Article

Integrated collaborative technology development program for CO2 sequestration in geologic formations––United States Department of Energy R&D

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

A major contributor to increased atmospheric CO2 levels is fossil fuel combustion. Roughly one third of the carbon emissions in the United States comes from power plants. Since electric generation is expected to grow and fossil fuels will continue to be the dominant fuel source, there is growing recognition that the energy industry can be part of the solution to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by capturing and permanently sequestering CO2. Consequently, an important component of the United States Department of Energy’s (DOE) research and development program is dedicated to reducing CO2 emissions from power plants by developing technologies for capturing CO2 and for subsequent utilization and/or sequestration.Injection of CO2 into geologic formations is being practiced today by the petroleum industry for enhanced oil recovery, but it is not yet possible to predict with confidence storage volumes, formation integrity and permanence over long time periods. Many important issues dealing with geologic storage, monitoring and verification of fluids (including CO2) in underground oil and gas reservoirs, coal beds and saline formations must be addressed. Field demonstrations are needed to confirm practical considerations, such as economics, safety, stability, permanence and public acceptance.This paper presents an overview of DOE’s research program in the area of CO2 sequestration and storage in geologic formations and specifically addresses the status of new knowledge, improved tools and enhanced technology for cost optimization, monitoring, modeling and capacity estimation. This paper also highlights those fundamental and applied studies, including field tests, sponsored by DOE that are measuring the degree to which CO2 can be injected and remain safely and permanently sequestered in geologic formations while concurrently assuring no adverse long term ecological impacts.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... However, design of a sequestration system under conditions of a specific power plant will require full analysis of the specific site. The study of Stevens et al. [16] concluded in the finale 225 GT of worldwide storage capacity. ...
... Groundwater can be affected by CO 2 leaking directly into an aquifer or by brines displacement into overlying aquifers, with concomitant potential to contaminate potable water supplies. There may also be acidification of soils and displacement of oxygen in soils [16]. ...
... Also the geologic data for these sites are well established and the surface and down-hole infrastructure used for the hydrocarbon recovery can be used for the sequestration. However currently the option of sequestration into depleted oil/gas reservoirs doesn't have many buyers because of the fact that it is not economically beneficial and also because of the fact that the reservoirs may still have oil/gas reserves that haven't yet been recovered using the contemporary technology [16,41]. ...
Article
Full-text available
A conceptual study was conducted towards a new design for more efficient fuel conversion and CO2 capture in a future 500 MWe power plant that incorporates both new conversion technologies to optimize plant efficiency and new carbon dioxide (CO2) capture methods. Conventional means of power generation without CO2 capture (e.g., air-fired pulverized coal combustion and fluidized bed combustion) formed base cases to evaluate advanced combustion technologies with CO2 capture. The following capture schemes were investigated: 1) Pre-combustion decarbonization consisting of gasification or reforming processes with CO2 separation membranes; 2) Denitrogenation methods such as oxycombustion and chemical looping combustion; 3) Post-combustion CO2 recovery using solvent absorption, membrane separation and solid adsorption. Evaluations were based on: 1) Efficiency of electricity generation; 2) Fuel consumption and CO2 emitted per unit electricity; 3) Feasibility of scaleup; and 4) Energy penalty associated with capture. Both the methods of CO2 capture and the technology of energy conversion were found to influence the overall plant efficiency and amount of CO2 that can be captured. Advanced combustion technologies enable the production of concentrated CO2 emission streams, but involve complex process designs. Gasification-based processes and chemical looping combustion emerged as efficient options for future coal-based power plants. These power generation technologies were integrated with selected CO2 capture technologies to recover a high percentage of the CO2 produced (> 90%) while maintaining reasonable power generation efficiency (> 35%). The integrated combinations were optimized with respect to net power generation efficiency, fraction of CO2 captured, and scale-up considerations. An optimized design balancing those parameters and scale is presented as a solution for a coal-based 500 MWe power plant.
... Various petroleum industries have been using this method for a long time because of two major advantages; first that it reduces greenhouse gas emission and secondly because it contributes in oil recovery process. It is difficult, however, to predict the storage volume and also there is no guarantee of long-term storage [16]. ...
... Klara et al. [16] have reported that CO 2 can be stored in various geological structures including oil and gas reservoirs, unmineable coal seams and deep saline aquifers, and it is believed that geological sequestration would be effective in terms of carbon storage for longer time duration. Petroleum industries have been using geological sequestration for enhanced oil recovery since 1970's [17] because injected CO 2 displaces oil or gas, providing an economically beneficial scenario for oil recovery. ...
... Unmineable coal seams are inaccessible due to their depth of occurrence and uneconomical due to poor quality and land use restrictions though for CO 2 sequestration this could be a positively responding approach [16]. Using unmineable coal seams for CO 2 sequestration offers advantages in the sense that these formations can adsorb CO 2 with high efficiency and have the capability to displace adsorbed methane. ...
Article
Full-text available
Atmospheric carbon dioxide is one of the primary greenhouse gases on earth and its continuous emission by manmade activities is leading to a rise in atmospheric temperature. On the other hand, various natural phenomena exist that contribute to the sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide, i.e. its capture and long-term storage. These phenomena include oceanic, geological and chemical processes happening on earth. In addition to the above-mentioned nonbiological methods, various biological methods viz. soil carbon sequestration and phytosequestration have also been contributing to fixation of atmospheric carbon. Phytosequestration is mainly performed by several photosynthetic mechanisms such as C3, C4 and crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) pathways of plants, carboxysomes of cyanobacteria and pyrenoids of microalgae. For an effective mitigation of global climate change, it is required to stabilize the CO2 concentration to viable levels. It requires various permutations and combinations of naturally existing and engineering strategies. Although numerous strategies are in commodious use in the present times, the issues of sustainability and long-term stability still exist. We present an overview of the natural and manmade biological and nonbiological processes used today to reduce atmospheric CO2 levels and discuss the scope and limitations of each of them.
... Geological sequestration for CO2 capture and storage is considered to be one of the available technologies to reduce CO2 emissions [1,2,3]. It is agreed that before implementing CO2 sequestration technology on a large scale, the confirmation of its viability regarding injection amount and long-term safety for both humans and the environment is crucial. ...
... The average SRrms for plagioclases in three sandstones increased by 8.4 times during 90 days of reaction and 2.9 and 1.7 times for quartz and biotite, respectively. The possible rate of surface roughness change for each sandstone by scCO2-rock-groundwater reaction could be achieved from the logarithmic equation, resulting from the curve fitting in Fig. 4 and the equation was shown below; (2) where, t is the reaction time (day); a is the rate of surface roughness change; b is the intercept constant. The average values for a and b of sandstone and for mineral were in Table 2. 5 shows results of average changes in the physical properties of three sandstone cores (S1, S2 and S3) during 150 days of the supercritical CO2-groundwater-sandstone reaction. ...
Article
Full-text available
Laboratory experiments were performed to investigate the property change of sandstones, resulting from scCO2-rock-groundwater reaction for 150 days under CO2 sequestration conditions. The average surface roughness value (SRrms) increased more than 3.5 times during early 90 days, suggesting that the weathering process of sandstone occurs in the early reaction time after CO2 injection. The average porosity of sandstones increased by 8.8% and P wave velocity decreased by 5.7%. The trend of rock property change and SRrms change showed in a logarithmic manner, indicating that the physical property change of reservoir rocks directly comes from CO2 related geochemical reaction.
... An effective method for reducing greenhouse gas emissions could be carbon capture and sequestration. In this approach CO 2 would be captured from large point sources, such as power plants, and then injected into geologic formations, such as depleted oil and gas fields, saline formations, and unmineable coal seams for thousands of years [136,137]. Among the various methods of CO 2 capture, membrane processing has proven to be highly efficient in capturing CO 2 because of the ease of scaling-up this technology, lowenergy requirements, small footprint, and overall environmental friendliness [138]. ...
Chapter
Sol–gel coatings, thanks to the structural control at a molecular level, have a wide range of applications. These materials are environmentally friendly and can be an effective alternative to harmful methods of obtaining protection materials. In comparison to organic polymer coatings, inorganic sol–gel coatings have some advantages such as high mechanical, chemical, and thermal stability, biological inertness, high transparency and photostability, controllable porosity, and release of embedded agents. Sol–gel coatings provide a simple and cost-efficient approach to functionalize different surfaces to improve their bioactivity, corrosion and wear resistance, mechanical properties, reliability, and performance. An overview of these modifications is presented in this chapter.
