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Mimicry for money: Behavioral consequences of imitation

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Abstract

Two experiments investigated the idea that mimicry leads to pro-social behavior. It was hypothesized that mimicking the verbal behavior of customers would increase the size of tips. In Experiment 1, a waitress either mimicked half her customers by literally repeating their order or did not mimic her customers. It was found that she received significantly larger tips when she mimicked her customers than when she did not. In Experiment 2, in addition to a mimicry- and non-mimicry condition, a baseline condition was included in which the average tip was assessed prior to the experiment. The results indicated that, compared to the baseline, mimicry leads to larger tips. These results demonstrate that mimicry can be advantageous for the imitator because it can make people more generous.

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... Meanwhile, research in social psychology has indicated that alignment is also "social glue" that fosters positive social relationships between interlocutors, thereby enhancing the harmony of the interaction (Chartrand & Van Baaren, 2009;Lakin et al., 2003, p. 147). In particular, being aligned (or mimicked) linguistically increases the mimicked individual's positive feeling and prosocial behaviors toward the mimicker (Abrahams et al., 2019;Guéguen, 2009;Van Baaren et al., 2003) and encourages a favorable evaluation of the interaction (Chartrand & Van Baaren, 2009;. All these point to the assumption that linguistic alignment might help improve the quality of human-computer interaction by provoking positive prosocial perceptions. ...
... For example, Chartrand and Bargh (1999) found that participants evaluated their partner to be more likable and the interaction to be smoother when their conversational partner mimicked their posture and movements (e.g., shaking their foot, robbing their face) than when the partner did not. Moreover, an increase of prosocial behaviors toward the mimicker, such as helping and tipping, has been reported after people were mimicked in terms of language use (e.g., Müller et al., 2012;Van Baaren et al., 2003). Van Baaren et al. (2003) observed that a waitress received more tips from customers whom she mimicked by repeating their order than from those whom she did not mimic (simply saying ''okay" or "coming up"). ...
... Moreover, an increase of prosocial behaviors toward the mimicker, such as helping and tipping, has been reported after people were mimicked in terms of language use (e.g., Müller et al., 2012;Van Baaren et al., 2003). Van Baaren et al. (2003) observed that a waitress received more tips from customers whom she mimicked by repeating their order than from those whom she did not mimic (simply saying ''okay" or "coming up"). ...
Article
There is evidence that linguistic alignment can give rise to prosocial effects in human–human interaction (HHI), but little has been done to explore whether the same effects can be evoked in human–computer interaction (HCI). This study investigates whether being lexically aligned improves people’s evaluation of their conversational partner and the interaction in HHI and HCI, and whether such effects differ in HHI and HCI. A text-based interaction task was adopted in which a naïve participant and his/her partner took turns to name and match pictures. In both HHI and HCI, participants interacted with a computer program but they were led to believe that the partner they were interacting with was a human interlocutor in HHI conditions but a smart dialogue system (i.e. a computer partner) in HCI conditions. Lexical alignment was varied in the experiment such that in the align condition the program repeated the word use of participants, whereas in the nonalign condition, it chose words different from those used by participants. After the interaction task, a questionnaire survey was carried out to measure participants’ evaluation of their partner and the interaction. Results showed that lexical alignment significantly improved participants’ evaluation of the interaction in terms of perceived cognitive demand and response accuracy in both HHI and HCI. In addition, lexical alignment significantly enhanced people’s liking of the aligning partner and reduced their perceived annoyance in HHI, but the effect was negligible in HCI.
... Critically, the finding that the reliability of lexical entrainment reaches a substantial level even across 7-to-8 days suggests that inter-individual variability in the degree of lexical entrainment is underlain by stable individual differences, although what those traits are remain to be seen. For example, under the assumption that lexical entrainment interacts with social affect and pro-sociality (e.g., Van Baaren, 2003;Palomares et al., 2016 ), a person with a high propensity towards pro-sociality (agreeableness) may in general be more likely to lexically entrain than a person with a high propensity to feel very anxious in social situations (neuroticism) (e.g., see Gill, Harrison, & Oberlander, 2004, for individual differences in interpersonal syntactic priming). Alternately, assuming that lexical priming effects underlie lexical entrainment (e.g., , individuals who are more susceptible to lexical priming may exhibit a greater basal tendency to reuse a partner's lexical label (i.e., a recently processed lexical label) than individuals who are less susceptible to lexical priming. ...
... Importantly, previous findings showing that lexical entrainment is influenced by situational factors (e.g., Brennan & Clark, 1996;Branigan et al., 2011, Van Baaren et al., 2003, taken together with our finding that lexical entrainment is stable within individuals, suggest that research on lexical entrainment could also be informative about how individual differences and situational factors interact with each other during language use. The degree of lexical entrainment may vary between individuals not only depending on their basal propensity towards entrainment and/or on features of the communicative situation, but also as a result of the interaction between each individual's disposition towards lexical entrainment and relevant situational factors. ...
... Strikingly, the fact that lexical entrainment is stable within individuals not only suggests that the mechanisms supporting lexical entrainment are stable when individuals believe themselves to be interacting with a remote player, but also that the way in which we make lexical choices can potentially reflect stable individual differences in how we process language. Lexical entrainment research has already suggested that language production is affected by memory, perspective-taking, and pro-sociality, among other factors (Branigan et al., 2011;Brennan & Clark, 1996;van Baaren et al., 2003). Future studies using an individual differences approach can further develop accounts of language processing, by addressing questions such as whether the degree to which individuals display lexical entrainment might be predicted by social psychological factors (e.g., perspective-taking skills), personality traits (e.g., degree of pro-sociality or agreeableness), cognitive effects (e.g., ease of lexical access) or even by demographic variables (e.g., gender and age). ...
... They also found that their experiment confederates who intentionally mimicked participants were more liked than confederates who did not. The effect of the conscious imitation on liking was later confirmed in various settings such as ordering at a restaurant [55], making a deal [39], and conducting a business interview [47]. ...
... Since then, many studies have been conducted to examine the mimicry effect in various human-to-human interactions [12,56]. For example, van Baaren et al. showed that restaurant servers who mimicked a customer's order received significantly larger tips than those who did not [55]. William et al. discovered mimicry increases trust in a deal-making situation [39]. ...
... For example, corporate websites can use this mimicry, expecting that their brands are favorably received by visitors. Furthermore, many websites would embrace this approach if the existence of its positive effect was also confirmed by a decision-making process in the same manner as the mimicry in human-to-human communications, such as increasing server tips [55] or making a successful deal [39]. Corresponding to these studies, there is a possibility that commercial websites increase their revenue with the aid of the proposed browser-based mimicry. ...
Conference Paper
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Humans are known to have a better subconscious impression of other humans when their movements are imitated in social interactions. Despite this influential phenomenon, its application in human-computer interaction is currently limited to specific areas, such as an agent mimicking the head movements of a user in virtual reality, because capturing user movements conventionally requires external sensors. If we can implement the mimicry effect in a scalable platform without such sensors, a new approach for designing human-computer interaction will be introduced. Therefore, we have investigated whether users feel positively toward a mimicking agent that is delivered by a standalone web application using only a webcam. We also examined whether a web page that changes its background pattern based on head movements can foster a favorable impression. The positive effect confirmed in our experiments supports mimicry as a novel design practice to augment our daily browsing experiences.
... First, the interpretation of some key experimental findings is complicated by methodological shortcomings. For example, a highly cited paper by van Baaren et al. [14] reported that waitresses received higher tips when they repeated verbatim their customers' orders, as compared to when they did not repeat them. However, it is unclear whether the behaviour of waitresses across experimental conditions was controlled (the paper mentions that waitresses were asked to behave consistently across conditions, but does not report any checks of whether these instructions were followed). ...
