Article

Art therapy applied to an adolescent with Asperger's syndrome

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Abstract

Asperger's syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction, restricted, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. Adolescents with Asperger's syndrome have developed a compromised self-regulatory system, which leads to difficulty in many areas of functioning. Some of these areas include social, behavioral, emotional, and an increase in anxiety. Art therapy is an important activity based intervention that allows those with Asperger's syndrome to receive and learn information in a non-conventional, nonverbal, comprehensive, and expressive language. Over a 7-month period of creating art, Emma became increasingly more communicative and comfortable in areas of functioning, especially social interactions. The incorporation of visual creativity allowed her to express herself and be heard on a new level of communication. Through her artwork she was able to move from having difficulty in functioning to learning, growing, challenging herself, and making post-secondary education plans.

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... Based on former work of the first author a tentative framework has been designed to organize the main components of an art therapeutic intervention. This model is visualized in Fig. 1 and covers four areas of operation: (1) art therapeutic (AT) means and forms of expression; (2) therapists' behavior (including interactions with the client and handling of materials); (3) context (setting, reason for referral, duration of therapy, concurrent treatment); and (4) intended outcomes (including short-and long-term goals). The framework is named the Context Outcomes Art Therapy (COAT) model, suggesting the centrality of the 'art area' and the indispensability of the other three 'circles of influence'; without these layers one cannot speak of an art therapeutic intervention. ...
... [8,9,14,15,17,18] The other nine publications showed details of art therapy treatments of in total 18 participating children diagnosed ASD. [1][2][3][4][5][6][7]11,16] In the next part an overview of findings (Table 2) is given based on 18 case descriptions from 12 publications, respectively six general descriptions of art therapeutic interventions from six publications. ...
... During art therapy the child becomes more explorative, flexible and expressive. [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18] Two types of preference for art materials appeared. Children aimed at symbolic expression, mostly use drawing materials such as crayon, paint and water, and (later in the therapy process) clay. ...
... Studies primarily targeted youth with ASD, including Pervasive developmental disorder and Asperger syndrome [27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34], representing the majority of participants. Diagnostic populations represented in much smaller numbers across papers included Brain injuries [25,26], Learning disabilities [33,35], Attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder [33], Cerebral palsy [25], and Down syndrome [36]. ...
... The remaining four studies in Table 1 were classified in the visual arts modality [30][31][32]35]. Key activities included making a project of interest out of available materials (e.g., collage, maskmaking), drawing and painting; each visual arts session focused on producing and discussing children's art projects. ...
... These programs all took place once per week and lasted 22 to 52 weeks. Session length varied from one [30] to one and half hours [31] with a maximum of three hours [35]; one study did not report on program intensity or frequency [32]. Programs also varied in delivery approaches. ...
Article
Purpose: There is a growing movement in pediatric rehabilitation to understand how approaches addressing aspects beyond body function contribute to enhanced psychosocial well-being. Among such approaches is the use of creative arts. A scoping review was undertaken to synthesize the current literature on performance and visual arts-based programs and outcomes for children with disabilities. Methods: Data sources included CINAHL, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO. Eligible articles described programs involving performing or visual art activities in community and ambulatory care settings, delivered to children between 6 and 18 years with physical or developmental disabilities, and reported on at least one psychosocial outcome. Domains of interest included emotional, social, behavioral, physical, cognitive, and/or communicative functioning, which are known to impact well-being and participation. No limits were applied to study design. Results: Twelve articles using primarily case study and quasi-experimental designs were identified, encompassing an 11-year period. Most programs focused on theater as the central modality. A majority of papers addressed changes in physical, cognitive, and communicative function (n = 8), followed by social function (n = 6), emotional function (n = 5), and finally, behavioral function (n = 3). Across individual papers, diverse study designs, measures, and outcomes were examined with positive qualitative and/or quantitative findings noted across all domains. Conclusions: Within an emerging evidence base, arts-based programs show potential to positively impact psychosocial well-being and warrant further investigation with broader populations of children with physical and developmental disabilities. A greater emphasis on programmatic approaches and enhanced methodological rigor to establishing benefits is needed to advance understanding. Implications for rehabilitation Pediatric therapists may wish to consider recommending arts-based programs for children with ASD, TBI, and other developmental disabilities given their potential in achieving psychosocial outcomes Arts-based programs in rehabilitation provide creative ideas (e.g., drawing, painting) and techniques (e.g., modeling, role-play), which may be incorporated into individualized or group-based therapy to promote psychosocial well-being Program evaluators and researchers are encouraged to adopt a programmatic approach to further explore how art activities facilitate psychosocial outcomes.