... Geological carbon storage (GCS) has been investigated for three decades as a mitigation measure for climate change (Steinberg, 1992;van der Meer, 1992; also see Klara et al., 2003;Riemer, 1996). The understanding of GCS-related processes has been improved significantly through analytical modeling, numerical simulations, and laboratory experiments. ...
Article
Full-text available
A consistent picture of dynamic channeling, invasion, spreading, and breakthrough (CISB) of supercritical CO2 in the hierarchical fluvial reservoir at Cranfield, Mississippi is presented after 10 years of integration and analysis of complementary field monitoring and characterization data. The dynamic CISB with small‐scale CO2‐flow channels in the F1‐F2‐F3 cross section (F1, F2, and F3 are one injection and two monitoring wells) was imaged by daily electrical resistance tomography (ERT) and time‐lapse crosswell seismic surveys. One, three, and four CO2 flow channels logged at F1, F2, and F3, respectively, were dynamically connected with strong temporal variations in CO2 saturation during 221 days of drainage with injection rate doubling twice and 81 days of imbibition. Three intermediate‐scale CO2 flow channels (with highest CO2 saturation) normal to the cross section were ERT‐imaged during late‐time drainage. A large‐scale, sinuous fluvial CO2 flow channel was imaged by repeat surface seismic survey at the end of the imbibition. The fluvial sandstone channel sinuously bypasses the F1‐F2‐F3 cross section in a point bar, but the channel is connected to the cross section through an intermediate‐scale sandstone channel, forming a complicated flow channel network. The multiscale flow channel network (in the fluvial channel‐point bar system) revealed from the observed CISB enables us to consistently interpret the hydrological monitoring data of three tracer tests, each conducted during an injection rate step, and preinjection hydraulic‐thermal‐tracer tests. This interpretation of the CISB and flow channel network can guide future modeling and data inversion to best understand the effects of natural heterogeneity on CO2 storage efficiency and residual trapping.
... Enhanced methane production is a by-product of coal and oil sequestration, which can be recovered and used to compensate for sequestration costs. The amount of methane produced is about half (by mol) than that of CO 2 sequestered ( Fig. 1.5) [130,131]. o0060 2. Ocean sequestration: the ocean acts as a reservoir in the natural carbon cycle and is the main component that balances atmospheric CO 2 levels. Among the many ocean sequestration methods proposed are the following: o0065 a. Dissolution: CO 2 is injected into the water column at depths of 1000 m or more by ship or pipeline and is eventually dissolved. ...
Chapter
At the planetary scale the global climate is adjusted by how much energy the Earth receives from the Sun. However, the global climate is also affected by other flows of energy that occur within the climate system itself. This global climate system is made up of the atmosphere, oceans, rocks (geosphere), living organisms (biosphere), ice sheets (cryosphere), soils, sediments, which all affect, to a greater or lesser extent, the movement of heat around the Earth’s surface.
... One promising alternative to curb CO2 emissions is carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). This concept entails the generation of a highly concentrated CO2 stream (>90%) making it economically feasible for injection in geologic formations, such as depleted oil and gas fields (Klara et al., 2003). The most advanced technological pathways currently available for CCS in power generation are post-combustion capture, pre-combustion capture, and oxy-fuel combustion. ...
Article
Chemical-looping Combustion (CLC) has recently emerged as a promising technology to curb CO2 emissions. The novelty of CLC resides on its inherent ability of avoid direct contact between the fuel and the air, while producing a highly concentrated CO2 stream. This study presents a dynamic modelling and controllability study that demonstrates the technical feasibility of a fixed bed CLC reactor to produce a constant high temperature air stream during the oxidation stage. The heterogeneous model, which considers mass and heat transport resistances in the oxygen carrier particle and the bulk fluid phase, was validated using data reported in the literature. Also, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to gain insight on system’s behaviour. Furthermore, an optimal control problem was formulated to identify optimal control profiles that can improve the efficiency of this process.
... There have been a number of techniques proposed to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (Gentzis, 2000;Klara et al., 2003;Yang and Gu, 2006). Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods and CO 2 capturing and sequestration (Foroozesh and Moghaddam, 2015) are among the most valuable techniques for reducing CO 2 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Nanofluids have novel characteristics that make them potentially useful for different applications. Realizing modest mass transfer enhancement in conventional nanofluids, in this study, mass-transfer of carbon dioxide in pure water and water-based nanofluids dispersed with silica nanoparticles at different initial pressures up to 15 MPa and at temperatures of 35 °C and 45 °C was investigated. Deionized water and two nanofluids at different concentrations with volume of 150 cm³ were used for this purpose. CO2 was brought in contact with each solution in a pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) cell with no mixer. Additionally, carbon dioxide diffusion coefficients at different pressures were estimated based on Fick's law. The obtained results demonstrated that water/silica nanofluid with 0.5 wt% and 0.1 wt% increased the carbon dioxide diffusion coefficient up to 39.2% and 11.9% compared to that in pure distilled water, respectively. Moreover, it was observed that the measured diffusion coefficient of carbon dioxide in water increased with temperature rise from 35 °C to 45 °C at constant pressure. However, it could be seen that, the diffusion coefficient decreased with pressure at constant temperature. It was concluded that among the enhancement mechanisms of nanoparticles, (i.e. grazing effect and Brownian motion), Brownian motion would play the main role in mass transfer enhancement.
... Une surveillance du site est par contre indispensable. Plusieurs méthodes existent déjà comme l'utilisation de l'imagerie sismique, micro-gravimétrique, électrique ou satellitaire, ou de traceurs chimiques, mais les résolutions spatiale et temporelle sont encore trop faibles pour une détection efficace des fuites (Klara et al., 2003). ...
Thesis
Une solution prometteuse pour diminuer les émissions anthropogéniques de gaz à effet de serre consiste à injecter une partie des rejets industriels de CO2 dans des formations souterraines. Celles-ci comportent un réservoir entouré de roches de couverture, qui constituent la première barrière à la migration des fluides. La caractérisation de leurs propriétés de confinement et de leur évolution en présence de CO2 est donc un élément clé de la sécurité d'un site de stockage. Le travail présenté propose une méthodologie, appliquée ici à des roches carbonatées du bassin parisien, permettant de mesurer les paramètres de transport de roches de couverture et les conséquences d'un vieillissement en conditions représentatives de celles d'un stockage en aquifère profond. La pression de percée, le coefficient de diffusion des produits de dissolution du CO2, et la perméabilité, paramètres contrôlant les principaux mécanismes de fuite, ont été mesurés avant et après altération des matériaux par réaction avec une saumure saturée en CO2 dans des conditions thermodynamiques typiques d'un réservoir (environ 80°C et 100 bar). Les résultats obtenus ont révélé un bon comportement global des roches, mais également une forte diminution du potentiel de confinement en présence de défauts structurels initiaux (fractures rebouchées, pores de grand diamètre...). Une simulation numérique décrivant les évolutions de la formation rocheuse non-fissurée sur une durée de 1000 ans a été réalisée en s'appuyant sur des paramètres mesurés directement ou obtenus par modélisation des essais d'altération. Elle a montré que les transformations engendrées par le stockage de CO2 sous une roche de couverture homogène restent très limitées spatialement
... The world's CBM reserves are estimated at over 30,000 trillion ft 3 , but much of this reserve is in coal seams deeper than 1000 m [78]. In this depth, coal seams are experiencing extremely high temperature and pressure conditions. ...
Article
To fundamentally study the adsorption capacity, swelling effect and permeability characteristic of coal seams with and without tectonic damage, the natural coal and reconstituted coal manufactured via simulating in situ geological conditions were investigated. The results show that the reconstituted coal possesses higher adsorption equilibrium time and maximum adsorption capacity comparing to the natural coal. The multitudinous intergranular seepage paths and large specific surface area of it supply adequate opportunities and sites for adsorption of injected gas. The anisotropy swelling was observed in the natural coal, which is manifested as that the axial swelling strain surpasses the radial swelling strain. Contrarily, the swelling strain of reconstituted coal is approximated to homogeneous and isotropic variety. The natural coal possesses swelling hysteresis phenomenon in the low adsorption stage, this is because of the deformation sequence from internal swelling to volume swelling conducted in it. The permeability of natural coal and reconstituted coal decreases remarkably after being saturated CO2 and N2. Especially, the permeability sensitivity of reconstituted coal is higher than natural coal and has enormous decreasing amplitude after injected high-pressure CO2, which reveals us that weak coal seams may be the unstable areas for CO2-ECBM or CGS in deep coal seams.