... Some of the past studies implied that linguistic imitation may support positive interpersonal relations and pro-social behaviours, and even led to monetary gains for the imitator (e.g. [14]). Likewise, our previous work suggested that lexical imitation induces a positive evaluation of the interaction and encourages cooperation with the imitator [2]. ...
... This distinguishes the current study from previous research where participants interacted face-to-face with the imitator (e.g. [11,12,14,16]), and from Lelonkiewicz [2] where participants were able to at least see their partner prior to the experiment (although they did not converse at that stage and later performed the same picture naming/matching task as here). To interpret an action as a social rather than an individual task, agents must form some minimal representations of their partner [27,28]. ...
Article
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According to an influential hypothesis, people imitate motor movements to foster social interactions. Could imitation of language serve a similar function? We investigated this question in two pre-registered experiments. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to alternate naming pictures and matching pictures to a name provided by a partner. Crucially, and unknown to participants, the partner was in fact a computer program which in one group produced the same names as previously used by the participant, and in the other group consistently produced different names. We found no difference in how the two groups evaluated the partner or the interaction and no difference in their willingness to cooperate with the partner. In Experiment 2, we made the task more similar to natural interactions by adding a stage in which a participant and the partner introduced themselves to each other and included a measure of the participant's autistic traits. Once again, we found no effects of being imitated. We discuss how these null results may inform imitation research.
... Bordeaux, ESTIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, France. 4 Swiss Federal School of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland. 5 Tohoku University, Japan. ...
... In turn, this might lead to self-compassion, and trigger healthier behaviors [3]. Deliberate mimicry has been proven as an effective strategy leading to pro-social behavior and increased liking of the mimicking person in economic [4], and courtship [5] contexts. It is also possible to foster empathy with virtual agents and robots [6], [7]. ...
Conference Paper
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Self-tracking aims to increase awareness, decrease undesired behaviors, and ultimately lead towards a healthier lifestyle. However, inappropriate communication of self-tracking results might cause the opposite effect. Subtle self-tracking feedback is an alternative that can be provided with the aid of an artificial agent representing the self. Hence, we propose a wearable pet that reflects the user's affective states through visual and haptic feedback. By eliciting empathy and fostering helping behaviors towards it, users would indirectly help themselves. A wearable prototype was built, and three user studies performed to evaluate the appropriateness of the proposed affective representations. Visual representations using facial and body cues were clear for valence and less clear for arousal. Haptic interoceptive patterns emulating heart-rate levels matched the desired feedback urgency levels with a saturation frequency. The integrated visuo-haptic representations matched to participants own affective experience. From the results, we derived three design guidelines for future robot mirroring wearable systems: physical embodiment, interoceptive feedback, and customization.
... For instance, imitating another person's action (either simultaneously or with a temporal delay) was proposed to act as a social glue that fosters interpersonal affiliation. Support for this notion comes from studies showing that imitation increases sympathy and prosocial behavior (e.g., Catmur & Heyes, 2013;Chartrand & Bargh, 1999;van Baaren, Holland, Steenaert, & van Knippenberg, 2003). This research most typically analyzed the imitation of perceived movements of another person (i.e., how an action was performed by this person). ...
... Even more important for the present research, it has been suggested that imitation of the behavior of another person produces not only cognitive, but also social-affective consequences. For instance, studies have shown that imitation increases liking of another person (Catmur & Heyes, 2013;Dignath, Lotze-Hermes, Farmer, & Pfister, 2018), promotes prosocial behaviour (van Baaren, Holland, Steenaert, & van Knippenberg, 2003;van Baaren, Holland, Kawakami, & van Knippenberg, 2004), increases empathy for others (de Coster, Verschuere, Goubert, Tsakiris, & Brass, 2013) and reduces stereotyping (Inzlicht, Gutsell, & Legault, 2012). ...
Article
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Imitating someone’s actions influences social-affective evaluations and motor performance for the action model and the imitator alike. Both phenomena are explained by the similarity between the sensory and motor representations of the action. Importantly, however, theoretical accounts of action control hold that actions are represented in terms of their sensory effects, which encompass features of the movement but also features of an action’s consequence in the outside world. This suggests that social-affective consequences of imitation should not be limited to situations in which the imitator copies the model’s body movements. Rather, the present study tested whether copying the perceived action-effects of another person without imitating the eventual body movements increases the social-affective evaluation of this person. In three experiments, participants produced visual action-effects while observing videos of models who performed either the same or a different movement and produced either the same or a different action-effect. If instructions framed the action in terms of the movement, participants preferred models with similar movements (Experiment 1). However, if instructions framed the action in terms of the to-be produced action-effect in the environment, participants preferred models with similar action-effects (Experiments 2 and 3). These results extend effect-based accounts of action control like the ideomotor framework and suggest a close link between action control and affective processing in social interactions.
... These accounts build on the finding that listeners tend to prefer speakers who are similar to themselves (Smith, Brown, Strong, & Rencher, 1975). Accordingly, research has shown that speakers are more likely to align syntactically with those with whom they perceive themselves to be more similar (Weatherholtz, Campbell-Kibler, Jaeger, Hall, & Ave, 2014; see also Heyselaar, Hagoort, & Segaert, 2017;Hwang & Chun, 2018), and speakers who align with a partner's breadth of vocabulary and speech rate are rated more favorably than those who do not (Bradac, Mulac, & House, 1988;Putman & Street, 1984), and the positive affect induced by such linguistic imitation appears to yield tangible benefits for speakers (van Baaren, Holland, Steenaert, & van Knippenberg, 2003). ...
... Our study does not determine the mechanisms by which ostracism led to children's increased lexical alignment. Previous work has identified a social-affective component to linguistic imitation (Bradac et al., 1988;van Baaren et al., 2003), but did not consider such effects in the context of ostracism. Studies of non-linguistic imitation have attributed socialaffective effects to affiliation goals, which are triggered directly and automatically by an experience of ostracism (Aarts & Dijksterhuis, 2000). ...
Article
When threatened with ostracism, children attempt to strengthen social relationships by engaging in affiliative behaviors such as imitation. We investigated whether an experience of ostracism influenced the extent to which children imitated a partner's language use. In two experiments, 7- to 12-year-old children either experienced ostracism or did not experience ostracism in a virtual ball-throwing game before playing a picture-matching game with a partner. We measured children's tendency to imitate, or align with, their partner's language choices during the picture-matching game. Children showed a strong tendency to spontaneously align with their partner's lexical and grammatical choices. Crucially, their likelihood of lexical alignment was modulated by whether they had experienced ostracism. We found no effect of ostracism on syntactic alignment. These findings offer the first demonstration that ostracism selectively influences children's language use. They highlight the role of social-affective factors in children's communicative development, and show that the link between ostracism and imitation is broadly based, and extends beyond motor behaviors to the domain of language. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
... Research has shown that mimicry can facilitate bonding and liking between people (Ashton-James, van Baaren, Chartrand, Decety, & Karremans, 2007;Chartrand & Bargh, 1999;Kühn, et al., 2010;Kühn et al., 2011;LaFrance, 1982;Lakin, et al., 2003;van Baaren, Maddux, Chartrand, de Bouter, & van Knippenberg, 2003). It can increase experienced similarity with others, smoothness of an interaction, empathy, and pro-social behaviors such as donating money or giving tip (Bailenson & Yee, 2005;Chartrand & Bargh, 1999;Müller, van Leeuwen, van Baaren, Bekkering, & Dijksterhuis, 2013;Tanner, Ferraro, Bettman, & van Baaren, 2008;van Baaren, Holland, Kawakami, & van Knippenberg, 2004;van Baaren et al., 2003b). Interestingly, people help others more after they are mimicked by an MIMICRY DECREASES RESISTANCE 6 interaction partner and pick up more pens that fall to the ground (van Baaren et al., 2004); also, they are more willing to accompany a stranger to the train station (Müller, Maaskant, van Baaren, & Dijksterhuis, 2012). ...
