Article

Uninhibited imaginations: Creativity in adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

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Abstract

This study applies a theoretical approach to understanding creativity of ADHD individuals in terms of inhibitory control and its relative import in two aspects of creativity: divergent and convergent thinking. We compared adults with and without ADHD on the Unusual Uses Task (divergent thinking) and the Remote Associates Test (convergent thinking), and a measure of executive inhibitory control, semantic inhibition of return. ADHD individuals outperformed non-ADHD individuals on the Unusual Uses Task, but performed worse than non-ADHD on the Remote Associates Test and the semantic IOR task. The relationship between ADHD and creative ability was mediated, in part, by differences in inhibition.

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... In adults, insight-based problem-solving performancethat is, requiring reframing a problem and generating creative solutionscan be enhanced by temporarily lowering IC, for example, through manipulating alertness (Wieth & Zacks, 2011), intoxication (Jarosz, Colflesh, & Wiley, 2012), or imposing prolonged IC demands (Cassotti et al., 2016;DeCaro & Van Stockum, 2018;Radel et al., 2015). In contrast, for analytic aspects of problem-solvingsuch as evaluating solutions and systematically working through limited options, or when rapidly-identified, seemingly intuitive solutions must be suppressed to allow for other solutions to be generatedlow IC appears either unconnected to performance (Radel et al., 2015;Wieth & Zacks, 2011), or disadvantageous (Camarda et al., 2018;Cassotti et al., 2016;White & Shah, 2006). Extant research with children aged 4 years and older indicates that another aspect of executive function, cognitive flexibility, is inversely associated with divergent thinking (Vaisarova & Carlson, 2021)but to our knowledge, the association between IC and problem-solving in early childhood has not been examined. ...
... However, there is little in the literature to foreshadow this account of a developmental shift in IC-generativity associations, given that negative IC-generativity associations have previously been observed in adulthood (DeCaro & Van Stockum, 2018;Jarosz et al., 2012;Radel et al., 2015;Wieth & Zacks, 2011). Research with adults does indicate that null and even positive ICgenerativity associations are observed when the nature of the problem-solving is analytical or requires suppression of rapidly-identified, seemingly intuitive solutions (Camarda et al., 2018;Cassotti et al., 2016;Radel et al., 2015;White & Shah, 2006;Wieth & Zacks, 2011); but if there had been a developmental shift in the way in which 4-year-olds were approaching the problem-solving task (i.e., using an analytic rather than insight-based approach) this would not explain why negative longitudinal associations were observed from IC at 18 months to generativity at age 4 years. The observed maximum level of Generativity (15 unique strategies attempted) was set as the ceiling level, to provide a more conservative estimate than using the total number of unique strategies observed across participants (23). ...
... Further, our participants were primarily from highly-educated backgrounds, with no known genetic or developmental condition, and results may not generalize to other populations. Priorities for future research include examining whether advantages in problem-solving are observed for toddlers in populations linked to low IC, such as those with, or on a pathway towards, ADHD(Pauli-Pott & Becker, 2011;White & Shah, 2006).A limitation of the study is that, due to the lack of IC tasks suitable across the age-range of interest(Petersen et al., 2016) IC measures varied with age. This constrains conclusions about how IC-problem-solving associations change across early childhood. ...
Article
Low inhibitory control (IC) is sometimes associated with enhanced problem-solving amongst adults, yet for young children high IC is primarily framed as inherently better than low IC. Here, we explore associations between IC and performance on a novel problem-solving task, amongst 102 English 2- and 3-year-olds (Study 1) and 84 Swedish children, seen at 18-months and 4-years (Study 2). Generativity during problem-solving was negatively associated with IC, as measured by prohibition-compliance (Study 1, both ages, Study 2 longitudinally from 18-months). High parent-reported IC was associated with poorer overall problem-solving success, and greater perseveration (Study 1, 3-year-olds only). Benefits of high parent-reported IC on persistence could be accounted for by developmental level. No concurrent association was observed between problem-solving performance and IC as measured with a Delay-of-Gratification task (Study 2, concurrent associations at 4-years). We suggest that, for young children, high IC may confer burden on insight- and analytic-aspects of problem-solving.
... Creativity, as defined previously, has connections to ADHD (Boot et al., 2017a;Hoogman et al., 2020;Tahseen, 2019). Research has looked at the possibility of ADHD symptoms supporting idea generation and creative endeavors, but this intense attention over the past decade has resulted in conflicting findings (Hoogman et al., 2020;White & Shah, 2006;White & Shah, 2011;White & Shah, 2016). The informational conflict does not imply that there is not a connection between ADHD and creativity, but instead supports the fact that a link is present between the two (Hoogman et al., 2020;White & Shah, 2006;White & Shah, 2011;White & Shah, 2016). ...
... Research has looked at the possibility of ADHD symptoms supporting idea generation and creative endeavors, but this intense attention over the past decade has resulted in conflicting findings (Hoogman et al., 2020;White & Shah, 2006;White & Shah, 2011;White & Shah, 2016). The informational conflict does not imply that there is not a connection between ADHD and creativity, but instead supports the fact that a link is present between the two (Hoogman et al., 2020;White & Shah, 2006;White & Shah, 2011;White & Shah, 2016). Neuroscientific research exploring ADHD supports the hypothesis that 8 ADHD neurobiology, brain structure, and creative mechanisms overlap (Hoogman et al., 2020). ...
... Connections to unique idea generation are also apparent in an ADHD diagnosis ( Boot et al., 2017a;Boot et al., 2017b;Hoogman et al., 2020;Sedgwick et al., 2018;White & Shah, 2006). As a reminder, uniqueness of ideas in this study is defined as the generation of less frequently, and in turn, more novel ideas. ...
Research Proposal
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This proposal explores how ADHD is connected with three sub-variables of creativity: divergent thinking, uniqueness of generated ideas, and flow of ideas. Connections will be explored via a survey with both subjective and objective measures. I hypothesize that those presenting as or diagnosed with ADHD will have higher divergent thinking, higher uniqueness of ideas, and lower flow of ideas. Should these proposed results be found, the implications may put people with ADHD at the forefront of creative problem solving situations in both their occupational and academic environments.
... Research over the years has suggested that there are a variety of factors that can influence or predict creativity, underlying cognitive processes, executive functions, and personality factors (Barron & Harrington, 1981;Eysenck, 1993). In addition to this, recent studies have linked creative achievement to various disorders, such as depression and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (Verhaeghen, Joorman, & Khan, 2005;White & Shah, 2006). ...
... The effects of deficits in inhibitory control can be further demonstrated through the performance of individuals with ADHD on tasks requiring both divergent and convergent thinking ability. In a study conducted by White & Shah (2006), it was found that individuals with ADHD performed better than healthy controls on tasks requiring divergent thinking (such as on the UUT), but worse than healthy controls on tasks requiring just fluency or convergent thinking (such as the RAT). This relationship between executive inhibitory control and creative performance is most likely only part of the explanation for individual differences in creativity however. ...
... In addition, a study by Shaw and Giambra (1993) suggests that individuals with ADHD experience mind-wandering more often than healthy controls. Given that individuals with ADHD also tend to exhibit more difficulty exerting inhibitory control, it would make sense that mind-wandering and inhibitory control would produce the same effect on creative performance (White & Shah, 2006). In other words, mind-wandering could be expected to produce similar effects on performance during divergent and convergent thinking tasks, as well as fluency-only tasks, as were seen in those with a lack of inhibitory control. ...
Thesis
http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/79468/1/kedarbor.pdf
... Connections to unique idea generation are also apparent in studies of ADHD and creativity (Boot et al., 2017a;Boot et al., 2017b;Hoogman et al., 2020;Sedgwick et al., 2018;White & Shah, 2006). Uniqueness of ideas, or originality, refers to the generation of less frequently mentioned ideas. ...
... Partial support of this hypothesis indicates that further research is needed to detail the relationship between ADHD, divergent thinking, and degree of spread of ideas as a means of creative presentation in ADHD populations. This is also supported by the intense attention given to ADHD in recent years resulting in conflicting findings, muddling current knowledge about the subject (Hoogman et al., 2020;White & Shah, 2006;White & Shah, 2011;White & Shah, 2016). ...
... This (Boot et al., 2017a;Boot et al., 2017b;Hoogman et al., 2020;Sedgwick et al., 2018;White & Shah, 2006), but while this seems like a logical conclusion, this context of this finding still requires further investigation to confirm or deny this conclusion. ...
Thesis
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An Honors Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Honors in Psychology. by Anna Shea Hall Under the Mentorship of Dorthie Cross Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is an important topic to study because of its prevalence, impact, and a multitude of unknown interactions of the disorder with creativity. Creativity is a cognitive process defined by lessened cognitive control and lower inhibitions in the prefrontal cortex (Chrysikou, 2018), which are characteristics of ADHD (APA, 2017; Brunkhorst-Kanaan et al., 2021; Kirov & Brand, 2014; Laugesen et al., 2017; Moen et al., 2014; Staikova et al., 2013) This study explored how ADHD is connected with three sub-variables of creativity: divergent thinking, uniqueness of generated ideas, and flow of ideas. Connections were explored via a survey of ADHD symptoms and both subjective and objective measures of creativity in a sample of 252 college students. I hypothesized that ADHD would be associated with higher divergent thinking, higher uniqueness of ideas, and lower flow of ideas. Based on the results, ADHD was associated with higher divergent thinking and higher flow of ideas, and there was no relationship between ADHD and uniqueness of ideas. The direction and intensity of the relationships found may be impacted by factors within this study, and some findings are consistent with the field of ADHD research while other findings are not. In the future, creativity as a variable stands to need an operationalized, valid, agreed-upon measure created to accurately assess levels of creativity. Synopsized, while there are conflicting findings on the direction and intensity of the relationship between creativity and ADHD, this study found evidence that a relationship is present for at least some aspects of creativity.
... Previous studies have found enhanced divergent thinking and creativity in adults with ADHD compared to those without (White & Shah, 2006, 2016 though also see Barkley et al., 1996;Paek, Abdulla, & Cramond, 2016). White and Shah (2006) asked undergraduate students to complete the Remote Associates Test (Mednick, 1962), a measure of convergent thinking which asks participants to provide a specific word (e.g., house) that relates to each of three given (conceptually distant) words (e.g., outhouse, dog house, and white house), and an Alternate Uses task, a divergent thinking measure which asks participants to provide as many uses as possible for common objects (e.g., a newspaper or brick). ...
... Previous studies have found enhanced divergent thinking and creativity in adults with ADHD compared to those without (White & Shah, 2006, 2016 though also see Barkley et al., 1996;Paek, Abdulla, & Cramond, 2016). White and Shah (2006) asked undergraduate students to complete the Remote Associates Test (Mednick, 1962), a measure of convergent thinking which asks participants to provide a specific word (e.g., house) that relates to each of three given (conceptually distant) words (e.g., outhouse, dog house, and white house), and an Alternate Uses task, a divergent thinking measure which asks participants to provide as many uses as possible for common objects (e.g., a newspaper or brick). Although students without ADHD performed significantly better on the measure of convergent thinking, students with ADHD significantly outperformed those without on all components of divergent thinking (i.e., fluency, flexibility, and originality). ...