... Prior qualitative research studies show that participation in a group visual arts activity can stimulate a sense of belonging (Parr, 2006;Skudrzyk et al., 2009), foster new social interactions (Askins & Pain, 2011) and mirror pro-social experience lacked in a wider community setting (Cumming & Visser, 2009;Slayton, 2012). Prior case study research has also shown that arts practice can be particularly appropriate in engaging diverse groups and those with learning difficulty because it also enables forms of non-verbal dialogue and mutuality (Elkis-Abuhoff, 2008;Gabriels & Gaffey, 2012;Macpherson & Bleasedale, 2012). ...
... Participants who were less confident at expressing themselves verbally could share enjoyment with others through acts of making, doing and assisting each other (see Figure 2). Thus confirming prior research findings which have shown that arts practice can engage diverse groups through enabling forms of non-verbal dialogue and mutuality (Elkis-Abuhoff, 2008;Gabriels & Gaffey, 2012;Macpherson & Bleasedale, 2012). ...
Article
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br/> This article reports research that aimed to identify and evaluate potential resilience benefits of visual arts interventions for young people with complex needs. The study involved a review of the ‘arts for resilience’ literature and a case study of 10 weekly resilience-building arts workshops for 10 young people experiencing mental health complexities and/or learning difficulties. Findings: We found a significant existing evidence-base linking visual arts practice to individual and community resilience, across disciplinary fields including art therapy, social work, community health, visual arts practice and geographies of health. Visual art activities were utilised to both educate young people about resilience and enhance young people’s overall resilience. Qualitative research material developed from the case study shows that even short-term visual arts interventions can impact on young people’s resilience – crucially, participation was extremely beneficial to young people’s sense of belonging and ability to cope with difficult feelings (topics which arose repeatedly during interview, focus group discussion and observation). Applications: Our review and findings from this small case study provide some initial insights into the resilience benefits of participation in visual arts activities. This, combined with the resilience-based practice framework presented here, could aid the effective targeting of interventions for social workers and others working with young people with complex needs. Alongside this research paper, an arts for resilience practice guide has been produced by the project team (including young people). It contains instructions on how to conduct a range of practical visual arts activities that we identified as being resilience-promoting.
... A small number of interventions have been trialled to address difficulties in self-regulation for adolescents with ASD, including music therapy [12], art therapy [13] and a writing skills intervention which targeted goal setting, selfmonitoring and self-reinforcement [14]. This last intervention was only designed to improve writing skills and is not necessarily transferable to social skills. ...
... interpersonal support) goals, there was little evidence for successful outcomes with respect to self-regulation. Similarly, a case study using art therapy with one 18-year-old female adolescent with ASD [13] connected difficulties with selfregulation as contributing to social difficulties for adolescents with ASD but did not target this directly. Instead, the goal was to open new channels of communication, improve self-esteem and self-concept and gain insight into personal struggle. ...