... Interestingly, people help others more after they are mimicked by an MIMICRY DECREASES RESISTANCE 6 interaction partner and pick up more pens that fall to the ground (van Baaren et al., 2004); also, they are more willing to accompany a stranger to the train station (Müller, Maaskant, van Baaren, & Dijksterhuis, 2012). Furthermore, it has been shown that mimicry relates to a more interpersonal processing style: people take others more into account, they shift towards more collectivistic social values, and become more motivated to help others (Asthon-James, et al., 2007;Gardner, Gabriel, & Lee, 1999;Probst, Carnevale, & Triandis, 1999;Utz, 2004;van Baaren, et al., 2003b). Together, these studies provide strong support that mimicry improves interpersonal relationships. ...
Conference Paper
Interacting with virtual reality agents (VR agents) becomes more and more common in the future. The present study investigated whether non-verbal mimicry leads to less resistance, and a more positive evaluation of the VR agent. Before evaluation of the VR agent, participants interacted with a VR agent which either mimicked or anti-mimicked their non-verbal behavior. Results showed that a mimicking VR agent was perceived as more convincing, and elicited less resistance. Possible explanations are discussed.
... For example, when being mimicked, individuals experience increased liking for the mimicker (Chartrand & Bargh, 1999;Kulesza & Kot, 2016;Kulesza et al., 2015;Sparenberg, Topolinski, Springer, & Prinz, 2012), increased feelings of closeness and affiliation (Lakin & Chartrand, 2003), as well as pro-social orientation towards the mimicker (Lakin, Chartrand, & Arkin, 2008;van Baaren, Holland, Kawakami, & van Knippenberg, 2004). Being mimicked also increases people's willingness to share resources with the mimicker (van Baaren, Holland, Steenaert, & van Knippenberg, 2003), and their susceptibility to be persuaded by the mimicker (Kulesza, Szypowska, Jarman, & Dolinski, 2014;Maddux, Mullen, & Galinsky, 2008;Tanner, Ferraro, Chartrand, Bettman, & Van Baaren, 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
Past research has shown that mimicry has a number of pro-social consequences for interaction partners. However, such research has almost exclusively focused on its effects among interaction dyads. As social interactions are often witnessed by third-party observers, the question arises which inferences perceivers draw from observing mimicry. In the present work, we apply a third-party perspective to mimicry and test whether observers perceive mimicking individuals as submissive. Experiment 1 confirmed our prediction and found that observers perceived a mimicking person as less dominant, and thus more submissive, than a mimicked person. Experiment 2 replicated this finding and ruled out possible demand effects. Experiment 3 showed that when an interaction partner does not mimic the movements initiated by another person, the interaction partner gains dominance in the eye of the observer. Experiment 4 demonstrates that the inferences that perceivers draw from observing mimicry partly rely on a mere action-response pattern. These findings have not only important implications for mimicry as a genuinely social phenomenon, but also for research on impression management and person perception.
... Interestingly, this effect may persist even when the mimicker is a computer or virtual-reality agent (Bailenson & Yee, 2005;Suzuki et al., 2003; but see Hale & Hamilton, 2016b). In addition to building rapport, mimicking has also been shown to increase prosocial behaviour such as helping others (Müller et al., 2012) or increasing the tips that restaurant patrons give waitresses (van Baaren et al., 2003). Thus, positive behavioural consequences of being imitated seem well-documented, though the precise neural and cognitive mechanisms which allow us to detect "being mimicked" are less well defined (Hale & Hamilton, 2016a). ...
Article
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Despite the recent increase in second-person neuroscience research, it is still hard to understand which neurocognitive mechanisms underlie real-time social behaviours. Here, we propose that social signalling can help us understand social interactions both at the single- and two-brain level in terms of social signal exchanges between senders and receivers. First, we show how subtle manipulations of being watched provide an important tool to dissect meaningful social signals. We then focus on how social signalling can help us build testable hypotheses for second-person neuroscience with the example of imitation and gaze behaviour. Finally, we suggest that linking neural activity to specific social signals will be key to fully understand the neurocognitive systems engaged during face-to-face interactions.
... Speech convergence has been theorized to be beneficial to language interactions by helping to establish common ground (Brennan & Clark, 1996), affiliation (Manson, Bryant, Gervais & Kline, 2013;Pardo et al., 2012), or comprehension (Branigan et al., 1995;Schober & Clark, 1989). Convergence may stem from domain-general processes of imitation (De Looze, Oertel, Rauzy & Campbell, 2011;van Baaren, Holland, Steenaert & van Knippenberg, 2003), possibly implemented through links between speech and language perception and production (Buchsbaum, Gregory & Colin, 2001;Tian & Poeppel, 2012), or on-the-fly processes and representations that arise to support coordination and understanding (Brennan & Hanna, 2009). ...
Article
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When people interact, aspects of their speech and language patterns often converge in interactions involving one or more languages. Most studies of speech convergence in conversations have examined monolingual interactions, whereas most studies of bilingual speech convergence have examined spoken responses to prompts. However, it is not uncommon in multilingual communities to converse in two languages, where each speaker primarily produces only one of the two languages. The present study examined complexity matching and lexical matching as two measures of speech convergence in conversations spoken in English, Spanish, or both languages. Complexity matching measured convergence in the hierarchical timing of speech, and lexical matching measured convergence in the frequency distributions of lemmas produced. Both types of matching were found equally in all three language conditions. Taken together, the results indicate that convergence is robust to monolingual and bilingual interactions because it stems from basic mechanisms of coordination and communication.
... Mimicry also has a variety of other positive outcomes. For example, a waiter or waitress who verbally mimics a food order verbatim earns more in tips (van Baaren, Holland, Steenaert, & van Knippenberg, 2003). However, if the mimicry is so great that it is noticeable, the outcome may be negative (e.g., think about a younger sibling copying everything you say and do). ...
Chapter
In the present chapter we present an overview of research regarding fursonas from the International Anthropomorphic Research Project—also known as FurScience. Fursonas—anthropomorphic animal representations of the self—are nearly universal within the furry fandom. We examine the most popular species, why they are chosen, and how they are viewed by furries. Next, we describe some of the different ways we have measured the connection between furries and their fursona species, along with some of the interesting things these measures predict about furries our studies. We also describe other uses for these measures in our research (e.g., therian vs. furries, personality change, species favoritism). After a review of work showing what happens when one’s fursona is threatened, we finish with research about how participation in the fandom can influence one’s memory.
... The basis for models and techniques presented by NLP can be found in psychological studies that involve the so-called "chameleon effect", which concerns nonmatching and matching stimuli to the empathy increase in communication. Van Baaren et al. [67] did an experiment at a restaurant in the south of Netherlands in which half of the studied waitresses used the "chameleon effect" to serve customers. Results showed that the average value of the tips almost doubled for the waitresses who used matching language and behavior. ...