... This hypothesis is based on previous research demonstrating enhanced divergent thinking ability in adults with ADHD (White & Shah, 2006 and positive associations between divergent thinking and dimensionally assessed ADHD characteristics (Boot et al., 2017;Zabelina et al., 2014). ...
Article
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Creativity is increasingly recognized as an important skill for success in the field of engineering, but most traditional, post‐secondary engineering education programs do not reward creative efforts. Failing to recognize creativity or creative efforts can have particularly negative effects for those students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), who may exhibit enhanced divergent thinking ability yet struggle in the traditional educational environment. This study was conducted to investigate how ADHD characteristics, academic aptitude, and one important component of creativity (divergent thinking) contribute to academic performance in engineering programs and how traditional markers of academic performance and ADHD characteristics predict divergent thinking. Undergraduate engineering students (n = 60) completed measures of ADHD symptoms and divergent thinking. Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores and grade point average (GPA) were collected from university records, and hypotheses were tested using a series of multivariate regression models. Verbal SAT scores were the only positive predictor of overall GPA and engineering GPA. ADHD characteristics did not significantly predict overall GPA but negatively predicted engineering GPA. ADHD characteristics were the only positive predictor of divergent thinking ability. ADHD characteristics negatively predict academic performance (i.e., GPA) in engineering programs but are more predictive of divergent thinking ability than traditional markers of academic performance.
... The term "Neurodiversity" was coined by the sociological researcher Judy Singer (1999) in the context of rights activism during the 1990s (Mcgee, 2012;Runswick-Cole, 2014). The neurodiversity movement highlights the life-long and positive aspects of naturally occurring cognitive "differences", such as creativity and "special interest" skills (Meilleur et al., 2015;Von K arolyi et al., 2003;White and Shah, 2006), as opposed to the focus on developmental "deficits" such as language or processing speed (Armstrong, 2010;Grant, 2009;Jurecic, 2007;Kapp et al., 2013). Neurodiversity has been considered a progression from previous umbrella terms such as specific learning difficulties, neurodevelopmental disorders or hidden/invisible impairments. ...
... There is a conflict between aspiration and reality in occupational practice. Despite sparse yet consistent evidence in support of specific talents (Armstrong, 2015;Logan, 2009;Meilleur et al., 2015;Von K arolyi et al., 2003;White and Shah, 2006), neurominorities are currently not well accommodated by contemporary social structures based on neurotypical profiles. To illustrate, in the UK, modern apprenticeships require (high) literacy levels of grade 10 or above to access basic vocational training in fields that rely on specialist visual reasoning, such as hairdressing and plumbing (SFA, 2016). ...
Article
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Purpose The aims of the paper were to highlight the dearth of applied practitioner research concerning the expression of neurodiversity at work and develop an epistemological framework for a future research agenda. Design/methodology/approach A systematic empty review protocol was employed, with three a priori research questions, inquiring as to the extent of neurodiversity research within mainstream work psychology, psychology in general and lastly within cross-disciplinary academic research. The results of the final search were quality checked and categorized to illustrate where studies relevant to practice are currently located. Findings The academic literature was found to be lacking in contextualized, practical advice for employers or employees. The location and foci of extracted studies highlighted a growing science-practitioner gap. Research limitations/implications The research focused on common neurominority conditions such as autism and dyslexia; it is acknowledged that the neurodiversity definition itself is broader and more anthropological in nature. A need for a comprehensive research agenda is articulated, and research questions and frameworks are proposed. Practical implications Guidance is given on applying disability accommodation to both individual and organizational targets. Social implications The disability employment gap is unchanged since legislation was introduced. The neurodiversity concept is no longer new, and it is time for multi-disciplinary collaborations across science and practice to address the questions raised in this paper. Originality/value This paper offers an original analysis of the neurodiversity paradox, combining systematic inquiry with a narrative synthesis of the extant literature. The conceptual clarification offers clear directions for researchers and practitioners.
... Mednick designates the cases described above as "flat" and "steep" associative hierarchies, respectively. In contrast to this interpretation of creativity, other researchers have suggested that creativity may result not from the difference in the lexical-semantic maps of the subjects but rather form better adaptive control of the thought processes [23][24][25]. For instance, inhibition and switching have been shown to play an important role in overcoming stereotyping and suppressing prepotent responses in the solution of RATs [26]. ...
... One option, suggested in [22] and supported by recent work [27,39] is that mental lexicon of creative people is intrinsically different from that of less creative ones in a sense that the weight distributions of their individual association networks are more flat, i.e., strong associations in their individual networks typically have smaller weights than on average in the population, and weaker associations have relatively higher weights. Another option, suggested in particular in [23][24][25] is that it is not the difference in individual association networks which is important, but rather a difference in search algorithms that people use: that creative people are capable of suppressing strong and stereotypical associations at will. ...
Article
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We study correlations between the structure and properties of a free association network of the English language, and solutions of psycholinguistic Remote Association Tests (RATs). We show that average hardness of individual RATs is largely determined by relative positions of test words (stimuli and response) on the free association network. We argue that the solution of RATs can be interpreted as a first passage search problem on a network whose vertices are words and links are associations between words. We propose different heuristic search algorithms and demonstrate that in “easily-solving” RATs (those that are solved in 15 seconds by more than 64% subjects) the solution is governed by “strong” network links (i.e. strong associations) directly connecting stimuli and response, and thus the efficient strategy consist in activating such strong links. In turn, the most efficient mechanism of solving medium and hard RATs consists of preferentially following sequence of “moderately weak” associations.
... deal of creativity, such as starting new businesses (Verheul et al., 2015). ADHD symptoms are also associated with producing a higher number of ideas (i.e., fluency) and more original ideas on divergent thinking tasks (Boot, Nevicka, & Baas, 2017a;White & Shah, 2006). However, other research has shown null (Boot, Nevicka, & Baas, 2017b, Study 1; Murphy, Barkley, & Bush, 2001) or negative effects (Paek, Abdulla, & Cramond, 2016;Wiklund, Patzelt, & Dimov, 2016) on idea generation. ...
... However, other research has observed (albeit, inconsistently) that people with ADHD symptoms may also be well-suited to make a valued contribution in their organization through idea generation. While some support for the link between ADHD and idea generation has been found in lab settings (e.g., Boot et al., 2017a;White & Shah, 2006), our study finds that in a field setting, there was an overall null effect. Nevertheless, by identifying two relevant mediators in this relationship, this study offers insight into how a job might be redesigned in order to make the most of the positive pathway (i.e., through experiencing discrepancies) and diminish the effects of the negative pathway (i.e., through lower perceived meaningfulness). ...
Article
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) afflicts approximately 2.5% of adults. People who experience symptoms associated with this disorder tend to also experience a host of negative work outcomes (e.g., lower job performance, more injuries). However, there may be an upside to this disorder––namely, creativity. In this cross-sectional study of 258 Israeli adults, we found that more severe ADHD symptoms were positively associated with experiencing planning discrepancies at work, which had a positive indirect effect on idea generation. However, we also found that ADHD symptoms were negatively associated with the perceived meaningfulness of one’s work, which had a negative indirect effect on idea generation. Thus, the total effect of ADHD on idea generation was null. We discuss the implications of this research and offer suggestions for future directions.
... An international study investigated the abilities of individuals with ADHD and found elevated levels of energy, determined effort, creativity, and selective hyper-focus to be the most consistent strengths associated with ADHD (Mahdi et al. 2017). Other studies have supported that individuals with ADHD have enhanced creative abilities relative to those without ADHD (White and Shah 2006). For example, verbal creativity, flexibility, and originality scores have been shown to be significantly higher in adolescents with ADHD compared to those without ADHD (Verma and Kushwaha 2013). ...
... ADHD is characterized by inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity, and it is associated with alterations in fronto-subcortical function and altered dopaminergic activity, particularly in the caudate, compared to those without ADHD (Dickestein, et al. 2006;Aron and Poldrack 2005;Sagvolden et al. 2005;Krause 2008;Badgaiyan et al. 2015;Genro et al. 2010). ADHD is also associated with higher performance on creativity tasks compared to individuals without ADHD (Mahdi et al. 2017;White and Shah 2006;Verma and Kushwaha 2013), although the findings are mixed in this regard (Hoogman et al. 2020). Dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors increase neurotransmission of these catecholamines and are often prescribed to treat ADHD (Chermahini and Hommel 2010;Santosh and Taylor 2000;Wolraich et al. 2019). ...
Article
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Rationale Common pharmacological treatments for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are central nervous system stimulants acting as norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors. The noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems have been shown to impact performance on tasks assessing creativity. Some previous studies suggest higher performance on creativity tasks in ADHD. Stimulant medication has been shown to differentially impact creativity in those without ADHD. However, the full range of effects of stimulant medication on creativity in those with ADHD is not known. Objectives This study examined the effects of stimulants on convergent and divergent tasks associated with creativity in adults with ADHD. Method Seventeen adults diagnosed with ADHD who were prescribed stimulant medication attended two counterbalanced sessions: one after taking their prescribed stimulant dose and one after the dose was withheld. Participants completed convergent problem-solving (anagrams, Compound Remote Associates) and divergent generative (letter/semantic fluency, Torrance Test for Creative Thinking (TTCT)-Verbal) tasks. Results There was a significant increase in words generated on the semantic fluency task for the stimulant session. Additionally, significant increases were found in the stimulant session for originality, flexibility, and fluency scores on the TTCT. Stimulant medication did not have an effect on any of the problem-solving tasks. Conclusions Stimulant medication enhanced verbal fluency in adults with ADHD but had no effect on convergent abilities. Furthermore, stimulants enhanced fluency, flexibility, and originality scores on the TTCT. Therefore, stimulants appear to have positive effects on divergent task performance in adults with ADHD, but not convergent tasks. This finding warrants further studies into the specific roles of norepinephrine and dopamine in this effect.
... This suggests that the relation between inhibition and creative activities may be task dependent, and something similar may have played a role in our other variables of interest as well. This is further corroborated in the study by White and Shah (2006). This provides support that inhibition can either help or harm the creative process, depending on the specific measure of creativity. ...
... When this task is first presented, divergent thinking is important to stipulate the different options of finishing the painting, and response inhibition is necessary to delay making a decision what to draw until you have reviewed several ideas. After assessing all options, convergence is necessary to choose which option to draw, which requires good response inhibition (White and Shah 2006). However, since the TCT-DP is not a particularly time sensitive or complex task, with no 'incorrect' answers, the executive functions are probably less engaged (Miyake et al. 2000). ...
Article
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The goal of the current study was to investigate the role of executive functions in mathematical creativity. The sample included 278 primary school children (ages 8–13). Two models were compared: the starting model tested whether executive functions (shifting, updating, and inhibition), domain-general creativity, and mathematical ability directly predicted mathematical creativity. The second model, which fitted the data best, included the additional assumption that updating influences mathematical creativity indirectly through mathematical ability and domain-general creativity. Updating was positively related to mathematical creativity. Additionally, updating was positively related to mathematical ability and domain-general creativity. Inhibition, shifting, domain-general creativity and mathematical ability did not have a significant contribution to either model but did positively correlate with mathematical creativity. This study reports the first empirical evidence that updating is a predictor of mathematical creativity in primary school children and demonstrates that creativity is a higher order cognitive process, activating a variety of cognitive abilities.