Article
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Objective: To increase flexible thinking, self-regulation and empathy for adolescents with ASD. Method: Five adolescents (M = 13.5 years; SD = 0.84 years; four males) were assessed pre and post intervention for flexible thinking and social competence (as measured by the SSIS). Parents rated their adolescent's social competence pre and post intervention. Results: A large decrease was found in parent rating of their child's level of hyperactivity (12.8, SD = 2.3; 11, SD = 2.2) (p = 0.034) (Cohen's d = 0.95). Parents increased their rating of their child's cooperation and empathy (Cohen's d = 0.71 and 0.56, respectively). A medium effect for flexible thinking was observed in three items (Cohen's d = 0.5 to 0.62) and a large effect for one item (Cohen's d = 1.35). Adolescents decreased self-scoring on the social scale post intervention. Conclusion: Improvements were observed in adolescents' flexible thinking and social insights, and parent's perception of their child's self-regulation.
... Researchers have identified the positive impact of art therapy on the cognitive, adaptive, emotional and physical aspects of ASD (Betts, Harmer, & Schumelevich, 2014;Rafferty-Bugher, Brown, Hastings, Arndt, & Hesse, 2016). Multiple studies addressing social skills (Epp, 2008), sensory regulation ( Kuo & Plavnick, 2015), motor skills (Stallings, Heller, Schuldt, O'Brien, & Carter, 2013) and self-expression (Elkis-Abuhoff, 2009) have found art therapy to be an efficacious intervention. Due to its multifaceted nature, art therapy has the capacity to tackle SID and facilitate attachment between child and therapist simultaneously, arguably making it an ideal treatment (Bragge & Fenner, 2009;Evans & Dubowski, 2001;Martin, 2009aMartin, , 2009b). ...
Article
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This article presents a sensory-based relational art therapy approach (S-BRATA) framework for working with children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that explicitly addresses sensory integration dysfunction (SID) and impaired attachment. Developed based on three case studies and rooted in grounded theory methodology, the study resulted in seven themes: (1) sense of safety, (2) working with the child’s sensory profile, (3) art materials as entry point for engagement, (4) attachment formation through mirroring and attunement, (5) flexibility in approach, (6) structure and boundaries, (7) art product not the focus. As a preliminary framework, S-BRATA extends and develops established concepts into a unified model.
... It is relatively easy to solicit individuals with ASD to participate in art activities because they can express themselves in a way that is more likely to be accepted by their peers, thereby reducing their anxiety of social rejection or problem behaviors (Epp, 2008;Noble, 2001). Many case studies have reported the relationship of art activities and the qualitative improvement of social behaviors for children with ASD (e.g., Elkis-Abuhoff, 2008;Emery, 2004;Kearns, 2004). Epp (2008) used a social skills questionnaire for parents to evaluate the effectiveness of an art therapy group and also reported art therapy as an effective treatment to improve social behaviors for individuals with ASD. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a behavioral art program in improving social skills for two children with autism in group settings. A multiple probe design across behaviors was used. The results indicated that for both children, the program increased the percentages of spontaneous verbal communications, presentation of artwork, and eye contact. One of the children showed a concurrent decrease in off-seat behavior. Both children maintained high levels of performance on the target social skills three weeks after the treatment. Social skills were generalized to different settings with another instructor and an unfamiliar audience. The increased scores on both children's adaptive behaviors indicated that both the teachers and the parents perceived that the art program was effective in improving the children's social skills.
... Worth a mention here is a questionnaire survey of 44 female and 18 male new art project participants attending 22 art projects in England which found statistically significant improvements in measures of empowerment, mental health and social inclusion (Hacking and Secker, 2008). Arts practice can be particularly appropriate in engaging diverse groups and those with learning difficulty because it enables forms of non-verbal dialogue and mutuality (Bethards, 2003;Elkis-Abuhoff, 2008;Macpherson & Bleasedale, 2012), a finding echoed in our own workshops. However, it is important not to over-romanticize arts participation and its potential contribution to young people's individual and community resilience and sense of belonging. ...
