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Fractal dimension of landscape silhouette outlines as a predictor of landscape preference

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to explore the suggestion that fractal characteristics may play a role in aesthetic experiences by providing possible empirical evidence for connections between landscape preference and fractal properties. This approach was motivated by the knowledge that many natural forms are fractal and that, in preference research, naturalness has been found an important predictor. For reasons described in the paper, in this study we chose to focus on landscape silhouette outlines. The results indicate that there is a relationship between preference and the fractal dimension, which in turn gives rise to the hypothesis that the fractal dimension could provide part of the explanation to the well-documented connection between preference and naturalness.

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... The concept introduced by Mandelbort in 1977 as he suggests that the 'natural' world cannot be properly defined using only one, two or three dimensional Euclidean geometry. He developed this concept to explain the complexity of nature calling it the geometry of nature [42][43][44][45][46][47]. Fractal dimension 'D' is used as a parameter to identify and quantify the fractal of patterns by expressing them as a number. ...
... In addition, it has been found to be suitable for architecture and urban analysis [46]. Fractal dimension has been implemented in many studies, and was successful at capturing the preference of the users in the natural environment [42,43], built environment [43], and the visual qualities of street vistas [44][45][46]. However, not all fractals are equally preferred. ...
... In addition, it has been found to be suitable for architecture and urban analysis [46]. Fractal dimension has been implemented in many studies, and was successful at capturing the preference of the users in the natural environment [42,43], built environment [43], and the visual qualities of street vistas [44][45][46]. However, not all fractals are equally preferred. ...
Article
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Multidisciplinary nature of walkability research accelerated its growth through the participation of different disciplines. Different methods of measurement and analysis from varying disciplines created disagreements about how to characterize the built environment dimensions by using appropriate attributes, especially attributes which are used to represent the design dimension of the built environment. Fractal dimension value of streetscape provides solutions to these arguments as it makes the use of both micro-scale and macro-scale attributes of the built environment, especially micro-scale attributes of its design dimension as it relates to the quality of walking. Walkability indices were created then validated by a survey conducted at Dutluk station in Keçiören, Ankara. Results show that using fractal dimension value of streetscape as a variable in the walkability index can identify the factors that influence walking behavior.
... Therefore, both subjective and objective factors affect aesthetic perception. Subjective factors include emotional experience, psychological needs, historical and cultural significance, and spiritual value [8][9][10][11], while objective factors include the physical form, texture, features, and colors of the environment [12][13][14][15]. This paper explores the relationship between objective spatial forms and subjective aesthetic preference in public spaces in traditional villages in Dongshan and Xishan on Lake Taihu. ...
... Existing research points to a significant correlation between spatial physical form and landscape aesthetic preference [18][19][20]. The key to exploring the relationship between these is developing effective scientific depictions of the physical variables that represent spatial forms and scientifically measure the landscape aesthetic preferences [15,21,22]. ...
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Traditional villages are historically, culturally, scientifically and aesthetically valuable, and a beautiful landscape is the primary embodiment of a traditional village environment. Urbanization and modernization have had a great impact on village landscapes. As an important aspect of traditional village landscapes, creating beautiful public spaces is an effective way to attract tourists and improve the well-being of residents. Landscape aesthetic activities are the result of the interaction between landscape objects and aesthetic subjects. Research on the relationship between the form of traditional village public spaces and subjective aesthetic preferences has long been neglected. This research examined 31 public spaces in traditional villages in the Dongshan and Xishan areas in Lake Taihu, Suzhou. An index system of public spatial forms in traditional villages was created, basic data of spatial forms were collected using a hand-held 3D laser scanner, and the value of the spatial forms index was calculated using R language. The scenic beauty estimation (SBE) method was improved, with the estimation of the beauty of the scenic environment based on VR panorama rather than traditional photo media. Parameter screening was performed using correlation analysis and full subset regression analysis, and four models were used to fit the SBE scores and grades. The results show that the majority of public spaces had lower than average SBE scores, and the four key indicators of average contour upper height, solid-space ratio, vegetation cover, and comprehensive closure predicted SBE. In addition, the linear model (R2 = 0.332, RMSE = 64.774) had the most accurate SBE level prediction and the stochastic forest model (R2 = 0.405, RMSE = 63.311) was better at predicting specific SBE scores. The model provides managers, designers, and researchers with a method for the quantitative evaluation of visual landscape preferences and quantitative landscape spatial forms and provides a reference for the protection and renewal of traditional village landscapes.
... In aesthetic process, people will judge the aesthetic scale of the aesthetic object through visual cognition [3], thus, cognitive differences between the complexity of the product form, which is termed as cognitive complexity, and the objective form complexity and aesthetic evaluation are produced. e cognitive complexity can directly reflect the aesthetic degree of an aesthetic object, and too high or too low cognitive complexity will not bring a pleasant aesthetic experience [4]. However, most existing studies focus on the calculation of the complexity and beauty of the structure ontology [5] and seldom consider the complexity measurement after visual cognitive processing, which is critical for the overall aesthetic evaluation of a product and has a direct impact on user experience and preference. ...
... ese contribute to aesthetic recognition for users. For example, Hagerhall et al. [4] concluded that human visual cognition is more inclined to the figure under a dimension of 1.3. Sun et al. found that there is a nearly monotonous relationship between visual complexity and aesthetic expectation [19]. ...
Article
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Product market competitiveness is positively influenced by the aesthetic value of product form, which is closely related to product complexity. By measuring the cognitive complexity of the product, this research establishes the relationship between the complexity and aesthetics of the product using an artificial neural network. Hence the prediction of product beauty is achieved, which guides design decisions. In this article, the complexity of product form is first measured through a combination of hesitant-fuzzy theory and information axiom. Afterward, the result is weighted by exponential entropy and dimensionally compressed. This method makes data more suitable for the prediction with small samples, obtaining an accuracy improvement of up to 40% compared with traditional approaches. Finally, the importance order of the design elements which affect morphological complexity is acquired. Results show that three of the six complexity features (element number, object intelligence, and object detail) are more significant, impacting the aesthetic feeling of product form. The method increases the attractiveness of products to customers, providing valuable design support for enterprises and designers in the early days when a new product is designed, and reducing research and development risks.
... According to the study results, skylines with a high fractal dimension were preferred with a high ratio (Stamps, 2002). In the study conducted by Hagerhall et al. (2004), the relationship between the preferences of participants and the fractal dimension of the skyline was examined. As a result, it was determined that there is a positive relationship between individuals' preferences and fractal dimensions. ...
... The density of landscape elements caused fractal dimensions to be high. Also, the number of participants liking these images was high (Hagerhall et al., 2004). In Cooper's (2003) study, the fractal dimension of the street skyline was compared with the characteristics of the street. ...
Article
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Purpose The urban design criteria significantly affect the visual quality of space. Enclosure and Complexity can be defined as two crucial urban design principles that affect the perceptibility and visual quality of space. This study aimed to offer an objective and perceptual evaluation method in assessing the street’s enclosure ratio. In the study, the street's enclosure ratio was evaluated via the street skyline's complexity. Design/Methodology/Approach According to the study's hypothesis, as the street's enclosure ratio increases, the street skyline's complexity level decreases. For testing this hypothesis, the street images were selected from the London and Chicago cities. Firstly, the skylines of the streets were determined on images, and then, the fractal dimensions of skylines were calculated. Then, the street’s enclosure ratio and the factors that affect street skyline's fractal dimension were measured with a defined measurement system. Subsequently, the relationship between the street’s enclosure ratio and calculated street skyline's fractal dimensions was examined by regression analysis. Findings As a result, it was determined that there is an inverse relationship between the street’s enclosure ratio and the street skyline’s fractal dimensions. As the enclosure ratio increases, the complexity of the skyline decreases. The decrease in the complexity level of the skyline weakens the visual quality and perceptibility of the street. Research Limitations In this study, the perceptual evaluation of the street’s enclosure ratio was examined with an objective method. This method can also be reinforced with a subjective evaluation and more precise results can be obtained. Social Implications The obtained results can provide important clues to increase the visual quality and perceptibility of the streets. In perceptible spaces with high visual quality, feelings such as liking, trust, belonging and comfort develop in people. Originality/Value The fractal approach as an objective method is used widely for perceptual evaluation of the complexity level in cities. However, it was determined that very few studies examined the street’s enclosure ratio with the perceptual and objective evaluation method. Perceptual evaluations of the enclosure were generally made with subjective methods. This study offered an objective and perceptual evaluation approach for examining the street’s enclosure ratio.
... This study therefore made a preliminary three-classification: 'simple' (low-texture & low-composition)-'textured but simple' (high-texture & low-composition)-'diverse' (high-texture & high-composition), the fourth classification 'invalid' (low texture & high-composition) means it hardly happens because usually FDT >= FDH, as Potts segmentation in FDH diminishes details. Although a strong correlation between fractal dimension and human perception has been proved [33,[59][60][61], the classification of fractal dimension according to human perception varies with the difference of computation samples and computation methods. ...
... Patuano [41] pointed out that it is critical to address the image-preprocessing properly, because different levels of edge extraction have a significantly effect on the fractal dimension of landscape images, and only the silhouette outline of the landscape can discriminate between two different scenario types. Hagerhall, et al. [60] investigated the correlation between the fractal dimension of 80 landscapes' silhouettes and human preference, the result showed that human preference peaks at the fractal dimension of 1.3. The extraction of landscape silhouette is similar to the proposed FDH method to some extent, they both extract the perceptually meaningful edges in landscape images, except the FDH extracts larger numbers of effective edges than just silhouette in the scenario, and captures more information of visual perception. ...
Article
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In this study, a fractal dimension-based method has been developed to compute the visual complexity of the heterogeneity in the built environment. The built environment is a very complex combination, structurally consisting of both natural and artificial elements. Its fractal dimension computation is often disturbed by the homogenous visual redundancy, which is textured but needs less attention to process, so that it leads to a pseudo-evaluation of visual complexity in the built environment. Based on human visual perception, the study developed a method: fractal dimension of heterogeneity in the built environment, which includes Potts segmentation and Canny edge detection as image preprocessing procedure and fractal dimension as computation procedure. This proposed method effectively extracts perceptually meaningful edge structures in the visual image and computes its visual complexity which is consistent with human visual characteristics. In addition, an evaluation system combining the proposed method and the traditional method has been established to classify and assess the visual complexity of the scenario more comprehensively. Two different gardens had been computed and analyzed to demonstrate that the proposed method and the evaluation system provide a robust and accurate way to measure the visual complexity in the built environment.
... Investigations into fractal geometry have demonstrated that fractals can create feelings of spaciousness by increasing density and optimizing space without expanding the topological dimension (Hernandez et al. 2010, p. 43). Intriguing as this was as an explanation for why plants improve livability of a habitat, subsequent research strongly demonstrated that preferences for natural settings was predictable by the underlying geometric, fractal properties which appear to be responsible for the associated restorative effects (Hagerhall et al. 2004). And, in fact, empirical evidence from computer generated images, human-generated drip patterns (aka Jackson Pollack), natural sources (images and actual presence of flora) (Spehar et al. 2003;Abraham et al. 2003;Hagerhall et al. 2004;Taylor et al. 2005) and even some built environments (Scopelliti et al. 2018) has subsequently indicated that the most effective linkages appear between cognitive and emotional processes and settings characterized by fractal structuring in the 1.3-1.7 dimensional range (D). ...
... Intriguing as this was as an explanation for why plants improve livability of a habitat, subsequent research strongly demonstrated that preferences for natural settings was predictable by the underlying geometric, fractal properties which appear to be responsible for the associated restorative effects (Hagerhall et al. 2004). And, in fact, empirical evidence from computer generated images, human-generated drip patterns (aka Jackson Pollack), natural sources (images and actual presence of flora) (Spehar et al. 2003;Abraham et al. 2003;Hagerhall et al. 2004;Taylor et al. 2005) and even some built environments (Scopelliti et al. 2018) has subsequently indicated that the most effective linkages appear between cognitive and emotional processes and settings characterized by fractal structuring in the 1.3-1.7 dimensional range (D). ...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on a selection of major overarching habitability issues which have been identified by experience and research to date. Each factor is discussed and commonalities and differences identified to enable both synergy and effective distinctions where needed. For each, we explain the underlying socio-spatial relationship (the context) with reference to latest research followed by examples from isolated and confined environments with possible solutions for each phenomenon. Among the myriad future possible solutions, some will address multiple needs and not all solutions can be applied in all instances. In addition, while the exemplary design suggestions are based on current imminent or existing technology, with the rate of technological innovation and invention, some of these will have already matured into practice by the time this book is distributed and new possibilities will have emerged. This means that there is not just ONE possible solution to a problem, but a variety of possibilities. However, to use this large ‘pool of ideas’, mission planners, aerospace architects and designers have to understand the underlying human-spatial concepts, which are discussed for each habitability issue. Only then, will it be possible to come up with a solution that deserves the name habitability design solution. Habitability issues discussed in this chapter encompass the reciprocal conditions of the individual and small groups with mission and environmental characteristics (place and space), lengths (short- and long term), resources and human activities within an extraterrestrial habitat.