... A pesar de que llegan a ser personas con diversas dificultades, existen casos donde se presentan resultados benéficos, como podría ser el de un niño con TDAH que su capacidad de resolución de problemas suele proponer soluciones originales e inesperadas (Gonzalez-Carpio, Serrano, & Nieto, 2017). En el caso de los adultos la creatividad es un elemento característico, sobre todo tratándose del pensamiento divergente (White & Shah, 2006). Es decir que la creatividad y la forma de solucionar problemas con métodos poco convencionales, es una de las características que perdura a lo largo del tiempo y debe de ser contemplada durante sus evaluaciones. ...
... Adicional a esto, al ser personas que tiendan a tener bajas habilidades sociales en general, y siendo esto fundamental en el trabajo en equipo (Clay Lindgren, 1990;Frith & Singer, 2008;Ma et al., 2017), también sería factible que, además de perder más partidas por una mala organización, tiendan a perder igual o más fichas que los controles. En el supuesto de que lleguen a presentar más victorias, podría deberse a elementos no considerados como la creatividad al momento de realizar una estrategia pues es un elemento característico en personas con TDAH (White & Shah, 2006;Wit & Meyer, 2010). ...
Preprint
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El trastorno de déficit de atención con hiperactividad puede llegar a afectar de manera negativa a quienes lo padecen. La dificultad para tomar decisiones estratégicas y su capacidad para formar y mantener relaciones interpersonales estables son de los elementos característicos que repercuten en el desenvolvimiento del día a día de estas personas. El objetivo de este protocolo es plantear un diseño experimental de pacientes (personas con TDAH, N=64) y controles (personas sin TDAH, N=64) para poder profundizar en las repercusiones que puede llegar a tener el TDAH al momento de planificar y trabajar en equipo. Se propone utilizar el simulador estratégico de tablero por equipos “8 Batallones”. Se buscaría estudiar los resultados obtenidos a lo largo de una serie de partidas donde los pacientes jugarían contra los controles. Posteriormente se buscaría analizar las diferencias entre estas y las posibles causas de los resultados por medio de un modelo lineal general. La metodología planteada podría permitir un acercamiento al estudio de las interacciones y los resultados de los mismos por medio de instrumentos lúdicos.
... 79). This idea is also taken up by White and Shah (2006) who explain that creative production is related to "both the ability to diffuse attention and generate ideas, and the ability to focus attention and work within certain constraints" (p. 1128). ...
... She also states that "divergent thinking is linked with flexible attention, potentially driven by the ability to focus, inhibit, and switch attention, while creative achievement is linked with leaky attention" and that "creativity as measured by surveying people's real-life creative accomplishments, on the other hand, is linked with leaky attention" (2018, p. 174). This could explain why people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) score better on divergent thinking and daily living tests (Carruthers, 2016, p. 80-81;White andShah, 2006, p. 1128). ADHD is notably "associated with a wandering pattern of the mind" at the cognitive level (Carson, 2019, p. 304). ...
Article
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Researchers have recently turned their focus to a specific area: the links between altered states of consciousness and creativity. A spectrum of attentional states of consciousness exists, from hypnagogia and mind wandering to mindfulness and flow. These attentional states of consciousness are present during a variety of activities (e.g., sports, music, painting, writing, video games, theater, and meditation) as well as in situations characterized by boredom. They are also present in many professional fields and practices (e.g., education and teaching). Moreover, researchers and educators focus sometimes on only one state of consciousness (such as mind wandering) or only on attention, and do not question relationships with others (such as mindfulness or flow) or the links with intention, the different levels of consciousness involved and the changes in perception of time, self and space. Additionally, as we know that a state of consciousness rarely occurs alone or that it can have two forms (such as spontaneous and deliberate mind wandering), we propose a global approach allowing to grasp the stakes and perspectives of what we call attentional states of consciousness. Thus, to our knowledge, this is the first theoretical review highlighting the historical, empirical, theorical and conceptual relationships between creativity, attention, mind wandering, mindfulness and flow by offering concrete and empirical avenues and bases for reflection about educating for creativity and developing creative potential.
... However, this link between ADHD and divergent thinking is far from clear. Some studies have reported ADHD to be positively associated with increased scores in divergent thinking scales in children (31, [46][47][48][49][50][51] and in adults (52)(53)(54)(55). Other studies do not find this association, neither in children (45,(56)(57)(58)(59)(60)(61)(62) nor in adults (63)(64)(65). ...
... There is also a great variety in results when the different aspects of divergent thinking, such as fluency, flexibility, and originality, are evaluated. For example, in the first study of White and Shah, they found increased fluency, flexibility and originality, in their second study they found only increased originality and in their third study they found increased flexibility and originality (52)(53)(54). These discrepancies could depend on the different tasks they used in their studies. ...
Article
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Previous research on ADHD and ASD has mainly focused on the deficits associated with these conditions, but there is also evidence for strengths. Unfortunately, our understanding of potential strengths in neurodevelopmental conditions is limited. One particular strength, creativity, has been associated with both ADHD and ASD. However, the distinct presentations of both conditions beg the question whether ADHD and ASD associate with the same or different aspects of creativity. Therefore, the current study investigated the links between ADHD and ASD symptoms, creative thinking abilities, and creative achievements. To investigate the spectrum of ADHD and ASD symptoms, self-reported ADHD and ASD symptoms, convergent (Remote Associations Test) and divergent thinking (Alternative Uses Task) and creative achievements (Creative Achievement Questionnaire) were assessed in a self-reportedly healthy sample of adults (n = 470). We performed correlation analysis to investigate the relation between ADHD/ASD symptoms and creativity measures. In a second phase of analysis, data from an adult ADHD case-control study (n = 151) were added to investigate the association between ADHD symptoms and divergent thinking in individuals with and without a diagnosis of ADHD. Our analysis revealed that having more ADHD symptoms in the general population was associated with higher scores on all the outcome measures for divergent thinking (fluency, flexibility, and originality), but not for convergent thinking. Individuals with an ADHD diagnosis in the case-control sample also scored higher on measures of divergent thinking. Combining data of the population based and case-control studies showed that ADHD symptoms predict divergent thinking up to a certain level of symptoms. No significant associations were found between the total number of ASD symptoms and any of the creativity measures. However, explorative analyses showed interesting links between the ASD subdomains of problems with imagination and symptoms that relate to social difficulties. Our findings showed a link between ADHD symptoms and divergent thinking abilities that plateaus in the clinical spectrum of symptoms. For ASD symptoms, no relation was found with creativity measures. Increasing the knowledge about positive phenotypes associated with neurodevelopmental conditions and their symptom dimensions might aid psychoeducation, decrease stigmatization and improve quality of life of individuals living with such conditions.
... Ten studies examined the differences in creative thinking between clinical cases of schizophrenia (Suzuki and Usher, 2009;Armstrong, 2012;Polner et al., 2018), bipolar disorder (Tu et al., 2017;Hoşgören et al., 2019), brain injury (Kowal et al., 2015), Parkinson's disease (Faust-Socher et al., 2014), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (White and Shah, 2006), and other disorders (Denney et al., 2011;Rigon et al., 2018) and individuals with typical development, showing that the performance of clinical cases in the RAT has also received attention. However, not every mental illness has shown differences in creative thinking, resulting in relatively few studies on this topic. ...
Article
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The study examines how the remote associates test (RAT) has been used to examine theories of creativity through a review of recent studies on creativity. Creativity-related studies published between 2000 and 2019 were retrieved from the SCOPUS database. A total of 172 papers were chosen for further analysis. Content analysis shows that research on creativity using RAT mainly concerns remote association, insight problem-solving, general creative process, test development, individual difference, effect of treatment, clinical case, social interaction effect, and predictor or criterion. The study constructs a theoretical framework based on the 4P (Product-Person-Process-Place) model and demonstrates how empirical studies using the RAT explore the individual differences, internal processes, and external influences of creative thinking. In addition, the most commonly used version of the RAT is the Compound Remote Associates Problems (Bowden and Jung-Beeman, 2003a). Current research shows a trend whereby the creative thinking process has been receiving greater attention. In particular, a growing number of studies in this field have been carried out using cognitive neuroscience technologies. These findings suggest that the RAT provides researchers with a way to deepen their understanding of different levels of creativity.
... ADHD has been defined by the American Psychological Association as a neuropsychological condition characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention, hyperactivity, and/or impulsivity [3]. However, ADHD has been shown to be associated with creativity, innovation, and risk-taking, all of which are critical skills for engineers to tackle the multifaceted challenges of the future [4][5][6]. While these traits are all potential assets in the field of engineering, individuals with ADHD are extremely underrepresented in engineering programs. ...
... Semantic memory networks have been proposed to scaffold the development of new connections between distributed, unrelated concepts in a self-organizing process that oscillates between focused, analytic thought to more defocused, associative thought (Gabora, 2017;2018a, 2018b. Taken together, too much attentional control may restrict the ability to mentally explore the boundaries of semantic space, thereby preventing an expansive search for distant associates during divergent thinking White & Shah, 2006). Therefore, some theorists have emphasized the utility of mind-wandering for facilitating creative cognition (Baars, 2010;Fox & Beaty, 2019;Schooler et al., 2011;Smallwood & Schooler, 2006;Smith et al., 2020). ...
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Increasing research efforts are focused on explaining the cognitive bases of creativity. However, it remains unclear when and how cognitive factors such as intelligence and executive function uniquely contribute to performance on creative thinking tasks. Although a relationship between fluid intelligence (Gf) and creative cognition has been well-documented, the underlying mechanism of this relation is unknown. Here, we test one possible mechanism of the Gf–creativity association—attention control (AC)—given AC’s strong association with Gf and its theoretical relevance to creative cognition. We also examine the role of mind wandering (i.e., task-unrelated thought), a failure of AC that is potentially beneficial to creativity. Using latent variable and bifactor models, we investigated the unique contributions of AC to divergent thinking—above the influence of Gf—evaluating the specific and general contributions of AC, Gf, and mind wandering to divergent thinking. We found that a general executive factor (i.e., of the common variance to AC, mind wandering, and Gf indicators) significantly predicted divergent thinking originality (β = .40, p < .001) above and beyond specific Gf and mind wandering factors. Importantly, in the bifactor model, mind wandering was a nonsignificant, negative predictor of divergent thinking performance, and the residual effects of Gf were no longer significant, indicating that the relationship between Gf and divergent thinking is explained by shared variance with a common executive attention factor. This study provides novel evidence suggesting that the relationship between Gf and divergent thinking may be largely driven by the top-down control of attention.
... The authors did not present details as to what assets are unique to ADHD students. White and Shah (2006) looked at the creativity of students with ADHD, as a unique characteristic. The authors tested 90 college students with and without ADHD on convergent and divergent thinking tasks. ...