Chapter
Arts based approaches hold promise for supporting the development of young people's resilience. However, there have been few empirical studies that consider how to set them up. Furthermore, whether or not young people actually find them supportive is another question that merits further attention. This research is based on the findings of a collaboration between a community mental health focused arts organization, a charity supporting families with disabled children, and university academics. We set up a series of weekly resilience-building visual arts workshops for young people and undertook a review of what we termed the ?arts for resilience' literature. We found a significant existing evidence base which links visual arts practice to individual and community resilience (over 190 related references). Many disciplinary fields were cited, including art therapy, social work, community health, cultural policy and geographies of health. Key recent publications in the ?arts for health' and ?arts for community well-being' research literature have also been linked to this review of ?arts for resilience'. The researchers contributed to the evidence base through developing a program of arts workshops and evaluating these in terms of their resilience benefits. They found that even short-term visual arts interventions can have a significant impact on young people's resilience. The research participants included young people with learning difficulties. What precisely constitutes resilience for them is a complex issue and was not fully explored in this research. How their definitions of resilience link with prior research definitions of resilience also remains unexplored. Further issues worthy of greater exploration include the longer- term resilience benefits of arts participation, the most cost-effective modes of delivering arts for resilience amongst young people with complex needs, the appropriateness of existing scales and measures of resilience for evaluating the impact of arts interventions with young people with complex needs.
... 629). Art therapy has addressed each of these aspects in multiple studies (Elkis-Abuhoff, 2008, 2009Schweizer, 1997). For instance, Elkis-Abuhoff (2009), noted that through sensory collage and abstract drawing, the client was able to practice social interaction and recognition of facial cues to facilitate emotional self-expression, self-regulation as well as integration of new sensory experiences. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to gain a clearer understanding of how art therapists currently practice with children who have ASD. In order to target art therapists who had this specialized experience, participants were selectively chosen based on their known expertise in the United States. As a result, 14 art therapists’ perspectives were gathered, which were analyzed loosely following the Consensus Qualitative Research Guidelines by the research team. As a result, a number of domains of importance were identified, which were: Art therapists’ level of experience and scope, unique aspects of using art therapy with children who have ASD, preferred choice of art materials for children with ASD, primary aims when using art therapy for children with ASD, and preferred theoretical approaches and their practical application. The findings were then further reviewed to develop best practices for art therapy with children who have ASD. These practical guidelines may serve as a basis of successful practice for new art therapy professionals as well as can be used as a standardized art therapy intervention. Nevertheless, this is only a first step towards aiding the expansion of an evidence-base and valuing art therapy as a routine form of treatment for ASD. Going forward, there is a need to use these best practices as a guide to help investigate the level of effectiveness of art therapy for the improvement of the cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and physical aspects of ASD in children.
... The majority of AT-aided health and well-being on adolescents use case analysis research method [23,126,127], which largely discuss the therapeutic effect of AT on the neural, psychological, and behavioral problems of adolescents. In addition, group AT is a more effective form of treatment for adolescents [128]. ...
Article
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Considering the physical, and psychological impacts and challenges brought about the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), art therapy (AT) provides opportunities to promote human health and well-being. There are few systematic analysis studies in the fields of AT, which can provide content and direction for the potential value and impact of AT. Therefore, this paper aims to critically analyze the published work in the field of AT from the perspective of promoting health and well-being, and provides insights into current research status, hotspots, limitations, and future development trends of AT. This paper adopts a mixed method of quantitative and qualitative analysis including bibliometric analysis and keyword co-occurrence analysis. The results indicate that: (1) the current studies on AT are mostly related to research and therapeutic methods, types of AT, research populations and diseases, and evaluation of therapeutic effect of AT. The research method of AT mainly adopts qualitative research, among which creative arts therapy and group AT are common types of AT, and its main research populations are children, veterans, and adolescents. AT-aided diseases are trauma, depression, psychosis, dementia, and cancer. In addition, the therapeutic methods are mainly related to psychotherapy, drama, music, and dance/movement. Further, computer systems are an important evaluation tool in the research of AT; (2) the future development trend of AT-aided health and well-being based on research hotspots, could be focused on children, schizophrenia, well-being, mental health, palliative care, veterans, and the elderly within the context of addressing COVID-19 challenges; and (3) future AT-aided health and well-being could pay more attention to innovate and integrate the therapeutic methods of behavior, movement, and technology, such as virtual reality and remote supervision.