... The factors related to walking the behaviour of the city dwellers have been postulated by many researchers in literature is built around the city form. Papadimitriou et al. (2009), Xi andSon (2012) explored approaches to route choice in their model, while Jansen-Osmann and Wiedenbauer (2004) suggest that people perceive as longer streets of the route with more turns, but Schlossberg et al. (2007), Berlyne (1974), Hagerhall et al. (2004), specifically focused on perceptions of street shapes. However, authors like Kent (1989), Herzong and Miller (1998), and Matsumoto et al. (1997), Kaplan (1987Kaplan ( , 1988, Van Holle et al. (2016) explained that interactions between neighbourhoods in Belgium is related to the socio-economy of the people. ...
... The behavioural factors related to the walking of city dwellers have been postulated by many researchers in literature, which was built around environmental attributes. Papadimitriou et al. (2009), Xi andSon (2012) explored approaches to route choice in their model, while Jansen-Osmann and Wiedenbauer (2004) suggest that people perceive as longer the streets of the routes with more turns, but Agrawal et al. (2008), Berlyne (1974), Hagerhall et al. (2004), specifically focused on perceptions of street shapes. However, authors like Kent (1989), Herzong and Miller (1998), and Matsumoto et al. (1997), Kaplan (1987Kaplan ( , 1988, D'Acci (2019) made efforts to convince that people preferences are toward more curved streets stimulating curiosity and mystery. ...
Article
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Walking within neighbourhoods had been found to be beneficial in many ways including health, but there is the need to consider factors that will influence walking behaviour for planning purposes. Finding factors of walkability requires more than one tool of measurement since it involves urban form and socio-economy. The space syntax method had been applied in examining urban form (street structure) and the socio-economic factor was measured using regression analysis, within neighbourhoods of contrasting characteristics. This paper examines the syntactical properties relating to the new urbanist area and core area of the city, relating to their walking behaviour, examining the people’s socio-economic characteristics, investigating the individuals’ walking behaviour and factors explaining the variance of walkability in the study area. The paper concludes by using the findings to recommend strategies that planners, designers, and policy-makers can use to design successful transit and pedestrian-oriented developments.
... "Fractals capture the order and structure in natural environments by the recurrence of similar visual information across multiple scale levels. This is illustrated by the fact that natural scenes retain roughly the same amount of elements and form as one zooms in and out of the scene" (van den Berg et al. 2016, S. 399 (Hagerhall et al. 2004) sowie Gehirnaktivitäten (Hagerhall et al. 2008) beforscht. Aus den Ergebnissen lässt sich entnehmen, dass Menschen Muster und Strukturen, welche sich durch eine bestimmte fraktale Dimension in Abhängigkeit von Wiederholung und Detailreichtum charakterisieren lassen, besonders lange und intensiv betrachten und diese in der Regel positiv bewerten. ...
... Dies bedeutet, dass diese visuellen Strukturen auf verschiedenen Maßstabsebenen Ähnlichkeit mit sich selber aufweisen. Fraktale Formen zeigen sich zum Beispiel in Details von Wolken, Zweige, Blätter, Rinde, Gesteins-und Dünenstrukturen (Abbildung 25,26,28,29) und können aber auch in großräumigen landschaftlichen Strukturen (Abbildung 27), sowie der Gestalt der Horizontlinie als Abgrenzung zwischen Vorderund Hintergrund ausfindig gemacht und untersucht werden (Hagerhall et al. 2004;vgl. Kapitel 3.4.1). ...
Book
Die vorliegende Arbeit befasst sich mit der Fragestellung „Wie lässt sich landschaftsbezogenes Wohlbefinden in der räumlichen Planung greifbar machen?“. In den Vorüberlegungen werden Grundlagen des Wahrnehmens und Erlebens von Landschaft, sowie der Landschaftstheorie zusammengestellt und systematisch aufbereitet. Weiterhin werden die Begriffe Landschaft, Gesundheit, Wohlbefinden und Erholung inhaltlich gefasst und theoretische Wechselbezüge dargestellt. Anschließend werden unterschiedliche Möglichkeiten zur Ermittlung von menschlichen Emotionen im Raum vorgestellt. Dabei handelt es sich um innovative Formate der Raumforschung, wie spaziergangs- oder fotografiebasierte Forschungsmethoden und etablierte Instrumente der Psychologie, wie Emotionsfragebögen. Diese werden systematisch aufbereitet, um Vorteile bzw. Herausforderungen aufzuzeigen. Danach wird ein Forschungsdesign entwickelt und in konkreten Untersuchungsgebieten zur Anwendung gebracht. Es entstehen empirische Daten zu menschlichem Wohlbefinden in diversen Erholungsgebieten, welche systematisch ausgewertet und zusammengeführt werden. Zugehörige Ergebnisse werden auf kreativem Wege visualisiert und in Form von Diagrammen, Fotos sowie Karten präsentiert. Das Buch richtet sich sowohl an Wissenschaftler*innen und Planer*innen als auch an naturbegeisterte Personen und Menschen, welche Landschaft zu Erholungszwecken aufsuchen. Der Autor Dr.-Ing. Daniel Münderlein ist wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter am Institut für Landschaftsarchitektur der RWTH Aachen.
... Recordings show that the 1.32 fractal dimension causes increased activity of alpha waves and decreased activity of delta waves. Alpha waves are associated with relaxed state, and delta waves are associated with sleep states, therefore it could be summarised that images with fractal dimension 1.3 made participants more awake and relaxed [6]. But evidence is not consistent as previous studies found that image preference is correlated with fractal dimension [6], additionally Pollock paintings grew in fractal dimension constantly as author painted more [17], and study of the Pollock paintings preference showed that participants preferred painting with larger fractal dimension up to 1.8 [16]. ...
... Alpha waves are associated with relaxed state, and delta waves are associated with sleep states, therefore it could be summarised that images with fractal dimension 1.3 made participants more awake and relaxed [6]. But evidence is not consistent as previous studies found that image preference is correlated with fractal dimension [6], additionally Pollock paintings grew in fractal dimension constantly as author painted more [17], and study of the Pollock paintings preference showed that participants preferred painting with larger fractal dimension up to 1.8 [16]. Fractal dimension can be described as slope of the line in the log-log plot of box counts [9]. ...
Article
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The results of numerous studies which are performed on the concepts of Biophilic architecture demonstrate that it can influence emotional tension and health of the observers. Moreover Biophilic research exhibits that not only natural plants induce biophilic response, but also artificial, human creations with certain fractal dimensions or distributions of scales can have an impact. In that regard, the aim of this research is to describe the relation between measurable Biophilic properties of façades and the emotional tension inducing health problems measured with the count of medical emergency arrivals in the vicinity of the façades. To achieve the aim several tasks were completed, such as the development of a methodology of façade analysis, and application of it in an experiment to test the validity. The engineered features found by this research are based on statistical analysis of distributions of line lengths and distances between lines in a drawing of a façade. To test the methodology, a linear regression model with six features was trained and it achieved a 37 % confidence, measured with R² adjusted, predicting the number of medical emergency arrivals. Simplicity of the model allowed to make additional insights into the specificity of façade properties, and their importance to Biophilia, which establishes the scientific novelty and the significance of this research.
... Наличие таких предпочтений согласуется с фрактальностью природных объектов, приятных и привычных человеческому глазу [Mandelbrot, 1982;Peitgen, Richter, 1986;Sprott, 1993;Taylor, Sprott, 2008]. Как отмечают разные авторы, человек в процессе длительной эволюции адаптировался к фрактальной природной среде, к восприятию мира, насыщенного самоподобными объектами [Hagerhall et al., 2004;Joye, 2007;Пьянкова, 2016]. Неслучайно большинству людей приятны виды облаков, морских волн и других объектов, которые характеризуются средней фрактальной размерностью (см. ...
Article
Фрактальная размерность, как показано в ряде исследований, тесно связана с параметрами восприятия самоподобных объектов. Изучались особенности восприятия фрактальных изображений. Проверялись предположения об устойчивости индивидуальных различий в субъективных оценках визуальной сложности, о влиянии генетических факторов на эстетические предпочтения при восприятии визуальных самоподобных стимулов. Использовался авторский метод (2013) исследования: испытуемые ранжировали 20 плоских изображений разной фрактальной размерности (от 1,086 до 1,751). Анализировались связи между объективными (фрактальная размерность) и субъективными оценками визуальной сложности и привлекательности стимулов. Испытуемые (N = 299) ранжировали стимулы: группа 1 – по критерию субъективной сложности, 175 человек, средний возраст 21,9 ± 3,29, повторно обследованы 55 человек; группа 2 – по критерию субъективной привлекательности, 124 человека, средний возраст 19 ± 1,45. В группе 2 определялись носители аллелей генов МАОА и DRD2. Результаты подтверждают гипотезы исследования: субъективные оценки визуальной сложности коррелируют с фрактальной размерностью и воспроизводятся при повторном тестировании; обнаружено (впервые) влияние полиморфизмов генов МАОА и DRD2 на эстетические предпочтения при восприятии визуальных фрактальных стимулов. Представляется обоснованным введение психологического конструкта «чувствительность к фрактальной размерности» при изучении вариативности восприятия визуальных фрактальных объектов.
... PFA clearly explains how viewing nature can lead to restoration experiences. Given that PFA is not based on "the story of evolution" and the "fractal" may be quantitatively measured by certain methods (Hagerhall et al. 2004), we believe this theory can be better validated. ...
Article
Plant-enriched environments, the most common terrestrial landscapes, are usually coded as “green space” in urban studies. To understand how these natural environments can benefit human health, many theories have been developed, such as the well-known Attention Restoration Theory. Nowadays, more theories are emerging with regard to various and complex health dimensions. In this context, we searched online databases (from 2000 to 2022) and conducted a narrative review aiming to introduce relevant theories concerning psychological (e.g. Perceptual Fluency Account and Conditioned Restoration Theory), physiological (e.g. volatile organic compounds and environmental microbiomes), and behavioural (e.g. physical activity and social contact) perspectives. We also slightly mentioned some limitations and directions to be considered when using these theories. These results may offer general readers insights into the value of nature exposure and also help relevant researchers with study design and result interpretation.
... Daha sonra, fraktal geometrinin gücü, sanat ve doğa arasındaki bağları ortaya çıkarmanın bir yolu olarak estetik kaygılara dönüşmüştür. Bu nedenle bazı araştırmacılar fraktal modellerin yerel bitki örtüsüyle bağlantılı olduğunu ve doğallıkla ilişkili olduklarını saptamıştır (Hagerhall, Purcell, ve Taylor, 2004). ...
... Cette préférence proviendrait de l'histoire évolutive de l'être humain. Un paysage dont la dimension fractale est faible permet une détection plus aisée d'éventuelles menaces (Barrow, 2003 ;Hagerhall et al., 2004). Outre la dimension quantitative, la nature des fractales est également un critère de préférence : les sujets confient préférer les 53 fractales naturelles (e.g.¸ arbres, nuages) à celles générées par ordinateur (e.g., peintures de Jackson Pollock ; (Spehar et al., 2003 ;Taylor & Spehar, 2016). ...
