Article

A thin slice perspective on the accuracy of first impressions

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Abstract

The accuracy of first impressions was examined by investigating judged construct (negative affect, positive affect, the Big five personality variables, intelligence), exposure time (5, 20, 45, 60, and 300 s), and slice location (beginning, middle, end). Three hundred and thirty four judges rated 30 targets. Accuracy was defined as the correlation between a judge’s ratings and the target’s criterion scores on the same construct. Negative affect, extraversion, conscientiousness, and intelligence were judged moderately well after 5-s exposures; however, positive affect, neuroticism, openness, and agreeableness required more exposure time to achieve similar levels of accuracy. Overall, accuracy increased with exposure time, judgments based on later segments of the 5-min interactions were more accurate, and 60 s yielded the optimal ratio between accuracy and slice length. Results suggest that accuracy of first impressions depends on the type of judgment made, amount of exposure, and temporal location of the slice of judged social behavior.

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... There are also reports of valid intelligence ratings by unknown others. Complete strangers can be capable judges of a person's intelligence after observing them in a short video, with correlations ranging from about .2 to up to .5 (Borkenau et al., 2004;Borkenau & Liebler, 1993;Carney et al., 2007;Reynolds & Gifford, 2001). In Borkenau and Liebler (1993), strangers' intelligence estimates were even slightly more accurate than those by targets themselves or their romantic partners. ...
... Apart from their surprising insight into people's spatial intelligence, strangers were rather inaccurate. These findings stand in contrast to the accuracy correlations reported for strangerestimates of intelligence in some video-based studies (e.g. up to r ≈ .5 in Borkenau et al., 2004;up to r ≈ .4 in Borkenau & Liebler, 1993; but around r ≈ .2 in Carney et al., 2007). Notably, strangerestimates of abilities after short real-life interactions seem to be less accurate (e.g., r ≈ .1 for intelligence and r ≈ .0 for creativity in Vazire, 2010). ...
... Gignac & Zajenkowski, 2020), the potentially high cognitive abilities of our sample could have increased accuracy. However, our sample's intelligence quotients were neither conspicuously high In addition to the future directions mentioned throughout the discussion, research on selfother knowledge asymmetries in abilities might particularly benefit from assessing the validity and usage of cues related to abilities, like was done in past video-based studies on stranger-estimates (e.g., Borkenau et al., 2004;Borkenau & Liebler, 1995;Carney et al., 2007). Different sources could use different-and differently valid-cues when judging a person's abilities. ...
Preprint
Who is the best judge of a person’s abilities—the person, a knowledgeable informant or strangers just met in a 3-min speed date? To test this, we collected ability measures as well as self-, informant- and stranger-estimates of verbal, numerical and spatial intelligence, creativity, and intra- and interpersonal emotional competence from 175 young adults. While people themselves were the most accurate about the majority of their abilities, their verbal and spatial intelligence were only estimable by informants or strangers, respectively. These differences in accuracy were not accompanied by differences in the domains’ relevance to people’s self-worth or observability to strangers. These results indicate self-other knowledge asymmetries for abilities but raise questions about the reasons behind these asymmetries.
... There are also reports of valid intelligence ratings by unknown others. Strangers can be capable judges of a person's intelligence after observing them in a short video, with correlations ranging from about 0.2 to up to 0.5 (Borkenau et al., 2004;Borkenau & Liebler, 1993;Carney et al., 2007;Reynolds & Gifford, 2001). In Borkenau and Liebler (1993), strangers' intelligence estimates were even slightly more accurate than those by targets themselves or their romantic partners. ...
... Apart from their surprising insight into people's spatial intelligence, strangers were rather inaccurate. These findings stand in contrast to the accuracy correlations reported for stranger-estimates of intelligence in some video-based studies (e.g. up to r ≈ 0.5 in Borkenau et al., 2004;up to r ≈ 0.4 in Borkenau & Liebler, 1993; but around r ≈ 0.2 in Carney et al., 2007). Notably, stranger-estimates of abilities after short, nonromantic real-life interactions seem to be less accurate (e.g., r ≈ 0.1 for intelligence and r ≈ 0.0 for creativity in Vazire, 2010). ...
... In addition to the future directions mentioned throughout the discussion, research on self-other knowledge asymmetries in abilities might particularly benefit from assessing the validity and usage of cues related to abilities, like done in past video-based studies on stranger-estimates (e.g., Borkenau et al., 2004;Borkenau & Liebler, 1995;Carney et al., 2007). Different sources could use different-and differently valid-cues when judging a person's abilities. ...
Article
Full-text available
Who is the best judge of a person’s abilities—the person, a knowledgeable informant, or strangers just met in a 3-min speed date? To test this, we collected ability measures as well as self-, informant- and stranger-estimates of verbal, numerical and spatial intelligence, creativity, and intra- and interpersonal emotional competence from 175 young adults. While people themselves were the most accurate about the majority of their abilities, their verbal and spatial intelligence were only estimable by informants or strangers, respectively. These differences in accuracy were not accompanied by differences in the domains’ relevance to people’s self-worth or strangers’ judgment certainty. These results indicate self-other knowledge asymmetries in abilities but raise questions about the reasons behind these asymmetries.
... In conditions with visual information present, extraversion was judged with the highest level of accuracy among the basic traits, followed by conscientiousness, and accuracy was lowest for emotional stability. Higher accuracy of judgments of extraversion and conscientiousness compared to other basic traits was replicated in later study (Borkenau & Liebler, 1993), and in the study where observers watched a short video of different content (Carney, Colvin, & Hall, 2007). Another finding from Borkenau and Liebler's (1992) study was that when judgements were based on videotape cues that led to accurate judgement of extraversion were both visual, and acoustic. ...
... Besides conscientiousness, some degree of accuracy was also expected for narcissism, since this trait is also manifested in different dressing styles. Although less examined than the basic personality traits in this type of research, affective traits were included in order to capture a broader range of traits, and it has been shown that these traits can also be judged accurately in a context with a small amount of available information (Carney et al., 2007). A study of Watson, Hubbard and Wiese (2000) included self-and other-ratings in samples of friends, dating couples, and married couples, and it has been found that the positive affect was highly correlated with extraversion, while neuroticism was highly correlated with negative affect in both self-and other-ratings (r's > .50). ...
... However, both extraversion and neuroticism had higher self-other agreement correlations in all three samples of participants, indicating differences in visibility of these traits. In the study of Carney et al. (2007), where judgements were based on short video clips of strangers, extraversion was judged with a higher degree of accuracy compared to positive affect, while negative affect was judged with a higher degree of accuracy than neuroticism. Taken together, these findings could indicate that basic and affective traits are expressed via different cues, and/or that different cues are used in their judgements. ...
Conference Paper
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Research have shown that a relatively accurate judgement of some personality traits can be achieved even when judgements are based on very small amount of information, such as short videos or photographs. It has also been found that some cues leading to accurate judgment were related to characteristics of physical appearance such as dressing style. The aims of the present study were to examine to what extent personality is manifested in a dressing style, to what degree accurate personality judgment based solely on this type of information can be achieved, and what aspects of target persons’ dressing style observers use in their judgments. Personality traits examined included the Big Five traits, affective traits, and narcissism. Group of 10 judges rated personalities of 74 target persons based on photographs of them in their favorite clothes, and the accuracy of those judgments was examined. Independent group of coders rated the level of presence of different dressing style cues, and the relati-onship of those cues with target persons’ self-ratings and with judges’ ratings was also examined. The achieved level of accuracy was quite low, but there were some valid cues to personality even in this type of context. Valid cues were not used by the judges, who used larger numbers of other cues instead. The results obtained indicate that, when they have small amount of information at their disposal, observers’ judgments rely on stereotypes that have been found mostly inaccurate.
... Second, we measured personality traits using both self-report and other-ratings by strangers from video "thin slices" (Ambady & Rosenthal, 1992). Stranger-ratings are an appropriate method, because psychometrically assessed LHS and at least some major dimensions of personality (Borkenau & Liebler, 1995;Carney et al., 2007) are discernible by raters from thin slices (Ambady & Rosenthal, 1992). Indeed, some evidence indicates that stranger-rated Big Five traits have greater criterion validity than self-ratings (Connelly & Ones, 2010;Oh et al., 2010). ...
... Why did our stranger-rated personality ratings fail to yield a well-fitting GFP? First, stranger-rated emotional stability showed both low inter-rater reliability and no correlation with self-rated emotional stability. These findings are consistent with previous research (Carney et al., 2007;Vazire, 2010). Valid cues of anxiety, depression, and negative affect more generally are rarely detectable from people's self-presentations to strangers or casual acquaintances. ...
Article
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Objective The controversial General Factor of Personality (GFP) has been proposed as an indicator of social effectiveness and a slower life history strategy. An alternative hypothesis holds that only meta-trait alpha , comprising agreeableness, conscientiousness, and emotional stability, is a slow life history indicator. This study tested whether the GFP and/or alpha emerges from both self- and stranger-ratings, and whether either is predicted by indicators of harsh childhood ecologies. Methods U.S. undergraduate participants ( N = 366) completed a Big Five instrument, a measure of socially desirable response bias, and brief (thin slice) videotaped interviews. Raters scored the interviews using the same Big Five instrument. Results Structural equation modeling of the self-report data yielded a well-fitting GFP, which was positively associated with father closeness. Meta-trait alpha , based on self-report, was associated with both father closeness and neighborhood stress, but showed positive loadings only for agreeableness and emotional stability. Stranger-rating data failed to yield either a well-fitting GFP or metatrait alpha. Conclusions Our findings are equivocal regarding the usefulness of the GFP specifically, and higher-order personality factors generally, in evolutionary personality science.
... No plano da descodificação da personalidade, diversos estudos encontraram um grau de precisão interessante para alguns traços (ex., Naumann, Vazire, Rentfrow, & Gosling, 2009;Vazire, Naumann, Rentfrow, & Gosling, 2008). Por exemplo, a extroversão é recorrentemente avaliada com um nível robusto de precisão (ex., Carney, Colvin, & Hall, 2007;Naumann et al., 2009). O grau de precisão médio para o modelo dos Big 5 (Tupes & Christal, 1961) que tem por base os seguintes traços: conscienciosidade, extroversão, amabilidade, neuroticismo e abertura à experiência, situa-se entre r=.23 (coeficiente de correlação de Pearson) (Hall, Andrzejewski, Murphy, Mast, & Feinstein, 2008) e r=.26 (Naumann et al., 2009), o que revela um nível moderado de correlação em ciências sociais. ...