... Varios estudios afirman que el arteterapia presenta beneficios en personas con síndrome de Asperger, capacitándolas para un mejor desarrollo en cuanto a sus habilidades sociales y comunicativas, el poder y saber desplegar situaciones personales entre sus iguales y así, desarrollar circunstancias de interacción social, además de decrecer ciertos niveles de estrés y ansiedad (según sea la particularidad del sujeto) que pueden encontrarse en las rutinas diarias (Emery, 2004;Elkis-Albuhoff, 2008;Epp, 2008). ...
Article
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p> El presente artículo tiene la intención de clarificar el por qué y para qué es importante utilizar el arteterapia con el colectivo de síndrome de Asperger. Lo anterior, mediante un ejercicio de revisión bibliográfica, sobre todo en fuentes secundarias como trabajo de investigación, finalmente se reconoce la escasa bibliografía encontrada y la necesidad de seguir investigando el arteterapia en este colectivo social aún desconocido por la mayor parte de la sociedad.</p
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The aim of this case study is to present the preparation and the creation of a dramatic reality by a nine-year-old, verbal, autistic girl, which could enhance her emotional awareness and appropriate emotional responses by connecting feelings to their appropriate causes. Dramatic reality demands the ability to pretend and the use of symbols, which are considered to be impaired in autism. Emotional awareness, identification of one's own emotions with the appropriate causal – explanatory framework is often hampered as well. This case study describes the use of dramatherapeutic methods in social skills training programs in autism.
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Given the high prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), there is a need to find effective treatment options. Art therapy can be a valuable addition to the multidisciplinary treatment approach for ASD. The current findings on the efficacy of art therapy as a supplementary intervention option for ASD will be reviewed. The following will review research on how art therapy improves the ability to relate, socialize, and improve on a lack of joint attention skills with individuals with ASD. The triadic and interactive square model of the therapeutic relationship will also be discussed in relation to working with this population.
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A pilot study explored the effectiveness of art therapy in improving the self-motivation and emotional and behavioral adjustment of children with special educational needs in Hong Kong. Six children aged between 6 and 10 participated in an art therapy group for 14 weekly sessions. Results from a range of standardized tests administered before and after the session block indicated that the art therapy group had little impact on the children’s sense of autonomy, competence, and relatedness in their learning. However, in-session observations showed that the art therapy facilitated the fulfilment of these three areas, and parental reports via interview indicated that art therapy had improved the emotional and behavioral adjustment of their children. Issues in facilitating art therapy groups for children with special education needs are discussed.
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This article is a case example of a nine year-old boy diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) and a severe learning disorder. Art therapy allowed him to safely explore crippling feelings of fear and anxiety, attachment issues related to the loss of his father and to address difficulties in social interaction with peers.
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Praise for Doing Therapy with Children and Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome. "Providing an explanation of Asperger's based on a review of scientific research, Richard Bromfield describes how the characteristics of the syndrome affect the person's thoughts and experiences throughout childhood. Psychotherapy based on the practices described in this book will change the destiny of children and adults with Asperger Syndrome to one of greater connectivity to themselves and others. This should become the primary text for pshchotherapists working with children and adolescents with Asperger's." -Tony Attwood, PhD, author of The Complete Guide to Asperger's Syndrome. "Dr. Blomfield generously shares his wisdom and experience in this very accessible, honest, and often moving book. Any clinician who reads it in its entirely-or even selects a chapter or two at random-will no doubt discover new paths to take their most complex and challenging clients and gain a greater appreciation for those with Asperger Syndrome. Bromfield gives us all a window into a world that is hard to describe, impossible to imagine, but needs and deserves to be understood." -Naomi Angoff Chedd, LMHC, Autism Specialist and coauthor of Replays. Cutting-edge guidance for effective treatment of children and adolescents with Asperger Syndrome. Diagnoses of Asperger Syndrome in children and adolescents are on the rise, and while some clinicians have training and experience in this area, most do not. Using vivid case material, Doing Therapy with Children and Adolescent with Asperger Syndrome offers clinicians the guidance they need to treat the young people they endeavor to help.