... Various CO 2 capture and sequestration technologies have been developed to reduce CO 2 emissions and the International Energy Agency (IEA) has announced that CO 2 capture and sequestration (CCS) technology will cover 19% of the total CO 2 reductions by 2050 [1][2][3][4][5][6]. Among them, geological sequestration will be deeply considered to reduce CO 2 emissions at low cost [7][8][9][10][11]. Several CO 2 sequestration projects in the world have been successfully conducted [12][13][14][15], but some CO 2 injection sites were found to be impractical, even though their site characterization, such as geophysical exploration, geo-structural investigation, and drilling core analysis, was thoroughly conducted [16,17]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Changes in the physical properties of the supercritical CO2 (scCO2) reservoir rock is one of the most important factors in controlling the storage safety at a scCO2 sequestration site. According to recent studies, it is probable that geochemical reactions influence changes in the rock properties after a CO2 injection in the subsurface, but quantitative data that reveal the interrelationship of the factors involved and the parameters needed to evaluate the extent of scCO2-rock-groundwater reactions have not yet been presented. In this study, the potential for employing the surface roughness value (SRRMS) to quantify the extent of the scCO2 involved reaction was evaluated by lab-scale experiments. For a total of 150 days of a simulation of the scCO2-sandstone-groundwater reaction at 100 bar and 50 °C, the trends in changes in the physical rock properties, pH change, and cation concentration change followed similar logarithmic patterns that were significantly correlated with the logarithmic increase in the SRRMS value. These findings suggest that changes in surface roughness can quantify the extent of the geochemical weathering process and can be used to evaluate leakage safety due to the progressive changes in rock properties at scCO2 storage sites.
... Furthermore, for landlocked regions that are major energy and power producers, such as the Ohio Valley in the United States and Alberta in Canada, sequestration in geological media is the best and likely only option currently available for increasing CO 2 sinks. By making possible the continued use of coal as a fuel for power generation, CCS is a technology that contributes to the stability and security of energy systems in North America and elsewhere, and provides a bridge from the current fossil-fuel based energy systems to a hydrogen-based economy envisaged for late this century 4 . ...
... Such a process is a potential candidate for switching atmospheric carbon emissions directly to long-term sequestration. Fundamental and applied studies on injection of CO 2 into geologic formations are being conducted within the integrated collaborative technology, development program for CO 2 sequestration in geologic formations in the United States by the Department of Energy R&D (Klara et al., 2003). The effectiveness of injection into the ocean of CO 2 produced from the use of fossil fuels is also being investigated using a coupled climate-carbon cycle model (Harvey, 2003), and radiocarbon as a good predictor is used to estimate the effectiveness of carbon sequestration by direct injection (Caldeira et al., 2002). ...
... This will add to development of significant technical approaches for verification and monitoring [2,9]. Most of the tools that are being developed for monitoring atmosphere CO 2 , including pressure monitoring and well testing; chemical sampling and tracers; bore hole seismic and surface; and electromagnetic/geo-mechanical meters, such as tilt meters [13]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Automobile exhaust mainly consists of nonhazardous gases like nitrogen, water vapor and carbon dioxide. These gases are the main source of global warming. This paper presents a practical implementation of a wireless sensor network in monitoring geological carbon dioxide (CO2 ). The monitoring system comprises of an air environmental sensors array, ZigBee wireless transmission module, liquid crystal display (LCD) and Central processing unit (CPU). The array of sensors comprising of carbon dioxide, temperature and humidity are used to collect the data’s. Automatically the CPU stores the data collected and by using the ZigBee module it is continuously transmitted to the center server wirelessly.
... However, longer-term economic growth and social development cannot be achieved without adequate and affordable energy supplies, which will require continuing significant contributions from fossil fuels [4,5]. Previous studies have demonstrated that vegetation alone sequester about one third of C emissions from fossil fuel combustion [6][7][8], and net primary production (NPP) represents the amount of atmospheric C fixed by plants and accumulated as biomass [9,10]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Terrestrial ecosystems greatly contribute to carbon (C) emission reduction targets through photosynthetic C uptake.Net primary production (NPP) represents the amount of atmospheric C fixed by plants and accumulated as biomass. The Three-North Shelterbelt Program (TNSP) zone accounts for more than 40% of China's landmass. This zone has been the scene of several large-scale ecological restoration efforts since the late 1990s, and has witnessed significant changes in climate and human activities.Assessing the relative roles of different causal factors on NPP variability in TNSP zone is very important for establishing reasonable local policies to realize the emission reduction targets for central government. In this study, we examined the relative roles of drought and land cover conversion(LCC) on inter-annual changes of TNSP zone for 2001-2010. We applied integrated correlation and decomposition analyses to a Standardized Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) and MODIS land cover dataset. Our results show that the 10-year average NPP within this region was about 420 Tg C. We found that about 60% of total annual NPP over the study area was significantly correlated with SPEI (p<0.05). The LCC-NPP relationship, which is especially evident for forests in the south-central area, indicates that ecological programs have a positive impact on C sequestration in the TNSP zone. Decomposition analysis generally indicated that the contributions of LCC, drought, and other Natural or Anthropogenic activities (ONA) to changes in NPP generally had a consistent distribution pattern for consecutive years. Drought and ONA contributed about 74% and 23% to the total changes in NPP, respectively, and the remaining 3% was attributed to LCC. Our results highlight the importance of rainfall supply on NPP variability in the TNSP zone.
... Injection of such mixture should delay the gas breakthrough compared to a pure N 2 injection, and enhance CH 4 production due to displacement by CO 2 . Since flue gas is readily available as power plant exhaust, its injection eliminates costs of pure CO 2 separation [13]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Nowadays, the non-hydrocarbon gases are the main sources for gas injection projects in different countries. The main advantages of the flue gas injection are low cost, readily available sources (which consists mainly of N2 and CO2) and low compressibility in comparison with other gases like CO2 or CH4 (for a given volume at the same conditions). In addition, it occupies more space in the reservoir and it is an appropriate way for CO2 sequestering and consequently reducing greenhouse gases. In the aforementioned method, N2 and/or CO2 is injected into the oil reservoir for miscible and/or immiscible displacement of remaining oil. Moreover, a key parameter in the designing of a gas injection project is the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) which is commonly calculated by running simulation case or implementing conventional correlations. From technical viewpoints, the lower MMP values are more flavor for miscible gas injection process due to lower injection pressure and consequently lower maintenance and lower injection costs. The main aim of this research is to investigate various gas injection methods (N2, CO2, produced reservoir gas, and flue gas) in one of the northern Persian gulf oil fields by a numerical simulation method. Moreover, for each scenario of gas injection technical and economical considerations are took into account. Finally, an economic analysis is implemented to compare the net present value (NPV) of the different gas injection scenarios in the aforementioned oil field.
... The process of geosequestration involves systematic trapping of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, methane, carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide, from the sources, and safe transportation and storage in potential geological formations or geological sinks. These processes be such that the disposal methodologies offer long-term protection by increasing the (Klara et al., 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
Infrastructure development and industrialisation have led to an ever increasing demand for energy and tremendous generation of industrial and municipal solid wastes in India. With indiscriminate human encroachments, the impact of disasters such as rainfall-induced landslides, river/coastal erosion, flash floods and cloud bursts is quite high. In order to minimise the harmful impact of these issues, there needs to be development of sustainable optimal solutions, which are best suited to the regions concerned, employment of new construction materials like geosynthetics and state-of-the-art techniques. As such, in dealing with such problems that have direct bearing on geoenvironment, an interdisciplinary approach needs to be developed, which is the starting point of environmental geotechnology as ‘applied science to research and resolve’. In view of this, this paper discusses a few key geoenvironmental engineering issues and challenges pertaining to the Indian context.
... Noble Gas Tracing of Groundwater/Coalbed Methane Interaction, San Juan Basin, USA Coal beds that are not of economic interest for coal extraction are becoming increasingly important as a possible sink for anthropogenic CO 2 emissions (Klara et al. 2003;Pashin and McIntyre 2003). Groundwater plays an important role in CO 2 sequestration in coalbeds in a similar fashion to the controls it exerts on CO 2 storage in CO 2 reservoirs. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Unequivocable evidence for warming of the climate system is a reality. An important factor for reducing this warming is mitigation of anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere. This requires us to engineer technologies for capture of our carbon emissions and identify reservoirs for storing these captured emissions. This chapter reviews advances made in understanding multiphase interactions and processes operating in a variety of subsurface reservoirs using noble gases. We begin by discussing the types of reservoir available for carbon storage and the mechanisms of viable CO2 storage, before summarising the physical chemistry involved in data interpretation and the sampling/sample storage techniques and requirements critical to successful sample collection. Theory of noble gas partitioning is interspersed with examples from a variety reservoirs to aid our knowledge of long term CO2 storage in the subsurface. These include hydrocarbon reservoir and natural CO2 reservoirs. In these examples we show how good progress has been made in using noble gases to explain the fate of CO2 in the subsurface, to quantify the extent of groundwater interaction and to understand CO2 behaviour after injection into oil fields for enhanced oil recovery. We also present recent work using noble gases for monitoring of subsurface CO2 migration and leakage in CO2 rich soils, CO2 rich springs and groundwaters. Noble gases are chemically inert, persistent and environmentally safe and they have the potential to be extremely useful in tracing migration of CO2. It is imperative that the many upcoming pilot CO2 injection studies continue to investigate the behaviour of noble gases in the subsurface and develop suitable noble gas monitoring strategies.