... O grau de precisão médio para o modelo dos Big 5 (Tupes & Christal, 1961) que tem por base os seguintes traços: conscienciosidade, extroversão, amabilidade, neuroticismo e abertura à experiência, situa-se entre r=.23 (coeficiente de correlação de Pearson) (Hall, Andrzejewski, Murphy, Mast, & Feinstein, 2008) e r=.26 (Naumann et al., 2009), o que revela um nível moderado de correlação em ciências sociais. A extroversão é o traço que é avaliado com maior precisão e a amabilidade com menor nível de acerto (ex., Carney et al., 2007;Hall et al., 2008). ...
Chapter
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Reconhecer emoções é um recurso crucial no contexto jurídico. Cada vez mais se ouve falar da importância desta área do conhecimento, mas será que conseguimos distinguir as suas oportunidades reais, baseadas na ciência, daquilo que por vezes vimos em determinadas séries televisivas e publicações de entretenimento? A título de exemplo, refira-se a ideia errónea, amplamente disseminada, de que 93% do processo de comunicação é não-verbal, nos pode conduzir a dar uma ênfase excessiva a esta em detrimento da comunicação verbal (Lapakko, 1997, 2007). No decorrer de um julgamento, o foco excessivo no comportamento das testemunhas, arguidos, etc., em sacrifício da linguagem verbal, é naturalmente inadequado. A regra dos 7%, 38%, 55%, para as palavras, voz e comportamento não-verbal, respetivamente, pode fazer algum sentido, mas apenas e quando as pessoas estão a falar acerca de emoções e quando não existe congruência entre o que é dito e aquilo que o corpo manifesta (Mehrabian & Wiener, 1967; Mehrabian & Ferris, 1967). Outro dos mitos que existe em matéria de reconhecimento emocional é o de que desviar o olhar é um sinal de mentira. Não existe evidência científica que suporte tal correlação. Trata-se de um mito. Dos 24 estudos científicos revistos, apenas um não rejeitava esta hipótese (Bond, Omar, Mahmoud, & Bonser, 1990). Na sequência, parece relevante para os autores partilharem as vantagens e as limitações do reconhecimento emocional em ambiente jurídico, com base naquilo que a ciência tem vindo a descobrir nesta área do conhecimento, dado que os mitos nesta área podem trazer consequências graves para o apuramento da verdade (Navarro, 2010). O desenvolvimento da descodificação emocional, através da face, do corpo e da voz, pode ajudar advogados e decisores a compreenderem melhor aquilo que as pessoas sentem, para além daquilo que dizem, como é o caso dos arguidos, das testemunhas, etc. Por outro lado, estarmos mais conscientes da nossa comunicação não-verbal, e como esta pode estar a ser percecionada pelos outros, também se assume como uma vantagem fundamental na barra do tribunal. A comunicação não-verbal representa uma parte relevante do processo de comunicação e a face, em concreto, é um meio através do qual as pessoas procuram naturalmente colher informação acerca do estado emocional do outro. No entanto, nem sempre é fácil compreender a realidade emocional do outro através da face. A título de exemplo, o reconhecimento das Microexpressões Faciais (ex., Ekman, Hager, & Friesen, 1981; Frank & Ekman, 1993, 1997; Porter & ten Brinke, 2008) pode ser extremamente relevante para advogados, juízes, procuradores e jurados, dado que estas se constituem como sinais prováveis de emoções que o outro está a tentar conter ou mascarar (ex., Porter & ten Brinke, 2008). No entanto, por estas ocorrerem muito rapidamente, nem sempre é fácil observá-las e formação adequada é necessária nesta área do conhecimento. Porém, não só a face é relevante para melhor se compreender o comportamento humano no ambiente jurídico. Os gestos, a forma como a pessoa se movimenta, o vestuário, etc., são ingredientes fundamentais para mais eficazmente aferirmos aquilo que o outro sente em cada momento. Os principais objetivos deste capítulo são: a) em que medida os julgamentos rápidos influenciam as decisões de âmbito jurídico; b) o comportamento não-verbal e o reconhecimento emocional; c) o papel da inteligência artificial (IA) no reconhecimento facial e emocional; d) a avaliação da credibilidade.
... A body of evidence across a variety of domains indicates that judgments of social interactions based on brief or thin-slice (Ambady et al., 2000) segments of the interaction can correlate highly with ratings from the entire interaction. At the same time, some investigators (e.g., Carney et al., 2007) have noted that accuracy in judging certain general interpersonal qualities, such as positive affect, openness, or agreeableness, can increase when the judgments are based on observing a longer period of interaction. ...
... Whether from temporal fluctuation or other factors, the comments of some researchers have suggested that aspects of the therapeutic alliance may not be well judged from viewing short segments of therapy (Bachrach et al., 1981;Mintz et al., 1971). Similarly, research on interactions outside therapy have shown that certain qualities, such as agreeableness, are not judged adequately from short interactions (e.g., see Carney et al., 2007). Such findings emphasize that the usefulness of ratings based on brief segments of an interaction may well depend on what is being judged. ...
... The idea is that the slice is representative of a target's behavior throughout the interaction and/or that the slice may reveal or predict a target's internal states, personality, or other social attributes. In this article, we review comparative thin-slice research involving dynamic stimuli 1 , which typically involves comparisons about different slice lengths (Murphy, 2005;Murphy et al., 2015;Krzyzaniak et al., 2019), as well as examination of slice locations (Carney et al., 2007;Fowler et al., 2009;Wang et al., 2020). ...
... For one criterion measure of psychopathy, the shortest slice length produced the highest accuracy. Carney et al. (2007) examined Big Five judgment accuracy for slices of 5, 20, 45, 60, and 300 s duration and found that extraversion and conscientiousness showed significant linear trends indicating increased accuracy for longer slices, and agreeableness showed a marginally significant linear trend. However, accuracy for neuroticism and openness to experience did not show a linear trend for slice length. ...
Article
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Thin slices are used across a wide array of research domains to observe, measure, and predict human behavior. This article reviews the thin-slice method as a measurement technique and summarizes current comparative thin-slice research regarding the reliability and validity of thin slices to represent behavior or social constructs. We outline decision factors in using thin-slice behavioral coding and detail three avenues of thin-slice comparative research: (1) assessing whether thin slices can adequately approximate the total of the recorded behavior or be interchangeable with each other (representativeness); (2) assessing how well thin slices can predict variables that are different from the behavior measured in the slice (predictive validity), and (3) assessing how interpersonal judgment accuracy can depend on the length of the slice (accuracy-length validity). The aim of the review is to provide information researchers may use when designing and evaluating thin-slice behavioral measurement.
... Research has shown that the likelihood for accurate trait judgments is affected by the quantity and quality of information that observer judgments are based on (e.g., Beer & Watson, 2010;Letzring, Wells, & Funder, 2006; Ch. 9 by Beer in this handbook). First, more information about targets has been linked to an increase in accuracy for personality judgments (Blackman & Funder, 1998;Brown & Bernieri, 2017;Carney, Colvin, & Hall, 2007), most likely because longer observations or greater acquaintanceship of targets enhance the availability of valid cues. ...
Chapter
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In this chapter, we present variants of Brunswik’s lens model aimed to understand whether, when, and why trait judgments are more or less accurate. After outlining the basic concepts of lens models, we describe exemplary studies which have applied the lens model to unravel personality expression and impression formation processes that lead to more or less accurate judgments. Next, we give an overview on factors that can influence the accuracy of trait judgments and explain these accuracy moderators within the lens model framework. We then describe an extension of the lens model, the dual lens model, that differentiates more controlled versus more automatic aspects on all levels of the lens model (i.e., personality self-concept, cues, personality judgments). We also briefly summarize further extensions and highlight the lens model as a flexible tool to study cue processes underlying accuracy and related interpersonal perception phenomena. Finally, we conclude the chapter by outlining suggestions for future lens model applications in accuracy research.
... The age-old idiom "do not judge a book by its cover" warns us that forming quick impressions of others based on superficial features may lead us to make inaccurate judgments and a failure to see people's true character. Yet, research shows that humans are predisposed to forming social impressions of others rapidly and intuitively (Ambady, 2010;Ambady & Rosenthal, 1992;Ambady et al., 2000;Asch, 1946;Carney et al., 2007) and show great confidence in these judgments irrespective of their accuracy (Ames et al., 2010). Physical attractiveness (particularly facial attractiveness) is a particularly pervasive heuristic that is often used as an indicator of various desirable traits, a phenomenon known as the Beautyis-Good stereotype (Dion et al., 1972). ...
Article
Researchers have tended to focus on mind perception as integral to judgments of moral standing, yet a smaller body of evidence suggests that beauty may also be an important factor (for some people and animals). Across six studies ( N = 1,662), we investigated whether beauty increases moral standing attributions to a wide range of targets, including non-sentient entities, and explored the psychological mechanism through which beauty assigns moral standing to targets. We found that people attribute greater moral standing to beautiful (vs. ugly) animals (Study 1 and Study 5a, preregistered) and humans (Study 2). This effect also extended to non-sentient targets, that is, people perceive beautiful (vs. ugly) landscapes (Study 3) and buildings (Study 4 and Study 5b, preregistered) as possessing greater moral standing. Across all studies, perceptions of purity mediated the effect of beauty on moral standing, suggesting that beauty increases the moral standing individuals place on targets through evoking moral intuitions of purity.
... Most studies in this area have not used objective performance measures but relied on subjective ability perceptions instead, which is potentially problematic (see also Driebe et al., 2021). Ability perceptions by strangers (Borkenau et al., 2004;Borkenau & Liebler, 1993;Carney et al., 2007;Denissen et al., 2011), parents, teachers (Sommer et al., 2008;Steinmayr & Spinath, 2009), and even people themselves (Neubauer et al., 2018;Neubauer & Hofer, 2020, 2021aZell & Krizan, 2014) have shown only low to moderate correlations with objective measures. Importantly, low correlations between perceived and measured intelligence were also reported in a speed-dating study (Driebe et al., 2021). ...
Article
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Are intelligent, creative, and emotionally competent people more desirable? Evolution-based theories and studies on the ideal partner suggest that they are. We aimed to assess whether verbal, numerical, and spatial intelligence, creativity, and intra- and interpersonal emotional competence are associated with higher real-life mate appeal. In speed dates, 87 women and 88 men met up to 14 members of the opposite sex (2188 observations). While only one measured ability—women’s creativity—was significantly associated with mate appeal, ability perceptions by speed-dating partners could broadly predict mate appeal. Effects of perceived and measured abilities were substantially reduced after controlling for physical attractiveness. These results suggest that the investigated abilities play a lesser role in initial attraction than proposed in the past.