Thesis
Les bienfaits des espaces de nature urbains sur la santé mentale sont attestés par de nombreuses publications scientifiques. Aujourd’hui, les recherches montrent que la diversité paysagère ainsi que les caractéristiques inter-individuelles induisent des effets différentiels sur la santé et le bien-être des usagers. L’objectif de cette thèse est de spécifier comment une expérience de nature bénéfique combine les composantes subjectives et environnementales. La recherche est menée à partir d’une expérience de nature in situ. Les comportements sont évalués par l’oculométrie, les cognitions avec l’entretien d’explicitation et les affects par le biais d’échelles psychométriques relatives à l’humeur et l’anxiété. Nos données objectivent un phénomène de restauration attentionnelle lors de cette expérience. La combinaison des approches psychologiques et paysagères renseigne qu’un paysage avec une faible verticalité et un champ visuel étendu favorise davantage la restauration. Enfin, nos analyses indiquent que le caractère thérapeutique de l’expérience de nature est lié à l’expérimentation d’états de pleine conscience. L’originalité de ce travail est de proposer une méthodologie mettant en évidence l’effet bénéfique de paysages contrastés Elle présente cependant des limites pour lesquelles des solutions sont proposées. Nos résultats suggèrent que l’expérience de nature constitue une véritable stratégie pour réduire l’anxiété et promouvoir l’euthymie en ramenant aux sensations présentes, c’est-à-dire à une expérience proche de la pleine conscience.
... Daha sonra, fraktal geometrinin gücü, sanat ve doğa arasındaki bağları ortaya çıkarmanın bir yolu olarak estetik kaygılara dönüşmüştür. Bu nedenle bazı araştırmacılar fraktal modellerin yerel bitki örtüsüyle bağlantılı olduğunu ve doğallıkla ilişkili olduklarını saptamıştır (Hagerhall, Purcell, ve Taylor, 2004). ...
... Besides often having unusually large brains in comparison to body size (Boddy et al., 2012), primates also show an increased reliance on stereoscopic vision rather than smell and are unique among mammals in possessing trichromatic colour vision (Regan et al., 2001;Carvalho Livia et al., 2017). Consequently, many of nature's characteristic features and patterns, such as its distinct colours or fractal patterns (Mandelbrot, 1983;Hägerhäll et al., 2004), are perceived by us largely through our highly developed sense of vision. Apart from needs to detect ripe fruits among foliage and judging distances for climbing, our visual capacities can also be linked with an acute need among our tree living primate ancestors to detect dangerous snakes in their habitat, the so-called snake detection theory (Isbell, 2006;Soares et al., 2014;Kawai and He, 2016). ...
Article
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Urbanisation and lifestyle-related illnesses increase globally. This highlights the need to shape modern human habitats to support basic recreational needs, promoting such things as physical activity and restoration of high stress levels and cognitive fatigue. Previous research suggests eight perceived qualities in the outdoor environment, described as eight perceived sensory dimensions, as universally meaningful to people in this regard. However quite extensively studied in relation to various health and wellbeing outcomes, human sensitivity and appreciation for these qualities has not yet been explicitly analysed from an evolutionary perspective. This paper investigates their possible evolutionary roots and suggests an order for their development. This is linked with empirical findings on their relative capacity to support restoration of stress and cognitive fatigue. Qualities of earlier origin are suggested to correspond to older, more fundamental adaptations. Each subsequently developed quality implies an increased complexity of our environmental relations, associated with higher demands on more recently developed capacities. The proposed model thus links the more restorative Serene, Sheltered, Natural, and Cohesive perceived sensory dimensions with earlier stages of our development while the more demanding Diverse, Open, Cultural, and Social qualities are associated with more recent transitions. It might be of relevance when shaping modern human habitats from a health- promoting perspective, and have applications in the planning and design of, e.g., health care settings, rehabilitation gardens, urban green areas, recreational forests or other similar outdoor environments.
... This ease of processing the natural environment is assumed to elicit both positive affect and efficient attention restoration. On the one hand, experimental studies using com-puter-generated and natural stimuli varying in their fractal characteristics showed connections with stated preferences and with relaxation as measured in EEG responses (Hägerhäll et al., 2004(Hägerhäll et al., , 2015. On the other hand, Menzel and Reese (2022) found no support for the predictions of the PFA on restoration in phase-scrambled nature images. ...
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We present an overview of the evidence of how nature benefits mental health, popular theories used to explain the effects, and the development potential of these theories. A large body of evidence highlights the beneficial effects of nature on mental health, with observed outcomes ranging from alleviating the symptoms of psychiatric disorders to improvements in cognitive abilities. The theoretical backbone for these salutary effects of nature consists of a set of models, mainly the attention restoration theory (ART), the stress reduction theory (SRT), and the Biophilia hypothesis. However, these high-level models are only loosely related and lack a pronounced biopsychological basis. While biopsychological measurements have been used widely in recent years, these efforts have not sufficiently been reflected in theories aiming to explain the benefits of nature contact for mental health. This paper seeks to encourage interdisciplinary work and further theory development to guide both research and practice toward strategically green and healthy living conditions.
... Empirical research found that forest health tourism has a direct and significant effect on environmental preferences [52], and there is also a direct positive influence path of environmental preferences on place attachment [53]. Therefore, a positive path of the "experiential value of forest health tourism-place attachment" has been established. ...
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With the increasing concerns about the environmental issues of forest health tourism, the environmentally responsible behavior of tourists becomes the key to the sustainable development of forest health tourism. Therefore, the article takes experiential value as an entrance point, innovatively introduces the scenario of forest health tourism, and divides experiential value into the functional value, hedonic value and symbolic value. Then, a theoretical model of the experiential value of forest health tourism, two place perception concepts of place attachment, and environmentally responsible behavior is constructed. The research team assembled 498 valid questionnaires for the empirical investigation in the Fuzhou National Forest Park in China. Structural equation modeling was used to test the theoretical hypotheses and to explore the cumulative driving effects of the experiential value and place attachment in forest health tourism on environmentally responsible behavior. The results showed that the experiential value of forest health tourism had a significant positive effect on the environmentally responsible behavior. It also had a significant positive effect on place attachment, which also strengthened the environmentally responsible behavior. In addition, place attachment is considered to be an important mediator of the effect of forest health tourism’s experiential value on the intention of environmentally responsible behavior. Place attachment is a more important element driving environmentally responsible behavior than the elements of the forest health tourism’s experiential value. Place attachment has a greater impact on tourists’ environmentally responsible behavior than place identification. This highlights the importance of place attachment in influencing the environmentally responsible behavior of tourists. These results provide a useful theoretical basis and practical reference for promoting environmentally responsible behavior in forest health tourism.
... However, the number of stimuli used in the experiment was limited to 4 per FD, for a total of 16, which may limit statistical inferences. Interestingly, the FD that tends to facilitate pareidolia (FD = 1.3) has also been associated with the perception of beauty and esthetic preference (Aks and Sprott, 1996;Hagerhall et al., 2004;Taylor et al., 2005), both in synthetic noise images and works of art (Viengkham and Spehar, 2018), suggesting that a stimulus with a higher chance of triggering pareidolia might also be judged as more esthetically appealing. Coherently, Taylor and Spehar (2016) developed a fluency model suggesting that mid-FDs (1.3-1.5) ...
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Creativity is a highly valued and beneficial skill that empirical research typically probed using “divergent thinking” tasks such as problem solving and novel idea generation. Here, in contrast, we examine the perceptual aspect of creativity by asking whether creative individuals are more likely to perceive recognizable forms in ambiguous stimuli — a phenomenon known as pareidolia. To this end, we designed a visual task in which participants were asked to identify as many recognizable forms as possible in cloud-like fractal images. We found that pareidolic perceptions arise more often and more rapidly in highly creative individuals. Furthermore, high-creatives report pareidolia across a broader range of image contrasts and fractal dimensions than do low-creatives. These results extend the established body of work on divergent thinking by introducing divergent perception as a complementary manifestation of the creative mind, thus clarifying the perception-creation link while opening new paths for studying creative behavior in humans.
... This result suggests that symmetry did not positively affect an individual's aesthetic appreciation of landscape if it was perceived as artificial (i.e., computationally produced). Compound symmetries (i.e., combinations or different kinds of symmetry) are actually common in natural and urban environments (Mehaffy, 2020), and it has been demonstrated that symmetrical patterns can govern aesthetic preferences (Hagerhall et al., 2004;Jacobsen & Höfel, 2003;Jacobsen et al., 2006;Palmer et al., 2008;Treder, 2010). However, because symmetry is only one of the aesthetic parameters that might play a role in liking, and there are cases where is not the most preferred one (Leder et al., 2019;McManus, 2005), we also took advantage of computational aesthetics by means of deep convolutional neural networks (CNN; Redies, 2019) to extract additional and objective CNN features (i.e., symmetry, self-similarity, and variances) that might contribute to liking and choice of a tourist destination . ...
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Photographs of places are cognitive sources that provide the observer with a first, essential impression of a potential tourist destination, before the observer visits that place. Recent evidence suggests that aesthetic qualities of a tourist destination may affect tourists’ experience and satisfaction, contributing to their loyalty toward a destination and intention to return. Drawing upon the literature on sensorimotor processes of aesthetic experience of arts, here, we investigated whether embodiment and aesthetic qualities of landscape photos might play a role in people’s aesthetic preference and willingness to visit a tourist destination. One-hundred twenty-one participants (Mage = 22.17, SD = 6.25) completed an online survey, which asked to evaluate a series of landscapes according to subjective ratings of presence, exploration, and completion, that is the intention to explore beyond the represented place (embodiment dimensions), as well as of symmetry. Furthermore, participants rated how much they liked each destination (Liking) and how much they would like to visit that place (Tourist judgment). Convolutional neural networks (CNN) of image features (Symmetry, Variance and Self-similarity) were also analyzed to rule out the effects of these features on the 2 types of judgment. Results showed that embodiment components predicted both Liking and Tourist judgements. In contrast, neither subjective Symmetry nor CNN measures predicted any of the 2 Liking and Tourist judgements. Overall, our findings support a novel theoretical framework of tourist aesthetic judgment, whereby sensorimotor mechanisms might play a role in tourist destination choice.
... A última característica, a dimensão fractal, ou dimensão D, é um dos aspectos que impulsionaram o uso da geometria fractal na composição dos elementos de fachada, visto que a utilização das características dos fractais pode trazer respostas psicológicas positivas dos lugares que nos cercam. Com base em estudos científicos como os de Wise e Rosenberg (1986) e Hargerhall, Purcell e Taylor (2004), autores como Taylor (2006) e Joye (2007) comentam as razões que relacionam os fractais com as interpretações humanas positivas. Essas razões compreendem processos biológicos como: ordenação cerebral, pulso cardíaco, orientação espacial da visão e também padrões evolutivos, sendo eles: interpretação dos lugares, instintos e manifestações artísticas. ...
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Esta pesquisa trata do desenvolvimento de um processo paramétrico para a aplicação de padrões geométricos fractais em elementos arquitetônicos de fachada. Tendo como objetivo desenvolver e avaliar um processo de projeto que possibilite gerar componentes de fachada com características da geometria fractal linear, organizá-los conforme a radiação incidente e verificar a complexidade de sua composição por meio da dimensão fractal. Para isso um processo paramétrico e generativo foi construído em uma ferramenta de programação visual e plug-ins, seguindo um modelo de performance adaptado. Como resultado é possível identificar e verificar o comportamento da luz do dia nos ambientes internos, consequente da escolha do padrão fractal linear da composição organizada a partir da radiação e do entorno urbano utilizado. Na sequência, com base nos resultados, foi desenvolvida uma correlação entre as composições e o entorno urbano, demonstrando que a utilização dos controladores possibilita que a luz do dia no interior seja controlada pelo projetista, distribuindo a luz independente da verticalização do entorno urbano.
... For this computation, the image is divided into multiple sub-sections, and a histogram intersection kernel is used to evaluate the similarity in HOG vectors across the entire image. Previous work has shown that people's aesthetic preferences can be predicted by the fractal (self-similar) geometry of the images being observed (Abboushi et al., 2019;Hagerhall et al., 2004;J. Smith et al., 2020). ...