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Students’ perspectives in learning mathematics are important considerations in education yet few studies document their insights. The current investigation used a case-study design and interviews, drawings, clarifying discussions, and focus group interview data collection methods to capture detailed perspectives of high school students with disabilities while learning mathematics. Document data was used to substantiate students’ achievement information and the impact of their disability, if any, on their experiences in learning mathematics. The sample of participants consisted of four self-selected high school students, from two inclusive Advanced Algebra classrooms. Three major tenets of Vygotsky’s (1978) framework were used to analyze the results of the study, namely the zone of proximal development, the internalization of socio-cultural-historical factors, and the compensatory re-organization of brain functions, all as mediated through socio-cultural-historical processes. Findings suggest secondary students with disabilities 1) are heterogeneous in ability levels, strengths, achievement, interests, and needs; 2) exhibit learning and growth as impacted by socio-cultural-historical supports; 3) are frequently offered limited class selections and reduced standards of excellence; 4) are rarely exposed to varied pedagogical strategies in learning mathematics, including real-world and digital technology applications, and team-work integration; and 5) are often viewed by teachers and school personnel through deficit-based lenses. As positive implications, the participants perceived disability as a difference, part of human diversity, showed constructive transformations over time, were successful as measured by multiple criteria of achievement, and revealed unique insights about the role of the special education teacher and of a team of teachers in their learning and growth.
... Studies also suggest that mind-wandering could enhance creativity. For instance, individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) score higher on measures of creativity (White & Shah, 2006) than individuals without ADHD. Constant attachment to the problem can impede creativity while interruption can increase it (Dijksterhuis & Meurs, 2006). ...
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This research aimed to translate and validate the Mind-Wandering Questionnaire (MWQ) to the Croatian language, and to provide preliminary data on its reliability, factor structure and convergent validity in a sample of Croatian students. After translation and adaptation, the Croatian version of the MWQ was administered to 451 eight-grade elementary school students (239 female and 212 male participants). With the MWQ, we administered the Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ-45). Results show high internal consistency of the Croatian translation of the MWQ. Confirmatory factor analysis supports an unidimensional model. Convergent validity was supported by a significant negative correlation between MWQ and Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire. We propose further investigation of psychometric properties of the Croatian translation of the MWQ and investigating test-retest reliability as well as discriminant validity of the Questionnaire.
... Thus, a broader, rather than a narrower, focus of attention (i.e., defocused attention) is likely to result in more novel combinations because it increases the number of concepts an individual can attend to simultaneously. This line of reasoning has been used to explain positive associations found between creativity and both state and trait variables associated with low attentional control, such as alcohol intoxication and ADHD (Abraham, Windmann, Siefen, Daum, & G€ unt€ urk€ un, 2006;Jarosz, Colflesh, & Wiley, 2012;Norlander, 1999;White & Shah, 2006, 2016. ...
Article
The current study addresses gaps in our understanding of the relationship between creative cognition, intelligence (IQ), and executive functioning (EF). Undergraduate students completed an IQ test, verbal and figural divergent thinking (DT) tests, and a self‐assessment of EF, across four study sessions. Participant data (N = 199) were analyzed using linear regression and PROCESS moderation models. Results demonstrated that EF interacts with IQ to predict figural and verbal DT in distinct ways, with different patterns emerging from different methods of scoring DT. Using traditional DT scoring, Gf (but not Gc) significantly moderated the relationship between EF and scores on both verbal and figural DT tasks. Low EF was associated with diminished DT scores for those with low Gf scores, unrelated for those with relatively higher Gf, and enhanced scores for those with the highest Gf. Using originality ratio scores, low EF was associated with diminished originality in verbal DT responses for those with low IQ (both Gf and Gc), unrelated for those with relatively higher IQ, and enhanced originality for those with the highest Gc (but not Gf) scores. Thus, there are several nuances in the way that EF interacts with IQ to predict DT.
... Some studies have indeed found that people with ADHD perform better on certain creativity tasks. For example, White and Shah (2006) found that adults with ADHD scored higher on a divergent thinking task than adults with no ADHD, while adults with no ADHD performed better on the RAT. These findings have also been partly replicated in a follow-up study in which the authors found that people with ADHD had higher originality scores on a verbal divergent thinking measure, while their performance did not differ on figural divergent thinking measures. ...
Article
Attention is an essential component of cognition and variations in attentional states have been linked with creativity. In particular, creativity has been associated with greater attention to irrelevant information, known as defocused attention. Evidence for this view comes from several sources, including experimental studies, mindfulness studies, and creativity in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Creativity has also been linked with flexible attention—the ability to switch between focused and defocused modes of attention. This chapter discusses these different strands of evidence, followed by existing attempts to link the different views together, concluding with recommendations for future research.
... Some studies have indeed found that people with ADHD perform better on certain creativity tasks. For example, White and Shah (2006) found that adults with ADHD scored higher on a divergent thinking task than adults with no ADHD, while adults with no ADHD performed better on the RAT. These findings have also been partly replicated in a follow-up study in which the authors found that people with ADHD had higher originality scores on a verbal divergent thinking measure, while their performance did not differ on figural divergent thinking measures. ...
Chapter
Creativity, like most other aspects of cognition, involves selection of some information at the exclusion of other information. Therefore, it may be natural to question how creativity is associated with attention and indeed this is a topic that has been enthusiastically pursued in research.
... All include reference to 'Executive Functions' by the 21st century, defined as 'goal-oriented self-regulationincluding planning, organisation, response inhibition and behavioural sequencing'. 44 9,20,[48][49][50][51][52] supports the hypothesis that the evolutionary purpose of divergence is 'specialist thinking skills' to balance 'generalist' thinking skills (as per the 'spiky profile'). The evolutionary perspective is congruent with the Neurodiversity movement and essential to understanding the occupational talent management perspective that is currently in vogue. ...
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Introduction The term neurodiversity is defined and discussed from the perspectives of neuroscience, psychology and campaigners with lived experience, illustrating the development of aetiological theories for included neurodevelopmental disorders. The emerging discourse is discussed with relevance to adults, social inclusion, occupational performance and the legislative obligations of organizations. Sources of data Literature is reviewed from medicine, psychiatry, psychology, sociology and popular press. No new data are presented in this article. Areas of agreement There is consensus regarding some neurodevelopmental conditions being classed as neurominorities, with a ‘spiky profile’ of executive functions difficulties juxtaposed against neurocognitive strengths as a defining characteristic. Areas of controversy The developing nomenclature is debated and the application of disability status versus naturally occurring difference. Diagnosis and legal protections vary geographically, resulting in heretofore unclear guidance for practitioners and employers. Growing points The evolutionary critique of the medical model, recognizing and updating clinical approaches considering the emerging consensus and paradigmatic shift. Areas timely for developing research It is recommended that research addresses more functional, occupational concerns and includes the experiences of stakeholders in research development, moving away from diagnosis and deficit towards multi-disciplinary collaboration within a biopsychosocial model.
... and the flexibility score of the AUT was also positively correlated with the fluency score (r ¼ .876). To obtain a compiled creativity score of verbal and figural creativity, we used the sum of z-scores of the three components because the raw scores cannot be simply added (i.e., different dimensions) (Palmiero et al., 2019;White & Shah, 2006). ...
Article
Research has independently highlighted the roles of semantic memory and associative abilities in creative thinking. However, it remains unclear how these two capacities relate to each other, nor how they facilitate different creative thinking modalities, such as verbal and figural creativity. This study employed multiple cognitive tests and network science methodologies to shed light on the relationship between them. We constructed individual based semantic networks and assessed associative abilities, verbal and figural creative thinking. In line with previous studies, we found a relation between verbal creativity and more flexible semantic memory structure (higher connectivity, shorter distances between concepts, and lower modularity). However, we did not find any such relation between figural creativity and semantic memory structure. Associative abilities mediated the relationship between semantic memory structure and verbal creativity, implying the efficient spread of information in semantic memory may facilitate verbal creative thinking via associative abilities. These findings support and extend the associative theory of creativity and shed novel light on the relationship between semantic memory structure, associative abilities, and creativity.
... Plusieurs études empiriques ont apporté des arguments expérimentaux en faveur de cette hypothèse en montrant des corrélations négatives entre les performances des individus aux tâches mesurant les compétences d'inhibition cognitive et des mesures de pensées divergentes (Dorfman, 2008;Kharkhurin, 2011;Lin & Lien, 2013;Radel et al., 2015). Allant dans le même sens, certaines recherches en neuropsychologie ont montré que les patients ayant une atteinte du contrôle cognitif sont plus créatifs que les individus sains (Abraham et , 2006;Healey & Rucklidge, 2006;Reverberi, Toraldo, D'Agostini & Skrap, 2005;Russ, 2001;White & Shah, 2006). Toutefois, il est important de noter qu'une altération du fonctionnement exécutif général, et non pas spécifique à l'inhibition cognitive, est rapportée chez ces patients dans la plupart de ces recherches (De Souza et al., 2014). ...
... How divergent thinking relates to ADHD characteristics and executive functioning difficulties in adults remains uncertain. Whereas some studies found evidence for enhanced divergent thinking ability in college students diagnosed with ADHD compared to students not diagnosed with ADHD (White and Shah, 2006, other studies and meta-analyses found no association (Barkley et al., 1996;Paek et al., 2016). However, studies more consistently found divergent thinking ability to be positively associated with self-reported ADHD characteristics and executive functioning difficulties in nonclinical samples (Zabelina et al., 2014;Boot et al., 2017;Hoogman et al., 2020;Taylor et al., 2020a,b). ...
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Characteristics of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and executive functioning difficulties have been found to correspond with poorer academic outcomes on the one hand and enhanced divergent thinking on the other hand. The current study was conducted to better understand the relationship between ADHD characteristics, executive functioning difficulties, divergent thinking, and academic outcomes by conceptually replicating and expanding on a previous study. Undergraduate engineering students (N = 199) at a public university in the northeastern United States completed self-report measures of ADHD characteristics and daily executive functioning, as well as divergent thinking (figural and verbal) and intelligence quotient (IQ) tests. The results of a series of multiple regression models showed that (1) executive functioning difficulties negatively, and non-verbal IQ and figural divergent thinking positively, predicted engineering grade point average (GPA; obtained from the university registrar’s office), (2) GPA and verbal IQ positively predicted figural divergent thinking scores, and (3) verbal IQ positively predicted verbal divergent thinking scores. A series of multiple regression models testing the assertion that controlling for IQ would strengthen the relationship between divergent thinking and ADHD characteristics or executive functioning were not supported but did show associations between select components of characteristics and divergent thinking. Taken together, these results support previous conclusions that students with ADHD characteristics and executive functioning difficulties may struggle academically yet exhibit select enhanced divergent thinking abilities.
... Research on creativity showed enhanced creative thinking skills in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders, such as dyslexia Manzoli et al., 2016;Cancer and Antonietti, 2019), autism spectrum disorder (Liu et al., 2011;Mashal, 2014, 2016), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (White and Shah, 2006, 2011. In this field the relationships between creativity and dyscalculia are somewhat unexplored. ...
... This dissertation only focused on the detrimental effects of ADHD and mind-wandering, but researchers have also documented benefits. Both ADHD and mind-wandering are related to better scores on measures of divergent creative thinking, which measure the ability to generate multiple ideas or solutions to a problem (Baird et al., 2012;White & Shah, 2006;White & Shah, 2011). In fact, Baird and colleagues found that when giving participants time to incubate on a divergent-thinking problem, participants did better when the incubation period was filled with an undemanding task that stimulated mind-wandering compared to a demanding task or a rest break (2012). ...