... Various burial options for the industrial CO 2 are presented in Figure 11.2. The CO 2 may be injected in deep coal seams, old depleted oil and gas wells (to increase yield), stable rock strata (e.g., basalt) or saline aquifers (Tsang et al. 2002;Klara et al. 2003;Gale 2004). Saline aquifers are underground strata of very porous sediments filled with brackish (saline) water located below the freshwater reservoirs sandwiched between impermeable layers. ...
... A diverse technological portfolio will be necessary to stabilize global GHG emissions (2), including carbon capture and storage (CCS) as an option for directly reducing CO 2 emissions from coal-fi red power plants. Under an integrated CCS concept, CO 2 would be captured, compressed, transported via pipeline, and permanently stored and monitored in geologic formations, such as depleted oil and gas fi elds, saline formations, and unmineable coal seams (3). ...
Article
Full-text available
It is anticipated that through federal research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) programs such as these. a broad suite of cost-effective CO 9-capture technologies will be available for commercial deployment by 2020 to respond to any future climate change regulations imposed upon the nation's power generation sector.
... An emerging field of application addresses to the mitigation of the anthropogenic effects on climate change through geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (IPCC [2005], Klara et al. [2003], Bachu [2003], Kopp et al. [2009]). Other line of research is investigating possibilities to dispose the radioactive waste in rock dumping sites, Figure 1.2: Examples of fracture networks in various materials ...
Thesis
Full-text available
As more and more engineering applications require the correct simulation of flow and transport processes in porous media, and while many of these media present a certain degree of fracturing, this work deals with the development of numerical models that can simulate two-phase flow in large-scale fractured reservoirs. Among the applications which these models are addressing to, there are the estimation of contaminant spreading and removal, the reservoir exploitation, or more recently the CO2 sequestration, the geothermal reservoir exploitation, and the nuclear waste repositories. Fractured systems are ubiquitous around the world and can occur on avariety of lengths and scales which makes difficult the development of a general model that can handle easily all of them. The overall purpose of this work is to improve the understanding over the concepts of the multiphase flow and processes in the fractured porous media and develop a conceptual model that allows the study of two-phase flow in fractures of arbitrary size, orientation and shape. The flow models have been roughly classified in discrete fracturemodels (DFM), continuum fracturemodels (CFM) and hybrid. The DFMs consider the fractures explicitly and thereforerequirehuge computation power,whereas CFMs require the determination of arepresentative elementary volume (REV), the appropriate effective parameters and transfer functions between continua. For alarge scale problem, like aCO2 storage reservoir,there can be millions of fractures which might have to be considered and could be a formidable task for a DFM simulator.In this sense a continuum model, which is in this case in the form of a generalized dual-porosity representation, does not require the fine discretization of a DFM and the detailed fracturecharacterization during simulations. Thus, another goal of this work is to build areliable large scale multiphase flow simulator based on the continuum approach. Two flow simulators, 2pDFM and 2pMINC,have been developed and tested based on the two different fracture model concepts. Both simulators are implemented in the numerical toolbox DuMux.The 2pDFM model simulates the two-phase flow in fractured porous media using aDFM approach, with a lower dimensional representation for the fracture network (DFM-L). The model is capable to account for storage in the fractures. The 2pMINC model simulates two-phase flow in fractured porous media using the multiple interacting continua (MINC) method with an improved upscaling technique. The complex transient behavior of the flow processes in fractured porous media is captured by subgridding the coarse blocks in nested volume elements which have effective properties calculated from the detailed representation of the fracturesystem. In this way,the physically based approach is kept, the accuracy of the model is preserved ,the common use of empirically derived transfer functions is avoided and the complexity of the problem is considerably reduced which is reflected in the speedup factors up to 1000. This research extends the applicability range of the upscaling procedure to include entry pressure effects. Moreover,a general workflow has been developed for the numerical simulation of the two-phase flow in large-scale fractured porous media. The results are verified, validated and tested in a fully comprehensive way for both models. To test the behaviour of the simulator for field scale problems they are applied to an idealized medium with periodic fracture pattern and to areal, naturally fractured reservoir from the Bristol Channel. The evaluation shows that the extended MINC model is able to reproduce both, the large-scale permeability and the dynamics of the fracture-matrix mass transfer,correctly. The extended MINC method and the simulation procedure is flexible as it allows choosing the accuracy of the solution, the computation speed, and allows working with spatial information about the fracture system of various complexity and detail.
... Many tools exist for monitoring sequestered CO 2 , including well testing, pressure monitoring, tracers and chemical sampling, surface and bore-hole seismics, and electromagnetic and geomechanical meters [4]. These methods are not mutually exclusive and may be used in conjunction with one another to better characterize CO 2 activity underground, such as the monitoring system at In Salah which incorporates seismics, tiltmeters, tracers, and wireline logging, among other monitoring methods [5]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Double difference seismic tomography was performed using travel time data from a carbon sequestration site at the Aneth oil field in southeast Utah as part of a Department of Energy initiative on monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) of sequestered CO2. A total of 1211 seismic events were recorded from a borehole array consisting of 23 geophones. Artificial velocity models were created to determine the likelihood of detecting a CO2 plume with an unfavorable event and receiver arrangement. In tests involving artificially modeled ray paths through a velocity model, ideal event and receiver arrangements clearly show velocity reductions. When incorporating the unfavorable event and station locations from the Aneth Unit into synthetic models, the ability to detect velocity reductions is greatly diminished. Using the actual, recorded travel times, the Aneth Unit results show differences between a synthetic baseline model and the travel times obtained in the field, but the differences do not clearly indicate a region of injected CO2. MVA accuracy and precision may be improved through the use of a receiver array that provides more comprehensive ray path coverage, and a more detailed baseline velocity model.
... The concept of sustainability requires balanced conditions among energy, the economy, and the environment and social aspects as well. In addition to environmentally sound technologies, there are several other concepts of sustainability: zero emission (Suzuki, 2002), Industrial ecology (Allenby, 1999;Ayres and Ayres, 1996), "Factor Four" and "Factor Ten" theories (von Weizsacker et al., 1997), and CO 2 -related concepts which include CO 2 -sequestration and CO 2 -disposal (Klara et al., 2003). (Bottrill, 2007). ...
Article
There is no doubt that the current century is an era of environmental awareness which will require meeting the growing demands by means of a set of generating technologies, while minimizing Greenhouse Gas emissions. Provided that technologies alone could not solve the problem, we have integrated the sociological dimension, represented by the potentially powerful resource for energy conservation that exists in the ability of consumers to change their behavior. The present study aims at assessing the joint impact of awareness campaigns and technology choice, on end-use energy consumption behavior. Actions to achieve energy savings through the use of more energy-efficient end-use technology are included. A new MARKAL framework – i.e., SOCIO-MARKAL – is proposed. As opposed to the traditional MARKAL framework based on technical and economic considerations, the SOCIO-MARKAL model integrates technological, economic and behavioral contributions to the environment. This study takes into consideration technological improvements on the demand side by consumers as well as behavioral changes minimizing carbon dioxide emissions and encouraging rational use of energy. Essentially, the conceptual aspects of the SOCIO-MARKAL will be presented. Based on this new MARKAL formulation, we will simulate the possible contribution of awareness campaigns in triggering energy consumption behavioral changes and possibilities of technology switch, in the residential area of the city of Nyon (Switzerland), for the period 2005–2025, using ANSWER, the IEA's platform. The main focus is on lighting technologies. Three scenarios were produced, referring to three possible penetration rates of low consumption lighting technologies.