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Worship spaces play a critical role in religious life, serving as the center of activity for faith communities. As a consequence, these spaces form strong associations with the deity that is worshiped there. The goal of this project was to investigate the extent to which religious adherents may come to view these spaces in ways that are influenced by their conceptualization of what god is like. This article reports a pair of studies that tests how congregants’ impressions of both their own worship space (Study 1) and novel worship spaces (Study 2) are guided by their god concepts. Participants (N = 478 in Study 1; N = 407 in Study 2) completed measures assessing their conceptualization of god, followed by providing their impressions of a religious setting in terms of its perceptual legibility (i.e., coherence) and mystery (e.g., complexity). In both studies, those who viewed god in highly benevolent terms were more likely to rate religious settings as high in perceptual legibility (i.e., coherent and easy to understand). In contrast, those who conceptualized god as primarily mystical and ineffable were more likely to view these religious settings as high in perceptual mystery (i.e., complex and requiring exploration). These findings reveal how people’s beliefs about god can serve as conceptual filters through which they view the physical world. Methods: This paper reports a pair of studies that tests how congregants’ impressions of both their own worship space (Study 1) and novel worship spaces (Study 2) are guided by their god concepts. Participants (N = 478 in Study 1; N = 407 in Study 2) completed measures assessing their conceptualization of god, followed by providing their impressions of a religious setting in terms of its perceptual legibility (i.e., coherence) and mystery (e.g., complexity). Results: In both studies, those who viewed god in highly benevolent terms were more likely to rate religious settings as high in perceptual legibility (i.e., coherent and easy to understand). In contrast, those who conceptualized god as primarily mystical and ineffable were more likely to view these religious settings as high in perceptual mystery (i.e., complex and requiring exploration). Conclusions: These findings reveal how people’s beliefs about god can serve as conceptual filters through which they view the physical world.
... In campus settings, green and built spaces have intrinsic qualities that enable students to connect to nature and gain benefits. Fractal qualities (i.e., ordered details arranged in a nested scaling hierarchy) contribute positively to well-being (Hagerhall et al., 2004;Taylor, 2006). ...
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University Campuses remain important settings for nurturing and supporting student health and quality of life (QoL). Research shows the health benefits of nature experiences may be facilitated by campus spaces and activities that afford connectedness. Connectedness to nature, others, and self may allow students to cope with mental fatigue, stress, and a constant need for restoration. Despite recent encouraging trends, we still lack an integrative conceptual framework to describe the mechanisms involved in achieving connectedness for making recommendations for campus design. In this conceptual review, we examine students’ connectedness in campus settings in relation to biophilic elements and attributes. We aim to understand how both direct and indirect pursuits in nature and also place-based experiences on campus foster connectedness and consequently impact students’ health and QoL. Our analysis shows that connectedness seen through the lens of Kellert’s biophilic design principles and aided by Alexander’s pattern language provides a relational and long-term perspective on recommending strategies for connecting students to nature, to others, and to themselves in campus settings.
... While some researchers assert that the assessment of natural beauty requires scientific knowledge of the landscape, others contend that while knowledge can inform, aesthetic judgement is not based on cognition but on preferences. Preference-based research has indicated that the positive preferences are evoked from water, topographic variation, woodlands and naturalness [83]. ...
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This paper provides an international perspective on visual resource stewardship. It examines the long history of Britain’s love affair with its landscapes and its abandonment of measuring the subjective element of landscape quality, focusing instead on landscape character, which could be objectively assessed. This paper summarises the development of the European Landscape Convention, which has been embraced across much of Europe, and which follows Britain’s emphasis on landscape character. Programs in a range of European countries are reviewed. The recognition of outstanding landscapes under the World Heritage Convention, the UN List of Protected Areas program which includes landscapes, and National Scenic Area programs, are briefly summarised. The key message of this paper is that most of the provisions summarised focus on the character of the landscape and not its quality. Because it has been alleged, particularly in Britain and Europe, that it is too difficult to measure scenic quality, landscape character has become the subject instead of scenic quality.
... Future studies should try to adjust the definition and add examples/ images with the attributes and test if the results will be different. Some supporting research that links these attributes to natural patterns and processes includes that children and young people prefer thematic design w/pattems, stars and stripes in hospitals (Coad and Coad, 2008) and views of fractal forms are preferred due to their naturatoess (Hagerhall, 2004). Element four, Color and Light, had three factor loadings. ...
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Purpose The Biophilic Interior Design Matrix (BID-M) was created to assist designers with identifying biophilic interior design features for optimizing nature integration for evidence-based design. The BID-M was developed and tested with interior design practitioners in the United States. There was a need to further develop the BID-M for other cultures along with understanding the designers' perceptions of biophilia. Design/methodology/approach A mixed methods approach was used with 101 interior designers/architects practicing in China using a pre- and post-questionnaire surrounding a room assessment using the BID-M. Findings The Chinese translation of the BID-M was perceived as beneficial to design practice, evaluated as reliable and valid. The Chinese designers perceived a significant increase in knowledge and importance of biophilia after using the BID-M and it was useful in assisting all parts of the design process. The designers had some prior experience with biophilic design and clients have been requesting suitable natural and artificial light features. Practical implications The BID-M was seen as a human centered design tool that is useful to evaluate biophilic design features in the built environment. Originality/value Overall, the BID-M appears to be useful throughout the design process to ultimately support well-being. The participants' cultural background expands use of the BID-M and provides opportunities for additional cultural applications of biophilic design and future research. The BID-M offers additional language for incorporating biophilic design as well as serving to educate and guide feature selection.
... Keighley's [42,43] studies pointed out that the horizon helps balance the picture and satisfy people with the scene's composition. Hagerhall, Purcell [44] mentioned that the horizon is the most important edge in a typical landscape image. According to Kent [45], artists often place the horizon in the center of the depiction and then change its position by raising, lowering, or tilting to achieve the effect they want to express. ...
Article
A high-quality window view plays an essential role in people's indoor life, and assessing the content of the window view is essential for evaluating view quality. Although many studies have evaluated specific view content preferences of occupants, only a few have lumped different quantitative and qualitative factors together. This study aims to assess occupants' window view preferences by quantitative and qualitative factors of view contents. We conduct a systematic study by providing 80 static photos of window views to the participants, selecting quantitative (i.e., natural feature ratio, artificial feature ratio, number of layers) and qualitative (i.e., presence of rule of thirds, horizontal layers, and far elements) window view descriptors, developing and administering questionnaires, and analyzing the obtained data. The findings reveal that the percentage of natural elements, including the sky and greenery, are highly correlated to occupants' subjective window view preference. In addition, the number of layers and the existence of far elements are also factors with more significant impacts.
... Dragut and Blaschke [42] proposed a system for landforms classification on the basis of profile curvature. Several data layers are extracted from the digital terrain model to feed an image segmentation which classifies the terrain into classes like toe slopes, peaks, shoulders, etc. Fractal characteristics of terrains were studied in [43] and they conclude that there is a relationship between preference and the fractal dimension, meaning that fractal dimension may be part of the basis for preference. Finally, scenic beauty and aesthetics have been addressed by [44], [45], [46], [47]. ...
Article
Terrains are visually prominent and commonly needed objects in many computer graphics applications. While there are many algorithms for synthetic terrain generation, it is rather difficult to assess the realism of a generated output. This paper presents a first step towards the direction of perceptual evaluation for terrain models. We gathered and categorized several classes of real terrains, and we generated synthetic terrain models using computer graphics methods. The terrain geometries were rendered by using the same texturing, lighting, and camera position. Two studies on these image sets were conducted, ranking the terrains perceptually, and showing that the synthetic terrains are perceived as lacking realism compared to the real ones. We provide insight into the features that affect the perceived realism by a quantitative evaluation based on localized geomorphology-based landform features (geomorphons) that categorize terrain structures such as valleys, ridges, hollows, etc. We show that the presence or absence of certain features has a significant perceptual effect. The importance and presence of the terrain features were confirmed by using a generative deep neural network that transferred the features between the geometric models of the real terrains and the synthetic ones. The feature transfer was followed by another perceptual experiment that further showed their importance and effect on perceived realism. We then introduce Perceived Terrain Realism Metrics (PTRM) that estimates human perceived realism of a terrain represented as a digital elevation map by relating distribution of terrain features with their perceived realism. This metric can be used on a synthetic terrain, and it will output an estimated level of perceived realism. We validated the proposed metrics on real and synthetic data and compared them to the perceptual studies.
... with rural residents, these inhabitants tend to prefer more naturalised settings and varied views to relieve physiological and psychological stress and have higher leisure demands (Kaplan and Kaplan, 1989;Ryan, 1998;Hartig et al., 2003;Herzog et al., 2003). According to the literature and our interviews with visitors in the study area, landscape naturalness and complexity have been found to be the most key attributes that can enhance landscape preference (Kaplan and Kaplan, 1989;Lamb and Purcell, 1990;Real et al., 2000;Hands and Brown, 2002;Hagerhall et al., 2004;Palmer, 2004;Tveit et al., 2006;Schirpke et al., 2013;Sahraoui et al., 2016). However, few landscape studies were concerned with biodiversity that contains strong ecological meanings, because species cannot be readily identified from generally used land cover map, photos, or aerial images. ...
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To improve human well-being, there is increasing awareness of elevating aesthetic benefits by landscape design, planning, and management. However, which landscape features and attributes may be associated with aesthetic value of an urban landscape, human aesthetic preference, and landscape practices is still not clear yet. We proposed a comprehensive aesthetic assessment approach to realize the determination of landscape aesthetic indicators, integration of objective indicators and subjective preferences, and validation of estimations. The approach was based on a four-level landscape aesthetic indicator system from the bottom features up to attributes (landscape naturalness, landscape complexity, plant species diversity, water surface, water clarity, and bank naturalness), component qualities, and finally overall quality. Fourteen metrics that could provide objective visual and spatial characters and ecological implications were identified and quantified to indicate landscape aesthetic features. Landscape aesthetic attributes, vegetation and waterbody component qualities, and overall quality were estimated by integrating objective indicators and human subjective preferences. The approach was applied to a case study of four subareas along an artificially restored riparian buffer in Beijing, China. The results showed that the modeled overall aesthetic quality was determined by both vegetation (accounting for 53%) and waterbody. The higher vegetation quality depended on the higher plant abundance, more vegetation patches, and more vegetation patch types; the higher waterbody quality depended on the clearer water and larger water surface. Compared with other features, vertical vegetation configuration, diversity of patch type and patch shape, and shrub species diversity had greater contribution to the attributes of naturalness, complexity, and plant species diversity, respectively. The modeled vegetation aesthetic attributes were directly validated using the surveyed perceptions, and the modeled vegetation and waterbody aesthetic qualities were indirectly validated by correlating with the main recreational activities. The approach is confirmed to be able to address the questions on determination, integration, and validation of landscape aesthetic indicators in some way. Thus, the approach is expected to be used for other landscapes to offer a framework for landscape practices to improve aesthetic value and cultural service.
... These conclusions can obtain support from our results, i.e., a significant positive relationship between complexity and preference ratings in each setting and in all images of the four types of settings. These findings were also consistent with those of other studies (Hagerhall et al., 2004;Ode and Miller, 2011;van den Jagt et al., 2014), despite the measurement of complexity using different Note: I and J were means of participants' perceived landscape complexity or preference ratings for specific type of setting. methods. ...
Article
People’s perceptions on landscapes are important in the design process, and are closely associated with viewing behavior. However, little is known about the perceived landscape complexity of different urban green space settings in relation to people’s preference and eye movements. This study, therefore, investigated the influence of landscape complexity on preference ratings and eye fixation of lawn, path, plaza, and waterfront settings of urban green spaces. Six images for each type of setting were selected as stimuli and further classified into three categories based on the participants’ mean ratings of landscape complexity. Forty valid responses were obtained. The results indicated that participants’ ratings of landscape complexity and preference were positively correlated in all types of settings. There were significant differences in fixation count and average fixation duration between images with different levels of landscape complexity in lawn and waterscape settings. Fixation count was positively correlated with landscape complexity level in all lawn, plaza and waterscape setting images. Moreover, average fixation duration was negatively correlated with landscape complexity level in all lawn and waterscape setting images. Preference ratings had no definite relationships with fixation counts and average fixation duration. The findings of this study will help designers and urban park managers to effectively incorporate public perceptions in design and decision-making process. In addition, it provides new insights into the relationship between eye movements and landscape complexity and sheds some light on the application of eye tracking technology in landscape perception studies.
... The proposed research provides a new approach to studying the fractal dimension in urban environments compared to the previous research [2,[10][11][12]47,70]. Using a LiDARderived DSM for fractal analysis by using a 3D box-counting method, this work provides a novel approach to studying urban and non-urban environments. ...