Thesis
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. One important candidate factor underlying the inattention deficits is a failure of cognitive control, the voluntary goal-oriented control of behavior. Mind-wandering is an example of cognitive control failure, and is characterized by a decoupling of attention from the present task context toward unrelated concerns. Heightened ADHD symptomatology has been associated with increased mind-wandering, and both increased mind-wandering and increased ADHD symptomatology have been linked to increased errors in which participants fail to inhibit a response. However, these studies have important limitations of generalizability. Furthermore, there is a need to investigate compensatory strategies that may influence performance. This dissertation had two primary objectives: (1) to evaluate the relationship between mind-wandering, response inhibition, and ADHD; (2) to assess a potential compensatory strategy to reduce performance deficits in ADHD. We used modified versions of the continuous performance task (CPT) which requires subjects to respond to the majority of trials (90%) and creates a strong prepotent tendency to respond. For the first aim, we adapted the CPT to include embedded mind-wandering probes to measure mind-wandering and ADHD symptomatology in both non-clinical and clinical samples. Results indicated that inattention is linked to increased task-unrelated thoughts, and that task-unrelated thoughts can negatively influence overall task performance and performance on a trial-by-trial level. Based on research suggesting that rest breaks can ameliorate performance declines attributed to diminished attentional control resources, for the second aim we assessed the utility of breaks for individuals with ADHD. The first experiment allowed participants to choose if and when to take breaks in a standard CPT to evaluate if they were able to monitor their thoughts and/or performance and insert breaks to benefit their performance. The second experiment added experimenter-imposed breaks to test if the initiation of the break was a critical variable. Finally, we tested ADHD participants on and off of stimulant medication in the second experiment to measure the effects of medication on performance. Results indicated that stimulant medication and the incorporation of both types of rest breaks can normalize ADHD behavior to the level of control participants.
... The authors did not present details as to what assets are unique to ADHD students. White and Shah (2006) looked at the creativity of students with ADHD, as a unique characteristic. The authors tested 90 college students with and without ADHD on convergent and divergent thinking tasks. ...
... In this light, both pharmacological and neuro-technological manipulations have yielded effects on many specific cognitive functions. For example, studies have demonstrated positive effects on working memory from methylphenidate (Ritalin) 32 and Modafinil (Provigil) 33 on verbal memory of Donepezil (Aricept) 34 and ampakines 35 and on convergent reasoning of methylphenidate (Ritalin) 36 and dextroamphetamine (Adderall). 37 These are by no means the only potential cognitive functions that may be optimized by drugs. ...
... Plusieurs études empiriques ont apporté des arguments expérimentaux en faveur de cette hypothèse en montrant des corrélations négatives entre les performances des individus aux tâches mesurant les compétences d'inhibition cognitive et des mesures de pensées divergentes (Dorfman, 2008;Kharkhurin, 2011;Lin & Lien, 2013;Radel et al., 2015). Allant dans le même sens, certaines recherches en neuropsychologie ont montré que les patients ayant une atteinte du contrôle cognitif sont plus créatifs que les individus sains (Abraham et , 2006;Healey & Rucklidge, 2006;Reverberi, Toraldo, D'Agostini & Skrap, 2005;Russ, 2001;White & Shah, 2006). Toutefois, il est important de noter qu'une altération du fonctionnement exécutif général, et non pas spécifique à l'inhibition cognitive, est rapportée chez ces patients dans la plupart de ces recherches (De Souza et al., 2014). ...
... The case-control study in adults with ADHD of White and Shah (2006), which is part of the systematic review of Hoogman et al. (2020), revealed that participants with ADHD performed worst to a CT task and better to a DT task than participants without ADHD. Executive inhibition, sometimes impaired in ADHD (Nigg, 2001), was measured by a proactive interference task and appeared to mediate CT, but not DT. ...
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Objective: ADHD and its associated inhibition deficits might promote creativity. However, results in the literature are conflicting, possibly due to the heterogeneity of ADHD. To control for this heterogeneity, creativity, and inhibition were investigated in the predominantly inattentive (ADHD-I) and combined (ADHD-C) presentations. Method: Participants were males/females aged 18 to 51, diagnosed with ADHD-I ( n = 21), ADHD-C ( n = 19), or without ADHD ( n = 43). Self-rated Kaufman Domains of Creativity Scale and evaluator-rated figural Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT) were used for measuring creativity, Stroop task for inhibition, and Conners’ Adult ADHD Rating Scales for ADHD symptoms. Results: The ADHD-C group reported higher self-rated creativity than other groups and made more original drawings paired to more abstract titles in the figural TTCT than controls. Conclusion: ADHD-C participants were the most creative. This result was more importantly associated with higher degrees of ADHD symptoms rather than poorer inhibition.
... Some prior work echoes this proposal. For instance, White and Shah (2006) controlled for task and demonstrated that individuals with ADHD (leaky attention) Figure 7. Positive relationships between CRA and sensory gating (left) and counting task and sensory gating (right); higher performance on both tasks associated with higher sensory gating, i.e., less leaky attention. performed better on a divergent thinking task, but worse on the RAT compared to non-ADHD individuals. ...
Article
The question of what type of attention is associated with creative potential has predominantly been examined using divergent thinking tasks and without the benefits of cognitive neuroscience methods. To address this gap, we rely on a neural approach by indexing attention using the P50 ERP component. The P50 measures sensory gating, which is the brain’s ability to filter out or inhibit responses to repeated stimuli. We analyze the relationships between neural responses to P50 and performance on two tasks designed to measure creative potential: a convergent task and a divergent task. While we did not find evidence of a relationship between attention and the originality component of divergent thinking, our results show that leaky attention was positively associated with the fluency component of divergent thinking but negatively associated with performance on the convergent thinking task. This result highlights that the relationship between attention and performance on creative tasks may depend on the type of task.
... ADHD is notoriously associated with inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, which cause impairment to study performance, social skills, driving, and occupational functioning; however, it is also associated with creativity, cycles of high productive activity, or experiences with high positive affect (Biederman & Faraone, 2005;Radel et al., 2015;White & Shah, 2006). These tendencies of individuals with ADHD may lead to higher entrepreneurial motivation and action than in the general population (Lerner et al., 2019). ...
Article
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This perspective shows how neurodiversity can increase public organizations’ innovations and output quality. Studies from business and entrepreneurship fields are used to argue that public organizations may prosper if they recruit neurologically atypical individuals. Their unique thinking styles, coping strategies, and life experiences can lead to public services innovation. The management of public organizations through neurodiversity programs may gain competencies benefiting all employees. However, the promotion of neurodiversity cannot be achieved without demanding changes in organizational culture. The article also illustrates the benefits of neurodiversity using the example of a neurogenerative disease (toxoplasmosis).
... Although most studies associate general psychopathology with lower resilience (Fritz et al., 2018) and higher stress sensitivity (Vaessen et al., 2017), there are documented precedents where psychopathology-related traits have been shown to be adaptive in certain domains. For example, depression has been related to more realistic appraisals of situations (Seidel et al., 2012), and disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (White and Shah, 2006) and bipolar disorder (Johnson et al., 2012) have been related to higher creativity and accomplishment. There is evidence that schizotypy can be adaptive in some ways as wellhigher schizotypy can produce more creativity (Acar and Sen, 2013;Fink et al., 2014), more realistic appraisals of self-competency due to lower bias toward illusory superiority (Cohen et al., 2014), and better performance on certain cognitive tasks, such as the context-independent condition of a working memory task (Barch et al., 2004). ...
Article
Schizotypy is associated with a broad range of motivational and social dysfunctions. However, there is reason to suspect that negative schizotypy may limit social dysfunction in specific contexts that typically increase isolation and loneliness. We analyzed whether positive, negative and disorganized facets of schizotypy would mitigate detrimental reactions to stress in the context of a global stressor (the COVID-19 pandemic) that has widely necessitated social and physical isolation. Responses to two measures of schizotypy were compared to ecological momentary assessments of social dysfunction for 85 undergraduates using multilevel modelling techniques. Negative schizotypy moderated the relation between momentary stress and loss of social support, such that negative schizotypy limited the magnitude of social dysfunction stemming from increases in momentary stress. This pattern was not seen for other facets of schizotypy. Implications for the treatment and measurement of schizotypy symptoms are discussed.
... Research findings suggest that several of the cognitive differences associated with ADHD, such as impulsivity, distractibility, and cognitive arousal co-occur with divergent thinking and creativity (Baird et al., 2012;Batey & Furnham, 2008;Carson et al., 2003;De Dreu et al., 2008;Zabelina et al., 2016). Further, several studies have found a direct relationship between ADHD and both self-report (White & Shah, 2006) and standardized measures of creativity (White & Shah, 2011). ...
... Research findings suggest that several of the cognitive differences associated with ADHD, such as impulsivity, distractibility, and cognitive arousal co-occur with divergent thinking and creativity (Baird et al., 2012;Batey & Furnham, 2008;Carson et al., 2003;De Dreu et al., 2008;Zabelina et al., 2016). Further, several studies have found a direct relationship between ADHD and both self-report (White & Shah, 2006) and standardized measures of creativity (White & Shah, 2011). ...
Article
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Estimates suggest as much as 17% of the U.S. workforce may be neuroatypical (CIPD, 2018; Sargent, 2019), a term used to describe individuals whose neurological functioning is at the tail ends of the distribution of naturally occurring variation. Although the neuroatypical population has a history of under- and un- employment (Roux et al., 2015; Taylor & Seltzer, 2011; Austin & Pisano, 2017), their inclusion in the modern workplace (i.e., promotion of neurodiversity within organizations) is gaining recognition by scholars and organizations as an important dimension of organizational diversity (Brinzea, 2019). Despite this burgeoning interest in examining neuroatypicality in the context of organizational diversity, surprisingly little research has been conducted that bridges these two research areas. The literature that does exist is scattered across several different academic disciplines, largely outside of industrial-organizational psychology, and rarely examines the employment of neuroatypical workers explicitly from a diversity perspective. In this article we argue that as the nature of work evolves and jobs continue to become more specialized, neurodiversity will become an increasingly relevant dimension of organizational diversity, and is likely to play a key role both in terms of individual employees’ well-being and performance outcomes, as well as organizational success.
... Individuals with ADHD outperform non-ADHD individuals in a creative task (divergent thinking) but perform worse on a task necessitating high inhibition (convergent thinking). These results were partly mediated by poor inhibitory control resources in ADHD [64], supporting our proposal that decreased TD inhibitory signals accompany broad Box 2 ...
Article
We all have our varying mental emphases, inclinations, and biases. These individual dispositions are dynamic in that they can change over time and context. We propose that these changing states of mind (SoMs) are holistic in that they exert all-encompassing and coordinated effects simultaneously on our perception, attention, thought, affect, and behavior. Given the breadth of their reach, understanding how SoMs operate is essential. We provide evidence and a framework for the concept of SoM, and we propose a unifying principle for the underlying cortical mechanism whereby SoM is determined by the balance between top-down (TD) and bottom-up (BU) processing. This novel global account gives rise to unique hypotheses and opens new horizons for understanding the human mind.
... e) Articles based on healthy subjects regardless of their age were included; the most of papers were based on adult samples, and only a few papers were based on children samples. Articles including clinical samples were excluded (e.g., White and Shah 2006;Rigon et al. 2020). ...