... The first interesting point we can notice in Figure 4 is that the attention weights of LSTM-based RNN-AttenVec present a decreasing trend along with time for all emotional attributes, indicating that the first chunks are, in general, weighted more. The results show the importance of the first impression in the decision making process [54]. The second observation is the high value of the standard deviations, which shows that the values of the weights are different from sentence to sentence. ...
Article
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A critical issue of current speech-based sequence-to-one learning tasks, such as speech emotion recognition(SER), is the dynamic temporal modeling for speech sentences with different durations. The goal is to extract an informative representation vector of the sentence from acoustic feature sequences with varied length. Traditional methods rely on static descriptions such as statistical functions or a universal background model (UBM), which are not capable of characterizing dynamic temporal changes. Recent advances in deep learning architectures provide promising results, directly extracting sentence-level representations from frame-level features. However, conventional cropping and padding techniques that deal with varied length sequences are not optimal, since they truncate or artificially add sentence-level information. Therefore, we propose a novel dynamic chunking approach, which maps the original sequences of different lengths into a fixed number of chunks that have the same duration by adjusting their overlap. This simple chunking procedure creates a flexible framework that can incorporate different feature extractions and sentence-level temporal aggregation approaches to cope, in a principled way, with different sequence-to-one tasks. Our experimental results based on three databases demonstrate that the proposed framework provides: 1) improvement in recognition accuracy, 2) robustness toward different temporal length predictions, and 3) high model computational efficiency advantages.
... In order to make overweight/obese ratings, each observer watched approximately 60-s (taken from the middle) of each structured observational task as done in prior work using the thin slice technique (Carney et al., 2007;Hirschmann et al., 2018;Murphy et al., 2015;Whalen et al., 2020). Each video was coded for: (1) an overweight/obese dichotomous rating and (2) Big Five (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience) personality dimensions . ...
Article
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Obesity is a major public health problem and cause of significant burden across the lifespan. Longitudinal samples, beginning in early childhood offer an advantageous approach to studying obesity, given the potential to observe within-individual changes over time. Yet among the many available longitudinal studies of children, particularly those studying psychological disorders, do not assess for overweight/obesity status or related constructs necessary to compute BMI. We offer a unique thin slice approach for assessing obesity/overweight status using previously collected video data. The current study observationally coded overweight/obesity status in a clinically enriched sample of preschoolers oversampled for depression (N = 299). Preschoolers (ages 3–6 years) completed 1–8 structured observational tasks with an experimenter. Overweight/obesity was coded using a “thin slice” technique with 7820 unique ratings available for analysis. Parent-reported physical health problems were assessed throughout the study and BMI percentiles were available from ages 8–19 years. Thin-slice ratings of overweight/obesity were reliably observed in preschoolers’ ages 3–6 years. Thin-slice ratings of overweight/obesity during preschool significantly predicted adolescent BMI percentiles at six separate assessments spanning ages 8–19 years. Further, preschool overweight/obese thin-slice ratings were associated with more physical health problems over time and less sport/activity participation during preschool. Overweight/obesity can be observationally identified in preschool-age children and offers a reliable estimate of future BMI percentile. Study findings highlight how previously collected data could be utilized to study the developmental trajectories of overweight/obesity to inform this critical public health problem.
... The analytic implications of this are described below, but from a conceptual standpoint, this simply means that the target stimuli (e.g., photographs of faces) administered in a study represent an independent and identically distributed sampling from a larger population of stimuli. For the sake of example, we draw on a commonly employed paradigm in which a researcher collects a sample of Nj participant raters and presents each with a series of Nk stimulus photographs depicting faces of different people (Carney, Colvin, & Hall, 2007;Naumann, Vazire, Rentfrow, & Gosling, 2009). In this type of study, each j participant provides numerical ratings of the perceived agreeableness of the k stimulus photographs, represented by outcome variable Agrjk. ...
Article
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The stimulus sampling design (SSD) is a widely applied research paradigm in which participants evaluate a series of visual or auditory stimuli. Researchers are often interested in phenomena reflected by differences across stimuli, and recent simulation work suggests that more than 100 stimuli may be necessary to detect smaller effects. Unfortunately, administering a large number of stimuli to each participant may compromise the validity of responses due to individual differences in susceptibility to fatigue and distraction. The present work describes the application of planned missingness design strategies to maximize statistical power, while minimizing participant burden in SSD studies. A Monte Carlo simulation study was conducted to determine the number of stimuli per rater (SPR) and average raters per stimuli (RPS) needed to ensure unbiased estimates of model parameters, as well as the desired statistical power and interval coverage. Findings suggest that two commonly used statistical estimation techniques, restricted maximum likelihood and the Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm, provide reliable estimates of model parameters and maintain adequate statistical power under substantial levels of planned missingness. Incorporating these methods will allow researchers to design more efficient and powerful experiments by reducing redundancies and minimizing sources of methodological error. Recommendations for incorporating planned missingness strategies in SSDs are provided.
... It plays an important role in social interactions, involving messages about many emotion categories through signaling muscles (Du et al., 2014). Therefore, during face-to-face contact, the first impression of others can be decisive (Carney et al., 2007), which in turn might give potential cooperation partner the high sign as to whether the other party has either a cooperative or an exploitative profile. In short, identifying personality traits from faces would be an adaptive feature that serves humans to survive by making it easier to gain pros and avoid cons (Sacco & Hugenberg, 2009). ...
Article
Some of the recent studies suggested that people can make accurate inferences about the level of the Big Five and the Dark Triad personality traits in strangers by only looking at their faces. However, later findings provided only partial support and the evidence is mixed regarding which traits can be accurately inferred from faces. In the current research, to provide further evidence on whether the Big Five and the Dark Triad traits are visible in the face, we report three studies, two of which were preregistered, conducted on both WEIRD (the US American) and non-WEIRD (Turkish) samples (N = 880). The participants in both the US American and Turkish samples were successful in predicting all Dark Triad personality traits by looking at a stranger's face. However, there were mixed results regarding the Big Five traits. An aggregate analysis of the combined dataset demonstrated that extraversion (only female), agreeableness, and conscientiousness were accurately inferred by the participants in addition to the Dark Triad traits. Overall, the results suggest that inferring personality from faces without any concrete source of information might be an evolutionarily adaptive trait.
... Even though it was shown in social psychology that a judgement of someone's personality can be made after a few seconds, the time of exposure was still found to influence the accuracy of the impression (Calvo- Barajas et al. (2020); Carney et al. (2007)). In spite of this, only a few studies in HRI have explicitly investigated the influence of time on the perception of a robot's personality. ...
Article
Empirical investigations on the uncanny valley have almost solely focused on the analysis of people’s non-interactive perception of a robot at first sight. Recent studies suggest, however, that these uncanny first impressions may be significantly altered over an interaction. What is yet to discover is whether certain interaction patterns can lead to a faster decline in uncanny feelings. In this paper, we present a study in which participants with limited expertise in Computer Science played a collaborative geography game with a Furhat robot. During the game, Furhat displayed one of two personalities, which corresponded to two different interaction strategies. The robot was either optimistic and encouraging, or impatient and provocative. We performed the study in a science museum and recruited participants among the visitors. Our findings suggest that a robot that is rated high on agreeableness, emotional stability, and conscientiousness can indeed weaken uncanny feelings. This study has important implications for human-robot interaction design as it further highlights that a first impression, merely based on a robot’s appearance, is not indicative of the affinity people might develop towards it throughout an interaction. We thus argue that future work should emphasize investigations on exact interaction patterns that can help to overcome uncanny feelings.
... These results support previous research (Wu et al., 2016(Wu et al., , 2017, which identified the same accuracy patterns in trait judgments from thin slices of behavior at zero-acquaintance. Traits give rise to fleeing patterns of behavior in the reality world; via observing which people are able to make trait inferences of strangers (e.g., Carney et al., 2007;Wu et al., 2016Wu et al., , 2017. Past research has suggested that watching a sample of behavior spanning just a few seconds is sufficient for the perceiver to detect the targets who stand on the extremes of the empathic trait (Wu et al., 2016) and the big-five traits (Wu et al., 2017). ...
Article
Trait inferences occur not only during social interaction but also in virtual environments. Previous research suggested social media owners (targets) revealed their real but not idealized personality traits online, based on which people were to some extent able to make accurate judgments of the big-five traits of the targets. In the present research, participants made inferences of different levels of targets' big-five traits (low, meddle or high) after briefly browsing scant information of the unacquainted WeChat owners. Results demonstrated that participants were not uniformly accurate in judging each level of each of the big-five traits; they were prone to be accurate when judging a target located on the extremes (low or high) of the traits, but were less accurate when judging a target located at the average level. These findings extend previous results from real-world scenarios revealing people's ability to perceive other persons based on subtle signals in the domain of social media.
... Stranger ratings have been shown to be consistent with self-ratings (e.g., Paunonen 1991;Borkenau and Liebler 1993;Shevlin et al. 2002;Vazire 2006;Carney et al. 2007;Balsis et al. 2015). Dynamic stimulus is only marginally more accurate than static stimulus. ...
Article
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We examine the influence of face-based judgments of CFO and CEO honesty on earnings management for the largest publicly traded companies in America. After controlling for incentives and opportunities to manage earnings, CFOs perceived to be less honest engage in higher levels of accruals earnings management and real earnings management. The beneficial impact of perceived honesty on earnings quality is most pronounced when both the CFO and the CEO are perceived to be more honest. Findings are consistent with our conjecture that both the CFO and CEO contribute to a firm’s financial reporting environment.
... To date, there have been enough researches on character recognition by machine learning worldwide. In [6], the authors studied and proposed the key facial features that have an import impact on people's first impression. We can draw at least four valid inferences from other people's facial features [7]. ...
Article
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The assessment of personality traits is now a key part of many important social activities, such as job hunting, accident prevention in transportation, disease treatment, policing, and interpersonal interactions. In a previous study, we predicted personality based on positive images of college students. Although this method achieved a high accuracy, the reliance on positive images alone results in the loss of much personality-related information. Our new findings show that using real-life 2.5D static facial contour images, it is possible to make statistically significant predictions about a wider range of personality traits for both men and women. We address the objective of comprehensive understanding of a person's personality traits by developing a multiperspective 2.5D hybrid personality-computing model to evaluate the potential correlation between static facial contour images and personality characteristics. Our experimental results show that the deep neural network trained by large labeled datasets can reliably predict people's multidimensional personality characteristics through 2.5D static facial contour images, and the prediction accuracy is better than the previous method using 2D images.