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Cities are complex systems and their physical forms are the manifestation of cultural, social and economic processes shaped by the geometry of natural and man-made elements. Digital Surface Models (DSM) using LiDAR provide an efficient volumetric transformation of urban fabric including all built and natural elements which allows the study of urban complexity through the lens of fractal dimension (D). Founded on the “box-counting” method, we reveal a voxelization technique developed in GIS (Geographic Information System) to estimate D values of ten DSM samples across central Melbourne. Estimated D values of surface models (between 2 and 3) provide a measure to interpret the structural complexity of different urban characters defined by the pattern of developments and densities. The correlations between D values with other DSM properties such as elevation, volume, solar radiation and surface roughness, showed a strong relationship between DSM volume and mean elevation. Lower strength correlations were recorded with solar radiation and surface roughness. The proposed method provides opportunities for fractal research to study pressing issues in complex urban environments such as declining physical fitness, mental health and urban biodiversity.
... When free experiments become feasible, creativity emerges from AI emotion analysis [8]. Hägerhäll et al. proposed that the test environment in fault tolerance dynamics can promote the members of the organization to take risks and try first and realize the scheme customization by trying new ideas and improving new processes [9]. Hand and Brown pointed out that when the new idea, experiment, or beneficial attempt of the organization members gets the positive response from the organization, it is easier for them to invest resources in product development and process improvement, to achieve high performance [10]. ...
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The fluctuation of martial arts athletes before competition is easy to affect martial arts competition. Emotional stimulation helps martial arts athletes to play in the competition field and improve their on-the-sport coping skills. In this paper, we use artificial intelligence technology to analyze the precompetition emotions of martial arts athletes, make guidance for the precompetition situation of martial arts athletes, and give to-the-spot response guidance and suggestions. In this paper, the artificial intelligence MLR (multiple logistic regression) combined with the unsupervised LOF (local outlier factor) algorithm is used to realize the precompetition emotion analysis and on-the-spot response guidance for martial arts athletes. In addition, this paper takes a community martial arts team as the test object and verifies the method through practice feedback. Studies have shown that this method of analysis and guidance can effectively assess the emotions of martial arts athletes and take intervention, compared to the absence of sentiment analysis and on-the-sport guidance for martial arts athletes. Compared to the coach’s intuitive guidance, the interventions in this treatise speed up 65%. From the experimental subjects in this paper, athletes of the same level provide emotional guidance and suggestions for responding to emotional fluctuations. This can psychologically improve the efficiency of athletes by more than 35%. Therefore, the use of artificial intelligence analysis methods can effectively improve the emotional stability of martial arts athletes before the game, so that they can deal with all kinds of emergencies on the spot.
... Research is discovering the specific geometric characteristics of optimal human environments, including their symmetrical properties. Hagerhall, Purcell and Taylor (2004) investigated human preferences for the fractal dimension of landscapes, and found a correlation between high scaling symmetry and strong preferences. It seems that our brain favours hierarchical scaling (Salingaros, 2013, Chapter 7). ...
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The mathematical concept of symmetry, in its fullest sense, figured large in architectural history up to the early twentieth century. However, for the better part of a century, architecture and related disciplines have marginalized the consideration of symmetry in favour of a “functionalist” conception of design. More recently, dramatic developments in mathematics, physics, biology, neuroscience, environmental psychology, and other fields have given new dynamism to the ancient topic of symmetry. These findings carry implications for architecture and other environmental design professions that have, until now, been poorly understood, where they have been considered at all. This paper examines the new findings and what they reveal about current design orthodoxy as well as shedding new light on historic precedents. It concludes that there is an urgent need for a reassessment, toward a new agenda of research and practice.
... К объективным измерениям эффектов восприятия (3) можно отнести психофизиологические техники, методики объективной диагностики когнитивных процессов (внимания, памяти, восприятия) и поведения. К этой же категории относятся измерение биохимических показателей, фиксация пространственного (Ulrich, 1981) более низкий пульс (Ulrich et al., • 2003) уменьшение субъективно-оцененного • страха (Ulrich, 1981), злости, напряжения, депрессии (Karmanov, Hamel, 2008) улучшение объективных показателей • направленного внимания (Berman et al., 2008;Kuo, Sullivan, 2001;Tennessen, Cimprich, 1995) более высоко оцененная субъектив-• но-воспринимаемая внимательность (Tennessen, Cimprich, 1995) меньшее количество агрессивных и • насильственных актов в отношении близких (Kuo, Sullivan, 2001) бjльшая ценность контактов с други-• ми людьми и с обществом (Weinstein et al., 2009) бjльшая щедрость (Weinstein et al., • 2009) более короткий период восстановле-• ния организма, меньшая потребность в обезболивании (Ulrich, 1984) Фрактальная размерность: меньшая когнитивная нагрузка • (Franek et al., 2019) Недифференцированные визуальные характеристики «построенного» (содержание): меньшая альфа-активность мозга (Ulrich, 1981) • более высокий пульс (Ulrich et al., 2003) • усиление субъективно-оцененного страха и • грусти (Ulrich, 1981) более низко оцененная субъективно-воспри-• нимаемая внимательность (Ulrich, 1981;Tennessen, Cimprich, 1995) более низкие объективные показатели • направленного внимания (Tennessen, Cimprich, 1995;Kuo, Sullivan, 2001) большее количество агрессивных и насиль-• ственных актов в отношении близких (Kuo, Sullivan, 2001) бjльшая значимость эгоистичных ценностей • (славы и богатства) (Weinstein et al., 2009) меньшая щедрость (Weinstein et al., 2009) • более длительный период восстановления • организма, большая потребность в обезболивании (Ulrich, 1984) Наличие элементов природы ( (Hagerhall et al., 2004;Coburn et al., 2019;Franek et al., 2019) варьирование пространственных ...
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Celebrities are famous people who often belong to entertainment industry. They are known to have a strong influence on people’s behavior. In the digital age this impact has expanded to include the online arena. Celebrities increasingly utilize Instagram, an online social network, to promote commercial products. It is important to learn to what extent people are influenced by this type of promotion and what sort of people are likely to be swayed by it. Research has demonstrated that people’s personalities have a strong impact on their behaviors online. However, until now, these investigations have not included the relationship between personality and the degree of celebrity influence through social networks. This study examines how much the personality of a user is related to the degree to which he or she is influenced by these Celebrity Instagram messages. Participants comprised 121 students (34 males, 87 females). They answered questionnaires which focused on their personality and were asked about the degree of influence celebrities exerted upon them through Instagram. Results showed that people who are characterized as being open and having an internal locus of control are more resistant to such celebrity influences. This paper demonstrates that the personality of a recipient is likely to influence the degree of impact that a celebrity endorsement is likely to produce. The implications of these results are discussed.
... Aesthetic value is influenced by many factors such as the environment in which the individual live, the mood they are in, the psychological state at hand, the environmental conditions such as educational status, cleanliness, naturalness, light effects from individual characteristics such as previous good or bad experience. While the aesthetic value of the environment is directly affected by the decisions and practices made by individuals or societies about the environment, it indirectly affects emotions and experiences [17]. ...
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The urban population, and consequently urban development, have increased in recent years and the urban silhouettes have been greatly affected. The aim of this study is to reveal how urban development affects urban skylines and urban identity aesthetically. The photographs of the eastern, northern and western fronts of Boztepe, an important landmark of the city of Trabzon, from the 1900s, 1950s and 2000s, were examined using the concept of entropy where the aesthetic measure could be digitized and the data were obtained. As a result of the comparisons, the positive and negative effects of urban development on urban silhouettes were digitized. It was determined that the uncontrolled development of cities negatively affected the city skylines. The impacts of the new projects are determined in advance and suggestions are given to take the necessary measures.
... Two limitations are apparent regarding perceptual fluency. Firstly, a central study to the theory (Hagerhall, Purcell, & Taylor, 2004) could be said to apply some controversial methods where it first receives no significant results, then removes all pictures containing water or hills, which only then provided significant data. This implies the theory does not apply to environments containing water or hills. ...
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Psychological and physiological restoration have shown to occur in environments containing nature, such as forests, parks and rooms with a window view to nature. The thesis explores the option of explaining restoration through a two­step conditioning model, named the conditioned restoration theory. Conditioned restoration theory suggests that in a two­step process people firstly learn to associate nature with a relaxing emotion, then later retrieves the same emotion when presented with an associated stimulus. Individual steps of the models integrate theory from evaluative conditioning and placebo research, as well as research results from environmental psychology. A study was conducted to further investigate the proposed conditioned restoration framework, exploring whether restoration is affected by experience with nature. A 2x2 randomly assigned, partially double­blind, experimental design (N = 31) examined the effect of viewing pictures of nature and urban environments on the Attention Network Task, digit span backwards, mood, and investigate the moderation effect of previous experience with nature. The Experience with Nature in Child and Adulthood inventory was developed to assess earlier and current experience with nature. Results suggest that viewing pictures of nature significantly improves the executive control sub score of attention network task, reduce arousal, and partial signs of an improved digit span backwards scores. Regression analysis suggest that improvement in executive control is negatively related to the Love and Care for Nature scale, arousal in nature as a child, and heart rate variability, as well as positively related to current amount of interaction with nature. Regression analysis should be interpreted as suggestive and need replication to validate results. As predicted by conditioned restoration theory, viewing pictures of nature reduce arousal, and arousal in nature as a child predicts increase restoration. This suggest low arousal has been conditioned to nature in childhood, affecting restoration. Coupled with previous research, the thesis suggests conditioned restoration theory as a valid framework for the restorative effect of environments, which could prove to be a major contribution to environmental psychology.
... [39]). Nature images have greater amounts of fractals than urban images [40], and fractal properties have been found to be crucial visual drivers of positive response to nature [41], giving rise to the hypothesis that this particular image characteristic may be part of the basis for preference. Image statistics not only indicate liking but also how uncomfortable an image is to look at, with urban scenes being usually perceived as more uncomfortable to look at than images of nature scenes [40]. ...
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Exposure to urban environments requires more cognitive processing than exposure to nature; an effect that can even be measured analysing gait kinematics whilst people walk towards photographic images. Here, we investigated whether differences in cognitive load between nature and urban scenes are still present when scenes are matched for their liking scores. Participants were exposed to images of nature and urban scenes that had been matched a priori for their liking scores by an independent participant sample (n = 300). Participants (N = 44) were either asked to memorise each image during walking or to rate each image for its visual discomfort after each walk. Irrespective of experimental task, liking score but not environment type predicted gait velocity. Moreover, subjective visual discomfort was predictive of gait velocity. The positive impact of nature described in the literature thus might, at least in part, be due to people’s aesthetic preferences for nature images.
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The concepts of resistance, recovery, and resilience are in diverse fields from behavioral psychology to planetary ecology. These “three Rs” describe some of the most important properties allowing complex systems to survive in dynamic environments. However, in many fields—including ecology—our ability to predict resistance, recovery and resilience remains limited. Here, we propose new disturbance terminology and describe a unifying definition of resistance, recovery, and resilience. We distinguish functional disturbances that affect short-term ecosystem processes from structural disturbances that alter the state factors of ecosystem development. We define resilience as the combination of resistance and recovery—i.e., the ability of a system to maintain its state by withstanding disturbance or rapidly recovering from it. In the Anthropocene, humans have become dominant drivers of many ecosystem processes and nearly all the state factors influencing ecosystem development. Consequently, the resilience of an individual ecological parameter is not an inherent attribute but a function of linkages with other biological, chemical, physical, and especially social parameters. Because every ecosystem experiences multiple, overlapping disturbances, a multidimensional resilience approach is needed that considers both ecosystem structure (configuration of linkages) and disturbance regime. We explore these concepts with a few case studies and recommend analytical tools and community-based approaches to strengthen ecosystem resilience. Disregarding cultural and social dimensions of disturbance regimes and ecosystem structures leads to undesirable outcomes, particularly in our current context of intensifying socioecological crises. Consequently, cultivating reciprocal relationships with natural disturbance regimes and ecosystem structures is crucial to Earth stewardship in the Anthropocene.
Article
Based on the rockery photos of ten classical gardens including world cultural heritage, this paper incorporates the combined analysis and comparison of constituent elements (rockeries, buildings and plants) of scenic surfaces, and probes into the fractal characteristics of landscaping through the theory and the fractal dimension (FD) value analysis software. Studies have shown that the quantitative evaluation data of visual complexity (FD, i.e., fractal dimension) can characterize the contour morphology of constituent elements of the scenic surface of rockeries. The relevant analysis results are as follows: (1) FD can directly quantify the morphological contour of each element. Through the statistical analysis, it can effectively avoid the misjudgment of empirical cognition and subjective feeling. Therefore, FD value can be used as one of the effective indexes to evaluate the complexity and diversity of rockery and landscape elements. (2) The change in the level of the FD value enables the intuitive analysis of the effects of the plant varieties and landscaping techniques on rockery morphological complexity. (3) Higher FD value is not always better. Necessary morphological maintenance is required to avoid excessive FD value of plants.