Article
The study of the relationships between divergent thinking and the core executive functions is long standing. However, the literature on this topic is not conclusive. The present review was aimed to clarify the extent to which divergent thinking is related to the core executive functions, namely inhibition, working memory and cognitive flexibility. The main findings showed that divergent thinking is supported by inhibition in terms of flexible attention changes. Working memory appears to play a key role in enabling semantic associations when the focus of attention is narrowed. Then, although cognitive flexibility is a key element of divergent thinking, only a few studies independently investigated its contribution. Taken together, the results suggest that divergent thinking relies on the ability to switch between different mechanisms according to the individual's ability and task demands. Future research directions are also discussed.
... People diagnosed with ADHD have been framed as having a pathology of goal-directed control, an "aberration" of search leading to too much exploration (Hills, 2006;Todd et al., 2012). However, in several studies an ADHD, diagnosis correlates with divergent-thinking ability (White and Shah, 2006Fugate et al., 2013) and more explorative foraging behaviors in both visual and semantic search (Van den Driessche et al., 2019), leading to the proposal that individuals with ADHD characteristics may have a cognitive search strategy that is beneficial in some contexts (Van den Driessche et al., 2019). Furthermore, cognitive differences found in some people diagnosed with ADHD may be regarded as complementary in a way that enhances group performance (Abraham et al., 2006;Zentall et al., 2011). ...
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We raise the new possibility that people diagnosed with developmental dyslexia (DD) are specialized in explorative cognitive search, and rather than having a neurocognitive disorder, play an essential role in human adaptation. Most DD research has studied educational difficulties, with theories framing differences in neurocognitive processes as deficits. However, people with DD are also often proposed to have certain strengths – particularly in realms like discovery, invention, and creativity – that deficit-centered theories cannot explain. We investigate whether these strengths reflect an underlying explorative specialization. We re-examine experimental studies in psychology and neuroscience using the framework of cognitive search, whereby many psychological processes involve a trade-off between exploration and exploitation. We report evidence of an explorative bias in DD-associated cognitive strategies. High DD prevalence and an attendant explorative bias across multiple areas of cognition suggest the existence of explorative specialization. An evolutionary perspective explains the combination of findings and challenges the view that individuals with DD have a disorder. In cooperating groups, individual specialization is favored when features that confer fitness benefits are functionally incompatible. Evidence for search specialization suggests that, as with some other social organisms, humans mediate the exploration–exploitation trade-off by specializing in complementary strategies. The existence of a system of collective cognitive search that emerges through collaboration would help to explain our species’ exceptional adaptiveness. It also aligns with evidence for substantial variability during our evolutionary history and the notion that humans are adapted not to a particular habitat but to variability itself. Specialization creates interdependence and necessitates balancing complementary strategies. Reframing DD therefore underscores the urgency of changing certain cultural practices to ensure we do not inhibit adaptation. Key improvements would remove cultural barriers to exploration and nurture explorative learning in education, academia, and the workplace, as well as emphasize collaboration over competition. Specialization in complementary search abilities represents a meta-adaptation; through collaboration, this likely enables human groups (as a species and as cultural systems) to successfully adapt. Cultural change to support this system of collaborative search may therefore be essential in confronting the challenges humanity now faces.
... Numerous other psychological metrics have revealed an association between the breadth of attention and greater creativity (Friedman et al., 2003). In addition, some clinical studies have found that attention deficit and/or hyperactivity are also associated with both lower WMC and greater creativity (Kuntsi et al., 2001;Shaw, 1992;White and Shah, 2006). In addition, reducing attention deficit/hyperactivity using Ritalin also reduced creativity, while improving WMC (Mehta et al., 2004;Swartwood et al., 2003). ...
Article
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The originality of creativity measured by divergent thinking (CMDT) is a unique variable that is positively correlated with psychometric intelligence and other psychological measures. Here, we aimed to determine the associations of CMDT originality/fluency scores and brain activity associated with working memory (WM) and simple cognitive processes during the N-back paradigm in a cohort of 1221 young adults. We observed that originality/fluency scores were associated with greater brain activity during the 0-back simple cognitive task and 2-back WM task in key nodes of the ventral attention system in the right hemisphere. Further, subjects with higher originality/fluency scores showed lower task-induced deactivations in areas of the default mode network, especially during the 2-back task. Psychological analyses revealed the associations of originality/fluency scores with both psychometric intelligence and systemizing. We also observed the effects of interaction between sex and originality/fluency scores on functional activity during the 0-back task in posterior parts of the default mode network together with other areas as well as simple processing speed. These results indicate that the originality of CMDT is associated with (a) greater activation of the ventral attention system, which is involved in reorienting attention and (b) reduced task-induced deactivation of the default mode network, which is indicative of alterations in attentional reallocation, and (c) cognitive correlates of originality of CMDT and revealed sex differences in these associations.
Article
Knowledge and recognition of the significance and strength of various cognitive-behavioural phenotypes, including phenotypes associated with mental and developmental disorders, are increasing but remain limited. With a focus on biological, psychological, and economic concepts such as biodiversity, neurodiversity, and comparative advantage, this paper argues that individuals and society benefit when individuals with different cognitive-behavioural profiles coexist within a society. This paper also discusses the strength of various cognitive-behavioural phenotypes, focusing especially on the autism spectrum. The advantages and strength of diverse cognitive-behavioural phenotypes are emphasised; however, highlighting these positive aspects does not mean neglecting individuals’ need for support: humans are multifaceted and individuals who share a diagnosis are varied as well. Future research must increasingly focus on how we all can take advantage of our strengths through sharing perspectives, including the perspectives of individuals facing disabilities.
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The discovery of the brain’s extensive “default network” has taken the world of cognition and neuroscience by storm. A flood of exciting findings started to pour in, demarcating and characterizing this network. With it came a slew of ideas striving to ascribe a function to this substantial, omnipresent and vigorous activity: daydreaming, planning, episodic memory, mental simulations, creativity, theory of mind, self-projection, imagining, and so on, yielding a corresponding number of debates. Most, if not all, of these functional attributions seem sound, yet often too remote from each other to believe they are all mediated by the same network. To bridge the different accounts of the function of the default network, we have argued that the most logical conclusion is that the default network carries a more foundational process, which is the common denominator and the platform for all those other processes. We propose that this basic process is the activation of context-based associations. Associative activations serve as the building-blocks and the vehicle that is essential for all those other functions with which the default network has been implicated. Therefore, we do not suggest that any previous account is incorrect, but rather that the level on which the default operation needs to be explained has to be parsimoneous, on the more elementary process on which all others build. This proposal has emanated from a striking overlap we had initially noticed between activations obtained during context-based associative processing and the default network, and it has been supported by multiple converging findings since, as reviewed here. Following this fundamental link, we further address the question of how spontaneous and how resource-demanding is the default extraction of contextual information, and we conclude by discussing the involvement of contextual associations in creative thought as well as in mental health.
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Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a debilitating disorder and most research therefore focuses on its deficits and its treatment. Research on the potential positive sides of ADHD is limited, and although a comprehensive overview of empirical studies on this subject is missing, it has been suggested that ADHD is associated with enhanced creativity. To identify important relations, trends and gaps in the literature, we review 31 behavioral studies on creativity and ADHD, distinguishing different research designs, age groups, creativity measurements and effects of psychostimulants, as well as reflecting the potential underlying neural mechanisms of creativity and ADHD. Most studies find evidence for increased divergent thinking for those with high ADHD scores (subclinical) but not for those with the disorder (clinical). The rates of creative abilities/achievements were high among both clinical and subclinical groups. We found no evidence for increased convergent thinking abilities in ADHD, nor did we find an overall negative effect of psychostimulants on creativity. Neuroscientific findings suggest candidate regions as well as mechanisms that should be studied further to increase our understanding of the relationship between creativity and ADHD. We propose research opportunities to boost the knowledge needed to better understand the potential positive side of ADHD.
Article
Background Individuals with an ADHD diagnosis have increased levels of interfering thoughts, especially in the form of mind wandering. This was mostly investigated in sustained attention tasks; hence it is unclear whether the findings are only due to their difficulties in those types of tasks. Moreover, it is unclear how the amount of control invested in the task will affect those differences between control and ADHD groups. Method ADHD and matched control groups performed the Stroop task under high and low conflict conditions while measuring their interfering thoughts level. Results Individuals with ADHD have more interfering thoughts compared to a control group even when they are able to change their control level according to the task conflict. Conclusion Interfering thoughts are an independent predictor of ADHD impairments, observed regardless of the degree of control invested in the task.
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Environment-leader congruency yields better adaptability manifested in better decision-making. The military combat environment offers advantages for leaders with ADHD; though they are expected to encounter difficulties due to executive dysfunction. This research aspired to increase the congruency effect for leaders with ADHD in a stressful military environment through interventions that improve executive decisions. We hypothesized that making decisions in isolation will improve decision quality overall; while face-to-face interventions that activate commitment and focused attention will promote decision-making particularly among respondents with ADHD. A large-scale controlled study explored candidates’ responses to combat dilemmas under four randomly assigned interventions: Isolation, Simple face-to-face, Withholding response face-to-face; and Control-peer-group classroom setting. The main effects of improved decision-making in isolation and simple face-to-face settings were shown across groups. Further, both face-to-face interventions interacted with ADHD, yielding stronger effects and better performance among participants with ADHD as compared to those without ADHD. Current findings highlight the importance of finding suitable conditions for enabling improved executive decisions among candidates with ADHD. Introducing economical and easy-to-operate face-to-face interventions enhances decision quality in a highly represented neurodiverse population. Current findings may generalize to an array of high-risk/high-stress working environments, providing ecologically relevant support for young leaders from neurodiverse populations.
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Chapter
The chapter will begin by defining empathy and theory of mind (ToM), key constructs for showcasing the importance of simulations and immersive experiences to help typical children better understand the lived experiences of individuals with disabilities. The authors will delineate strengths and limitations associated with Autism, ADHD, Visual, Hearing and Physical Impairment. Next, the chapter will introduce Affect/Effort Theory to demonstrate how formulating positive expectancies of individuals with disabilities will be critical to interest typical children in their peers with disabilities. Moreover, the chapter will highlight the strengths, limitations and best practices for optimizing VRT and disability simulations to enhance typical children's knowledge, intentions and attitudes towards peers with disabilities. Finally, the authors will share qualitative data from a pilot disability simulation of eight children in third through sixth grade from a Camp in Liberty, NY. The results will be discussed in light of future possibilities for effective VRT-based disability simulations.
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Imagine playing a video game that is so fun you do not realize someone is calling your name. Everyone can probably think of a time like that—when you were so focused that you did not notice things happening around you. For some people, this feeling of deep attention, called hyperfocus, happens really often. In our research, we first developed a way to measure hyperfocus. Next, we tested whether people with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) hyperfocus more often. ADHD is a condition that can make it harder to pay attention to things. Despite this, many people with ADHD say that they often hyperfocus. We found that people with ADHD do have higher hyperfocus levels. In this article, we talk about our hyperfocus research, how hyperfocus can be an ADHD superpower, and our next steps toward better understanding hyperfocus and how to harness it.