... Previous SECARB Phase II pilot-scale field tests in Mississippi [2][3][4][5], Alabama [6], and Virginia [7] (in conjunction with numerous other sequestration field tests around the USA [8]) have demonstrated the ability to safely inject and monitor CO 2 in coal seams, saline reservoirs, and depleted oilfields. The SECARB Phase III projects are now underway and consist of two parts; the Early Test (completed) is a large volume injection test utilizing natural CO 2 (associated with an enhanced-oilrecovery flood) located at the Cranfield oilfield in Mis-sissippi [9]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) seeks to validate the feasibility of injecting, storing and monitoring CO2 in the subsurface (geologic storage) as an approach to mitigate atmospheric emissions of CO2. In an effort to pro- mote the development of a framework and the infrastructure necessary for the validation and deployment of carbon sequestration technologies, DOE established seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs). The South- east Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB), whose lead organization is the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB), represents 13 States within the southeastern United States of America (USA). The SECARB Anthropo- genic Test R&D project is a demonstration of the deployment of CO2 capture, transport, geologic storage and monitor- ing technology. This project is an integral component of a plan by Southern Company, and its subsidiary, Alabama Power, to demonstrate integrated CO2 capture, transport and storage technology. The capture component of the test takes place at the James M. Barry Electric Generating Plant (Plant Barry) in Bucks, Alabama. The capture facility, equivalent to 25 MW, will utilize post-combustion amine capture technology licensed from Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America. CO2 captured at the plant will be transported by pipeline for underground storage in a deep, saline geologic formation within the Citronelle Dome located in Citronelle, Alabama. At the end of the first quarter of 2012, up to 550 tonnes of CO2 per day will be captured and transported twelve miles by pipeline to the storage site for injection and subsurface storage. The injection target is the lower Cretaceous Paluxy Formation which occurs at 9400 feet. Trans- portation and injection operations will continue for one to two years. Subsurface monitoring will be deployed through 2017 to track plume movement and monitor for leakage. This project will be one of the first and the largest fully-inte- grated commercial prototype coal-fired carbon capture and storage projects in the USA. This paper will discuss the re- sults to date, including permitting efforts, baseline geologic analysis and detailed reservoir modeling of the storage site, framing the discussion in terms of the overall goals of the project.
... The geological storage of CO 2 is envisaged to mitigate the anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the short term [1][2][3][4]. Projects for this geological storage generally plan for its injection under supercritical conditions, thus maximizing the stored quantities that can involve several million tons per year. The CO2-DISSOLVED project [5] studies a different option that consists in combining injection of dissolved CO 2 close to the emitting source and recovery of the geothermal heat from the extracted brine. ...
Article
Full-text available
The CO2-DISSOLVED project aims at assessing the feasibility of the coupling between dissolved CO2 storage in aquifer and geothermal heat recovery. The MIRAGES-2 experimental setup has been designed to study, at the centimeter scale and under relevant conditions of pressure and temperature, the chemical interactions in the near-injection well area between the reservoir rock, the cement phases, and the corrosive CO2-rich solution. This original experimental setup allows performing flow-through experiments with continuous in-situ data acquisition of pressure, temperature, flow rate, pH, and dissolved CO2 concentration. The datasets acquired will be further interpreted with the help of geochemical models, in order to better understand the effects of the key physical-chemical processes involved.
... In 2003, the United States Department of Energy established the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Program (RCSP) under the leadership of the National Energy Technology Laboratory (Klara et al., 2003;Litynski et al., 2006Litynski et al., , 2009. Seven partnerships were selected, each with a different geographic focus. ...
... Various burial options for the industrial CO 2 are presented in Figure 11.2. The CO 2 may be injected in deep coal seams, old depleted oil and gas wells (to increase yield), stable rock strata (e.g., basalt) or saline aquifers (Tsang et al. 2002;Klara et al. 2003;Gale 2004). Saline aquifers are underground strata of very porous sediments filled with brackish (saline) water located below the freshwater reservoirs sandwiched between impermeable layers. ...
Chapter
11.1 Introduction The human activities, which produce greenhouses gases, are unequivocally held responsible for the global climate change or warming (Houghton et al. 2001; IPCC 2007; Sundquist et al. 2008; Friedlingstein et al. 2010). The human activities have led to an increase in the global surface temperature of 0.74 oC in the last 100 years (Solomon et al. 2007). This steep continuous increase in the global temperature, if not dramatically reduced, will be catastrophic to many species on the earth including human. At the global scale, the key greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted by human activities are carbon dioxide (CO2, 77%), methane (CH4, 14%), Nitrous Oxide (N2O, 8 %) and flue gases (1%) (Marland et al. 2009). The CO2 is the largest GHG and 57% of CO2 emissions come from fossil fuel use, followed by 17% of CO2 emissions from deforestation and decay of biomass, respectively. The CO2 levels in the atmosphere were 280 ppm (parts per million) in pre-industrial era (Houghton et al. 2001). After industrial revolution to date, the CO2 levels are now around 380 ppm (IPCC 2007). This is due to the burning of massive amounts of fossil fuels (Oelkers and Cole 2008). To mitigate GHG emissions, the CO2 emissions must be reduced immediately. The CO2 sequestration can be achieved by either natural process and/or by humans. Natural processes such as vegetation and oceanic carbon cycles are the largest and most efficient methods of CO2 sequestration. But the natural cycles cannot keep the check on human CO2 emission rate, which is over 30 billion tons a year today (Houghton et al. 2001; Schrag 2007). To mitigate the global warming effects, global GHG emissions should be reduced substantially (by 25 to 40% below 1990 levels) by 2020, especially in industrialised countries (IPCC 2007). If this target is achieved, it would stabilize CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere to 450 ppm. Meeting this target would mean reducing carbon emissions by about 10 billion tons a year. Today, most of the countries have a consensus on developing technologies or managing the human interference in ecosystem to reduce and/or stabilize excess CO2 and other GHGs released into the atmosphere and hence mitigate the global warming (Houghton et al. 2001; IPCC 2007; Sundquist et al. 2008; Friedlingstein et al. 2010). Table 11.1 shows carbon production and sequestration in different industries. The CO2 emissions can be managed by reducing the fossil fuel usage, developing new fuels with low carbon sink and carbon sequestration by implementing various technologies (Lal 2008a; Sundquist et al. 2008; Marland et al. 2009; Rai et al. 2010). There are several processes and technological options that can be implemented for sequestration of atmospheric CO2. These processes are including physical-chemical and biological processes (Table 11.1). Physical-chemical processes include natural carbon burial, carbonates formation and leaching, with different options such as geological sequestration, oceanic injection, chemical scrubbing and mineralization (Lal 2008a,b; Sundquist et al. 2008; Marland et al. 2009; Rai et al. 2010). Biological processes include organic carbon sequestration (woody plants, char and biomass soils, wetlands, seeding ocean with ferric ions, etc.), inorganic carbon sequestration (formation of secondary carbonates) and carbon sequestration via biofuels such as bioethanol, biodiesel and hydrogen fuel cells (Lal 2008a; Sundquist et al. 2008; Marland et al. 2009; Rai et al. 2010; Zhang and Surampalii 2013). The objective of this chapter is to discuss the process and technological options (physical, chemical and biological) of carbon burial to mitigate/reduce the global warming by reducing the rate of CO2 release from three major sources such as industrial combustion, biomass and organic wastes. Moreover, soil carbon trapping potential and various strategies to enhance the terrestrial carbon sequestration in soils are also discussed in the chapter.
... A very recent problem dealing with two phase flow is the storage of CO 2 in deep saline aquifers. The CO 2 storage (CCS) in geological formations is one technology that can be used to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions [2][3][4]. After injecting the CO 2 , four main trapping mechanisms in the storage formation have been identified [2]: 1) structural and stratigraphic trapping; 2) capillary or residual trapping; 3) solubility trapping; and 4) geochemical trapping. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
This article presents a mathematical model for interface sensitive tracer transport used for the evaluation of the interface between two fluid-phases (i.e. CO2 and brine) with general applicability in a series of engineering applications: oil recovery, vapour-dominated geothermal reservoirs, contaminant spreading, CO2 storage, etc. Increasing the CO2 storage efficiency in brine deep geological formations requires better injection strategies to be developed which could be accomplished with better tools for quantification of the fluid-fluid interfaces. The CO2 residual and solubility trapping are highly influenced by the interfaces separating the phases. An increase in the interface area is expected to produce an increase in the solubility trapping. However, standard multi-phase models do not account for the specific fluid-fluid interface area. A new class of reactive tracers is used for the characterization of interfacial areas between supercritical CO2 and brine. The tracer is injected in the CO2 and migrates to the interface where it undergoes a hydrolysis reaction in contact with water. A mathematical model is constructed based on volume-averaged properties (saturation, porosity, permeability, etc.) at the macroscale. The fluid phases are described with an extended form of the Darcy equation based on thermodynamic principles and complemented with relations for relative permeability and saturation and a specific equation for interfacial area. The kinetic mass transfer effects between the two phases are highly dependent on the interface area, and are captured with an approach introduced by [1]. The mathematical model is tested with a simple numerical example.
