronous with the change in flow rate, but in decelerating flow there is an exponential decay characterized by a relaxation time tau. For packed cell volumes of 36.4% and 47.5% tau was estimated to be 0.21 s, for a packed cell volume of 53.7% tau was estimated to be 0.29 s. The resistivity changes in elastic tubes are influenced by both velocity changes and changes in diameter, but in opposite directions.
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We studied 20 otherwise healthy women undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Immediately after wound closure, while still anaesthetized, they received either electroacupuncture (EA) or no further treatment. They were allowed pethidine for postoperative analgesia by patientcontrolled infusion pump. Signs of postoperative distress (pain, nausea, drowsiness) were evaluated after 2 and 6 h by visual analogue scale scores. The group receiving EA consumed half the quantity of pethidine as that used used by the no treatment group. Two patients in the EA group had no postoperative analgesia in the first 2 h. There was no difference in the assessments of postoperative distress between groups. No patient was aware of having received EA or not.