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In the United States, scholars both in and out of gifted education have been studying twice-exceptional students for the past several decades. These students often face significant challenges and barriers in the process of achieving their educational and career goals, as they are often confronted with combining their talent domains with the limitations associated with their learning, social, and/or behavioral difficulties. Yet studies have also identified distinct strengths within this population, such as their accelerated creativity. In this article, we reviewed the creativity and career development literature specific to twice-exceptional students and considered how creative approaches toward career intervention, such as the inclusion of the creative arts, may facilitate student exploration. Theoretical and research support for this approach are discussed.
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators. (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A series of 4 experiments were conducted to investigate ideational productivity. Experiments 1, 2, and 3 were carried out under controlled conditions and involved a test of ideational productivity based on producing different interpretations of a diagram. In the first experiment, the pattern of ideational produc- tivity of adult volunteer participants was studied over 30 min of thinking time. Experiment 2 investigated whether, as predicted by Mednick (1962), a negative correlation exists between the rate of change of pro- ductivity and the overall productivity of adult partici- pants. Results confirmed a significant correlation, providing further support for the connectionist model of creativity put forward by Martindale (1995). Ex- periment 3 measured the effect of a strategy that en- couraged adult volunteers to defocus their thinking before attempting to find another new interpretation of the diagram. On returning to the problem, the aver- age time taken to produce a new interpretation was significantly reduced. These results are discussed in terms of Martindale's connectionist model and the role of context. Based on these findings, an instruc- tional strategy was devised that might support the ideational productivity of children. In Experiment 4, the effectiveness of such a strategy was investigated within the classroom environment for children aged 8 to 10 years, and was shown to be effective in raising their ideational productivity. A creative idea is generally considered to possess two
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The objective of this study was to determine whether Ritalin (methylphenidate, MPH) affects cognitive flexibility and creativity in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Measures administered included the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-Revised (WCST-R), the Test of Divergent Thinking (TDT), and the Conners' ADHD rating scale, for both on and off MPH conditions. Comparison of on and off MPH data indicated that MPH administration significantly decreased symptoms of ADHD, as rated by parents on the Conners'. No significant differences were found on the WCST-R as a function of MPH administration. The Elaboration subscale of the TDT was the only scale to show a significant decrease in scores with MPH administration.
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators.
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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is widely theorized to stem from dysfunctional inhibitory processes. However, the definition of inhibition is imprecisely distinguished across theories. To clarify the evidence for this conception, the author relies on a heuristic distinction between inhibition that is under executive control and inhibition that is under motivational control (anxiety or fear). It is argued that ADHD is unlikely to be due to a motivational inhibitory control deficit, although suggestions are made for additional studies that could overturn that conclusion. Evidence for a deficit in an executive motor inhibition process for the ADHD combined type is more compelling but is not equally strong for all forms of executive inhibitory control. Remaining issues include specificity to ADHD, whether inhibitory problems are primary or secondary in causing ADHD, role of comorbid anxiety and conduct disorder, and functional deficits in the inattentive ADHD subtype.
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The author investigated the relationship of thinking styles to modes of thinking. Participants were 371 freshmen (aged 18 and 19) from the University of Hong Kong. Participants responded to the Thinking Styles Inventory (R. J. Sternnberg & R. K. Wagner, 1992) and the Style of Learning and Thinking (Youth Form; E. P. Torrance, B. McCarthy, & M. T. Kolesinski, 1988). A major finding was that creativity generating and complex thinking styles were significantly positively correlated with the holistic mode of thinking but significantly negatively correlated with the analytic mode of thinking. Thinking styles that denote the tendency to norm favoring and simplistic information processing were significantly positively correlated with the analytic mode of thinking and significantly negatively correlated with the holistic mode of thinking. In a preliminary conclusion, it appears that the thinking style construct overlaps the mode of thinking construct. Implications of this finding for teachers and researchers are delineated.
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Reductions in latent inhibition (LI), the capacity to screen from conscious awareness stimuli previously experienced as irrelevant, have been generally associated with the tendency towards psychosis. However, "failure" to screen out previously irrelevant stimuli might also hypothetically contribute to original thinking, particularly in combination with high IQ. Meta-analysis of two studies, conducted on youthful high-IQ samples. demonstrated that high lifetime creative achievers had significantly lower LI scores than low creative achievers (r(effect size) = .31, p = .0003, one-tailed). Eminent creative achievers (participants under 21 years who reported unusually high scores in a single domain of creative achievement) were 7 times more likely to have low rather than high LI scores, chi2 (1, N = 25) = 10.69, phi = .47. p = .003.
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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is widely theorized to stem from dysfunctional inhibitory processes. However, the definition of inhibition is imprecisely distinguished across theories. To clarify the evidence for this conception, the author relies on a heuristic distinction between inhibition that is under executive control and inhibition that is under motivational control (anxiety or fear). It is argued that ADHD is unlikely to be due to a motivational inhibitory control deficit, although suggestions are made for additional studies that could overturn that conclusion. Evidence for a deficit in an executive motor inhibition process for the ADHD combined type is more compelling but is not equally strong for all forms of executive inhibitory control. Remaining issues include specificity to ADHD, whether inhibitory problems are primary or secondary in causing ADHD, role of comorbid anxiety and conduct disorder, and functional deficits in the inattentive ADHD subtype.
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Studies about the nature of the creative problem solving (CPS) process and about the cognitive and personality attributes and performance of persons who do CPS have focused primarily on the divergent thinking aspects of CPS and the attributes of persons who are inclined to divergent thinking. However, a matching theory proposes that tasks vary widely in the degree to which they require differing kinds of thought and prior knowledge, and problem solvers vary widely in their inclinations and resources; hence, different persons, groups, and organizations can most effectively and efficiently solve different kinds of problems. To begin identifying good matches of tasks and workers, this study measured several cognitive and personality attributes and the CPS activities and performance of persons inclined to divergent or convergent thought. Most predicted differences in the attributes, activities, and performance of the 3 types of thinkers were found. A content analysis of group attempts to creatively solve a multifaceted problem demonstrated the need for frequent convergent thought as well as divergent thought by persons so engaged. Implications and needed extensions of this research are discussed with the aim of using the matching theory to enhance real-world CPS efforts.
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Discriminant analysis was performed on the combined data from two previous studies of high-IQ children with attention disorder and hyperactivity. The variables that best discriminated these from normal children were left-sided laterality, the ability to perceive coherence tacitly, the use of incidentally acquired information, stimulation seeking, and the use of imagery in problem solving and in a creativity task. Regression analysis indicated that figural creativity is best predicted by the ability to perceive relationships tacitly, by good memory for pictured objects, and by verbal creativity. A model was proposed to help explain the functioning of intelligent and creative attention-disordered individuals.
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The schizophrenia spectrum and the bipolar disorder spectrum involve different types of psychotic disorders. Both disorders have been linked to creativity. Primary-process thinking is evident in all psychotic disorders. Primary-process thinking has also been found to relate to creativity in normal populations. One possibility is that different dimensions of primary-process thought are dominant in different disorders. The cognitive dimension may be more dominant in the schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, and the affective dimension may be more dominant in bipolar disorders. Future research should investigate how primary-process thinking differs in these disorders and the implications for creative functioning.
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The present study compared a group of 25 young adults with ADHD to 23 young adults drawn from the community equated for age (Mean = 25 yrs.) and educational level (Mean 13 yrs.) using a structured psychiatric interview (non-blinded), self-report ratings of psychological distress, and psychological tests of inattention, impulsive responding, working memory, verbal fluency, sense of time, and creativity. Most measures of prior educational and occupational adjustment did not differentiate the young adults with ADHD from the control group. However, those with ADHD reported having experienced more symptoms of both ADHD and opposition al defiant disorder on their jobs as well as in college than control subjects. ADHD adults also were found to have had shorter durations of employment in their full-time jobs than adults in the control group. The young adults with ADHD rated themselves as having greater psychological distress and maladjustment on all scales of the SCL-90-R and reported committing more antisocial acts, particularly involving thefts and disorderly conduct, than the control group. As a result they had been arrested more often than young adults in the control group. The groups did not differ, however, in other types of criminal activity nor in the types and frequency of legal and illegal substances they used. On psychological testing, the ADHD group had significantly poorer response inhibition and sustained attention on a continuous performance test. They were also poorer on tasks of verbal and nonverbal working memory. No significant group differences were found, however, in accuracy of time estimations or productions, verbal fluency, or creativity. It appears that the psychiatric and psychological difficulties found in young adults with ADHD are qualitatively similar to those seen in children with the disorder.
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Studies of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often emphasize the problems, diagnosis and treatment, but rarely consider the characteristics which are remarkably similar to those of creativity. This study reviews the literature on ADHD traits, their similarity to gifted and creative behaviors, and the implications for educational interventions. A case study of a boy identified with ADHD provides the focus for our discussions. The conclusions point to the need for more varied instructional interventions, emotional and social support, and collaboration between educators and parents.
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Geschwind (1984) predicted that a high degree of talent would be found in those exceptional individuals who are learning disordered and who exhibited left handedness and allergies. As a test of this hypothesis, 16 attention‐disordered/hyperactive, high‐IQ children were matched with a comparison group for age, sex, and verbal reasoning. The variables measured were the ability to perceive coherence tacitly, focal and peripheral recall, incidental memory, problem‐solving style, creativity, and stimulation‐seeking behavior. In comparison with children who could focus attention easily, those with attention problems showed more mixed laterality and allergies, gathered and used more diverse, nonverbal, and poorly focused information, and showed higher figural creativity. It was concluded the attention‐disordered children attend to different aspects of their environments than normal children and that this divergent information is available for use when exhibiting novelty in nonverbal thinking.
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In this article, I explore conceptual and empirical connections between schizophrenia, schizotypy, psychotic-like traits, affective symptoms, and creativity. The focus is on 6 symptom-like characteristics: (a) positive schizotypal cognitive symptoms, (b) negative schizotypal cognitive symptoms, (c) negative schizotypal affective symptoms (flat affect), (d) hypomania, (e) depression, and (f) impulsivity. Attention is directed at research differentiating the cognitive symptoms associated with the schizophrenia spectrum from those of the core affective disorders, as well as distinguishing schizophrenic-likeflat affect from depression. I present data on relations between paper-and-pencil measures of creativity and scales of subclinical deviant traits. I also discuss the importance of distinguishing creativity and eminence in different professional fields, artistic media, and genres, as well as the conceptual relation between continuous trait views of genius and madness and the temporal dynamics of the creative process.