Article
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Software projects use mailing lists as the primary tool for collaboration and coordination. Mailing lists can be an important source for extracting behavioral patterns in the software development. A new approach for that is the use of Neurolinguistic theory to determine what is the Preferred Representational cognitive System (PRS) of software engineers in that specific context. Different resources and cognitive channels are used by developers in order to achieve software understanding. An important question on this matter is: What types of representational systems are preferred by software engineers? This paper presents a psychometrically based neurolinguistic method to identify the PRS of software developers. Experimental evaluation of the approach was carried out in three experiments to assess the Preferred Representational System of developers at Industrial and OSS (Apache server and Postgresql) mailing lists. For the OSS projects, the results showed that the PRS scores of the top-committers clearly differ from the general population of the projects. For industry, the experiment showed that the developers indeed have a PRS. Finally, for both scenarios, the qualitative analysis also indicated that the PRS scores obtained are aligned with the developers' profiles, considering that alignment is essential to effective communication within the team and enhances the development process due to a better software comprehension.
... Research on the social effects of unconscious mimicry of others' postures, gestures and mannerisms similarly shows enhanced feelings of connectedness and pro-sociality. Prior research shows that dyads who mimic and are mimicked by others during a conversation experience increased emotional contagion, help and share more of their resources with their partner [69][70][71][72] . Moreover, having an explicit motivation or reason to affiliate with a prospective partner increases people's likelihood of unconsciously mimicking their actions [73][74][75][76] . ...
Article
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In marching bands, sports, dance and virtually all human group behaviour, we coordinate our actions with others. Coordinating actions in time and space can act as a social glue, facilitating bonding among people. However, much of our understanding about coordination dynamics is based on research into dyadic interactions. Little is known about the nature of the sensorimotor underpinnings and social bonding outcomes of coordination in medium-sized groups—the type of groups, in which most everyday teamwork takes place. In this study, we explored how the presence of a leader and an unexpected perturbation influence coordination and cohesion in a naturalistic setting. In groups of seven, participants were instructed to walk in time to an auditory pacing signal. We found that the presence of a reliable leader enhanced coordination with the target tempo, which was disrupted when the leader abruptly changed their movement tempo. This effect was not observed on coordination with the group members. Moreover, participants’ perceptions of being a follower and group cooperativeness increased in the presence of a leader. This study extends our knowledge about coordination beyond previous work on dyads. We discuss our results in light of sensorimotor coupling and social cohesion theories of coordination in groups.
... Research findings indicate that mimicry usually stimulates affiliative tendencies, positive attitudes and behaviours (Van Baaren, Holland, Kawakami, & van Knippenberg, 2004). The results of one study on the effect of mimicry on attitudes (Van Baaren, Holland, Steenaert, & van Knippenberg, 2003) showed an increased favouritism towards mimicking persons (e.g., larger tips offered to bartenders mimicking speech, gestures and facial expression). In another study (Szuster and Wojnarowska, 2016), participants watched a short video featuring an unknown young woman talking about her work. ...
... identified in the pre-test was "mug"; the disfavored name was "cup". i Other research has suggested a role for goal-directed alignment mechanisms in promoting social affiliation (Hopkins & Branigan, 2020;van Baaren, Holland, Steenaert & van Knippenberg, 2003), but we do not consider those here. ii The favored and disfavored alternatives involved a range of relationships (e.g., subordination [FLOWER-ROSE]; lexical expansion [BIKE-BICYCLE]) and were not drawn systematically from any particular dialect or register. ...
Article
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Interlocutors tend to refer to objects using the same names as each other. We investigated whether native and non-native interlocutors' tendency to do so is influenced by speakers' nativeness and by their beliefs about an interlocutor's nativeness. A native or non-native participant and a native or non-native confederate directed each other around a map to deliver objects to locations. We manipulated whether confederates referred to objects using a favored or disfavored name, while controlling for confederates' language behavior. We found evidence of audience design for native and non-native addressees: participants were more likely to use a disfavored name after a non-native confederate used that name than after a native confederate used that name; this tendency did not differ between native and non-native participants. Results suggest that both native and non-native speakers can adapt to the language of non-native partners through non-automatic, goal-directed mechanisms of alignment during cognitively demanding communicative tasks. 3
... The model of being imitated proposed by Hale and Hamilton (2016) also includes the reward system. Positive affect and prosocial behaviors are induced by the detection of being imitated (Chartrand and Bargh, 1999;van Baaren et al., 2003;Van Baaren et al., 2004;Kühn et al., 2010;Hale and Hamilton, 2016). Positive consequences are reported in both unconscious and conscious detection of being imitated (Catmur and Heyes, 2013). ...
Article
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Face-to-face imitation is a unique social interaction wherein a shared action is executed based on the feedback of the partner. Imitation by the partner is the feedback to the imitatee's action, resulting in sharing actions. The neural mechanisms of the shared representation of action during face-to-face imitation, the core of inter-subjectivity, are not well-known. Here, based on the predictive coding account, we hypothesized that the pair-specific forward internal model is the shared representation of action which is represented by the inter-individual synchronization of some portion of the mirror neuron system. Hyperscanning functional magnetic resonance imaging was conducted during face-to-face interaction in 16 pairs of participants who completed an immediate imitation task of facial expressions. Paired participants were alternately assigned to either an imitator or an imitatee who was prompted to express a happy, sad, or non-emotional face. While neural activation elicited by imitating and being imitated were distinct with little overlap, on-line imitative interaction enhanced inter-brain synchronization in the right inferior parietal lobule that correlated with the similarity in facial movement kinematic profile. This finding indicates a critical role of the right inferior parietal lobule in sharing representation of action as a pair-specific forward internal model through imitative interaction.
... Practically, it could be possible to train interviewers in the basic positive language behaviours associated with rapport (Alison & Alison, 2017). Whereas the patterns of style matching that we identify tend to occur unconsciously in dialogue, recent work suggests that these styles can be intentionally mimicked (Van Baaren, Holland, Steenaert, & van Knippenberg, 2003;Muir, Joinson, Cotterill, & Dewdney, 2017). It would therefore be interesting to explore whether interventions could equip interviewers to attend to and strategically adapt their language use, and whether such interventions would improve interpersonal dynamics with interviewees. ...
Article
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Purpose. Rapport-building has beneficial effects in investigative and security contexts. However, there remains limited understanding of the extent of agreement between different parties in their judgments of rapport. Methods. We observed 133 mock suspect interviews, and subsequently surveyed the lead interviewer and secondary interviewer (trainees undertaking an undergraduate Policing programme), the ‘suspect’ (an actor), and an expert observer (a retired, highly experienced police detective). Each of these parties provided subjective judgments of the degree of rapport that had been formed between suspect and lead interviewer. Furthermore, we assessed whether these subjective judgments were associated with the degree of ‘Language Style Matching’ (LSM) between lead interviewer and suspect: a key linguistic measure of interpersonal synchrony. Results. The suspect, secondary interviewer, and expert observer had generally good agreement about the degree of rapport achieved, as evidenced through significant, moderate to strong correlations between their rapport ratings. However, these parties’ rapport ratings were weakly associated with those of the lead interviewer. Our linguistic analysis provided similar results: the extent of LSM was significantly associated with suspects’ and the expert’s subjective ratings of rapport, but not with the interviewers’ ratings. Conclusions. The findings suggest that the demands of interviewing might impede interviewers’ insight into the success of their rapport-building efforts, leading them to overlook cues that other parties rely upon. We discuss the need for future experimental manipulations to directly test this suggestion, and we consider the value of interpersonal synchrony in defining and measuring rapport.