Chapter
The contributions of art therapy to treatment, assessment, and research with people who have autism spectrum disorders are presented. An overview of art therapy introduces the reader to the applications and benefi ts of art therapy, which includes the fi eld’s contributions to the knowledge base of autism in the areas of treatment, assessment, and research. The ways in which art therapy can ameliorate symptoms of autism in treatment settings such as schools is described, and applications of art therapy for families and caregivers are presented. Art therapy is discussed as a practical means of assessing symptoms of autism, and the Face Stimulus Assessment is described with support of illustrated case examples. Finally, emerging and expanding areas of art therapy and autism research are delineated, with a focus on the promising intersection of neuroscience and art therapy. © 2014 by World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chapter
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Chapter
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Chapter
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Chapter
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Conference Paper
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Resumo Vários estudos referem os indivíduos com Perturbações do Espectro do Autismo, como particularmente receptivos e responsivos a intervenções educativas ou terapêuticas com alguns mediadores artísticos expressivos. Tendo como objectivo geral o estudo dos reguladores da interacção social pela criança com Perturbação do Espectro do Autismo, a actual investigação desenvolvida em contexto escolar centra-se no estudo de processos de intervenção individuais com 4 crianças, privilegiando como mediador desta interacção as expressões artísticas. Este artigo fala-nos de um desses casos. Abstract Several studies refer people with Autism Spectrum Disorders as particularly receptive and responsive to some expressive arts mediators used in educational or therapeutic contexts The object of the study is focuses on the regulators of social interaction by children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Current research has been developed in educational context focused on 4 individual interventions that emphasizes the artistic expressions as a mediator to the social interaction. This article present one case study.
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Technical Report
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link with a popular version of the dissertation (3 min): https://youtu.be/jYwh982RVFw
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At present, the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is seriously affecting everyone’s life, body and psychology. A review of relevant literature found that communication design (CD) and art therapy (AT) can bring immediate benefits to human health. However, the current CD focuses on the design of visual communication, and AT focuses on the methods and results of treatment, and rarely integrates the characteristics of the two to carry out healthy design interventions. Therefore, this paper aims to analyze the characteristics of CD and AT through the method of literature review, explore the potential positive effects of the integration of the two. And then start from the perspective of design and creation of cure, to design cures and think about potential interventions. Finally, a design strategy framework for experience under the epidemic will be constructed to enhance users’ experience during treatment and reduce the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health. By integrating the analysis results of CD and AT, this paper constructs a broad framework of design strategy from three levels: users, design and elements. First, the design process is driven from top to bottom by stakeholders. Then, the CD process is constructed based on the design thinking of user experience by integrating visual information and artistic media. Finally, several design elements including senses, experience, humanity, rhetoric, new media and digital technology are integrated into the design process to realize the communication, exchange and interaction of information, and to construct the intervention measures to cure by design.
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Analysis of creativity has important clinical applications in studying neurological disorders. Among the available tools, the simplest and the most portable device is the EEG headset. In this study we explore the potential of a single channel EEG to assess varying levels of Visual Creativity via sketching. Three tasks requiring different levels of creativity are designed: Max Creative(TMC)-sketching, Less Creative(TLC)-repetitive geometric patterns, and Nil Creative(TNC)-tally marks. Normalized and artifact-filtered EEG signals are used for analyses. Three different types of analysis are carried out using the features extracted from three different paradigms: (1) Chaos Analysis, (2) Distribution Analysis, and (3) Statistical Analysis. The 4-class classification scenario (Rest vs TMC vs TLC vs TNC) is compared with LSTM which is the popular technique for 1D signal. Mean accuracy is reported over 5-fold cross-validation over 10 runs. Among various feature and classifier combinations, peak performances are seen in the following scenarios. In 4-class classification, chaos features result in a peak mean accuracy of 52% while other features show significantly less accuracy. LSTM for 4-class classification results in only 38% accuracy in the current setting. When levels of creativity(TMC vs TLC vs TNC) are analyzed, Hjorth mobility and complexity, LLE and distribution features result in 45% accuracy. As expected, it is observed that Rest(R) is distinguished from Non-Rest with a mean accuracy > 90% using Standard deviation, MAD and LLE, individually. However, distribution-based features result in 69-74% accuracy. It is observed that chaos analysis results in a higher accuracy for the classes considered.