... This duration is typical of verbal guise experiments because it is "sufficient for participants to make systematic speaker evaluations" (Kircher 2016, p. 199). In fact, first impressions literature suggests that interpersonal judgments made under very limited time exposure do not significantly differ from opinions based on much longer time intervals (see Carney et al. 2007). ...
Article
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Communicative expertise in the host society’s dominant language is central to newcomers’ socio-professional integration. To date, SLA research has largely ignored laypeople’s perspectives about Lx communicative expertise, though they are the ultimate judges of real-life interactional success. Sociolinguistic studies have shown that laypeople may base their judgments of Lx speech not only on linguistic criteria, but also on extralinguistic factors such as gender and language background. To document laypeople perspectives, we investigated the professional characteristics attributed to four ethnolinguistic groups of French Lx economic immigrants (Spanish, Chinese, English and Farsi) who were nearing completion of the government-funded French language training program in Quebec City, Canada. We asked L1 naïve listeners (N = 49) to evaluate spontaneous speech excerpts, similar in terms of content and speech qualities, produced by a man and a woman from each target group. After they listened to each audio excerpt, we asked listeners to select the characteristics they associated with that person from a list of the most frequent professional qualities found in job advertisements. Data analysis showed that few Lx users were perceived as having strong communication skills in French. Logistic regression revealed no significant relationships between language group, gender, communicative effectiveness, and professional characteristics. However, there were significant associations between communicative effectiveness with the following characteristics: can work independently, can relate to others, is dynamic, has a sense of initiative, and shows leadership skills.
... Conversely, when a stimulus immediately conveys all relevant information at first pass, repeat consumption may also not be particularly enjoyable. For example, one moderator in the literature on "thin slicing" is the type of trait being judged, with more immediately observable traits (e.g., extraversion) eliciting more accurate first impressions (for a review, see Carney et al., 2007). ...
Article
Repeat consumption refers to re‐experiencing an enjoyable stimulus in order to enjoy it again. We rewatch the same shows, reread the same stories, and revisit the same cities; we play our favorite songs on loop and stick to our secret spots in town. When and why do people engage in repeat consumption, and what actually happens in our psychological experience (e.g., attention, enjoyment) upon doing so? This article reviews burgeoning research shedding light on these questions. First, I establish repeat consumption as a distinct construct. Second, I highlight an emerging perspective: Repeat consumption is not so repetitive after all. Not only does repetition reveal new things within the stimulus—dubbed stimulus‐level novelty (e.g., upon rewatching a movie, we notice missed details and new connections)—but we also learn new things about ourselves in the process—dubbed self‐level novelty (e.g., “I must really be committed!”). This model qualifies traditionally grim understandings of hedonic adaptation and exposure effects; people derive greater utility from the old and familiar than assumed. Third, I highlight future research directions, including the need for a clearer taxonomy of repeat value and implications for maximizing utility. Exciting discoveries lie ahead if we return to where we have already been.
... However, it is unclear how much time is needed to accurately detect clinically relevant alterations. The question as to what is considered an appropriate "slice" for assessing behavioral information has been of interest for decades, but much of this research stems from studies with healthy samples (Carney, Colvin, & Hall, 2007;Hirschmann, Kastner-Koller, Deimann, Schmelzer, & Pietschnig, 2018;James, Wadnerkar, Lam-Cassettari, Kang, & Telling, 2012;Murphy et al., 2015;Tom, Tong, & Hesse, 2010). Of relevance to the present study, it is unclear whether alterations in facial expressions of emotion in individuals at CHR can be detected in ultrathin (1-min) slices of behavior. ...
Article
Alterations in facial expressions of emotion are a hallmark of psychopathology and may be present before the onset of mental illness. Technological advances have spurred interest in examining alterations based on "thin slices" of behavior using automated approaches. However, questions remain. First, can alterations be detected in ultrathin slices of behavior? Second, how do automated approaches converge with human coding techniques? The present study examined ultrathin (i.e., 1-min) slices of video-recorded clinical interviews of 42 individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis and 42 matched controls. Facial expressions of emotion (e.g., joy, anger) were examined using two automated facial analysis programs and coded by trained human raters (using the Expressive Emotional Behavior Coding System). Results showed that ultrathin (i.e., 1-min) slices of behavior were sufficient to reveal alterations in facial expressions of emotion, specifically blunted joy expressions in individuals at CHR (with supplementary analyses probing links with attenuated positive symptoms and functioning). Furthermore, both automated analysis programs converged in the ability to detect blunted joy expressions and were consistent with human coding at the level of both second-by-second and aggregate data. Finally, there were areas of divergence across approaches for other emotional expressions beyond joy. These data suggest that ultrathin slices of behavior can yield clues about emotional dysfunction. Further, automated approaches (which do not require lengthy training and coder time but do lend well to mobile assessment and computational modeling) show promise, but careful evaluation of convergence with human coding is needed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
... The analytic implications of this are described below, but from a conceptual standpoint, this simply means that the target stimuli (e.g., photographs of faces) administered in a study represent an independent and identically distributed sampling from a larger population of stimuli. For the sake of example, we draw on a commonly employed paradigm in which a researcher collects a sample of Nj participant raters and presents each with a series of Nk stimulus photographs depicting faces of different people (Carney, Colvin, & Hall, 2007;Naumann, Vazire, Rentfrow, & Gosling, 2009). In this type of study, each j participant provides numerical ratings of the perceived agreeableness of the k stimulus photographs, represented by outcome variable Agrjk. ...
Article
The stimulus sampling design (SSD) is a widely applied research paradigm in which participants evaluate a series of visual or auditory stimuli. Researchers are often interested in phenomena reflected by differences across stimuli, and recent simulation work suggests that more than 100 stimuli may be necessary to detect smaller effects. Unfortunately, administering a large number of stimuli to each participant may compromise the validity of responses due to individual differences in susceptibility to fatigue and distraction. The present work describes the application of planned missingness design strategies to maximize statistical power, while minimizing participant burden in SSD studies. A Monte Carlo simulation study was conducted to determine the number of stimuli per rater (SPR) and average raters per stimuli (RPS) needed to ensure unbiased estimates of model parameters, as well as the desired statistical power and interval coverage. Findings suggest that two commonly used statistical estimation techniques, restricted maximum likelihood and the Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm, provide reliable estimates of model parameters and maintain adequate statistical power under substantial levels of planned missingness. Incorporating these methods will allow researchers to design more efficient and powerful experiments by reducing redundancies and minimizing sources of methodological error. Recommendations for incorporating planned missingness strategies in SSDs are provided.
... This finding is in line with previous studies indicating that 3-4 s of video excerpts are enough to judge whether a player is trailing or leading (Furley & Schweizer, 2014. A study using videotapes of conversations between college students indicates that the influence of the duration of video excerpts depends on the construct being judged (Carney et al., 2007). Specifically, the results of this study showed that in contrast to certain personality variables (e.g., neuroticism, openness), the assessment of negative affect, but not of positive affect, does not become more accurate with video excerpts longer than 5 s. ...
Article
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In tennis, the non-verbal behaviours shown after a rally may indicate the affective state of players. The purpose of the present study was to assess whether (a) the point outcome, (b) the duration of video-excerpts, and (c) the tennis expertise of the participants would influence the recognition rates of the affective state. To that end, 115 participants were shown non-verbal behaviour of tennis players after a point and asked to rate whether the player had just won or lost a point. The results indicate that the recognition rates were higher for lost than for won points. Moreover, participants who were members of a tennis club had a higher recognition rate. Finally, there was no difference in the recognition rate regarding the duration of video excerpts. The findings point to a negativity bias and the bio-cultural framework in relation to the recognition of affective states associated with non-verbal behaviour.
... These features, despite their low number, achieved the state-of-the-art-results for conscientiousness. The lowest error in conscientiousness prediction is in line with the fact, that conscientiousness (and extroversion) are easily inferred from even slices of behaviour [6,17]. ...
Conference Paper
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Automatic personality recognition from source code is a scarcely explored problem. We propose personality recognition with hand-crafted features, based on lexical, syntactic and semantic properties of source code. Out of 35 proposed features, 22 features are completely novel. We also show that n-gram features are simple but surprisingly good predictors of personality and present results arising from joint usage of both handcrafted and baseline features. We also compare our results with scores obtained within the PR-SOCO track during FIRE 2016 and set up state-of-the-art results for conscientiousness and neuroticism traits.
... These features, despite their low number, achieved the state-of-the-art-results for conscientiousness. The lowest error in conscientiousness prediction is in line with the fact, that conscientiousness (and extroversion) are easily inferred from even slices of behaviour [6,18]. ...
Chapter
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Automatic personality recognition from source code is a scarcely explored problem. We propose personality recognition with handcrafted features, based on lexical, syntactic and semantic properties of source code. Out of 35 proposed features, 22 features are completely novel. We also show that n-gram features are simple but surprisingly good predictors of personality and present results arising from joint usage of both handcrafted and baseline features. Additionally we compare our results with scores obtained within the Personality Recognition in SOurce COde track during Forum for Information Retrieval Evaluation 2016 and set up state-of-the-art results for conscientiousness and neuroticism traits.
... Each of these methodological distinctions strongly relates to individuals' accuracy, and therefore makes it difficult to compare mean levels of accuracy for assessing personality traits and affective states across studies Schlegel et al., 2017). In general, however, it appears as though individuals on average have a relatively easy time assessing the affective states of others (Carney et al., 2007), and are moderately accurate in assessing the personality traits of others (Connelly & Ones, 2010). Interestingly, while interpersonal accuracy for some personality traits is greater than chance even when no interaction with the target has occurred (i.e., zero-acquaintance; Ambady et al., 1995;Brown & Bernieri, 2017), accuracy for judgments of strangers' personality seems to reach its peak and stabilize after a simple getting-to-know-you conversation, and does not change much with increasing acquaintanceship thereafter (Brown & Bernieri, 2017). ...