... Furthermore, for landlocked regions that are major energy and power producers, such as the Ohio Valley in the United States and Alberta in Canada, sequestration in geological media is the best and likely only option currently available for increasing CO 2 sinks. By making possible the continued use of coal as a fuel for power generation, CCS is a technology that contributes to the stability and security of energy systems in North America and elsewhere, and provides a bridge from the current fossil-fuel based energy systems to a hydrogen-based economy envisaged for late this century 4 . ...
Conference Paper
Sequestration in deep underground formations of large amounts of CO2, captured from large stationary sources, such as power plants, oil upgraders and refineries, is one method that is under consideration for reducing greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere in both Canada and United States. In hydrocarbon-producing regions, such as Texas in the United States and Alberta in Canada, CO2 geological sequestration is likely to first occur in depleted or abandoned oil and gas reservoirs. However, in many regions, including oil and gas producing areas, this is insufficient because either the sequestration capacity of oil and gas reservoirs is lower than the amount of CO2 emissions from large stationary sources, or because this capacity is not available until the reservoirs are depleted. Deep saline aquifers provide a very large capacity for CO2 sequestration that is immediately accessible, and they are found in all sedimentary basins in the North American mid-continent. Proper understanding of the relative-permeability character of such systems is essential in ascertaining CO2 injectivity and migration, and in assessing the suitability and safety of prospective CO2 sequestration sites. This paper reviews the experimental protocol and presents detailed water-CO2 relative permeability data for three sandstone and three carbonate formations in the Wabamun Lake area southwest of Edmonton in Alberta, western Canada, where four major coal-fired power plants which produce large volumes of CO2 are located. These formations are in general representative of the in-situ temperature, pressure, salinity, porosity and intercrystalline permeability characteristics of deep saline aquifers in on-shore North American sedimentary basins. The data will allow detailed numerical simulations of CO2 injection and sequestration processes both at this specific location, and for similar operations planned elsewhere and around the world.
Article
Following China and the United States, India is the third highest CO2 emitter in the world. With its fast rising population and an industry primarily reliant on coal and oil, the country's emissions will continue to rise unless appropriate measures are taken. In India generally the carbon sequestration is done by storing CO2 in sedimentary basins where it gets capped by the impermeable cap rocks. The study aims to unfold the other techniques of carbon sequestration in subsurface formations, except for narrating the different types of carbon capture and sequestration techniques along with its storage in different types of environments. For instance, abiotic and biotic environments for CO2 sequestration. It further talks about carbon injections of oceanic, geological, and terrestrial types, to name just a few. Types of carbon emission sources are discussed too. In this paper three different approaches are described for carbon mitigation, namely CarbFix, CO2 Plume technology and Carbon Trading. A prefeasibility study was done in order to implement the three techniques in Dholera geothermal region in Gujarat, India. In literature review, it can be seen how the three techniques can help in permanent mitigation of captured carbon through carbonate mineralization, power generation and industrial applications. For any project government and public participation is important. In this regard the study gives a brief understanding about the steps to be taken by government and the public to promote such projects for carbon mitigation. Besides, the steps to be taken in such projects for health and risk assessment were talked about in literature review too.
Chapter
Approximately, half a ton of waste is produced per person annually; thus, waste management is essential to avoid environmental issues. The waste management system encompasses the entire set of activities related to treating, handling, recycling, or disposing of waste materials. This chapter aims to represent the history of waste management, as well as the current commonly used methods for waste management, together with their pros and cons. The commonly applied methods, including sanitary landfill, composting, safe disposal of biomedical wastes, recycling of industrial CO2 emissions, incineration of hazardous wastes, sludge recycling in the cement industry, direct combustion of sludge, wastewater treatment, and construction waste recycling, are discussed. In this chapter, the problems associated with landfills, such as lack of efficient systems for gas utilization from the landfill and lack of proper leachate management and recycling CO2 from industrial flue gas and wastewater treatment methods, are more highlighted. Also, the need for law enforcement to control the negative environmental impacts properly is highlighted.
Article
Full-text available
The authors aim to investigate the number of trees necessary to capture the CO2 emissions from house–campus travelling, to and from the Maiêutica Academic Campus in the north of Portugal. A sample of the academic community was given an online survey in order to assess mobility practices. Based on the data collected, CO2 emissions, as well as the number of trees necessary to mitigate these emissions, were calculated. The authors estimate that the total emissions resulting from house–campus commutes amount to 2937 tCO2 year−1. To mitigate this amount of carbon dioxide, 138 ha would be necessary to plant 96,539 trees, according to the species’ respective CO2 removal rates. The estimated tree area necessary to neutralize the community’s mobility related CO2 emissions is so high that other alternatives must be considered: a preferred use of public transportation, carpool system, online theoretical classes, rescheduling timetables, green roofs installation, and photovoltaic panels.
Chapter
This chapter describes the different methods and the application of gas injection in the oil and gas industry and environmental purposes. For this purpose, first the worldwide hydrocarbon distribution is studied which categorized as conventional and unconventional resources. Also, the graphical distribution is reported using the latest statistics of conventional and unconventional hydrocarbon resources. Second, the steps of recovery of oil reservoirs are studied which consist of primary, secondary and tertiary oil recovery. Gas injection is performed for improvement of oil recovery in the secondary and tertiary oil recovery. Environmental protection and reduction of greenhouse gases is another goal of gas injection. Third, various relevant aspects including, historical evolution, screening criteria, sources of gas and economic of gas injection are investigated.
Chapter
Rapid population growth is been the trending problem and which is being highlighted around the globe for a few decades. Specifically, the twentieth century brought a huge growth rate of the population. Correspondingly, energy and industrial demand coupled to the population growth putting massive urge. Therefore, the establishment of new industries is being done to meet the surplus energy demand using conventional methods. So far, this energy demand was compensated using limited conventional resources like coal, natural gas, and fossil fuels maintaining sustainable production.
Article
Full-text available
Reliable measurement of the CO2 diffusion coefficient in consolidated oil-saturated porous media is critical for the design and performance of CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and carbon capture and storage (CCS) projects. A thorough experimental investigation of the supercritical CO2 diffusion in n-decane-saturated Berea cores with permeabilities of 50 and 100 mD was conducted in this study at elevated pressure (10-25 MPa) and temperature (333.15-373.15 K), which simulated actual reservoir conditions. The supercritical CO2 diffusion coefficients in the Berea cores were calculated by a model appropriate for diffusion in porous media based on Fick's Law. The results show that the supercritical CO2 diffusion coefficient increases as the pressure, temperature and permeability increase. The supercritical CO2 diffusion coefficient first increases slowly at 10 MPa and then grows significantly with increasing pressure. The impact of the pressure decreases at elevated temperature. The effect of permeability remains steady despite the temperature change during the experiments. The effect of gas state and porous media on the supercritical CO2 diffusion coefficient was further discussed by comparing the results of this study with previous study. Based on the experimental results, an empirical correlation for supercritical CO2 diffusion coefficient in n-decane-saturated porous media was developed. The experimental results contribute to the study of supercritical CO2 diffusion in compact porous media.
Article
A systematic series of experiments are designed and performed including interfacial tension (IFT) measurements concomitant with Bond (BN, the ratio of gravity forces to capillary forces) and swelling/extraction measurements. Dynamic IFT, BN and swelling/extraction are measured as a function of pressure at temperatures of 30, 50 and 80 °C. In addition, in the light of measured IFT the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) of CO2 and light crude oil is determined based on a method called vanishing interfacial tension (VIT). The obtained results interestingly revealed that equilibrium IFT decreases linearly with pressure in two distinct pressure intervals while equilibrium BN shows an increasing trend as a function of pressure for all of the studied cases while no obvious trend is observed for swelling of crude oil and extraction of light-components regarding time, temperature and pressure.