Thesis
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This thesis investigates the effects of biophilic design elements on people's perception and behavior of space, with a focus on interiors. In this context, by revealing the relationship between human-nature-space, the foundations of the concept of biophilia are explained, the biophilic design theory is defined in details, and the design elements are used to reveal the relationship with perception and behavior in both physical and virtual space dimensions. The aim of the thesis is to analyze how the relationship between human and nature is reflected in the interiors within the scope of biophilic design strategy, and how people's perception and behavior systems are affected by biophilic design elements. In order to achieve the aim of the thesis, answers to the following questions are sought; -"How has the nature-human-space relationship developed throughout the historical process and how has it been reflected in today's environment within the framework of biophilic design?" -"What are the sensory effects of biophilic design elements and how are they strategically applied in interiors?" -"How do biophilic design elements affect perception and behavior in the dimensions of sensory and virtual space experience?" The conceptual framework of the thesis, which shaped in this direction, consisted of four main parts and the thesis shaped under the headings "The Concept of Biophilia", "Biophilic Design Theory", "The Relationship of Biophilic Elements in Indoor Spaces with Sensory Perception and Behavior", "Virtual Biophilia Experience Field Study: Arkas Art Center "Nature, Gardens, Fantasies" Exhibition". In the first three chapters of the thesis, the information obtained from the literature is presented with a purpose-oriented structure. In the field study section, which is the fourth and last part, the focus has been narrowed, in the literature, in line with the absence of a study on the experience of biophilia specific to the virtual exhibition space, and the effect of biophilic elements on behavior and perception in the virtual exhibition experience has been focused. In the field study, a survey was conducted on the virtual experience of Arkas Art Center's "Nature, Gardens, Fantasies"exhibition, which was determined to strongly contain biophilic elements. The COVID-19 Pandemic conditions, on the other hand, have led the biophilic space experience to be carried out in the virtual environment. In line with the aim of the thesis, the analysis of the effect of biophilic design elements on perception and behavior in interior spaces is presented by discussing the data obtained from the survey answers of the 110 participants. The findings obtained from the study revealed how biophilic design elements affect people in a physical and multi-sensory environment, and also provided an understanding of how these elements have effects on the perception and behavior of the experiencers in the virtual environment with the field study. In addition, revealing the effect of the virtual biophilic experience on perception and behavior in the focus of the exhibition space with the field study has created a reference for the evaluation of virtual exhibition spaces through a biophilic perspective. --- Bu tez çalışması, biyofilik tasarım elemanlarının, iç mekânlar özelinde, insanların mekân algısına ve davranışlarına etkisini araştırmaktadır. Bu bağlamda, insan-doğa-mekân arasındaki ilişki ortaya konarak, biyofili kavramının temelleri açıklanmış, biyofilik tasarım teorisi detayları ile tanımlanmış ve tasarım elemanları hem fiziksel hem de sanal mekân boyutunda algı ve davranış ile ilişkiyi ortaya çıkarmak üzere kullanılmıştır. Tez çalışmasının amacı, insan ve doğa arasındaki ilişkinin biyofilik tasarım stratejisi kapsamında iç mekânlara nasıl yansıdığını, insanların algı ve davranış sistemlerinin biyofilik tasarım elemanlarından nasıl etkilendiğini analiz etmektir. Tezin hedefine ulaşmak için; -"Doğa-insan-mekân üçlemesinin tarihi süreç boyunca ilişkisi ve biyofilik tasarım çerçevesinde günümüz çevresine yansıması nasıl olmuştur?" -"Biyofilik tasarım elemanları iç mekânlarda stratejik olarak nasıl uygulanır ve duyusal etkileri nelerdir?" -"Biyofilik tasarım elemanlarının duyusal ve sanal mekân deneyimi boyutlarında algı ve davranış üzerinde etkisi nasıldır?" sorularına cevap aranmıştır. Bu doğrultuda şekillenen tezin kavramsal çerçevesi ise dört ana bölümden oluşmuştur ve "Biyofili Kavramı", "Biyofilik Tasarım Teorisi", "İç Mekânlardaki Biyofilik Unsurların, Duyusal Algı ve Davranış İle İlişkisi", "Sanal Biyofili Deneyimi Alan Çalışması: Arkas Sanat Merkezi "Doğa, Bahçeler, Düşler" Sergisi" başlıkları altında tez şekillenmiştir. Tezin ilk üç bölümünde literatürden edinilen bilgiler, amaca yönelik bir kurgu ile sunulmuştur. Dördüncü ve son bölüm olan alan çalışması bölümünde ise, literatürde sanal sergi mekânı özelinde biyofili deneyimine yönelik bir çalışmaya rastlanmaması doğrultusunda odak daraltılarak, biyofilik unsurların sanal sergi mekânı deneyiminde davranış ve algıya etkisine mercek tutulmuştur. Tezde biyofili özelinde işlenen doğanın entegrasyonu, yürütülen alan çalışması ile, hem doğanın sanatsal temsili boyutunda, hem de sanal mekâna yansıması boyutlarında ele alınmıştır. Alan çalışması özelinde, biyofilik unsurları güçlü bir şekilde barındırdığı tespit edilen Arkas Sanat Merkezi, "Doğa, Bahçeler, Düşler" sergisinin sanal deneyimine yönelik bir anket uygulaması gerçekleştirilmiştir. COVID-19 Pandemi koşulları ise biyofilik mekân deneyiminin sanal ortamda yürütülmesine yön vermiştir. Tezin hedefi doğrultusunda iç mekânlarda biyofilik tasarım elemanlarının algı ve davranışa etkisinin analizi, 110 kişilik katılımcı grubunun anket cevaplarından elde edilen veriler doğrultusunda tartışılarak sunulmuştur. Çalışmadan elde edilen bulgular, biyofilik tasarım unsurlarının, fiziksel ve çok duyulu bir ortamda nasıl etki ettiğini ve alan çalışması ile sanal ortamda bu unsurların deneyimcilerin algı ve davranışları üzerinde nasıl etkilere sahip olduğunun anlaşılmasını sağlamıştır. Bununla birlikte alan çalışması ile sanal biyofili deneyimin, sergi mekânı odağında algı ve davranışa etkisinin ortaya çıkarılması, sanal sergi mekânlarının biyofilik açıdan değerlendirilmesi için bir referans oluşturmuştur.
Chapter
This work-in-progress aims to present educational content and pedagogical tools so that the Fractal Mindset may be defined, developed, and taught at different levels of education. The educational model will draw from a theoretical understanding of fractal patterns. A fractal pattern is a mathematical concept which defines a pattern that is self-similar across multiple scales. These patterns describe the complexity we see in nature and beyond while underlying positive psychological and physiological wellbeing responses. The novelty of this research lies in the leveraging of fractal patterning to create educational content and tools that value three branches: connections with nature, dimensions of wellbeing, and wicked problems in design thinking. In pursuit of the research aim, the following question is posed: what considerations must be satisfied for the Fractal Mindset’s educational content and pedagogical tools to be effective in expanding student perspectives at each educational level – general public, middle school, and undergraduate?KeywordsFractalsWellbeingEducationPedagogyBiophiliaNature
Book
Adopting an evidence-based approach, this book uses two state-of-the-art experimental studies to explore nature’s therapeutic benefits in healthcare environments, emphasizing how windows and transparent spaces can strengthen people–nature interactions. High-quality, supportive, and patient-centred healthcare environments are a key priority for healthcare designers worldwide, with ageing populations creating a demand for remodeled and updated facilities. The first study demonstrates individual psychophysiological responses, moods, and preferences in simulated hospital waiting areas with different levels of visual access to nature through windows, while the second experiment uses cutting-edge immersive virtual reality techniques to explore how gardens and nature views impact people’s spatial cognition, wayfinding behaviors, and experience when navigating hospitals. Through these studies and discussions drawing on architectural theory, the book highlights the important benefits of having access to nature from hospital interiors. This concise volume will appeal to academics and designers interested in therapeutic landscapes and healthcare architecture.
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In the historical process, social, cultural, and physical changes and transformations have occurred in many areas. In the 21st century, changes have begun to be seen in the approaches to cities. It is considered that the city of the future is not going to be a continuation of the cities of the past no longer. Cities, which are formed with an infinite number of elements and structures, are now explained as dynamic, non-linear, complex systems that are in constant change and transformation. In the changing new approach, it is stated that the most important element that defines cities and contributes significantly to their identities is the richness of urban space. In this context, the richness of urban space was evaluated by the fractal geometry method within the study. This street-scale study provides an analysis of the spatial richness of 46 streets selected from the cities of Istanbul and Ankara. The differentiation of physical qualities was decisive in the selection of streets as the sample area. First, the fractal dimensions of the street images were calculated with the help of the HarFa 5.5 program, and correlation analysis was performed in the SPSS 22 program to decide the connection between the obtained values and the physical qualities of the streets. As a result of the analysis, the qualities that affect the fractal dimension at a statistically significant level were determined. Then these qualities were sorted according to the direction and level of influence. It has been established that the qualities with the highest level of influence are the density of building facades on the streets and the number of buildings with different facade arrangements.
Book
Die Bewertung des Schutzgutes Landschaftsbild wird in Wissenschaft, Planungs- und Verwaltungspraxis oft als problematisch wahrgenommen, da nur ein geringer Kenntnisstand zur Bearbeiterunabhängigkeit, Zuverlässigkeit bzw. Reproduzierbarkeit und Gültigkeit von Landschaftsbildbewertungsmethoden vorherrscht. Auf der Basis einer umfassenden Analyse des Standes der Landschaftsbildbewertung in der Fachliteratur und in der Landschaftsplanung auf kommunaler Ebene wird in der Dissertation die wissenschaftliche Güte bzw. Gültigkeit von Methoden zur Landschaftsbildbewertung untersucht. Dazu wurde ein Verfahren der internetbasierten Erfassung von Landschaftsbildbewertungen entwickelt und auf die Einhaltung wissenschaftlicher Gütekriterien getestet. Basierend auf den erzielten Ergebnissen werden Empfehlungen zum Einsatz von Landschaftsbildbewertungsverfahren gegeben.
Article
Given the large proportion of time spent by the average person indoors, it is imperative to have an understanding of the impacts of long-term and immersive exposure to a variety of architectural features in order to develop a holistic understanding of the impact of building architecture on human function, health, and wellbeing. This review article identifies and categorizes the elements of building architecture that have been demonstrated through empirical research to affect human psychological and physiological function. The architectural stimuli in question are limited to those for which a biological, and thus evolutionary, response has been empirically demonstrated. The intention is to identify architectural stimuli for which responses are biologically ingrained to ensure their applicability both cross-culturally and independent of personal experience. The research indicating the impacts of the built environment on human psychology and physiology is extensive and robust in certain areas and weaker in others. Architectural design features involving light, colour, complexity, viewing nature, olfaction, audition, and some forms of geometry, have been demonstrated to influence human behaviour, health, happiness, and physiological function in myriad ways. However, there are many unsubstantiated affirmations in the literature as to the effects of pareidolia, thigmotaxis, object affordance, the Golden Rectangle, and somatosensory stimuli in architecture. Thus, it has been demonstrated that architecture can impact human health, happiness, and physiological function, and be leveraged to produce specific physical and behavioral outcomes, however, further research is required to validate much of the conjecture currently found in the literature.
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Skyline is an effective factor in defining urbanscape features. This research examines the skyline with fractal dimension analysis and evaluates special ed effects on urbanscape quality. This analysis is based on the definitions of urbanscape and visual analysis tools. The skyline can be studied as a quantitative indicator to restrict and identify the cityscape or streetscape, it can be checked as a city brim and in the form of visual elements of the cityscape as well. According to the results, practical and documented responses to this concern are provided that how the "skyline" can be an effective component in improving the quality of the cityscape. This study evaluates the effect of height, form, artifact, and natural elements on the number of the fractal dimension of the skyline to match it to qualitative concepts. Using this hypothesis, by comparing the skyline (its fractal dimensional feature), in several different urban sequences, researchers can achieve criteria for the upper edges of the city. Also improves the urban ecosystem through its architectural features and urban landscape elements. This is quantitative research based on library documents that are trying to analyze the Skyline as a fractal phenomenon by using concepts in the field of new mathematics and related software (Matlab-Benoit). In this study, the survey of the complexity and numerical properties of the "fractal dimension number analysis" about images has been selected as the data collection method. In this method, the fractal number of the skyline is calculated in each image, and this number specifies the spatial features and the space quality, in comparison to other sequences.