... For example, Chartrand and Bargh [4] observed greater liking between partners who mimic one another's gestures. Other studies have shown related efects of communication mimicry and convergence, including larger tips when a confederate waitress mimicked her customers' orders than when she did not [46], and that adapting language to increase similarity in grammatical structures and word use enhances mutual understanding (e.g., Pickering and Garrod [39]), the success of hostage negotiations [45], and the formation of romantic relationships [23]. In summary, previous work indicates a variety of positive outcomes from convergence, including pro-social behaviour and afnity between people. ...
... In adulthood, people experience increased liking of partners who mimic their posture and movements (Chartrand & Bargh, 1999), and tend to mimic a partner they like more than one they do not (Stel et al., 2010). These effects extend to conversational alignment: speakers who converge on a partner's vocabulary range are evaluated more favorably than those who do not (Bradac et al., 1988), and such positive affect may generate tangible benefits for the mimicker (van Baaren et al., 2003). ...
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In dialogue, speakers tend to imitate, or align with, a partner’s language choices. Higher levels of alignment facilitate communication and can be elicited by affiliation goals. Since autistic children have interaction and communication impairments, we investigated whether a failure to display affiliative language imitation contributes to their conversational difficulties. We measured autistic children’s lexical alignment with a partner, following an ostracism manipulation which induces affiliative motivation in typical adults and children. While autistic children demonstrated lexical alignment, we observed no affiliative influence on ostracised children’s tendency to align, relative to controls. Our results suggest that increased language imitation—a potentially valuable form of social adaptation—is unavailable to autistic children, which may reflect their impaired affective understanding.
... Synchronized movements in dyadic social interactions were found to augment emotional expressiveness (Spengler et al., 2017), to improve transmission of emotional information (Aoki et al., 2014), to elicit heightened feelings of closeness to other (Ashton-James et al., 2007;Catmur and Heyes, 2013), greater generosity toward dyadic partner (Van Baaren et al., 2003), greater likeability of the other person (Hove and Risen, 2009), and generally more connectedness with them (Miles et al., 2009). Striking similarities between the reported effects of exogenous OXT with those of social imitation led to the hypothesis that social imitation may act on behavior through enhanced secretion of endogenous OXT (Aoki and Yamasue, 2015;Spengler et al., 2017). ...
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In humans and animal models, oxytocin increases social closeness, attachment and prosocial behaviors, while decreasing anxiety and stress levels. Efficiently triggering the release of endogenous oxytocin could serve as a powerful therapeutic intervention for disorders of social behavior and for anxiety. We designed a new version of a social sensorimotor synchronization task to investigate the role of social approval in inducing biochemical and psychological changes following behavioral synchrony in a sample of 80 college students. Social approval in the form of real time positive feedback increased well-being only in women, while increasing social closeness in both genders. Social disapproval in the form of real time negative feedback prevented a decrease in stress levels that otherwise women reported following engagement in either social or non-social synchronization. Surprisingly, for certain personality traits, negative social feedback during sensorimotor synchronization was psychologically beneficial irrespective of gender. Salivary oxytocin levels increased only in women after the social but not the non-social synchronization tasks. Oxytocin dynamics were independent of the type of real time feedback that subjects received, indicating the existence of distinct mechanisms for hormonal versus behavioral changes following synchronization. Nevertheless, changes in salivary oxytocin after positive social feedback correlated with changes in well-being and predicted changes in prosocial attitudes. Our findings show evidence of distinct mechanisms for behavioral versus hormonal changes following social sensorimotor synchronization, and indicate that gender and personality traits should be carefully considered when designing behavioral therapies for improving social attitudes and for stress management.
... This behaviour is usually not intended, often occurs without the conscious awareness of the imitator, and is termed automatic imitation (Heyes, 2009(Heyes, , 2011. Automatic imitation has been argued to function as a "social glue," powering cognitive and social development, enhancing emotional reciprocity, and increasing feelings of affiliation, positive rapport and pro-social behaviour (Cacioppo, Berntson, Sheridan, & McClintock, 2000;Chartrand & Bargh, 1999;Kavanagh & Winkielman, 2016;Lakin & Chartrand, 2003;Van Baaren, Holland, Steenaert, & van Knippenberg, 2003;van Baaren, Janssen, Chartrand, & Dijksterhuis, 2009). Given the substantial role automatic imitation plays in our social world, it has received attention from diverse research disciplines. ...
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Cognitive control refers to the ability of human beings to adapt flexibly and quickly to continuously changing environments. Several decades of research have identified a diverse range of mental processes that are associated with cognitive control but the extent to which shared systems underlie cognitive control in social and non-social contexts, as well as how these systems may vary across individuals, remains largely unexplored. By integrating methodological approaches from experimental and differential psychology, the current study is able to shine new light on the relationships between stable features of individuals, such as personality and sex, and the architecture of cognitive control systems using paradigms that index social (automatic imitation) and spatial processes. Across three large-sample experiments (>600 participants in total), we demonstrate that cognitive control systems are largely invariant to stable aspects of personality, but exhibit a sex difference, such that females show greater task-interference than males. Moreover, we further qualified this sex difference in two ways. First, we showed that the sex difference was unrelated to the sex of the interaction partner and therefore did not reflect an in-group bias based on sex. Second, we showed that the sex difference was tied to a form of spatial interference control rather than social (imitative) control and therefore it does not reflect a specialised mechanism for guiding social interactions exclusively. Instead, our findings suggest that a robust sex difference exists in the system (or set of subsystems) that operate in resolving a form of spatial interference control, and that such systems are unaffected by social factors such as the sex of the interaction partner. The results highlight the value of integrating approaches from experimental and differential psychology by providing a deeper understanding of the structure of cognitive control systems, while also providing new dimensions to incorporate into theories and models of social and non-social control.
... For example, when being mimicked, individuals experience increased liking for the mimicker (Chartrand & Bargh, 1999;Kulesza & Kot, 2016;Kulesza et al., 2015;Sparenberg, Topolinski, Springer, & Prinz, 2012), increased feelings of closeness and affiliation (Lakin & Chartrand, 2003), as well as pro-social orientation towards the mimicker (Lakin, Chartrand, & Arkin, 2008;van Baaren, Holland, Kawakami, & van Knippenberg, 2004). Being mimicked also increases people's willingness to share resources with the mimicker (van Baaren, Holland, Steenaert, & van Knippenberg, 2003), and their susceptibility to be persuaded by the mimicker (Kulesza, Szypowska, Jarman, & Dolinski, 2014;Maddux, Mullen, & Galinsky, 2008;Tanner, Ferraro, Chartrand, Bettman, & Van Baaren, 2008). ...
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Past research has shown that mimicry has a number of pro-social consequences for interaction partners. However, such research has almost exclusively focused on its effects among interaction dyads. As social interactions are often witnessed by third-party observers, the question arises which inferences perceivers draw from observing mimicry. In the present work, we apply a third-party perspective to mimicry and test whether observers perceive mimicking individuals as submissive. Experiment 1 confirmed our prediction and found that observers perceived a mimicking person as less dominant, and thus more submissive, than a mimicked person. Experiment 2 replicated this finding and ruled out possible demand effects. Experiment 3 showed that when an interaction partner does not mimic the movements initiated by another person, the interaction partner gains dominance in the eye of the observer. Experiment 4 demonstrates that the inferences that perceivers draw from observing mimicry partly rely on a mere action-response pattern. These findings have not only important implications for mimicry as a genuinely social phenomenon, but also for research on impression management and person perception.
... It is also possible that our paradigm was not sensitive enough to capture the effects of linguistic status on lexical entrainment. Alternatively, it is possible that previous studies were confounded with other factors, in the same ways as discussed above (e.g., differences in language use exhibited by members of different communities, degree of interactivity of individual encounters, differences in speakers' degree of affiliative behaviours [e.g., van Baaren, Holland, Steenaert, & van Knippenberg, 2003]). But importantly, we have shown that, at least in our paradigm, lexical adaptation to a partner's speech community does not reflect the effects of linguistic status. ...