Article
The likelihood of fossil fuel power plants being targeted for future CO2 emissions regulation creates a motivation for developing an alternative CO2 capture method that is more sustainable and less energy intensive than the current approach using amine solvents. A special class of metal-organic framework adsorbents known as elastic layered metal-organic frameworks (ELM) exhibit a step-like CO2 adsorption isotherm that offers intriguing advantages for CO2 capture applications in comparison to other proposed carbon capture adsorbents with Langmuir-like adsorption isotherms. Molecular simulations and experiments were therefore carried out to explain the adsorption phenomena observed for ELM material and assess the suitability of ELM adsorbents for CO2 capture from flue gas and synthesis gas mixtures. The hybrid osmotic Monte Carlo (HOMC) simulation methodology developed as a part of this work, for the first time has provided atomistic insights into the mechanism leading to the expansion of the material and CO2 isosteric heat of adsorption profiles. The adsorption-induced expansion was shown to depend on the CO2 orientation transition and the interplay of the CO2-framework configuration, to increase CO2-CO2 interaction energy by 1.6 kJ/mol compared to the pre-expansion state. Predicted CO2 selectivities (from 44 to 600 with different temperatures and pressures) are comparable to those typically observed with other microporous materials that have been proposed as carbon capture adsorbents (typically from 3 ??? 1000). In addition, the CO2 isosteric heat of adsorption of ELMs are moderate (23 ??? 28 kJ/mol) compared to other current adsorbents (30 ??? 45 kJ/mol). Structure-function relationships established for this series of ELM adsorbents shows that the gate pressure is to follow the metal vertex trend Cu2+ < Co2+ < Ni2+ from lowest to highest gate pressure for ELM framework series investigated in this work, containing BF4- and CF3SO3- as the anions. Results of the study show that ELM materials possess important features of an effective carbon capture adsorbent such as high CO2 selectivity, moderate CO2 heat of adsorption. Broadly speaking, the simulation results and experimental studies reported in this work support the conclusion that ELM adsorbents have the requisite material properties to merit further consideration as carbon capture adsorbents.
Article
Full-text available
This paper focus on sensor nodes failure detection monitoring and control process via GSM and ZIGBEE wireless module. The virtual instrumentation process does measure the sensor node characteristics value and control the environment by wireless network. The industrial need does uses four types of sensor gas, radiation, temperature, and smoke sensors. The error occurrence does it’s to be detected and it will be control by the ARM controller. The performances measures does it can be monitor and also be indicated and also be control through the WSN network. The data logging of sensor monitoring and its control functions are realized through proteus stimuli view.
Article
Nowadays, carbon dioxide is the main cause of global warming, coal mining and its utilization is a major source of greenhouse gas emission, based on the theory of biogenic coalbed methane, this paper puts forward three models to achieve energy saving and emission reduction by using microbes, respectively they are the biological residual coal mining, the coalbed methane development and the carbon dioxide coalbed sequestration and transformation. And this paper analyses the utilization prospects from the aspects of the research status and technical procedures. Microbial technology has a great potential significance for energy saving and emission reduction and environment protection in coal mine.
Article
A remote online carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration monitoring system is developed, based on the technologies of wireless sensor networks, in allusion to the gas leakage monitoring requirement for CO2 capture and storage. The remote online CO2 monitoring system consists of monitoring equipment, a data center server, and the clients. The monitoring equipment is composed of a central processing unit (CPU), air environment sensors array, global positioning system (GPS) receiver module, secure digital memory card (SD) storage module, liquid crystal display (LCD) module, and general packet radio service (GPRS) wireless transmission module. The sensors array of CO2, temperature, humidity, and light intensity are used to collect data and the GPS receiver module is adopted to collect location and time information. The CPU automatically stores the collected data in the SD card data storage module and displays them on the LCD display module in real-time. Afterwards, the GPRS module continuously wirelessly transmits the collected information to the data center server. The online monitoring WebGIS clients are developed using a PHP programming language, which runs on the Apache web server. MySQL is utilized as the database because of its speed and reliability, and the stunning cross-browser web maps are created, optimized, and deployed with the OpenLayers JavaScript web-mapping library. Finally, an experiment executed in Xuzhou city, Jiangsu province, China is introduced to demonstrate the implementation and application.
Article
The concentration of carbon dioxide gas in atmosphere is remarkably increasing because of burning fossil fuels, such as coal, natural gas and oil. CO2 is an important Greehouse Gas which results in global warming, and it also threatens human life security and social economy sustainable developing. CO2 geological storage is considered to be a fairly significant way to seal CO2 permanently, it can also slow down global warming. Coals have a super adsorption capacity, especially to CO2, because of the special dual porosity and huge specific surface. Therefore, CO2 can be injected and sequestrated in coal seams by geological storage. Geological storage of CO2 can not only reduces its concentration in atmosphere, but also can enhance coalbed methane production synchronously. The paper discusses CO2 injection and sequestration in coal bed to enhance CBM production mechanism, feasibility and propose a technical route. Experiments show that the technical route of CO2 geological storage to enhance CBM production is feasible, and the technical of CO2 geological storage is good for slowing down globle warming and reducing gas accidents.
Article
Laboratory experiments and calculation of the dissolution constant were performed to investigate the physical property changes of sandstones in Korea resulting from the geochemical reaction of CO2 under sequestration conditions. To simulate the sub-surface storage condition (100 bar and 50 °C), the high pressurized stainless cell and chamber were used and the supercritical CO2 fluid was injected into the cell (or the chamber) by the syringe pump and the pressure regulator. Sandstone slabs and cores were used for the experiments of the supercritical CO2-sandstone‒groundwater reaction. Results of SEM/EDS and SPM analyses showed that the surface roughness of the slab increased and the precipitation of calcite, halite, and Ca-rich silicate minerals on the sandstone slab occurred during 60 days reaction, suggesting the geochemical weathering process, as a result of CO2 injection, directly leads to property changes of sandstones in a short time. The average porosity of sandstone cores as increased 8.8% with the corresponding decreases in the dry density, P and S wave velocity, dynamic Young’s modulus, and the uniaxial compression strength, indicating that the trend of property changes for the sandstone was well fitted to the first-order reaction curve. The average first-order dissolution constant (K 1) of sandstones, calculated by using the loss of sandstone mass during the reaction time was 0.0000846 day−1. The K 1 values will be useful for estimating the dissolution process of sandstones originated from the supercritical CO2-sandstone‒groundwater reaction while the CO2 was injected into the sub-surface.
Article
Although CO2 geological storage has been recognized as an effective strategy to lower carbon emissions directly, there are no suitable guidelines for safety risk assessment of CO2 geological storage projects in deep saline aquifers in China and elsewhere. When CO2 is injected into deep saline aquifers, stratigraphic and structural trapping is the major basic mechanism controlling CO2 storage capacity and migration in reservoirs. Therefore, a safety risk assessment method is proposed in this paper using perspectives from hydrogeological and environmental geology. The uncertainties and risks consist of CO2 leakage, ground deformation, and induced earthquakes. Identifying and assessing potential risks are the first and most important step in the process of risk assessment. Based on the identification of risks of CO2 geological storage projects, we built an elementary risk evaluation index system in an analytic hierarchy process framework. Meanwhile, the possibility of occurrence and damage to the environment and public caused by CO2 leakage, ground deformation, and induced earthquakes was analyzed in detail, and current risk criteria were also summarized. Furthermore, using the Shenhua CO2 Capture and Storage Demonstration Project as a case study, we performed a risk identification and evaluation by using qualitative or semi-quantitative methods in sequence, as well as developing the related preliminary risk management measures. This method and case study for short-term safety risk assessment could provide a guideline for site selection, injection design, and monitoring of CO2 geological storage projects in deep saline aquifers.
Conference Paper
In this study, the impact of TBANO3 on the kinetics of hydrate formation from the fuel gas mixture is presented. Gas uptake measurement at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 3.7 mol% TBANO3 solution were determined at 6.0 MPa and 274.2 K. Gas phase and hydrate phase composition were determined using a gas chromatography. At all the concentrations of TBANO3, CO2 preferentially occupies the hydrate cages at the experimental conditions of 6.0 MPa and 274.2 K. A normalized gas consumption and normalized rate of hydrate growth of 0.0132 mol of gas/mol of water and 45.2 mol.min -1 .m -3 was obtained for the 1.0 mol% concentration respectively. A maximum CO2 composition of 93 % and a separation factor of 28.82 were also obtained with 1.0 mol% TBANO3 solution. From our results, it can be concluded that 1.0 mol% TBANO3 solution is the optimum concentration at the experimental condition of 6.0 MPa and 274.2 K for pre-combustion CO2 capture. With 1.0 mol% TBANO3 as the optimum concentration, we evaluated the effect of experimental temperature and experimental pressure to optimize the operating conditions. The optimum experimental conditions for 1.0 mol% TBANO3 based on induction time, normalized rate, normalized gas uptake was 6.0 MPa and 274.2 K.