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Requests for the assessment and treatment of Asperger Syndrome (AS) are on the rise. AS is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired social competence but intact intellectual functioning. Adult AS patients often present for psychotherapy with anxiety, depression, and problems navigating their social worlds. The challenge facing psychotherapists is to establish workable therapeutic relationships with patients who have fundamental problems understanding and engaging in relationships in their daily lives. The aim of this article is to present strategies for adapting psychotherapy, particularly the therapeutic relationship, for the treatment of adult AS. The authors briefly review the phenomenology of AS and discuss strategies for using the therapeutic relationship to address the social functioning problems of this disorder. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The aim of the present study was to assess the findings, reported in earlier studies, that individuals with autism spectrum disorders process visuo-spatial tasks faster than typically developing control persons. The participants in the present study were children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) (N = 13), and a matched group of typically developing children and adolescents (N = 13). The results showed that the participants in the clinical group performed marginally less well than those in the control group on both the Block Design Test and the Embedded Figures Test, but the differences were not statistically significant. Thus, earlier findings suggesting that individuals with autism spectrum disorders solve non-social cognitive tasks faster than typically developing control persons were not replicated. The results are discussed with special reference to the hypothesis of weak central coherence.
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The Wiley Handbook of Art Therapy is a collection of original, internationally diverse essays, that provides unsurpassed breadth and depth of coverage of the subject. The most comprehensive art therapy book in the field, exploring a wide range of themes. A unique collection of the current and innovative clinical, theoretical and research approaches in the field. Cutting-edge in its content, the handbook includes the very latest trends in the subject, and in-depth accounts of the advances in the art therapy arena. Edited by two highly renowned and respected academics in the field, with a stellar list of global contributors, including Judy Rubin, Vija Lusebrink, Selma Ciornai, Maria d' Ella and Jill Westwood. Part of the Wiley Handbooks in Clinical Psychology series.
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The present study compared individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger disorder (AD) in intellectual, motor, visuospatial, and executive function domains. Participants with AD demonstrated significantly higher Verbal and Full Scale IQ scores, significantly larger Verbal-Performance IQ discrepancies, and significantly better visual-perceptual skills than those with HFA. Once the superior intellectual abilities of the AD group were controlled (both statistically through analysis of covariance and by examining IQ-matched subgroups of HFA and AD participants), no significant group differences in motor, visuospatial, or executive functions were evident, save a marginally significant trend toward poorer fine motor performance in the AD group. This suggests that AD may simply be "high-IQ autism" and that separate names for the disorders may not be warranted. The relation of these findings to theories of autism and AD are discussed.
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Full textFull text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (330K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. 231 232
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This article presents the art therapy treatment of a 6-yearold boy diagnosed with autism without mental retardation. Children create art and draw because it is rooted in the need to relate to their world (Horovitz, Lewis, & Luca, 1967). However, children with autism have difficulty relating (Green & Luce, 1996). This case study explores the value of art therapy interventions in the young boy's development, growth, and ability to relate. His growth is highlighted by discussing three of his drawings that reflect his progress towards developing object constancy. The importance of art therapy in the treatment of children with the diagnosis of an autistic spectrum disorder is also explored.
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This study examined anxiety symptoms in 29 adolescents With Asperger syndrome (AS) aged 12 to 16 years, compared to 30 nonclinical (NC) adolescents and 34 adolescents With anxiety disorders (AD). Comorbidity betWeen anxiety symptoms and negative thoughts, behavioral problems, and life interference Was also examined. Self- and parental reports revealed significantly higher levels of anxiety in both the AS group and the AD group than in the NC group. Negative thoughts, behavioral problems, and life interference Were significantly higher for the AS group than for the tWo comparison groups.