Article
The human propensity to synchronize their behaviors to one another seems to be an ever-present aspect of our social lives. While a breadth of approaches have been taken to explain this phenomenon, the benefit of individuals temporally aligning their behaviors to one another during an interaction remains to be precisely identified. Some have argued that by becoming synchronized to the movements and actions of another, one may become a better perceiver of that other’s internal attributes (Hoehl et al., 2021). The purpose of the present thesis was to explore this potential benefit of synchrony by examining its relation to one’s ability to accurately judge the personality traits and affective states of an interaction partner. A secondary purpose was to explore whether these two interpersonal processes central to face-to-face interactions, synchrony and interpersonal accuracy, would be hindered if they took place over a videoconferencing platform. Groups of two strangers (N = 196 participants, N = 98 dyads) logged onto a videoconferencing platform (Zoom) with an experimenter and were asked to engage in a five-minute long recorded “getting-to-know-you” interaction. Subsequently, participants were asked to complete a variety of questionnaires including judgments of their partner’s personality traits and affective states from the prior interaction. Accuracy for judgments of personality traits and affective states was operationalized as the correlation between participant’s judgments of their partners states and traits, and their partner’s self-reported states and traits. The recordings derived from these interactions underwent rigorous coding by eight trained research assistants in order to determine the extent to which interactants’ behaviors were synchronized with one another during the first 30-seconds, middle 30-seconds, and last 30-seconds of conversation. Results supported that dyads whose movements were more synchronized with one another during their interaction were subsequently more accurate judges of their interaction partner’s personality traits and affective states. However, this relationship was only significant when examined during the beginning of the interaction, indicating that becoming temporally aligned to an interaction partner within the first 30-seconds of conversation seems to be most important for facilitating accuracy for interpersonal judgments of that person. In addition, the predictive validity relationships observed between synchrony, interpersonal accuracy, and a collection of theoretically-related outcome variables suggested that individuals’ tendency to synchronize with one another, as well as form accurate judgments of another’s states and traits, was likely not substantially hindered by videoconferencing platforms. These findings not only help refine existing theoretical frameworks regarding synchrony and accuracy, but help to address core questions regarding the benefits of humans’ innate tendency to synchronize their behaviors with one another.
... Other studies have shown that judgments based on thin slices predict individual differences-including personality traits (Carney, Colvin, & Hall, 2007;Tackett, Herzhoff, Kushner, & Rule, 2015), masculinity and femininity (Bernieri, Sharpe, & Knee, 1992), romantic couples' level of love (Gada, Bernieri, Grahe, Zuroff, & Koestner, 1997), sexual orientation (Ambady, Hallahan, & Conner, 1999;Rule, Ambady, Adams Jr, & Macrae, 2008;Rule, Ambady, & Hallett, 2009), and even testosterone levels (Dabbs, Bernieri, Strong, Campo, & Milun, 2001). ...
Thesis
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Does a very brief observation of a person predict first impressions? Prior research has shown that these brief observations, called thin slices, predict many psychological outcomes such as individual performance. However, there is a not much research investigating whether thin slices predict first impressions formed following live interactions. In the present research, one hundred female participants were asked to complete three 15-minute face-to-face interactions in dyads. After each interaction session, their explicit and implicit warmth about their interaction partner was assessed. Ten observers rated these participants on warmth, competence and attractiveness based on brief silent video clips extracted from the interactions. Multilevel analyses revealed that for a given participant, observer-rated attractiveness (but not observer-rated warmth and competence) of their interaction partner predicted greater implicit and explicit warmth toward this person following dyadic interactions. The role of attractiveness in implicit warmth was more pronounced when the interaction required low (vs. high) self-disclosure. Moreover, explicit (but not implicit) warmth increased over time. These findings support a halo effect and the “familiarity breeds liking” hypothesis.
... When engaging in social interactions, people are motivated to quickly assess others' moral character to determine whether the person is an ally or threat (Brambilla et al., 2021;Goodwin et al., 2014). Although people often make accurate judgments of another's moral character traits after only a short exposure to their behavior (Ambady & Rosenthal, 1992;Carney et al., 2007), these quick judgments are also apt to be misled by character-irrelevant information. Most notably, physical attractiveness has been found to positively bias the attribution of desirable character traits such as moral traits (Dion et al., 1972;Wilson & Eckel, 2006). ...
Article
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Research on the Beauty-is-Good stereotype shows that unattractive people are perceived to have worse moral character than attractive individuals. Yet research has not explored what kinds of moral character judgments are particularly biased by attractiveness. In this work, we tested whether attractiveness particularly biases moral character judgments pertaining to the moral domain of purity, beyond a more general halo effect. Across four preregistered studies ( N = 1,778), we found that unattractive (vs. attractive) individuals were judged to be more likely to engage in purity violations compared with harm violations and that this was not due to differences in perceived moral wrongness, weirdness, or sociality between purity and harm violations. The findings shed light on how physical attractiveness influences moral character attributions, suggesting that physical attractiveness particularly biases character judgments pertaining to the moral domain of purity.
... The target primarily influences the success of the relevance and availability stages, while the judge is mainly responsible for the success of the detection and utilization stages. The model has thus far been used to investigate how people judge the personality of others based on in-person (e.g., [26]), videotaped (e.g., [27]), or online behavioral cues (e.g., [28]). It has also been considered in the context of evaluating ATBPA methods (e.g., [9,29]). ...
Article
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Automated text-based personality assessment (ATBPA) methods can analyze large amounts of text data and identify nuanced linguistic personality cues. However, current approaches lack the interpretability, explainability, and validity offered by standard questionnaire instruments. To address these weaknesses, we propose an approach that combines questionnaire-based and text-based approaches to personality assessment. Our Statement-to-Item Matching Personality Assessment (SIMPA) framework uses natural language processing methods to detect self-referencing descriptions of personality in a targets’ text and utilizes these descriptions for personality assessment. The core of the framework is the notion of a trait-constrained semantic similarity between the target’s freely expressed statements and questionnaire items. The conceptual basis is provided by the realistic accuracy model (RAM), which describes the process of accurate personality judgments and which we extend with a feedback loop mechanism to improve the accuracy of judgments. We present a simple proof-of-concept implementation of SIMPA for ATBPA on the social media site Reddit. We show how the framework can be used directly for unsupervised estimation of a target’s Big 5 scores and indirectly to produce features for a supervised ATBPA model, demonstrating state-of-the-art results for the personality prediction task on Reddit.
... Why does extraversion promote expressive accuracy across contexts? The most direct route through which extraversion seems likely to facilitate accuracy is through cue availability, as extraverts are likely to provide a greater amount of information to others, and information quantity is a robust predictor of greater accuracy (Biesanz, West, & Millevoi, 2007;Blackman & Funder, 1998;Carney, Colvin, & Hall, 2007;Letzring, Wells, & Funder, 2006;Paulhus & Bruce, 1992). This may help to explain why extraversion was a particularly strong predictor of expressive accuracy on Facebook, as cue availability may even more strongly affect expressive accuracy online because of the large degree of control and likely variability in how much people share online. ...
Article
People vary widely in their expressive accuracy, the tendency to be viewed in line with one's unique traits. It is unclear, however, whether expressive accuracy is a stable individual difference that transcends social contexts or a more piecemeal, context‐specific characteristic. The current research therefore examined the consistency of expressive accuracy across three social contexts: face‐to‐face initial interactions, close relationships, and social media. There was clear evidence for cross‐contextual consistency, such that expressive accuracy in face‐to‐face first impressions, based on brief round‐robin interactions, was associated with expressive accuracy with close others (Sample 1; Ntargets = 514; Ndyads = 1656) and based on Facebook profiles (Samples 2 and 3: Ntargets = 126–132; Ndyads = 1170–1476). This was found on average across traits and for high and low observability traits. Further, unique predictors emerged for different types of expressive accuracy, with psychological adjustment and conscientiousness most consistently linked to overall expressive accuracy, extraversion most consistently linked to high observability expressive accuracy, and neuroticism most consistently linked to low observability expressive accuracy. In sum, expressive accuracy appears to emerge robustly and consistently across contexts, although its predictors may differ depending on the type of trait. © 2020 European Association of Personality Psychology
... The videos were created as every combination of gesture extraversion level (High, Low), gesture emotional stability level (High, Low), and framing (head-only, full-body) yielding 8 total clips (2 x 2 x 2), in addition to two neutral clips for use in the experiment. The length of 30 s was chosen based on experimental evidence that shows this time is long enough for people to form an impression about the personality (Borkenau et al., 2004;Carney et al., 2007). The videos were presented in random order. ...
Article
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The attribution of traits plays an important role as a heuristic for how we interact with others. Many psychological models of personality are analytical in that they derive a classification from reported or hypothesised behaviour. In the work presented here, we follow the opposite approach: Our personality model generates behaviour that leads an observer to attribute personality characteristics to the actor. Concretely, the model controls all relevant aspects of non-verbal behaviour such as gaze, facial expression, gesture, and posture. The model, embodied in a virtual human, affords to realistically interact with participants in real-time. Conceptually, our model focuses on the two dimensions of extra/introversion and stability/neuroticism. In the model, personality parameters influence both, the internal affective state as well as the characteristic of the behaviour execution. Importantly, the parameters of the model are based on empirical findings in the behavioural sciences. To evaluate our model, we conducted two types of studies. Firstly, passive experiments where participants rated videos showing variants of behaviour driven by different personality parameter configurations. Secondly, presential experiments where participants interacted with the virtual human, playing rounds of the Rock-Paper-Scissors game. Our results show that the model is effective in conveying the impression of the personality of a virtual character to users. Embodying the model in an artificial social agent capable of real-time interactive behaviour is the only way to move from an analytical to a generative approach to understanding personality, and we believe that this methodology raises a host of novel research questions in the field of personality theory.
... They function as heuristics about how to act. Especially in an interpersonal context, they immediately reveal their potential (Carney, Colvin, & Hall, 2007). Automated reactions and propensities have tremendous influence on performance-without them people would waste their time and energy on many meaningless activities. ...
... The age-old idiom "do not judge a book by its cover" warns us that forming quick impressions of others based on superficial features may lead us to make inaccurate judgments and a failure to see people's true character. Yet, research shows that humans are predisposed to forming social impressions of others rapidly and intuitively (Ambady, 2010;Ambady & Rosenthal, 1992;Ambady et al., 2000;Asch, 1946;Carney et al., 2007) and show great confidence in these judgments irrespective of their accuracy (Ames et al., 2010). Physical attractiveness (particularly facial attractiveness) is a particularly pervasive heuristic that is often used as an indicator of various desirable traits, a phenomenon known as the Beautyis-Good stereotype (Dion et al., 1972). ...