Article
Speakers' lexical choices are affected by interpersonal-level influences, like a tendency to reuse an interlocutor's words. Here, we examined how those choices are additionally affected by community-level factors, like whether the interlocutor is from their own or another speech community (in-community vs. out-community partner), and how such interpersonal experiences contribute to the acquisition of community-level linguistic knowledge. Our three experiments tested (i) how speakers' lexical choices varied depending on their partner's choices and speech community, and (ii) how speakers' extrapolation of these choices to a subsequent partner was influenced by their partners' speech communities. In Experiment 1, Spanish participants played two sessions of an online picture-matching-and-naming task, encountering the same pictures but different confederates in each session. The first confederate was either an in-community partner (Spanish) or an out-community partner (Latin American); the second confederate was either from the same community as the first confederate or not. Participants' referential choices in Session 1 were influenced by their partner's choices, but not by their community. However, participants' likelihood to subsequently maintain these choices was affected by their partners' communities. Experiment 2 replicated this pattern in Mexicans, and Experiment 3 confirmed that these results were driven by confederates' communities, rather than perceived linguistic status. Our results suggest that speakers encode speech community information during dialogue and store it to inform future contexts of language use, even when it has not affected their choices during that particular encounter. Thus, speakers learn community-level knowledge by extrapolating linguistic information from interpersonal-level experiences.
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When approaching interpersonal first meetings (e.g., job interviews), people often cater to the target’s interests and expectations to make a good impression and secure a positive outcome such as being offered the job (pilot study). This strategy is distinct from other approaches identified in prior impression management research (Studies 1A, 1B and 1C), and does not produce the benefits people expect. In a field study in which entrepreneurs pitched their ideas to potential investors (Study 2), catering harmed investors’ evaluations, while being authentic improved them. People experience greater anxiety and instrumentality when they cater to another person’s preferences than when they behave authentically (Studies 3A and 3B). Compared to behaving authentically or to a control condition, catering harms performance because trying to anticipate and fulfill others’ preferences feels instrumental and increases anxiety (Studies 4 and 5). Taken together, these results suggest that although people believe using catering in interpersonal first meetings will lead to successful outcomes, the opposite is true: catering creates undesirable feelings of instrumentality for the caterer, increases anxiety, and ultimately hinders performance.
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Purpose This paper examines a neglected stream of literature in marketing theory which engaged with the idea that there was more to consumer behavior than conscious and rational thought. Design/methodology/approach This is a close reading of the core themes that appear in William A. Shryer’s work. Linkages are made to other pertinent sources. Findings We extend McMahon’s (1972) study and offer a different reading of Shryer’s writing to that proffered in recent commentary by Tadajewski (2019), focusing on the managerial side of Shryer’s publications, connecting this to the theoretically innovative foundations based on normal and abnormal psychology. We respond to the suggestion proposed by McMahon (1972) that Shryer was an early pioneer of motivation research, largely in the affirmative. Originality/value We provide an alternative interpretation of Shryer’s writing, connecting this to an emergent “advertising science” and subsequently to contemporary strands of literature that have a “family resemblance” to his contributions. These include salient aspects of motivation research; crowd and habitual behavior; mindlessness and social cognition; and finally, empirical examinations of cumulative value theory.
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We draw a parallel between noise trading and the “readiness potential” in neuroscience. The latter can be explained in terms of neuronal noise accumulation which can tip the scale ahead of voluntary actions, in particular their timing in situations of weak evidence. This principle may apply to trading by technical noise traders. Based on our initial findings we propose that excess volatility, as a measure of price noise, indirectly reflects the signature of collective neuronal noise. In other words, we’ve potentially identified an internal contributor to Black’s “cumulative noise”, with neurons and prices reflexively participating in a joint random walk.
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This study interrogates the frequently made claim that mirroring behavior is directly linked to interpersonal rapport. The paper proposes a more nuanced conceptualization of the positive effect of mirroring, showing it to be underpinning not affiliation as such but instead speakers' joint commitment to a common interactional cause. The analysis of naturally occurring talk shows that sound imitation is primarily an affiliation-neutral resource that facilitates the progression of interaction. The paper argues that socially embedded mirroring behavior is more than a behavioral manifestation of the motor resonance described in social neuroscience. Mirroring as part of jointly achieved talk is one of several mechanisms for conversational participants to establish progressivity, that is, trajectories of social action, sequence and stance. The data also show that sound mirroring, when it is part of naturally occurring interaction, is not automatic, but that participants choose to mirror, or not. It is proposed that socially situated imitation is reconceptualized as facilitating social collaboration and the joint achievement of interaction more broadly, rather than empathy or rapport in a narrow sense. Such a reconceptualization of mirroring allows us to describe more accurately how humans build sociality.
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A key prediction of motivational theories of automatic imitation is that people imitate in-group over out-group members. However, research on this topic has provided mixed results. Here, we investigate the possibility that social group modulations emerge only when people can directly compare in- and out-group. To this end, we conducted three experiments in which we measured automatic imitation of two simultaneously shown hands: one in-group and one out-group hand. Our general hypothesis was that the in-group hand would be imitated more than the out-group hand. However, even though both explicit and implicit manipulation checks showed that we succeeded in manipulating participants’ feelings of group membership, we did not find support for the predicted influence of group membership on automatic imitation. In contrast to motivational theories, this suggests that group membership does not influence who we do or do not imitate, not even in a contrastive multi-agent paradigm.
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Given that face-to-face interaction is an important locus for linguistic transmission ( Enfield 2008 : 297), it is argued in this paper that conversational structure must provide affordances ( Gibson 1979 ) for transmitting linguistic items. The paper focuses on repeats where an interactant (partially) repeats their interlocutor’s preceding utterance. Repeats are argued to provide affordances for the transmission of innovative and conservative linguistic items by forcing interactants to repeat linguistic material uttered by another person, facilitating production by exploiting priming effects. Moreover, repeats leave room for modification and thereby for actively resisting transmission. In this way, repeats unite the competing forces ( Tantucci et al. 2018 ) of automaticity and creativity. To support this claim, this paper investigates the use of Spanish insertions and alternative variants in utterance-repeat pairs in Yurakaré (isolate, Bolivia) conversations. The findings are compatible with a holistic view of language where all linguistic levels are interconnected ( Beckner et al. 2009 ).
Chapter
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When competing for scarce resources, groups can behave aggressively toward one another. Realistic conflict theory suggests that intergroup hostility internally ties groups together, thus improving intragroup functioning. In contrast, conflict spillover theory suggests that aggressive behaviors between groups can permeate to the intragroup level and thus worsen intragroup functioning. We reconcile these two opposite perspectives by introducing the relative group size as a moderator that determines when and how targeted verbal aggression from one group harms or improves intragroup functioning in the targeted group. We tested our hypotheses using a sample of in-situ observations of transcribed plenary discussions in the German national parliament and compared intergroup targeted verbal aggression by distinguishing targeted verbal aggression from two social groups (i.e., a new populist smaller party vs. a larger group of veteran parliament members). We measured targeted verbal aggression as a form of hostile intergroup behavior from each social group using computerized text analyses. We analyzed intragroup functioning using a measure of verbal mimicry. Our results show support for our hypotheses. We discuss theoretical and practical implications for the verbal aggression and intergroup relations literature.