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Kent nüfusu, buna bağlı olarak kentsel gelişme son yıllarda artmış ve kent silüetleri oldukça etkilenmiştir. Bu çalışmanın amacı kentsel gelişmenin zaman içerisinde kent silüetlerini, kent kimliğini estetik açıdan nasıl etkilediğini ortaya koymak ve ileride yapılacak olan kullanım alanlarının etkilerinin önceden tespit edilebileceğini göstermektir. Bu amaçla Trabzon kentinin önemli bir işaret noktası olan Boztepe’nin şehirden ve denizden görülen doğu, kuzey ve batı cephesi, 1900, 1950 ve 2000’li yıllara ait fotoğraflar, estetik ölçüsünün sayısallaştırılabildiği entropi kavramı ve gestalt ilkeleri kullanılarak incelenmiştir. Bu inceleme sonucunda her yıl aralığına, cepheye ve ilkeye ait veriler elde edilmiştir. Veriler kıyaslanarak yıllar içerisinde “bit” değerlerinin nasıl değiştiği incelenmiştir. Kıyaslamalar sonucunda kentsel gelişmenin kent siluetlerine olan olumlu ve olumsuz etkisi sayısallaştırılmıştır. Elde edilen verilerle kentlerin kontrolsüz gelişiminin kent silüetlerini olumsuz yönde etkilendiği belirlenmiştir. Yapılmak istenilen yeni projelerin etkileri önceden tespit edilerek, olumsuz etkilere sahip projelerin revize edilmesi veya tamamen iptal edilmesi gerektiği yönünde öneriler sunulmuştur.
Article
Предлагается выделить два основных направления изучения фрактальности психологических феноменов: изучение особенностей восприятия фрактальных объектов; анализ фрактальных особенностей психологического функционирования, в том числе сложных социальных взаимодействий. Рассматриваются эмпирические исследования восприятия фракталов естественного и искусственного происхождения. Основные результаты таких исследований: обнаружение взаимосвязей оценок эстетической привлекательности и сложности с фрактальной размерностью, универсальности эстетических предпочтений, психофизиологических коррелятов восприятия фрактальных объектов. В ряде исследований описываются индивидуальные различия при восприятии фракталов и взаимосвязи с некоторыми психологическими и социально-демографическими характеристиками. Отмечается, что окружающие человека природа и искусственная среда, а также структурно-функциональная организация человека на разных уровнях обладают фрактальными свойствами. Обосновывается общий вывод: в процессе эволюции возникновение фрактальных особенностей психологических феноменов выступало важнейшим механизмом адаптации к среде
Chapter
The concept of “landscape diversity” does not fully coincide with that of “landscape entropy” and if a landscape is perceived as “diverse”, it does not necessarily have a high spatial entropy. This is a side-consequence of the use of Shannon’s formula for the calculation of landscape diversity, but differences in perceptions of landscape diversity and spatial entropy can have repercussions for landscape analysis and landscape management. Aside of this, avenues for postmodern interpretations in landscape analysis open up that are based on maximum landscape diversity. Also, it is interesting to explore the concept of spatial entropy in the context of the perception of other objects of visual interest, such as paintings. The perception of spatial entropy may however be misleading. As example maps show here, the concept of spatial entropy does not necessarily imply spatial “disorder”, while the aggregation of spatial classes or colors together in some region of space may result in a misperception of high (or low) spatial entropy.
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This article reviews current research in visual urban perception. The temporal sequence of the first few milliseconds of visual stimulus processing sheds light on the historically ambiguous topic of aesthetic experience. Automatic fractal processing triggers initial attraction/avoidance evaluations of an environment’s salubriousness, and its potentially positive or negative impacts upon an individual. As repeated cycles of visual perception occur, the attractiveness of urban form affects the user experience much more than had been previously suspected. These perceptual mechanisms promote walkability and intuitive navigation, and so they support the urban and civic interactions for which we establish communities and cities in the first place. Therefore, the use of multiple fractals needs to reintegrate with biophilic and traditional architecture in urban design for their proven positive effects on health and well-being. Such benefits include striking reductions in observers’ stress and mental fatigue. Due to their costs to individual well-being, urban performance, environmental quality, and climatic adaptation, this paper recommends that nontraditional styles should be hereafter applied judiciously to the built environment.
Article
Cities change and are transformed over time due to economic, social and political decisions, and this process can have either a positive or a negative effect on the visual aesthetic quality of the streets and avenues. The preservation and improvement of the visual aesthetic qualities of the streets and avenues ensures the sustainability of the visual character of the city, improves the quality of life, and also encourages collective identity, a sense of belonging, and strong urban images. It is suggested that the factors affecting visual aesthetic quality should be determined in order to improve the visual aesthetic quality of streets and avenues. This study assesses the effects of the change and transformation processes occurring in Ankara - Ulus and Kızılay city centers, as well as the effects on their immediate surroundings in terms of the visual aesthetic quality of streets and avenues. Furthermore, the factors affecting the visual aesthetic quality of streets and avenues are questioned through the use of a model in which both quantitative and qualitative research methods are used comparatively with historical and current street images. The results of the study show that by comparing street images from different periods, important clues can be obtained in regard to the factors affecting the visual aesthetic quality of urban spaces.
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A fractal is a fragmented geometric shape which is characterized by scale invariance under contractions or dilations. Fractal is statistically a self-similar body, which implies that some aspect of a process or phenomena is invariant under scale-changing transformation. Fractal dimension is applied in geomorphology in wide range of topics, such as tectonics, coastal configuration, river basin geometry, landslides, soil studies, karst features, etc. With the availability of high-resolution digital elevation data and operating GIS tools, further new interests have arisen in the technique. In the present study, fractal dimension has been applied to an alluvial badland topography along the banks of Tapi River, in the Deccan Trap region, India. The area is characterized by semi-arid climate. A newly developed software ‘Viz-Morphotec’ was used to calculate fractal dimension (D) for the entire area of badlands which yielded that ‘D’ values between 2.9 and above clearly coincide with the location of badlands in the basin. Two sample catchments were selected for determining fractal properties of these badlands and to understand microprocesses operating in this topography. Fractal dimensions were calculated at three levels, namely, linear, perimeter and surface. Variograms were computed for both the catchments also. Results indicate a multifractal topography, where two or more processes are operating in the landscape. The curves of the variograms indicate possible influence of diffusional and erosional processes operating on the topography or could be a result of tectonics or changes in the climatic conditions that are still manifested in the landscape. Hence, these badland areas indicate multifractal topography where more than one process are operating within it. The results also reveal that rivers are actively eroding, and linear erosion is predominant in the whole region.
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The structures of physics, in general, are studied by using simplified geometry on objects that are actually irregular and highly complex. The complex morphology and dynamics of many phenomena are lost when this is done. Beno t B. Mandelbrot, author of the preface, has spent 20 years studying the phenomena required to model these structures in all their dimensions. These structures are called fractals, and are characterized by their invariance of scale: each figure is composed of figures which are virtually identical and which are in turn composed of virtually identical figures, and so on indefinitely. Fractals are the result of 70 years of research in many fields; what they reveal has pertinence to physics of materials, mechanics of fluids, functional anatomy, plant morphology, geomorphology, astrophysics, and other disciplines. This book highlights the structures of fractals in related disciplines: turbulence, chaos, fracture, percolation, diffusion fronts, aggregation, phase transitions, particle trajectories. The author describes in detail the dynamic aspects of transport phenomena in the field of fractals. Intended for students of physics and chemistry in their second or third year, this book is also addressed to researchers and engineers interested in the trends of contemporary physics as they relate to real applications. An extensive bibliography directs the reader to additional material on specific topics.
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Predictions derived from three models of the relations between cognitive processing of and preference responses to outdoor scenes were examined. Twelve scene types were identified, ranging from the inner city to large-scale natural environments found in the Sydney region of Australia, the Padua region of northern Italy, and the Netherlands. In two experiments, participants from the three locations made preference, familiarity, and typicality judgments of all examples of each scene type, with the participants from Sydney and Padua making judgments of the stimuli from both locations while the Dutch participants judged the stimuli froll all three locations. The results of the experiments were most consistent with a preference-for-differences model, with only limited evidence for a preference-for-prototypes model. The largest effect on preference was related to scene type, an effect that is difficult to explain using either of the models of preference. It is argued that this presents a significant problem if it is accepted that preference is considered an important aspect of environmental experience.
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Human visual preferences for slides of five natural landscapes or biomes-tropical rain forest, temperate deciduous forest, coniferous forest, savanna, and desert-were examined. Subjects were third graders, sixth graders, ninth graders, college students, adults, senior citizens, and a group of professional foresters. A series of 20 slides, 4 examples of each biome, was shown twice to each group of subjects. On one pass through the slides, subjects judged how much they would like to live in an area similar to the one represented; on the other pass, subjects rated the slides for how much they would like to visit an area similar to the one shown. Judgments were made on a 6-point Likert scale. Elementary schoolchildren showed a significant preference for savanna over all other biomes. From midadolescence and through adulthood, more familiar natural environments were equally preferred to savanna. Results were interpreted as providing limited support for the hypothesis that humans have an innate preference for savanna-like settings that arises from their long evolutionary history on the savannas of East Africa.
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Can beauty help us adapt, evolve, and cope with environmental crisis? This article challenges the longstanding Kantian view that beauty is “disinterested,” while linking Kant’s view of the sublime with chaos theory and the fractal forms of nature. We humans participate in beauty as open systems in ongoing process, coevolving with all of existence. Beauty offers us conscious awareness and resonance with deeper life patterns. We sense our interconnection and the “bounded infinities” of potentialities related to chaotic “strange attractors.” A study of aesthetic preference not only supports preference for the fractal forms of nature but suggests, tentatively, that creative persons prefer forms of even higher “dimensionality.” Beauty can open up our vision in an endangered world—while yielding intimacy and delight, not isolation and fear. Caring can become natural for the greater whole we all cocreate. As humanistic psychologists, we can be concerned with no less than this totality.
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In order to transmit information in images efficiently, the visual system should be tuned to the statistical structure of the ensemble of images that it sees. Several authors have suggested that the ensemble of natural images exhibits fractal behavior and, therefore, has a power spectrum that drops off proportionally to 1/ƒβ(2 < β < 4). In this paper we investigate the question of which value of the exponent β describes the power spectrum of the ensemble of images to which the visual system is optimally tuned. An experiment in which subjects were asked to discriminate randomly generated noise textures based on their spectral drop-off was used. Whereas the discrimination-threshold function of an ideal observer was flat for different spectral drop-offs, human observers showed a broad peak in sensitivity for 2.8 < β < 3.6. The results are consistent with, but do not provide direct evidence for, the theory that the visual system is tuned to an ensemble of images with Markov statistics
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Quantified 2 unique attributes of patterns that may elicit aesthetic preferences, namely, dimension and unpredictability. Exp 1, conducted with 24 college students who viewed 324 chaotic patterns, showed how aesthetic preferences correlate with the fractal dimension (F) and the Lyapunov exponent (L) of the patterns. F reflected the extent that space was filled, and L represented the unpredictability of the dynamic process that produced the pattern. Results show that preferred patterns had an average F = 1.26 and an average L = 0.37 bits per iteration, corresponding to many natural objects. The 2nd experiment, with 11 Ss, was a preliminary test of individual differences in preferences. Results suggest that self-reported creative individuals had a marginally greater preference for high F patterns, and self-reported scientific individuals preferred high L patterns. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Argues that evolutionary heritage underlies humans' consistent preference for stimuli from the natural environment and that research on affective and aesthetic responses is needed to understand human interaction with the environment. It is noted that the rapidly expanding empirical record concerning aesthetic and affective responses to natural environments is in need of a well-developed theoretical foundation. An integrated conceptual framework to address this theoretical lack, drawing on recent theory and research on emotion, is proposed. This framework explains how affects arise in the natural environment; postulates their functions; and links them to cognition, activity in physiological systems, and behavior. The present author, in developing the framework, questions the view that feelings result from cognitive processes, asserting that feelings (not thoughts) are the initial response in environmental encounters. The observer's initial feeling reaction shapes subsequent cognitive events. The relative sequence of feeling and thinking in environmental encounters represents a fundamental issue in understanding human interaction with the environment. (98 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Following Mandelbrot 1, recent studies 2-6 demonstrate that some natural surfaces are fractal. Here we show that transects across vegetation are fractal, and consider one possible consequence of this observation for arthropods (mainly insects) living on plant surfaces. An important feature of a fractal curve or surface is that its length or area, respectively, becomes disproportionately large as the unit of measurement is decreased 1. This suggests that if vegetation has a fractal structure, there is more usable space for smaller animals living on vegetation than for larger animals. Hence, there should be more individuals with a small body length than a large body length. We show that this is the case, and that relative numbers of small and large individual arthropods collected from vegetation are broadly consistent with theoretical predictions originating from the fractal nature of vegetation 7 and individual rates of resource utilization.