Article
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Physical attractiveness is a heuristic that is often used as an indicator of desirable traits. In two studies (N = 1254), we tested whether facial attractiveness leads to a selective bias in attributing moral character—which is paramount in person perception—over non-moral traits. We argue that because people are motivated to assess socially important traits quickly, these may be the traits that are most strongly biased by physical attractiveness. In Study 1, we found that people attributed more moral traits to attractive than unattractive people, an effect that was stronger than the tendency to attribute positive non-moral traits to attractive (vs. unattractive) people. In Study 2, we conceptually replicated the findings while matching traits on perceived warmth. The findings suggest that the Beauty-is-Good stereotype particularly skews in favor of the attribution of moral traits. As such, physical attractiveness biases the perceptions of others even more fundamentally than previously understood.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of CEO narcissism in corporate acquisitions with a focus on frequency and size and furthermore to examine the subsequent stock market reaction. Design/methodology/approach The authors investigate 751 acquisitions made by 158 UK nonfinancial firms and 202 CEOs in the 10-year period 2007–2016. The authors use the ratio of first-person singular pronouns to total first-person pronouns in CEO speech as the main proxy for CEO narcissism but the results are robust to the use of signature size and picture as alternative measures. Findings The authors find that increased CEO narcissism is associated with an increase in M&A expenditures, an increase in deal size and a decrease in deal frequency. Thus, the authors find that narcissistic CEOs favor size over frequency (“go big”). Furthermore, the authors find that the stock market reacts less favorably to acquisitions announced by firms run by narcissistic CEOs. Originality/value The paper contributes to upper echelon research by investigating the association between CEO narcissism and corporate decisions in a UK setting. More specifically, the paper contributes to the existing literature by investigating how CEO narcissism is associated with corporate acquisitions in terms of the size and frequency of deals and how such irrational behavior is penalized by the stock market. Previous literature has focused on the more broad association between CEO narcissism and M&A expenditures.
Article
Objective: Those who fear being single generally do not have difficulty attracting prospective partners. The present research explores whether this is because daters cannot detect fear of being single, or because detected fear of being single does not hinder desirability. Method: In Study 1 (N=235, 60% women, Mage =36.9), participants created dating profiles then rated the desirability of profiles depicting high vs. low fear of being single (high narcissism control). In Study 2 (N=176, 69% women, Mage =21.4), participants evaluated fear of being single and desirability of actual profiles. Results: Differences in fear of being single were detectable. Furthermore, detecting higher fear of being single predicted lower romantic desirability. Desirability ratings were due, in part, to estimating lower physical attractiveness (Study 2). Perceivers' own fear of being single moderated effects, such that those higher in fear of being single were not deterred by higher fear of being single. Conclusions: Fear of being single may be detectable when online dating, but desirability of detected fear of being single varies depending on perceiver traits and may be driven in part by misperceptions of physical attractiveness. This research sheds light on challenges for those who fear being single as they attempt to attract mates.
Chapter
Personality-based cognitive architectures should yield consistent patterns of behaviour through personality traits that have a modulatory influence at different levels: These factors affect, on the one hand, high-level components such as ‘emotional reactions' and ‘coping behaviour', and on the other hand, low-level parameters such as the ‘speed of movements and repetition of gestures. In our hybrid cognitive architecture, a deliberative reasoning about the world (e.g. strategies and goals of the 3D character) is combined with dynamic real-time response to the environment's changes and sensors' input (e.g. emotional changes). Hybrid system copes dynamically with changes in the environment, and is complicated enough to have reasoning abilities. Designing a cognitive architecture that gives the impression of personality to 3D agents can be a tremendous help making 3D characters more engaging and successful in interactions with humans.
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We examine the cost of leaders changing between empowering and directive leadership styles on team outcomes. In a laboratory experiment, we collected data from 240 participants in 80 teams. Confederates enacted different leadership styles and led teams of participants in performing a series of tasks. When leaders changed their style from directive to empowering, teams took time to respond in terms of higher satisfaction with leader and affective commitment. However, when leaders changed their style from empowering to directive, the deterioration of satisfaction with leader and reduction in affective commitment were immediate. Moreover, teams of leaders who had been consistently directive showed higher affective commitment as compared to teams of leaders who had a history of being empowering but later shifted to being directive. First time managers can get inputs on how they should enact their leadership style and be aware that switching between styles may impose long-term costs on the team’s affective commitment and satisfaction with the leader.
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The task of quantifying human behavior by observing interaction cues is an important and useful one across a range of domains in psychological research and practice. Machine learning-based approaches typically perform this task by first estimating behavior based on cues within an observation window, such as a fixed number of words, and then aggregating the behavior over all the windows in that interaction. The length of this window directly impacts the accuracy of estimation by controlling the amount of information being used. The exact link between window length and accuracy, however, has not been well studied, especially in spoken language. In this paper, we investigate this link and present an analysis framework that determines appropriate window lengths for the task of behavior estimation. Our proposed framework utilizes a two-pronged evaluation approach: (a) extrinsic similarity between machine predictions and human expert annotations, and (b) intrinsic consistency between intra-machine and intra-human behavior relations. We apply our analysis to real-life conversations that are annotated for a large and diverse set of behavior codes and examine the relation between the nature of a behavior and how long it should be observed. We find that behaviors describing negative and positive affect can be accurately estimated from short to medium-length expressions whereas behaviors related to problem-solving and dysphoria require much longer observations and are difficult to quantify from language alone. These findings are found to be generally consistent across different behavior modeling approaches.
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Research has examined accuracy of judging personality traits from written material, but no study has compared thin slices of written material according to their length and location in the text. We analyzed two-page personal narratives written by 49 college students for the accuracy with which perceivers (N = 665) could judge the authors' Big Five traits. Accuracy was examined for thin slices that were 1/5 the total length of the narrative, as well as for cumulative slices that represented increasingly longer portions of the narrative. Accuracy showed a mixture of patterns with a frequent one being that early slices produced lower accuracy than later, and longer, slices. However, neuroticism was very accurately judged in the first slice and not at all in the last slice. These results contribute to a growing body of research aimed at helping researchers make decisions about length and location of thin slices when designing measurement and judgment studies.
Chapter
This chapter examines the role of culture in deception. It opens by explaining how culture has been measured in the research literature, along with the consequences and critiques of those measurement strategies. Next, it explores how culture has been studied previously in the context of deception and addresses variations in those analyses such as interactions within and between people of different cultures. After establishing the current state of research on deception detection by reviewing recent advances, the chapter then explores the role of cultural differences and similarities in modern theorizing about deception. Finally, we discuss the challenges inherent to bridging intercultural communication studies and deception detection research, outline both the pitfalls and best practices for this work, and illustrate how we have chosen to conduct our research in the SCAN project.
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The paper presents a study of the dependence of indicators of subjective complexity of interpersonal assessment in different conditions of interpersonal perception in the absence and presence of context. In the first case, the subjects were shown only photographs of the faces of the sitters, in the second, the faces of the sitters were placed in a situation of interaction between two individuals. It is shown that the presence of a context is associated with an increase in the subjective complexity of assessing the individual psychological characteristics of a person by facial expression. At the same time, the interaction of the factor “context” with such variables as the “race” of the sitters and the level of subjective control of the subjects is shown, the latter, however, being not a decisive determinant of the subjective complexity of perception of other person.
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When deciding whom to ally with or avoid, people benefit from assessing the quantity and quality of strangers’ relationships with others. How accurately do people make such social network assessments? Across three lab studies and one preregistered field study, we tested whether people (total N = 1545) could make accurate judgments about a stranger’s (total N = 709) social network characteristics after watching brief thin slice videos of the stranger or negotiating with them. The findings consistently demonstrated that perceivers accurately detected the size of a stranger’s social networks and their gender and family composition, based on theoretically relevant social-behavioral tendencies and traits (e.g., extraversion, gender), but not how interconnected these social networks were. Perceivers also missed cues that could have facilitated greater accuracy. These data advance theory about adaptive social decision making in psychology, network science, sociology, and organizational behavior. We also provide the freely available Social Network Accuracy Test (SNAT) for future research: (https://osf.io/zgbse).
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This manuscript explores the psychometric properties of a scale measuring self-curiosity, a facet of general curiosity, consisting of the attitude and interest people have in understanding themselves better. In this study, we provide data on the comparison between the Self-Curiosity Attitude-Interest Scale in an Italian and a Mexican sample, paired for gender, age, and education. The scale reliability was satisfactory , and the two-factor structure of the scale showed a good fit in the Mexican sample. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis showed configural, metric, partial scalar, and strict invariance between samples. Overall, results indicated that the concept of self-curiosity is meaningfully measured by the SCAI items. In line with previous studies, construct validity of the scale highlighted the expected correlations with measures of trait openness, awareness, and general curiosity. In conclusion, the results show that the two-factor model of the Self-Curiosity Attitude-Interest Scale is similarly adequate in both countries.
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Communication is central to nursing care. Yet, the nonverbal aspect of communication tends to be neglected or underestimated in nursing studies. Research has shown that older patients interpret nurses’ communication messages during the clinical encounter. This article conceptualizes older adults’ interpretation of and need for nonverbal communication (NVC) to enhance patient-centered communication advocated by the World Health Organization. The Corbin and Strauss (2015) inductive Grounded Theory approach was used to collect data from 3 hospital units in Cameroon using in-depth interviews with eight older adults, thirteen nurses, and four student nurses between July 2018 and January 2020. Open coding, axial coding, and selective coding were used for analysis, which reveals that interpretations of NVC can be positive or negative. It means that older adults view nurses either as angels or as difficult persons, depending on the nurses’ positive or negative NVC and behaviors. These interpretations lead to consequences ranging from a preference for some nurses to noncompliance with care. The results further show that older adults need active listening, humor, and affection from nurses. Information regarding older adults’ interpretation of and need for NVC can be used to improve curriculum content and to develop skills in and awareness of NVC with older adults. It is recommended that further research expand on effective nonverbal techniques during COVID-19 times where the meaning of facial expressions and voice inflection can be disrupted.
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People are excessively confident that they can judge others’ characteristics from their appearance. This research identifies a novel antecedent of this phenomenon. Ten studies (N=2,967, four pre-registered) find that the more people believe that appearance reveals character, the more confident they are in their appearance-based judgments, and therefore, the more they support the use of facial profiling technologies in law enforcement, education, and business. Specifically, people who believe that appearance reveals character support the use of facial profiling in general (Studies 1a-1b), and even when they themselves are the target of profiling (Studies 1c-1d). Experimentally inducing people to believe that appearance reveals character increases their support for facial profiling (Study 2) because it increases their confidence in the ability to make appearance-based judgments (Study 3). An intervention that undermines people’s confidence in their appearance-based judgments reduces their support for facial profiling (Study 4). The relationship between the lay theory and support for facial profiling is weaker among people with a growth mindset about personality, as facial profiling presumes a relatively unchanging character (Study 5a). This relationship is also weaker among people who believe in free will, as facial profiling presumes that individuals have limited free will (Study 5b). The appearance reveals character lay theory is a stronger predictor of support for profiling than analogous beliefs in other domains, such as the belief that FacebookTM likes reveal personality (Study 6). These findings identify a novel lay theory that underpins people’s meta-cognitions about their confidence in appearance-related judgments and their policy positions.