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Four experiments assessed the relationships between the orienting and the executive networks of visual attention. Experiment 1 showed spatial inhibition of return (IOR) with target words. Experiment 2 showed a type of semantic inhibition that mimicked spatial IOR. Reaction times to targets preceded by 2 consecutively presented words, the prime and the intervening stimulus, were longer when the target and prime were related than when they were unrelated. Experiment 3 combined spatial and semantic inhibition in a lexical-decision task. Spatial IOR was observed with both related and unrelated targets, but semantic inhibition was observed only when target words were presented in uncued locations. A similar interaction between IOR and positive semantic priming was observed when the intervening stimulus was not presented (Experiment 4). Implications for the relationships between the 2 attentional networks are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
[argues] there have been many attempts to measure creativity along psychometric lines [but] these have not been linked theoretically or experimentally with the large body of the psychological literature, and thus they have remained resolutely isolated / [attempts] to support a theory of creativity [to] bridge this gap / [demonstrates] links with experimental constructs (e.g., latent inhibition and negative priming) that may give a solid foundation to observations of "differential associative hierarchies" / [attempts] to construct a nomological network in order to provide proper construct validity for the measurement of creativity the nature and definition of creativity / creativity and personality / creativity/genius and psychoticism (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
We administered a neuropsychological battery to boys aged 6 to 12 years old diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n= 51) and to comparison boys of the same age range (n= 31). Boys with ADHD had greater difficulty than comparison youngsters on nonautomated language and motor tasks administered with a fast instructional set and on one of two traditional frontal executive measures (Porteus mazes). When tasks requiring automatic processing were paired with similar tasks requiring greater use of selective attention processes, the latter, controlled processing tasks differentiated groups better than did automated tasks. This differential effect of otherwise similar tasks is interpreted in terms of an output deficit mediated by response organization as detailed in the information processing literature. The ADHD group also exhibited slow gross motor output, measured independently of verbal output. The findings are evaluated in terms of both Luria's (1973) tripartite model of neurocognitive organization and frontal striatal models, with an emphasis on output processes. The observed language deficits could represent frontal lobe processes intricately related to self-monitoring and planning. The utility of controlled processing, self-paced tasks with fast instructional sets in assessing language and motor skills in ADHD is highlighted.
Article
The goal of the present study was to evaluate intentional forgetting in adults with characteristics of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Adults with characteristics of ADHD (n=72) showed a different pattern of recall and source discrimination than adults without characteristics of ADHD (n=72) in a task of list-method intentional forgetting. Specifically, participants in the Non-ADHD group demonstrated successful intentional forgetting and seemed to encode items using item-specific processing and relational processing. In contrast, participants in the ADHD group did not show intentional forgetting and seemed to engage in mostly item-specific processing during encoding. The results of this study are consistent with qualitative differences in intentional memory updating processes between individuals with and without characteristics of ADHD.
Article
Studies about the nature of the creative problem solving (CPS) process and about the cognitive and personality attributes and performance of persons who do CPS have focused primarily on the divergent thinking aspects of CPS and the attributes of persons who are inclined to divergent thinking. However a matching theory proposes that tasks vary widely in the degree to which they require differing kinds of thought and prior knowledge, and problem solvers vary widely in their inclinations and resources; hence, different persons, groups, and organizations can most effectively and efficiently solve different kinds of problems. To be gin identifying good matches of tasks and workers, this study measured several cognitive and personality attributes and the CPS activities and performance of persons inclined to divergent or convergent thought. Most predicted differences in the attributes, activities, and performance of the 3 types of thinkers were found. A con tent analysis of group attempts to creatively solve a multifaceted problem demonstrated the need for frequent convergent thought as well as divergent thought by persons so engaged. Implications and needed extensions of this research are discussed with the aim of using the matching theory to enhance real-world CPS efforts.
Article
The objective of the present study was to investigate the ability of adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) to direct their attention and exert cognitive control in a forced instruction dichotic listening (DL) task. The performance of 29 adults with ADHD was compared with 58 matched controls from the Bergen Dichotic Listening Database (N>1500). Participants in the Bergen DL task listen to and report from conflicting consonant-vowel combinations (two different syllables presented simultaneously, one to each ear). They are asked to report the syllable they hear (non-forced condition), or to focus and report either the right- or left-ear syllable (forced-right and forced-left condition). This procedure is presumed to tap distinct cognitive processes: perception (non-forced condition), orienting of attention (forced-right condition), and cognitive control (forced-left condition). Adults with ADHD did not show significant impairment in the conditions tapping perception and attention orientation, but were significantly impaired in their ability to report the left-ear syllable during the forced-left instruction condition, whereas the control group showed the expected left-ear advantage in this condition. This supports the hypothesis of a deficit in cognitive control in the ADHD group, presumably mediated by a deficit in a prefrontal neuronal circuitry. Our results may have implications for psychosocial adjustment for persons with ADHD in educational and work environments.
Article
It has been suggested that stimulants enhance attention in children with (attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity) (ADDH) by producing a generalized constriction or "over-focusing." Such a phenomenon might be expected to adversely affect performance on tasks, such as those in the Wallach-Kogan (W-K) battery, which explicitly call for cognitive flexibility or "divergent thinking." Nineteen ADDH children, 6 to 10 years of age, were tested on two modified subtests of the W-K battery at baseline, following placebo, and following three different dosages (.3, .6 and 1.0 mg/kg) of methylphenidate. Contrary to the hypothesis, methylphenidate did not decrease but rather sustained output on the tests, which contrasted with a decline in productivity seen across nondrug days. Some ADDH subjects displayed particularly large increases in output following methylphenidate and may represent an atypical subgroup of children who became overaroused on medication.
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Given that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are more impulsive than peers, this study explored whether they are correspondingly more creative, and whether creativity declines when impulsivity is decreased through methylphenidate (Ritalin) therapy. A repeated-measures quasi-experimental design was used to compare the performance of 19 boys with previously diagnosed ADHD and 21 comparison boys aged 8 through 11 on two administrations of alternate forms of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking-Figural (nonverbal). Boys with ADHD received prescribed methylphenidate only for the first session. Overall, mean Torrance summary scores for comparison boys (mean = 115.1, SD = 16.1) were higher than for boys with ADHD (mean = 107.6, SD = 12.7). However, the difference between means was small (7%) and did not meet the 25% criterion for a clinically significant difference. No changes in performance over time (comparison group) or medication state (ADHD group) were observed. These data suggest that, when measured nonverbally, the creative thinking performance of boys with ADHD is not superior to that of peers who do not have ADHD. Regarding the effects of methylphenidate, prescribed therapy did not influence performance on this measure of creative thinking.
Article
Recent advances in the field of creative cognition have helped to reveal the cognitive structures and processes that are involved in creative thinking and imagination. This article begins by reviewing recent studies of creative imagery that have explored the emergent properties of mental images. The geneplore model of creative cognition, which describes how preinventive structures such as creative mental images are generated and interpreted, is then discussed. In discussing this model and its implications, a distinction is made between aspects of creative imagery that reflect conscious, deliberate control and those that reflect the absence of such control, as illustrated particularly by the emergence of unanticipated structures in imagined forms. The intentional, structured qualities of creative thinking are then contrasted with its spontaneous, unstructured qualities. The article concludes by discussing the recent topics of chaotic cognition and creative realism and how they bear on the general issue of balancing structured and unstructured processes in creative endeavors.
Article
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) comprises a deficit in behavioral inhibition. A theoretical model is constructed that links inhibition to 4 executive neuropsychological functions that appear to depend on it for their effective execution: (a) working memory, (b) self-regulation of affect-motivation-arousal, (c) internalization of speech, and (d) reconstitution (behavioral analysis and synthesis). Extended to ADHD, the model predicts that ADHD should be associated with secondary impairments in these 4 executive abilities and the motor control they afford. The author reviews evidence for each of these domains of functioning and finds it to be strongest for deficits in behavioral inhibition, working memory, regulation of motivation, and motor control in those with ADHD. Although the model is promising as a potential theory of self-control and ADHD, far more research is required to evaluate its merits and the many predictions it makes about ADHD.
Article
Disinhibition is a common focus in psychopathology research. However, use of inhibition models often is piecemeal, lacking an overarching taxonomy of inhibitory processes. The author organizes key concepts and models pertaining to different kinds of inhibitory control from the cognitive and temperament/personality literatures. Within the rubrics of executive inhibitory processes, motivational inhibitory processes, and automatic attentional inhibition processes, 8 kinds of inhibition are distinguished. Three basic temperament traits may address key executive and motivational inhibitory processes. Future developmental psychopathology research should be based on a systematic conceptual taxonomy of the kinds of inhibitory function relevant to a given disorder. Such an approach can clarify which inhibition distinctions are correct and which inhibition deficits go with which disorders.
Article
To evaluate and compare a focused set of component neuropsychological executive functions in the DSM-IV attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder combined (ADHD-C) and inattentive (ADHD-I) subtypes. The Stop task, Tower of London, Stroop task, Trailmaking Test, and output speed measures were completed by 105 boys and girls aged 7-12 classified as either DSM-IV ADHD-C (n = 46), ADHD-I (n = 18), or community control (n = 41). Both subtypes had deficits on output speed. A group x gender interaction was observed on the Stop task: boys with ADHD-C were impaired versus boys with ADHD-I, whereas girls in the two subtypes did not differ. The ADHD-C type had a deficit in planning. Neither ADHD group had a deficit in interference control per se, although they were slower than controls on the Stroop tasks. ADHD-I shares neuropsychological deficits with ADHD-C in the domain of output speed; on most domains the subtypes did not differ. Neuropsychological distinctions between these ADHD subtypes may be few, depending on which domain of executive functioning is assessed, and these distinctions differ by gender. In the case of boys, the two subtypes may be distinguished by the specificity of motor inhibition deficits to ADHD-C.
Article
It is hypothesized that creative artistic talent, apart from scientific creation, is a collection of different component abilities involving cognition, productivity, and evaluation which are aspects of thinking. Productivity thinking is either convergent (obtaining 1 right answer) or divergent (obtaining a relative answer). Creativity is influenced more by divergent thinking which has the following factors: 4 of fluency (word, associational, ideational, expressive), 2 or flexibility (spontaneous, i.e., flexibility of initiative, and adaptive, i.e., striking out in new and unusual directions), finally 1 of originality. There are other factors involving evaluative abilities not primarily creative.
Article
The intent of this paper is the presentation of an associative interpretation of the process of creative thinking. The explanation is not directed to any specific field of application such as art or science but attempts to delineate processes that underlie all creative thought. The discussion will take the following form, (a) First, we will define creative thinking in associative terms and indicate three ways in which creative solutions may be achieved—serendipity, similarity, and mediation, (b) This definition will allow us to deduce those individual difference variables which will facilitate creative performance, (c) Consideration of the definition of the creative process has suggested an operational statement of the definition in the form of a test. The test will be briefly described along with some preliminary research results. (d) The paper will conclude with a discussion of predictions regarding the influence of certain experimentally manipulable variables upon the creative process. Creative individuals and the processes by which they manifest their creativity have excited a good deal of
Article
This study used data from 220 adults to examine the relations among 3 inhibition-related functions. Confirmatory factor analysis suggested that Prepotent Response Inhibition and Resistance to Distractor Interference were closely related, but both were unrelated to Resistance to Proactive Interference. Structural equation modeling, which combined Prepotent Response Inhibition and Resistance to Distractor Interference into a single latent variable, indicated that 1 aspect of random number generation performance, task-switching ability, and everyday cognitive failures were related to Response-Distractor Inhibition, whereas reading span recall and unwanted intrusive thoughts were related to Resistance to Proactive Interference. These results suggest that the term inhibition has been overextended and that researchers need to be more specific when discussing and measuring inhibition-related functions.
Torrance tests of creative thinking: Directions manual and scoring guide
  • P E Torrance
Torrance, P. E. (1974). Torrance tests of creative thinking: Directions manual and scoring guide. Massachusetts: Personnel Press.
Boatwright-Bracken Adult Attention Deficit Scale: Construction and preliminary validation
  • B S Boatwright
  • B A Bracken
  • J E Young
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