Chapter
In recent years there has been an increasing awareness that a comprehensive understanding of language, cognitive and affective processes, and social and interpersonal phenomena cannot be achieved without understanding the ways these processes are grounded in bodily states. The term 'embodiment' captures the common denominator of these developments, which come from several disciplinary perspectives ranging from neuroscience, cognitive science, social psychology, and affective sciences. For the first time, this volume brings together these varied developments under one umbrella and furnishes a comprehensive overview of this intellectual movement in the cognitive-behavioral sciences. The chapters review current work on relations of the body to thought, language use, emotion and social relationships as presented by internationally recognized experts in these areas.
Chapter
In recent years there has been an increasing awareness that a comprehensive understanding of language, cognitive and affective processes, and social and interpersonal phenomena cannot be achieved without understanding the ways these processes are grounded in bodily states. The term 'embodiment' captures the common denominator of these developments, which come from several disciplinary perspectives ranging from neuroscience, cognitive science, social psychology, and affective sciences. For the first time, this volume brings together these varied developments under one umbrella and furnishes a comprehensive overview of this intellectual movement in the cognitive-behavioral sciences. The chapters review current work on relations of the body to thought, language use, emotion and social relationships as presented by internationally recognized experts in these areas.
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Background In an experiment conducted in a natural setting, we test the link between mimicry, the amount of time during which the mimicry behavior takes place, and its impact on service quality. Methods Cable TV clients (n = 120) were randomly assigned to six experimental conditions (2 mimicry conditions: verbal mimicry vs. no mimicry x 3 interaction time: 5 vs. 10 vs. 15 minutes). Perceived service quality served as the dependent measurement. Results A main effect of mimicry was found on service quality: a cable TV representative was perceived more favorably when he mimicked the customer. Importantly, it was shown that even small portions of mimicry are beneficial, meaning that practitioners do not have to mimic someone for a long time to achieve benefits. Conclusion The paper shows new benefits for the mimicker: more positive judgments by the mimickee regarding the impact on several different levels of service quality.
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The authors investigated children's automatic imitation in the context of observed shyness by adapting the widely used automatic imitation task (AIT). AIT performance in 6‐year‐old children (N = 38; 22 female; 71% White) and young adults (17–22 years; N = 122; 99 female; 32% White) was first examined as a proof of concept and to assess age‐related differences in responses to the task (Experiment 1). Although error rate measures of automatic imitation were comparable between children and adults, children displayed less reaction time interference than adults. Children's shyness coded from direct behavioral observations was then examined in relation to AIT scores (Experiment 2). Observed shyness at 5 years old predicted higher automatic imitation one year later. We discuss the latter findings in the context of an adaptive strategy. We argue that shy children may possess a heightened sensitivity to others’ motor cues and therefore are more likely to implicitly imitate social partners’ actions. This tendency may serve as a strategy to signal appeasement and affiliation, allowing for shy children to blend in and feel less inhibited in a social environment.
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Individuals automatically mimic a wide range of different behaviors, and such mimicking behavior has several social benefits. One of the landmark findings in the literature is that being mimicked increases liking for the mimicker. Research in cognitive neuroscience demonstrated that mentally simulating motor actions is neurophysiologically similar to engaging in these actions. Such research would predict that merely imagining being mimicked produces the same results as actually experiencing mimicry. To test this prediction, we conducted two experiments. In Experiment 1, being mimicked increased liking for the mimicker only when mimicry was directly experienced, but not when it was merely imagined. Experiment 2 replicated this finding within a high-powered online sample: merely imagining being mimicked does not produce the same effects as being actually mimicked. Theoretical and practical implications of these experiments are discussed.
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We analyze the interaction between management and investors during Chinese IPO roadshows through Jaccard Similarity analysis of written Chinese logograms. We provide evidence that when agreement is high, investor optimism increases, leading to relatively large first-day underpricing. We further show that high agreement biases investors to systematically overestimate IPO prospects leading to poor long-run abnormal performance. Jaccard Similarity is different from current content analysis methodologies because it is language and culture agnostic, requiring no a priori construction of thematic dictionaries. Elimination of such dictionaries removes the danger that the researcher has imposed predispositions upon the study.
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This paper presents the investigation and analysis of speech accommodation effects in data obtained from Spanish learners of German with varying proficiency levels. The production data were recorded during a collaborative map task of the Spanish learners of German among each other and with a native speaker of German. The map task was designed to target words and phrases with specific segmental and suprasegmental characteristics. These characteristics were derived from contrastive analyses of Spanish and German. The main objectives of the paper were to investigate whether segmental and suprasegmental characteristics of the target language German are affected by phonetic accommodation to varying degrees and whether these differences depend on the proficiency level of the speaker or the interlocutor. The statistical analysis, using regression analyses, revealed inconsistent accommodation effects across learners of different proficiency levels as well as different linguistic phenomena. In line with previous findings the results can best be accounted for by an adaptation of a dynamic system approach.
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Two quasi-experimental and longitudinal studies examined positive effects of participation in positively valence collective religious and secular activities. Collective emotional gatherings strengthen social cohesion, enhance personal and collective self-esteem, positive affect, and positive shared beliefs among participants, through processes of emotional synchrony. Furthermore, perceived emotional synchrony is associated with experiencing qualitatively different self-transcendent and enjoyment emotions. In Study 1 we compared the effects of participating in Sunday Mass and other secular Sunday activities on enhancement of transcendence beliefs and collective self-esteem and tested the mediational role of perceived emotional synchrony and self-transcendent and enjoyment emotions. In Study 2 serial mediational analyses supported a model in which perceived emotional synchrony increases self-transcendent and enjoyment emotions, which subsequently foster enhancement of positive outcomes (controlling for the baseline) of participation in ritualized folkloric event. The results are discussed from the perspective of neo-Durkheimian model of ritual, emphasizing the role of perceived emotional synchrony over self-trascendent emotions, and from a socio-cultural approach to well-being.
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Cette thèse s’intéresse à l’impact de la dysphonie à travers trois grands axes : la représentation de sa propre voix, la transmission du message et la perception d’autrui. Nous nous basons sur deux populations de femmes professeures des écoles (PE), l’une de 709 PE interrogées via internet et l’autre de 61 locutrices PE enregistrées en conditions contrôlées. À partir d’une évaluation perceptive experte sur l’échelle GRBAS, nos locutrices ont été catégorisées en deux groupes de 37 témoins et 24 dysphoniques légères. Outre les importantes plaintes vocales et l’altération de la qualité de vie qui touchent nos deux populations, nous observons un effet de l’âge des élèves sur la prévalence des troubles vocaux. L’analyse des productions de nos locutrices en lecture calme ou face à une classe bruyante suggère que les PE utilisent des stratégies d’adaptation dans leur pratique professionnelle qui pourraient être impactées par la dysphonie. La dysphonie semble également impacter la transmission de l’information à destination d’élèves de 7 à 10 ans puisque des temps de réaction plus longs sont relevés lors du décodage du contraste de voisement dans une tâche d’identification de mot lorsque la consigne est produite par une locutrice dysphonique. Enfin, suite à une première tâche de catégorisation libre, l’attribution de traits de personnalité par un panel d’auditeurs naïfs se basant uniquement sur la voix des PE met en évidence des profils vocaux associés à des représentations plus ou moins positives. L’accord modéré constaté entre le degré de trouble vocal perçu et l’évaluation experte de la dysphonie semble lié à la perception positive de la raucité par les auditeurs naïfs.