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As positive outcomes for children and adolescents with either Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism are related to the development of social communicative competence, recognition of the developmental capacities that contribute to this achievement is essential. Although social communication skills play a central role, developmental milestones in emotional regulation should be considered of equal importance. This article will describe emotional regulatory challenges commonly faced by individuals with Asperger syndrome and individuals with high-functioning autism that hinder success in social interactions. The impact of challenges in social communication (e.g., difficulty sharing and interpreting intentions, recognition of emotional states, and using socially conventional forms of emotional expression) and differences in neurophysiology (e.g., sensory sensitivities and learning style) on emotional regulation will be reviewed.
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This study examined the effectiveness of a social skills training program for normal-IQ adolescents with autism. Five boys participated in the 4 1/2-month treatment condition; four boys matched on age, IQ, and severity of autism constituted the no-treatment control group. In addition to teaching specific interactional and conversational skills, the training program provided explicit and systematic instruction in the underlying social-cognitive principles necessary to infer the mental states of others (i.e., theory of mind). Pre- and post-intervention assessment demonstrated meaningful change in the treatment group's performance on several false belief tasks, but no improvement in the control sample. No changes, however, were demonstrated on general parent and teacher ratings of social competence for either group.
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The present study compared individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger disorder (AD) in intellectual, motor, visuospatial, and executive function domains. Participants with AD demonstrated significantly higher Verbal and Full Scale IQ scores, significantly larger Verbal-Performance IQ discrepancies, and significantly better visual-perceptual skills than those with HFA. Once the superior intellectual abilities of the AD group were controlled (both statistically through analysis of covariance and by examining IQ-matched subgroups of HFA and AD participants), no significant group differences in motor, visuospatial, or executive functions were evident, save a marginally significant trend toward poorer fine motor performance in the AD group. This suggests that AD may simply be "high-IQ autism" and that separate names for the disorders may not be warranted. The relation of these findings to theories of autism and AD are discussed.
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In this study, the authors investigate emotional understanding in autism through a discourse analytic framework to provide a window into children's strategies for interpreting emotional versus nonemotional encounters and consider the implications for the mechanisms underlying emotional understanding in typical development. Accounts were analyzed for thematic content and discourse structure. Whereas high-functioning children with autism were able to discuss contextually appropriate accounts of simple emotions, their strategies for interpreting all types of emotional (but not nonemotional) experiences differed from those used by typically developing children. High-functioning children with autism were less inclined to organize their emotional accounts in personalized causal-explanatory frameworks and displayed a tendency to describe visually salient elements of experiences seldom observed among comparison children. Findings suggest that children with autism possess less coherent representations of emotional experiences and use alternative strategies for interpreting emotionally evocative encounters. Discussion focuses on the significance of these findings for informing the nature of emotional dysfunction in autism as well as implications for theories of emotional understanding in typical development.
Art therapy as an intervention for autism r270 D.L. Elkis-Abuhoff / The Arts in Anxiety in adolescents with Asperger syndrome: Negative thoughts, behavioral problems, and life interference
  • M Emery
Emery, M. (2004). Art therapy as an intervention for autism. Journal of the American Art Therapy Association, 21(3), 143–147. r270 D.L. Elkis-Abuhoff / The Arts in Psychotherapy 35 (2008) 262–270 Farrugia, S., & Hudson, J. (2006). Anxiety in adolescents with Asperger syndrome: Negative thoughts, behavioral problems, and life interference. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 21(1), 25–35
Creative expressive activities and Asperger's syndrome: Social and emotional skills and positive life goals for adolescents and young adults
  • J Martinovich
Martinovich, J. (2003). Creative expressive activities and Asperger's syndrome: Social and emotional skills and positive life goals for adolescents and young adults. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.