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Whether and how personality is encoded in nonverbal behavior is reexamined. Behavior mapping, a recently developed approach designed to produce more focused answers, is used. Conversations among same-sex triads were scored for numerous seated kinesic behaviors. After winnowing some behaviors according to standard psychometric and behavior-mapping criteria, 6 behaviors of the head, hands, and legs could be clearly mapped on the interpersonal circle. Three of the 4 bipolar axes of the circle were primary axes for at least 1 behavior, although most are aligned with the Gregarious-Extraverted to Aloof-Introverted axis. Behavior mapping reaffirms that the interpersonal circle orders actual behavior (is not a merely cognitive ordering) and that it is a fruitful method for specifying behavior in terms of personality or vice versa. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Attempted to replicate and extend the results of Passini and Norman (1966), who found surprising evidence of convergent validity (i.e., significant correlations with the targets' self-ratings) in strangers' judgments of 5 broad personality factors. In the current study, 250 previously unacquainted Ss were run in small, same-sex groups of various sizes. Ss rated both themselves and their fellow group members on the same set of 20 bipolar trait scales used by Passini and Norman. Consistent with previous research, significant self–peer agreement correlations were obtained for Extraversion and Conscientiousness. Ratings of Agreeableness also showed significant convergent validity when a sufficient number of peers rated the target. More generally, self–peer agreement correlations tended to rise as the number of peer raters increased. Possible explanations for the validity of strangers' trait ratings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Several studies have shown above-chance agreement of self-reports on extraversion and conscientiousness with ratings by strangers, indicating that ratings by strangers might be quite accurate. Because self-reports are a less-than-ideal criterion to evaluate the accuracy of stranger ratings, however, the present study compared them also with ratings by acquaintances and with targets' performance on an intelligence test. Ratings of extraversion, conscientiousness, and intelligence by strangers having been exposed to a videotape of targets were significantly related to self-reports of these traits as well as to ratings by acquaintances. Moreover, ratings of intelligence by strangers were related to targets' measured intelligence, provided that judges had been exposed to a sound film of the targets. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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ABSTRACT In this study, we investigated the relationship of participants' observable attributes to measures of their personality and intelligence; we also studied the ways in which strangers formed their perception of participants' personalities and intelligence. Fifty pairs of intimate acquaintances were videotaped in a standard situation, were administered an intelligence test, and provided self-reports of their personality and descriptions of their partner's personality. In addition, various observable attributes (such as hair color, stature, physical mannerisms) of the targets were measured. Strangers watched the videotapes and rated either the observable attributes or the personality traits of the targets. The observable attributes were then correlated with the personality measures and the intelligence and trait inferences by strangers. Extraversion was the trait with the most external manifestations and the strongest match between cue utilization and cue validity. Intelligence was inferred from visual as well as from acoustic attributes, but only acoustic cues mediated the correlation between psychometric intelligence and perceptions of intelligence by strangers.
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The links between 13 auditory and visual behavioral cues, mea- sured intelligence, and observer judgments of intelligence in a zero-acquaintance context were examined in a lens model study. Auditory-plus-visual, auditory-only, and visual-only informa- tion conditions, in addition to a transcript-only control condi- tion, were employed to determine whether auditory or visual cues encode measured intelligence more strongly and which are used more in judgments of intelligence. Five cues (of both types) accounted for nearly half the variance in measured intelligence, but it was much more strongly associated with auditory than visual cues. Observers' judgments of intelligence were also much more strongly related to auditory than visual cues. Visual cues may even depress accuracy; accuracy was higher in an auditory- only condition than in an auditory-plus-visual condition.
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The Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy (DANVA) was designed to measure individual differences in the accurate sending and receiving of nonverbal social information. The DANVA consists of four receptive and three expressive subtests that measure nonverbal processing accuracy in children from 6 to 10 years of age. Four propositions were offered to guide the gathering of construct validity data for the DANVA. In support of the propositions, researchers found that DANVA accuracy scores increased with age, were internally consistent and reliable over time, and snowed significant relationships with indices of personal and social adjustment and academic achievement but were not related to IQ. Evidence for construct validity was stronger for receptive, as compared to expressive, subtests. Future research should include additional populations of subjects and study of the impact of intensity of emotion being sent or received.
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This research focused on the target effect on a perceiver's judgments of personality when the perceiver and the target are unacquainted. The perceiver was given no opportunity to interact with the target, a condition we refer to as zero acquaintance. We reasoned that in order to make personality judgments, perceivers would use the information available to them (physical appearance). Consensus in personality judgments would result, then, from shared stereotypes about particular physical appearance characteristics. Results from three separate studies with 259 subjects supported this hypothesis. On two of the five dimensions (extraversion and conscientiousness) on which subjects rated each other, a significant proportion of variance was due to the stimulus target. Consensus on judgments of extraversion appears to have been largely mediated by judgments of physical attractiveness. Across the three studies there was also evidence that the consensus in judgments on these two dimensions had some validity, in that they correlated with self-judgments on those two dimensions.
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We examined the effect of acquaintanceship on interjudge agreement in personality ratings. Approximately 150 undergraduates described their own personalities using the Q-sort. They were also described by two close acquaintances and by two "strangers" who knew them only via a single, spontaneous interaction viewed on videotape. The effect of acquaintanceship was powerful: Judgments by close acquaintances agreed with each other and with subjects' self-judgments much better than did judgments by strangers, even though strangers' judgments agreed with each other and with subjects' self-judgments beyond a chance level. This result implies that agreement among acquaintances' judgments must derive at least partly from experience with and observation of the person who is judged. The same traits that yielded better agreement among acquaintances also yielded better agreement among strangers and tended to be rated higher in subjective visibility, suggesting that people are intuitively knowledgeable about the traits they can judge with more and less agreement.
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Consensus refers to the extent to which judges agree in their ratings of a common target. Consensus has been an important area of research in social and personality psychology. In this article, generalizability theory is used to develop a percentage of total variance measure of consensus. This measure is used to review the level of consensus across 32 studies by considering the role of acquaintance level and trait dimension. The review indicates that consensus correlations ranged from zero to about .3, with higher levels of consensus for ratings of Extraversion. The studies do not provide evidence that consensus increases with increasing acquaintance, a counterintuitive result that can be accounted for by a theoretical model (D.A. Kenny, 1991, in press). Problems in the interpretation of longitudinal research are reviewed.
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The authors articulate a model specifying links between (a) individuals and the physical environments they occupy and (b) the environments and observers' impressions of the occupants. Two studies examined the basic phenomena underlying this model: Interobserver consensus, observer accuracy, cue utilization, and cue validity. Observer ratings based purely on offices or bedrooms were compared with self-and peer ratings of occupants and with physical features of the environments. Findings, which varied slightly across contexts and traits, suggest that (a) personal environments elicit similar impressions from independent observers, (b) observer impressions show some accuracy, (c) observers rely on valid cues in the rooms to form impressions of occupants, and (d) sex and race stereotypes partially mediate observer consensus and accuracy. Consensus and accuracy correlations were generally stronger than those found in zero-acquaintance research.
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the assessment of individual differences, emphasizing the major paradigms and instruments for assessing the accuracy of nonverbal cue processing, and discussing characteristics of the stimuli and judgment methodologies. Interpersonal sensitivity is the accuracy in judging the meanings of cues given off by expressors, as well as accuracy in noticing or recalling cues. In this research, perceivers make judgments about cues or about people whose cues they see and/or hear, and such judgments are then scored for accuracy. Conceptually, the chapter discusses the definition of interpersonal sensitivity and the determination of scoring criteria. Practically, the chapter describes specific instruments, including their psychometric characteristics, validity, and utility. Measurement approaches are described in terms of characteristics of the stimuli and judgment methodologies.
Chapter
Personality psychology has not yet established a generally accepted, systematic framework for distinguishing, ordering, and naming individual differences in people’s behavior and experience. Such a systematic framework is generally called a taxonomy. In biology, for example, the Linnean taxonomy established an orderly classification of plants and animals and a standard nomenclature. The availability of this initial taxonomy has been a tremendous asset for biologists: it has permitted researchers to study specified classes of instances instead of examining separately every individual instance, and it has served to facilitate the communication and accumulation of empirical findings about these classes and their instances.
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"Construct validation was introduced in order to specify types of research required in developing tests for which the conventional views on validation are inappropriate. Personality tests, and some tests of ability, are interpreted in terms of attributes for which there is no adequate criterion. This paper indicates what sorts of evidence can substantiate such an interpretation, and how such evidence is to be interpreted." 60 references. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
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Fifty-three men and 56 women viewed brief video segments of 32 male targets and rated them on three personality traits: extraversion, neuroticism, and masculinity-femininity (M-F). Judges were assessed on general intelligence, Big Five traits, and gender-related traits. Two measures of accuracy were computed: 1) consensus accuracy, which measured the correlation between judges' ratings and corresponding ratings made by previous judges, and 2) trait accuracy, which measured the correlation between judges' ratings and targets' assessed personality. There was no gender difference in overall accuracy. However, women showed higher trait accuracy than men in judging neuroticism. Consensus accuracy exceeded trait accuracy, and extraversion and M-F were judged more accurately than neuroticism. M-F judgments showed the highest level of consensus accuracy. Judges' intelligence correlated positively with accuracy. Except for openness, personality traits were generally unrelated to accuracy.
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In this article, we report the development of a new test designed to measure individual differences in emotion recognition ability (ERA), five studies examining the reliability and validity of the scores produced using this test, and the first evidence,for a correlation,between,ERA measured,by a,standardized,test and personality. Utilizing Matsumoto ,and ,Ekman’s (1988) Japanese and ,Caucasian ,Fa- cial Expressions of Emotion (JACFEE) and Neutral Faces (JACNeuF), we call this measure,the Japanese and,Caucasian Brief Affect Recognition Test (JACBART). The JACBART improves,on previous measures,of ERA by (1) using expressions,that have substantial validity and reliability data associated with them, (2) including posers of two,visibly different races (3) balanced ,across seven ,universal emotions ,(4) with equal distribution of poser,race and,sex across emotions,(5) in a,format,that elimi- nates afterimages associated with fast exposures. Scores derived using the JACBART are reliable, and three studies demonstrated a correlation between ERA and the personality constructs of Openness and Conscientiousness, while one study reports a correlation with Extraversion and Neuroticism. Research on judgments,of emotion,from facial expressions,has a long
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Although questions about how people respond to others' nonverbal cues have always been central to the study of nonverbal communication, the study of individual diVerences in accuracy of nonverbal cue processing, or interpersonal sensitivity, is a more recent endeavor. This chapter focuses on assessment of individual diVerences, emphasizing the major paradigms and instruments for assessing accuracy of nonverbal cue processing, and discussing characteristics of the stimuli and judgment methodologies (e.g. what state or trait is being judged, who is being judged, what cue channels are available, whether the cues are posed or spontaneous, whether judgment is done in live interaction or from standard stimuli, what judgment format is used, what criteria and methods are used for scoring). Relative advantages of diVerent approaches are discussed in terms of psychometric qualities, validity, and utility.