Article
This research examines how arriving late to social gatherings operates as a signal of social connectedness and desirability, leading to elevated sociometric status attributions. Drawing on costly signaling theory and the premises of sociometric status and consumption mimicry, we argue that tardiness to a gathering, as a costly and visible signal, can lead to positive inferences of sociometric status, thereby leading to mimicry. We define fashionably late as a separating equilibrium tardiness based on a signaling game and demonstrate through a series of experimental studies that people infer higher status to late- rather than on-time-arriving people. Consequently, they strive to be in the same social network with such individuals, favor their product choices, and imitate their consumption behaviors. This research contributes to the literature on the conspicuous consumption of time and to research on costly signaling by revealing the powerful influence of signaling (through late arrival to a social event) on perceptions of sociometric status.
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A key prediction of motivational theories of automatic imitation is that people imitate in-group over out-group members. However, research on this topic has provided mixed results. Here, we investigate the possibility that social group modulations emerge only when people can directly compare in- and out-group. To this end, we conducted three experiments in which we measured automatic imitation of two simultaneously shown hands: one in-group and one out-group hand. Our general hypothesis was that the in-group hand would be imitated more than the out-group hand. However, even though both explicit and implicit manipulation checks showed that we succeeded in manipulating participants’ feelings of group membership, we did not find support for the predicted influence of group membership on automatic imitation. In contrast to motivational theories, this suggests that group membership does not influence who we do or do not imitate, not even in a contrastive multi-agent paradigm.
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This study explored two questions: Do people tend to display and experience other people's emotions? If so, what impact does power have on people's susceptibility to emotional contagion? We speculated that the powerless should pay more attention to their superiors (than their superiors pay to them) and should thus be especially likely to “catch” their superion' emotions as well. College students, given the role of “teacher” (powerful person) or “learner” (powerless person), observed videotapes of another (fictitious) subject relating an emotional experience. They were asked what emotions they felt as they watched their partner describe the happiest and saddest event in his life. In addition, they were videotaped as they watched the tape. As predicted, clear evidence of emotional contagion was obtained in this controlled laboratory setting. However, a direct (rather than inverse) relation between power and emotional contagion was found. Powerful subjects were more likely to display their subordinate's feelings than subordinates were to display those of the powerful other. Several possible explanations for these unexpected results were proposed.
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Motor mimicry is behavior by an observer that is appropriate to the situation of the other person, for example, wincing at the other's injury or ducking when the other does. Traditional theories of motor mimicry view this behavior as an indicator of a vicarious cognitive or empathic experience, that is, of taking the role of the other or of “feeling oneself into” the other person. However, Bavelas, Black, Lemery, and Mullett (1986) have shown that motor mimicry of pain is affected by communicative variables and acts as a nonverbal message indicating that the observer is aware of and concerned about the other's situation. This raises a more general question: Is communication its primary or secondary function? We propose (i) that motor mimicry functions as a nonverbal, analogic, relationship message about similarity between observer and other and (ii) that this message is encoded according to Gestalt principles of form, in that the observer physically mirrors the other. In other words, the observer maintains a relationship with the other. The special case of left/right leaning when observer and other are facing each other permits a test of our theory against two theories that treat motor mimicry as an indicator of vicarious experience. The results of three experiments showed that when motor mimicry by an observer facing someone who is leaning left or right occurs, it is both displayed and decoded in the form consistent with a communication theory; this form is called reflection symmetry. We conclude that, because of the topography of the response, the primary function of motor mimicry must be communicative and that any relationship to vicarious processes is secondary. A similar analysis of other nonverbal behaviors may well reveal that they are also expressions to another person rather than expressions of infrapsychic states.
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elementary motor mimicry ("Einfühlung") / current research / mimetic synchrony as a class of nonverbal behaviors / communicative view of nonverbal behavior (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Servers in restaurants frequently use the tactic of writing “thank you” on the backs of checks before delivering them to dining parties. Servers also frequently personalize their interaction with dining parties by signing their first name below the gratitude message. The effectiveness of these tactics in increasing tips was examined. In a field experiment conducted in an upscale restaurant in a large Northeastern city, a server wrote on the backs of the checks either nothing, “thank you,” or “thank you” plus her first name. The addition of “thank you” increased tip percentages, although personalization by adding her first name had no effect. It was concluded that the commonly employed low-cost tactic of expressing gratitude to customers by writing “thank you” on the check can produce a worthwhile return.
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The closed-class hypothesis asserts that function words play a privileged role in syntactic processes. In language production, the claim is that such words are intrinsic to, identified with, or immanent in phrasal skeletons. Two experiments tested this hypothesis with a syntactic priming procedure. In both, subjects tended to produce utterances in the same syntactic forms as priming sentences, with the structures of the self-generated sentences varying as a function of differences in the structures of the primes. Changes in the closed-class elements of the priming sentences had no effect on this tendency over and above the impact of the structural changes. These results suggest that free-standing closed-class morphemes are not inherent components of the structural frames of English sentences.
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Distinctions have been made between two speech rate measures. Previously these measures have been studied only in naturalistic settings. Also, methodological problems in prior studies generated questionable conclusions. The present study replicated and extended earlier studies. Subjects were interviewed in a Standardized Interview and a Non-Standardized Interview. For both interview situations the following areas were examined for the two speech rate measures: (a) frequency distributions, (b) relative variability, (c) interrelations of the two rate measures, (d) relations of subject's rates to experimenter's rates, (e) relations of the two rates to the lengths of speech units. Interviewer speech rates in the two interview situations were found to influence the subject's speech rates. Marked differences in the variability of the two rate measures were shown. And each rate measure was related to the syllable length of its relevant speech unit. Some implications of the present results for further research are discussed.
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The chameleon effect refers to nonconscious mimicry of the postures, mannerisms, facial expressions, and other behaviors of one's interaction partners, such that one's behavior passively and unintentionally changes to match that of others in one's current social environment. The authors suggest that the mechanism involved is the perception-behavior link, the recently documented finding (e.g., J. A. Bargh, M. Chen, & L. Burrows, 1996) that the mere perception of another's behavior automatically increases the likelihood of engaging in that behavior oneself. Experiment 1 showed that the motor behavior of participants unintentionally matched that of strangers with whom they worked on a task. Experiment 2 had confederates mimic the posture and movements of participants and showed that mimicry facilitates the smoothness of interactions and increases liking between interaction partners. Experiment 3 showed that dispositionally empathic individuals exhibit the chameleon effect to a greater extent than do other people.
Of men and mackerels: Attention and automatic behavior
  • A Dijksterhuis
  • J A Bargh
  • J Miedema
Dijksterhuis, A., Bargh, J. A., & Miedema, J. (2000). Of men and mackerels: Attention and automatic behavior. In H. Bless, & J. P. Forgas (Eds.), Subjective experience in social cognition and behavior (pp. 36–51). Philadelphia: Psychology Press.
Motor mimicry as primitive empathy Cambridge: Cam-bridge University Press Syntactic persistence in sentence production
  • J B Bavelas
  • A Black
  • C R Lemery
  • J Mullet
Bavelas, J. B., Black, A., Lemery, C. R., & Mullet, J. (1987). Motor mimicry as primitive empathy. In N. Eisenberg, & J. Strayer (Eds.), Empathy and its development (pp. 317–338). Cambridge: Cam-bridge University Press. Bock, J. K. (1986). Syntactic persistence in sentence production. Cognitive Psychology, 18, 355–387.
Mimicry and interpersonal closeness
  • R B Van Baaren
  • R W Holland
  • Karremans
  • A Van Knippenberg
van Baaren, R. B., Holland, R. W., Karremans, & Van Knippenberg, A. (2003). Mimicry and interpersonal closeness. Manuscript in preparation.
Of men and mackerels: Attention and automatic behavior
  • Dijksterhuis
Posture mirroring and rapport
  • LaFrance