Article
Very limited investigations have been done on the numerical simulation of carbon dioxide (CO2) migration in sandstone aquifers taking consideration of the interactions between fluid flow and rock stress. Based on the poroelasticity theory and multiphase flow theory, this study establishes a mathematical model to describe CO2 migration, coupling the flow and stress fields. Both finite difference method (FDM) and finite element method (FEM) were used to discretize the mathematical model and generate a numerical model. A case study was carried out using the numerical model on the Jiangling sandstone aquifer in the Jianghan basin, China. The rock mechanics parameters of reservoir and overlying strata of Jiangling depression were obtained by triaxial tests. A two-dimensional model was then built to simulate carbon dioxide migration in the sandstone aquifer. The numerical simulation analyzes the carbon dioxide migration distribution rule with and without considering capillary pressure. Time-dependent migration of CO2 in the sandstone aquifer was analyzed, and the result from the coupled model was compared with that from a traditional non-coupled model. The calculation result indicates a good consistency between the coupled model and the non-coupled model. At the injection point, the CO2 saturation given by the coupled model is 15.39 % higher than that given by the non-coupled model; while the pore pressure given by the coupled model is 4.8 % lower than that given by the non-coupled model. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the coupling of flow and stress fields while simulating CO2 migration for CO2 disposal in sandstone aquifers. The result from the coupled model was also sensitized to several parameters including reservoir permeability, porosity, and CO2 injection rate. Sensitivity analyses show that CO2 saturation is increased non-linearly with CO2 injection rate and decreased non-linearly with reservoir porosity. Pore pressure is decreased non-linearly with reservoir porosity and permeability, and increased non-linearly with CO2 injection rate. When the capillary pressure was considered, the computed gas saturation of carbon dioxide was increased by 10.75 % and the pore pressure was reduced by 0.615 %.
Article
We present exergy and economic analyses for two potential advanced coal-based power plants with CO2 capture and sequestration. Each system generates three products: electricity, carbon dioxide compressed to 15 MPa, and pre-calcined feedstock for cement kilns. First, we analyzed a system that integrates a CaO-looping gasifier with a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), labeled here as IGFC–CCS. The SOFC is modeled based on a commercial pressurized SOFC system. Second, we analyzed a system that integrates a CaO-looping gasifier with a Brayton–Rankine combined cycle, labeled here as IGCC–CCS. The exergy analyses evaluated both the power generation/consumption and the exergy destruction in each of the major sub-systems within the power plant. The economic analyses evaluated the internal rate of return on investment (IRR), including the upfront construction costs and the yearly net revenue. Using recent capital cost estimates, we performed a parametric study of this IGFC–CCS system to determine the effect on the IRR on the four key SOFC parameters: current density, air pressure, fuel utilization, and air stoichiometric ratio. For this IGFC–CCS configuration, the calculated exergetic efficiency was 60% at the parameters values that maximized the IRR. For the IGCC–CCS system with same gasifier specifications, the efficiency was 46%; although, this configuration often achieved a higher value of IRR than the IGFC–CCS configuration, depending on the assumptions made on gas turbine and fuel cell equipment costs. We conducted a sensitivity analysis to determine how the IRR was affected by assumptions, such as capital costs and the sale price of CO2. Most importantly, we analyzed the effect of the coal gasification kinetic rate and CaO capture degradation rate on the IRR so that experimental researchers have goal posts as far as required rates for this CaO-looping process. From our sensitivity analysis, we conclude that the addition of alkali catalysts to CaO-looping gasification process can increase the IRR compared with a CaO-looping process without the addition of alkali catalysts, such as KOH.
Article
Hydrate based gas separation (HBGS) process for the precombustion capture of CO2 from a fuel gas mixture is a novel method being investigated among the carbon capture and sequestration techniques to reduce CO2 emissions. The efficiency of the HGBS process can be improved by using promoters that reduce the formation pressure of mixed gas hydrates. In this study the effect of tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) was systematically investigated at a constant temperature of 279.2 K and pressure of 6.0 MPa for different TBAB concentrations of 0.3, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 3.0 mol %, respectively. The 0.3 mol % solutions had a relatively longer average induction time of 20.1 min but exhibited the highest total normalized gas uptake of 0.0104 (±0.0004) mol of gas/mol of water and highest separation factor of 41.51 (±6.391). On the other hand, the 1.0 mol % solution had very short average induction time (<0.5 min) and it had the highest hydrate growth rate of 60.8 (±9.89) mol of gas·min–1·m–3, with the separation factor of 13.78 (±3.30). Gas solubility measurements and microscopic images of the hydrate formation were also presented to provide greater insights into the effect of TBAB concentration on the gas uptake.
Article
Recent research and applications have demonstrated technologically feasible methods, defined costs, and modeled processes needed to sequester carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in saline-water-bearing formations (aquifers). One of the simplifying assumptions used in previous modeling efforts is the effect of real stratigraphic complexity on transport and trapping in saline aquifers. In this study we have developed and applied criteria for characterizing saline aquifers for very long-term sequestration of CO{sub 2}. The purpose of this pilot study is to demonstrate a methodology for optimizing matches between CO{sub 2} sources and nearby saline formations that can be used for sequestration. This project identified 14 geologic properties used to prospect for optimal locations for CO{sub 2} sequestration in saline-water-bearing formations. For this demonstration, we digitized maps showing properties of saline formations and used analytical tools in a geographic information system (GIS) to extract areas that meet variably specified prototype criteria for CO{sub 2} sequestration sites. Through geologic models, realistic aquifer properties such as discontinuous sand-body geometry are determined and can be used to add realistic hydrologic properties to future simulations. This approach facilitates refining the search for a best-fit saline host formation as our understanding of the most effective ways to implement sequestration proceeds. Formations where there has been significant drilling for oil and gas resources as well as extensive characterization of formations for deep-well injection and waste disposal sites can be described in detail. Information to describe formation properties can be inferred from poorly known saline formations using geologic models in a play approach. Resulting data sets are less detailed than in well-described examples but serve as an effective screening tool to identify prospects for more detailed work.
Article
Electric power generation represents one of the largest carbon dioxide (CO2) emitters in the United States. Roughly one-third of all the United States' carbon emissions come from power plants. Since electricity generation is expected to grow, and fossil fuels will continue to be the dominant fuel source, power generation can be expected to provide even greater CO2 contributions in the future. Consequently, an important component of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) research and development program is dedicated to reducing CO2 emissions from power plants by developing technologies to capture CO2 for utilization and/or sequestration. A primary goal of this research is to develop technology options that dramatically lower the cost of eliminating CO2 from flue gas and other streams by use of either pre- or post-combustion processes. This research is in its early stages, and is exploring a wide range of approaches, including membranes, improved CO2 sorbents, advanced scrubbing, oxyfuel combustors, formation of CO2 hydrates, and economic assessments. This paper presents an overview of the DOE research program in the area of CO2 separation and capture, while specifically addressing the status of research efforts related to promising pathways and potential technological breakthroughs.
Article
Deep saline aquifers were investigated as potential disposal sites for CO2. The capacity of deep aquifers for CO2 disposal in the U.S. is highly uncertain. A rough estimate, derived from global estimates, is 5-500 Gt of CO2. Saline aquifers underlie the regions in the U.S. where most utility power plants are situated. Therefore, approximately 65 percent of CO2, from power plants could possibly be injected directly into deep saline aquifers below these plants, without the need for long pipelines.
Article
The Norwegian policy regarding CO2 as a greenhouse gas is explained as a background for Statoils CO2-removal and -deposition activities. The planned deposition in a subsea aquifer of 1 million tons of CO2/year which will be removed from the Sleipner Vest offshore gas field is described. A brief description of the Norwegian R&D activities with respect to CO2-removal and deposition is given. Several scenarios where CO2-free energy in the form of electricity or hydrogen is supplied to continental Europe or UK are discussed. It is concluded that CO2-removal and -deposition is a less expensive solution than the large scale application of renewable energy sources (other than hydropower) and probably also fusion energy. R&D in the area of CO2-removal and -deposition is especially suited to international cooperation and burden sharing.
Optimal geological environments for CO 2 disposal in aquifers in the United States University of Texas at Austin
  • Hovorka
Hovorka SD. Optimal geological environments for CO 2 disposal in aquifers in the United States. University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology, Technical Report, DE-AC26-98FT40417; 2001.
Available from: www.CO2captureproject.org
  • G S M Hill
  • Klara
Hill G. Available from: www.CO2captureproject.org (December 2001). 2712 S.M. Klara et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 44 (2003) 2699–2712
Integrated collaborative technology development for CO 2 separation and capture––US Department of Energy RD&D
  • Klara S Srivastava
Klara S, Srivastava RD. Integrated collaborative technology development for CO 2 separation and capture––US Department of Energy RD&D. Environmental Progress 2002;21:247.
National analogs for geological storage of CO2
  • S H Stevens
  • J M Pearce
  • Aaj Riggs
Stevens SH, Pearce JM, Riggs AAJ. National analogs for geological storage of CO 2. First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration, Washington, DC, May 15–17, 2001.
Available from: www.CO2captureproject.org
  • G Hill