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In order (1) to study the relationship between complexity and preference for slides of the physical environment and (2) to test the hypothesis that the content of slides (in particular, whether nature or urban) will influence preference, independent of the rated complexity, 88 Ss were asked to rate 56 slides, both for preference and for complexity. Based on dimensional analyses, a nature and an urban dimension were identified. Three major results were obtained: (1) Nature scenes were greatly preferred to urban scenes (p < .001). (2) Complexity predicted preference within the nature domain (r = .69) and within the urban domain (r = .78). (3) Complexity did not account for the preference for nature over urban slides; the greatly preferred nature slides were, in fact, judged on the average less complex than the urban slides. The possibility is raised that the domain-specific character of the preference/complexity relationship found in this study may be general; that is, it may not be a special property of environmentally generated arrays.
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Preferences for waterscapes were studied as a function of content categories, viewing time and six predictor variables: spaciousness, texture, coherence, complexity, mystery, and identifiability. A non-metric factor analysis of the preference ratings for the longest viewing-time condition yielded four dimensions: (1) Mountain Waterscapes, (2) Swampy Areas, (3) Rivers, Lakes, and Ponds, and (4) Large Bodies of Water. Mountain Waterscapes was the most preferred category and Swampy Areas by far the least preferred. The Mountain Waterscapes category was characterized by rough surface textures, while within the category spaciousness, coherence, and mystery were positive predictors of preference. The Swampy Areas category was low in spaciousness; within the category, coherence was a positive predictor of preference. With longer viewing times, Mountain Waterscapes were liked better but Swampy Areas were liked less. The results indicate that type of waterscape, viewing time and the predictor variables all play a role in determining preference. Some broad implications of these findings for environmental planners were suggested.
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The observation that natural curves and surfaces are often fractal suggests that people may be sensitive to their statistical properties. The perceptual protocols that underlie discrimination between fractals and between other types of random contour and fractals are examined. Discrimination algorithms that have precisely the same sensitivities as human observers are constructed. These algorithms do not recognize the integrated scale hierarchy intrinsic to fractal form and operate by imposing a metatheory of structure that is based on a signal-noise distinction. The success of the algorithms implies that (a) self-affinity in random fractals is not perceptually recovered and (b) people have a natural disposition to view contour in terms of signal and noise. The authors propose that this disposition be understood as a principle of perceptual organization.
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Partial table of contents: Too Many Threes Ladders to Heaven Infinity Machines Grid of the Gods To the Valley of the Sea Horses Infinite Chess The Loom of Creation Slides in Hell Alien Abduction Algebra Welcome to Worm World Creating Life Using the Cancer Game No Zeros Allowed Infinite Star Chambers Infinitely Exploding Circles The Undulation of the Monks The Loneliness of the Factorions Escape from Fractalia The Crying of Fractal Batrachion 1,489 Recursive Worlds Chaos in Ontario Cyclotron Puzzles Vampire Numbers Computers, Randomness, Mind, and Infinity Appendices Notes Further Reading Index.
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This study was prompted by the application of fractal geometry to histopathology, where diagnostic reliability can be limited by intra- and inter-observer variance of fractal image classification. The study was conducted in two stages. First, some of the characteristics of individual differences in human discriminability of complex fractal contours were measured. Second, the extent to which such individual perceptual differences are related to individual differences in basic cognitive abilities to encode information was investigated. Subjects with high abilities on simultaneous synthesis were best at a task of discriminating the fractal dimension of complex contours.
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Ofer BihamDaniel LidarOfer Malcai After fractals were first described in the 1970s, experimental researchers embraced them as a way to describe complex structures in nature. But is the world properly described by fractals? In their commentary, Avnir et al. describe how they surveyed the physics literature for objects that were declared to be fractal. They found that most of these declarations were made on the basis of very limited ranges of data. Nonetheless, the fractal concept may still have some value if the limitations are kept in mind.
Book
Landscapes develop and evolve through an interacting series of processes - climatic, geological, ecological and cultural - over varying periods of time. These processes shape the structure and character of the landscapes which we experience. Over time, distinctive patterns emerge - ranging in scale from the distribution of small plants to the sculptured sides of a huge canyon. Our perception of these patterns goes beyond just their visual appreciation - beautiful though they may be - into a richer understanding of how we experience our environment. By understanding this complex pattern-process interaction we can obtain a deeper awareness of landscape and our place in it - as inhabitants and as shapers. The book explores the nature of patterns and ways of classifying them before studying the nature of perception (primarily visual but including other senses), then proceeds to relate this perception to aesthetics and from there to the design process. From this point the main driving processes in landscape are introduced alongside the resulting patterns, these being climatic, landform, ecosystem and cultural aspects. It is this integrative approach of looking at landscape as a kind of self-organising system, overlaid by conscious human planning activities and the unity of pattern and process, which makes this book unique. Landscape draws from a wide range of neighbouring disciplines, of which the landscape planner or designer needs to be aware, but which are often taught as distinct elements. Bell binds these fundamentals together, which enables the landscape to be 'read', and this reading to be used as the basis for planning and design. This second edition updates and refreshes the original material with added sections and new photos, particularly making use of the developments in satellite photography. Featuring full colour throughout, this textbook is ideal for anyone studying landscape architecture or any of the disciplines which intersect with the landscape, and which affect it.
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We have identified a class of stimuli which seem to tap into the basic human ability to identify and name shapes. Using computer-generated stimuli, we found that patterns with low fractal dimension contours evoked the perception of namable objects, and that this proportion is increased when a preattentive criterion for examining the patterns is used. Furthermore, this result holds whether the patterns are filled in shapes (e.g., cloud patterns) or simple edge contours.© (1990) COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Conference Paper
A new segmentation-based image coding technique which performs segmentation based on roughness of textural regions and on properties of the human visual system (HVS) is presented. The image is segmented into texturally homogeneous region with respect to the degree of roughness as perceived by the HVS. The fractal dimension is used to measure the roughness of the textural regions. The segmentation is accomplished by thresholding the fractal dimension so that textural regions are classified into several classes. Three texture classes are chosen: perceived constant intensity, smooth texture, and rough texture. An image coding system with high compression and good image quality is achieved by developing an efficient coding technique for each texture class
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Many objects in images of natural scenes are so complex and erratic, that describing them by the familiar models of classical geometry is inadequate. In this paper, we exploit the power of fractal geometry to generate global characteristics of natural scenes. In particular we are concerned with the following two questions: 1) Can we develop a measure which can distinguish between different global backgrounds (e.g., mountains and trees)? and 2) Can we develop a measure that is sensitive to change in distance (or scale)? We present a model based on fractional Brownian motion which will allow us to recover two characteristics related to the fractal dimension from silhouettes. The first characteristic is an estimate of the fractal dimension based on a least squares linear fit. We show that this feature is stable under a variety of real image conditions and use it to distinguish silhouettes of trees from silhouettes of mountains. Next we introduce a new theoretical concept called the average Holder constant and relate it mathematically to the fractal dimension. It is shown that this measurement is sensitive to scale in a predictable manner, and hence, provides the potential for use as a range indicator. Corroborating experimental results are presented.
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This paper addresses the problems of 1) representing natural shapes such as mountains, trees, and clouds, and 2) computing their description from image data. To solve these problems, we must be able to relate natural surfaces to their images; this requires a good model of natural surface shapes. Fractal functions are a good choice for modeling 3-D natural surfaces because 1) many physical processes produce a fractal surface shape, 2) fractals are widely used as a graphics tool for generating natural-looking shapes, and 3) a survey of natural imagery has shown that the 3-D fractal surface model, transformed by the image formation process, furnishes an accurate description of both textured and shaded image regions. The 3-D fractal model provides a characterization of 3-D surfaces and their images for which the appropriateness of the model is verifiable. Furthermore, this characterization is stable over transformations of scale and linear transforms of intensity. The 3-D fractal model has been successfully applied to the problems of 1) texture segmentation and classification, 2) estimation of 3-D shape information, and 3) distinguishing between perceptually ``smooth'' and perceptually ``textured'' surfaces in the scene.
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This study explores three possible explanations to account for variability in preference judgements for particular landscape scenes. Variance is examined and discussed in relation to the level of preference/scenic quality, in relation to possible group differences, and in relation to mental representations of the landscape type in the visual stimuli. The scenes in the study are from a specific, marketed and positively loaded landscape type, the farmland grasslands in the Swedish traditional cultural landscape. It is suggested that a strong commonly shared mental representation exists for this landscape type, resulting in quick and holistic judgements of preference and high consensus for scenes judged as good examples of this landscape type. An effect of scenic quality on variability was also found with results showing higher consensus for the high preference landscapes than for the low preference landscapes. However, this effect is possibly connected to the positive image of the landscape type pasture. No effect was found of group differences in responses accounting for the variability.
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A common approach when predicting landscape preference is to use preference judgements to group landscape scenes and thereafter predict preference in the context of each of these categories. This study used an alternative method where no initial categorization was made and hence the result is based on ratings on all slides for all the variables. A broad sample of 119 subjects drawn from the public rated 60 colour slides for preference and seven other questions expressing the predictor variables. The slides were sampled to represent the half-open traditional Swedish cultural landscape as defined by an existing nature classification. The relationship between the questions was studied with cluster and factor analysis. Results show a connection between preference, exploring potential in the landscape and feelings of safety. This is consistent with results from studies using the traditional approach to predicting preference. In addition, a question involving management was clustered with ‘safety’, ‘preference’ and ‘explore’. This demonstrates that the degree of management is linked to the affective part of the experience of a landscape. Notable is that the result reflects a split in two types of questions: more emotionally and more cognitively based questions.
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The research reported investigates whether landscape preference is a unitary concept and the role that physical and behavioural expectations for places could play in the cognitive categorization of landscapes into different types. Italian and Australian university students judged two examples of 12 types of scenes from their home environments. Three types of preference judgment were made—overall preference, preference as a place to live and work and preference as a place to visit on a vacation. Participants also classified the scenes as either natural or built. The results of the experiment showed a dominant effect of scene type and variations due to the kind of preference judgment made and to subjects' nationality. For some scene types. preferences differed according to whether the scene was judged to be natural or built. When scenes were judged as built, all three types of preferences were lower than when they were judged as natural. The complex pattern of results is discussed in terms of theoretical issues relating to the boundaries of the landscape category, the role of naturalness in landscape experience and preference and similarities and differences in experience between different cultures and geographic locations.
Fractal geometry is receiving increased attention as a model for natural phenomena. In this paper we first present a new method for estimating the fractal dimension from image surfaces and show that it performs better at describing and segmenting generated fractal sets. Since the fractal dimension alone is not sufficient to characterize natural textures, we define a new class of texture measures based on the concept of lacunarity and use them, together with the fractal dimension, to describe and segment natural texture images.
Article
Since their discovery by Mandelbrot (The Fractal Geometry of Nature, Freeman, New York, 1977), fractals have experienced considerable success in quantifying the complex structure exhibited by many natural patterns and have captured the imaginations of scientists and artists alike. With ever-widening appeal, they have been referred to both as “fingerprints of nature” (Nature 399 (1999) 422) and “the new aesthetics” (J. Hum. Psychol. 41 (2001) 59). Here, we show that humans display a consistent aesthetic preference across fractal images, regardless of whether these images are generated by nature's processes, by mathematics, or by the human hand.