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This study examined automatic elicitation of conditioned skin conductance responses (SCRs), when a backward masking procedure prevented the subject's conscious awareness of the conditioned stimuli (CSs). The CSs were pictures of emotional facial expressions. A differential conditioning procedure was used. One facial expression (e.g. an angry face) was aversively conditioned by a shock unconditioned stimulus, whereas another facial expression (e.g. a happy face) was never presented with the shock. After conditioning, the CSs were presented backwardly masked by a neutral face. This procedure prevented conscious perception of the CS. Nevertheless, reliable differential SCRs were obtained when the CS had been an angry face. This effect, however, was dependent on the subject's direction of attention. When attention was focused on the mask, no differential responding was observed. Thus it was concluded that, when fear-relevant stimuli (angry faces) served as the CS, elicitation of SCRs was automatic in the sense that it was possible even when the subjects were not aware of the stimuli presented. However, it was only partially automatic because the effect was modified by attention.
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Seven basic research questions in interpersonal perception are posed concerning issues of consensus, assimilation, reciprocity, accuracy, congruence, assumed similarity and self—other agreement. All questions can be addressed at the individual level, and three at the dyadic level. It is shown how the Social Relations Model can be used to answer the questions.
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In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Ecology of rapport and its perception within 2 contexts (i.e., adversarial and cooperative) were examined from a Brunswikian perspective. A lens model analysis determined (a) which observable cues were indicative of rapport, (b) whether observer judgments covaried with such cues, and (c) whether observers could assess accurately the rapport between opposite-sex interactants. Whereas the manifestation of rapport was context specific, judgment policies used by observers were not. Rapport judgments were driven by target expressivity regardless of social context. Results suggest an "expressivity halo" in behavioral stream judgments that is analogous to the physical attractiveness halo found in judgments made from still photos. Finally, social perception accuracy was higher in the cooperative context where rapport was more strongly associated with target expressivity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
MULTIPLE-FACTOR PATTERNS BASED ON RATINGS OF PERSONALITY TRAITS ARE NOT, IN THEMSELVES, SUFFICIENT GROUNDS ON WHICH TO INFER ANYTHING ABOUT THE PERSONALITY STRUCTURE OF THE RATEES. AN ARGUMENT AND THE RESULT OF A MONTE CARLO STUDY CONFIRMED THAT A CLEARLY ARTICULATED, MULTIPLE-FACTOR STRUCTURE CAN BE OBTAINED SOLELY AS A RESULT OF THE SHARED "IMPLICIT PERSONALITY THEORY" OF THE RATERS. HOWEVER, 2 KINDS OF CRITERIA, 1 BASED ON A MEASURE OF INTERRATER AGREEMENT AND THE OTHER ON CONVERGENT AND DISCRIMINANT VALIDITY AGAINST OTHER MEASURES OF THE TRAITS, PROVIDE BASES FOR JUDGING THE DEGREE OF RATEE RELEVANCE IN ANY SET OF PERSONALITY RATINGS. THE USE OF THESE CRITERIA IS ILLUSTRATED FOR THE MONTE CARLO DATA AND FOR 4 SAMPLES OF EMPIRICAL DATA. IMPLICATIONS FOR THE DESIGN, ANALYSIS, AND REPORTING OF FUTURE PERSONALITY RATING STUDIES ARE DISCUSSED. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The accuracy of strangers' consensual judgments of personality based on "thin slices" of targets' nonverbal behavior were examined in relation to an ecologically valid criterion variable. In the 1st study, consensual judgments of college teachers' molar nonverbal behavior based on very brief (under 30 sec) silent video clips significantly predicted global end-of-semester student evaluations of teachers. In the 2nd study, similar judgments predicted a principal's ratings of high school teachers. In the 3rd study, ratings of even thinner slices (6 and 15 sec clips) were strongly related to the criterion variables. Ratings of specific micrononverbal behaviors and ratings of teachers' physical attractiveness were not as strongly related to the criterion variable. These findings have important implications for the areas of personality judgment, impression formation, and nonverbal behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Summarizes results of 75 studies that reported accuracy for males and females at decoding nonverbal communication. The following attributes of the studies were coded: year, sample size, age of judges, sex of stimulus person, age of stimulus person, and the medium and channel of communication (e.g., photos of facial expressions, filtered speech). These attributes were examined in relation to 3 outcome indices: direction of effect, effect size (in standard deviation units), and significance level. Results show that more studies found a female advantage than would occur by chance, the average effect was of moderate magnitude and was significantly larger than zero, and more studies reached a conventional level of significance than would be expected by chance. The gender effect for visual-plus-auditory studies was significantly larger than for visual-only and auditory-only studies. The magnitude of the effect did not vary reliably with sample size, age of judges, sex of stimulus person, or age of stimulus person. (60 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This is a comprehensive treatment of the subject, embracing the definition of personality and a history of characterology; a consideration of such fundamental concepts as heredity, growth, the self, the transformation of motives ("functional autonomy") and maturity; the structure of personality with special reference to traits, their specificity and consistency; methods of investigation, including psychography, rating, testing and experimental procedures; and the general problem of understanding personality through judgment, inference and intuition. These topics are discussed historically, expositionally and critically. The chief thesis of the work is the uniqueness of the individual. Supporting concepts are the consistency of traits and the functional autonomy (contemporaneousness) of motives. The author attempts, however, "to respect the many-sidedness of the subject-matter of this new science." Thorough documentation assists in this direction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Accuracy of participants' ratings of gender differences on 77 behaviors and traits was assessed by correlating participants' ratings with actual gender differences based on meta-analyses. Accuracy at the group level was impressively high in 5 samples of participants. Accuracy of individuals showed wide variability, suggesting that ability to accurately describe gender differences is an individual difference. Analysis of correlations between individual accuracy and a battery of psychological measures indicated that accuracy was negatively related to a tendency to accept and use stereotypes, negatively related to a rigid cognitive style, and positively related to measures of interpersonal sensitivity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The purpose of this chapter is to examine questions about accuracy and personality judgment from an applied perspective. The author begins with a survey of the reasons why this issue was neglected for so long and why it is, nonetheless, crucially important. Next, the author outlines some research supporting the existence of personality traits and the ability of people to judge those traits accurately. The author presents 4 moderator variables that make accurate personality judgment more or less likely and he introduces a theoretical model of accurate judgment that can rationalize these moderators. This chapter concludes with suggestions for new directions in research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
As a brief measure of general intelligence, the Wonderlic Personnel Test (WPT) has been shown by C. B. Dodrill (see record 1982-00123-001) to render IQ scores closely resembling the WAIS Full Scale IQ (FSIQ). Long-term stability of the WPT IQ has not yet been demonstrated, however. In the present study, 30 normal adults were administered both the WPT and the WAIS on 2 occasions 5 yrs apart. Ss were 17–69 yrs of age at the 2nd testing. Test–retest reliability was .94 for the WPT and .96 for the WAIS FSIQ. The 2 tests were similar in terms of reliability of clinical classification, but the WPT demonstrated fewer practice effects than the WAIS. It is concluded that the WPT merits additional attention by clinical psychologists. (5 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A meta-analysis was conducted on the accuracy of predictions of various objective outcomes in the areas of clinical and social psychology from short observations of expressive behavior (under 5 min). The overall effect size for the accuracy of predictions for 38 different results was .39. Studies using longer periods of behavioral observation did not yield greater predictive accuracy; predictions based on observations under 0.5 min in length did not differ significantly from predictions based on 4- and 5-min observations. The type of behavioral channel (such as the face, speech, the body, tone of voice) on which the ratings were based was not related to the accuracy of predictions. Accuracy did not vary significantly between behaviors manipulated in a laboratory and more naturally occurring behavior. Last, effect sizes did not differ significantly for predictions in the areas of clinical psychology, social psychology, and the accuracy of detecting deception. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Every adult possesses and uses to a various extent, a powerful tool, a theory of mind. The ability to recognize emotions, intentions, and thoughts of others is an important component of social competence. The use of personality questionnaires implies that people are aware of their personality traits, experienced emotions, values, and attitudes. Therefore, it is reasonable to expect that a normal adult is aware of his or her mind-reading abilities and can estimate, in relation to the others, how good he or she is at judging other personÕs traits, states of mind, emotions, and intentions. In this study we have demonstrated that a personÕs beliefs about their own mind-reading ability forms a single and unitary dimension. If a person believes that he or she is competent in forming judgments about another personÕs personality traits then he or she has a relatively high opinion of their abilities to read another personÕs thoughts and emotions. However, the results of our research show that the self-reported mind-reading abil-ity was not correlated with actual performance. Those who believe that they are good at read-ing othersÕ minds are generally neither (1) significantly better than the others in recognition of emotions expressed in face or speech, nor (2) superior in their estimation of the personality traits of a stranger. The self-reported mind-reading ability was correlated with personality traits but not with psychometrically measured intelligence. On the contrary, the actual mind-reading performance was correlated with IQ scores. It is discussed why individuals are relatively accurate in estimation of their own personality but lack metaknowledge about their mind-reading abilities.
Article
In this article, we report the development of a new test designed to measure individual differences in emotion recognition ability (ERA), five studies examining the reliability and validity of the scores produced using this test, and the first evidence for a correlation between ERA measured by a standardized test and personality. Utilizing Matsumoto and Ekman's (1988) Japanese and Caucasian Facial Expressions of Emotion (JACFEE) and Neutral Faces (JACNeuF), we call this measure the Japanese and Caucasian Brief Affect Recognition Test (JACBART). The JACBART improves on previous measures of ERA by (1) using expressions that have substantial validity and reliability data associated with them, (2) including posers of two visibly different races (3) balanced across seven universal emotions (4) with equal distribution of poser race and sex across emotions (5) in a format that eliminates afterimages associated with fast exposures. Scores derived using the JACBART are reliable, and three studies demonstrated a correlation between ERA and the personality constructs of Openness and Conscientiousness, while one study reports a correlation with Extraversion and Neuroticism.