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Personality and curiosity about morbid and sexual events

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Abstract

The study was designed to examine the relationships of sensation seeking, extraversion, neuroticism and psychoticism traits with an interest in presentations of violent or morbid and sexual events in the media and in live sports. Scales of curiosity about morbid and sexual events and self-ratings of attendance of horror and X-rated erotic movies were developed and given to 89 male and 213 female undergraduates along with the personality scales. Males scored higher than females on both types of curiosity and film attendance scales as well as on the SSS and P scale. The SSS and P scale correlated positively with curiosity scales and sensation seeking also correlated with film attendance of both types of films. A new hypothesis suggests that high sensation seekers are interested in stimuli that increase activity in central catecholamine systems. Past research has demonstrated that violent, fear-provoking and erotic films increase peripheral catecholamines.

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... Based on the literature in psychology and mass communication, the current study attempts to add to the body of literature by proposing a conceptual model explaining the relationships among individuals' personality (i.e., risk taking), emotion (i.e., pleasure and arousal), attitude, and actual MMA-consumption behaviors. Research suggests that individuals who frequently engage in risk-taking behavior harbor the personality trait of a sensation seeker and are more likely, when the sensation-seeking trait is high, to enjoy violent media content (McDaniel, Lim, & Mahan, 2007;Zuckerman & Litle, 1986). Thus, the positive influence of individuals' risk taking on emotion provides face validity, because MMA is known as one of the most violent forms of televised sporting events. ...
... In an early empirical examination, Jack and Ronan (1998) suggested that an individual's personality influences the consumption of certain types of sports (i.e., risky sport) such as mountain climbing and skiing. Furthermore, it was found that people's OSLs affect preferences for violent media content such as horror movies (Zuckerman & Litle, 1986). Thus, it is reasonable to assume that people's level of risk taking may positively relate to consumption of MMA, which is known as one of the most violent sports today. ...
... As expected, the results showed that risk-taking behavior, arousal, and pleasure explained 58.4% of the variance in attitude toward MMA (see Figure 1). This is consistent with previous literature providing support to the notion that high-risk-taking tendencies are associated with preference for violence and/or morbid events (Zuckerman & Litle, 1986). In particular, risk-taking behavior had significant influence on emotions (H1 and H2). ...
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The current study employs the hedonic paradigm model (Hirschman & Holbrook, 1982) to investigate the interceding function of emotions on the relationship between personality (i.e., risk taking) and attitude toward mixed martial arts. This study also examines sport-media (e.g., television) consumption of a nontraditional sport. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the proposed model incorporating risk taking, pleasure, arousal, attitude, and actual consumption behavior. The study found a significant mediation effect of emotion (pleasure and arousal) in the relationship between risk taking and attitude. In addition, attitude showed a direct and significant influence on actual media-consumption behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed, along with future directions for research.
... While psychologists have extensively explored how the mind deals with death (e.g., Solomon, Greenberg, & Pyszczynski, 2015) and curiosity has been investigated in a variety of research programs (e.g., Kidd & Hayden, 2015;Loewenstein, 1994), they have largely overlooked morbid curiosity as a topic of study. In what appears to be the first psychological paper on morbid curiosity, Zuckerman and Litle (1986) developed the Curiosity About Morbid Events (CAME) scale, which is composed of items that reflect an interest or enjoyment in watching violence and death. Zuckerman and Litle (1986) reasoned that the driving factor behind curiosity about morbid events was an individual's need for novel stimulation and arousal. ...
... In what appears to be the first psychological paper on morbid curiosity, Zuckerman and Litle (1986) developed the Curiosity About Morbid Events (CAME) scale, which is composed of items that reflect an interest or enjoyment in watching violence and death. Zuckerman and Litle (1986) reasoned that the driving factor behind curiosity about morbid events was an individual's need for novel stimulation and arousal. They found that males scored higher on the CAME scale and that scores on the CAME scale positively correlated with sensation seeking. ...
... While seeking out dangerous information is probably influenced by sensation seeking as Zuckerman and Litle (1986) suggest, it seems unlikely that sensation seeking is the core of morbid curiosity. A sensationseeking account of morbid curiosity would predict that more intense images would capture more curiosity. ...
Article
The success of horror films, popularity of true crime, and prevalence of violence in the news implies that morbid curiosity is a common psychological trait. However, research on morbid curiosity is largely absent from the psychological literature. In this paper, I present a psychometric tool for assessing morbid curiosity, defined as a motivation to seek out information about dangerous phenomena, and use it to investigate the psychological nature of morbid curiosity. In studies 1 and 2 (ntotal = 1370), the Morbid Curiosity Scale was developed and its relationship to personality was assessed. Morbidly curious individuals were rebellious, socially curious, and low in animal reminder disgust. Study 3 (n = 317) demonstrated that trait morbid curiosity is stable over 4–6 weeks and that morbidly curious individuals prefer movies where threat is a central theme. In Study 4 (n = 137), participants were presented with a choice between morbid information and non-morbid information (image and text). Morbid curiosity predicted over half the variance (r² = 0.53) in decisions to further investigate morbid information. These four studies provide evidence that morbid curiosity is a normally occurring psychological trait that can be assessed using the new 24-item Morbid Curiosity Scale.
... People are curious of highly intense negative information. This phenomenon, often referred to as morbid curiosity [1], can be inferred from the popularity of horror movies and crime shows; the observation that people seek out coverage of violence in the news and on the internet; and the existence of phenomena such as "disaster-tourism" and "rubbernecking". In this paper, the term morbid curiosity is used to specify curiosity for information involving death, violence or harm, but not an "unhealthy" or "abnormal" form of curiosity. ...
... Although most studies investigating curiosity have focused on curiosity for positive stimuli or knowledge-oriented stimuli, such as trivia (e.g., [12,[15][16][17] see for an overview [11]), there are some studies that specifically targeted whether negative stimuli give rise to interest or curiosity. For example, Zuckerman and Litle [1] demonstrated a positive relationship between the personality trait of sensation seeking (i.e., the need to subject yourself to arousing and novel experiences) and self-reported curiosity for morbid events (e.g., enjoyment in watching violence or death in films, sport or news). A more recent example is the work of Turner and Silvia [18] who presented participants with images of calming art and disturbing art and asked participants for ratings of interest and pleasantness. ...
... The focus on behavior is important, because so far, most studies that explicitly targeted interest or curiosity for negative information examined subjective ratings (e.g., [3,18]; see for exceptions [19,21]) or studied the relationship between self-reported behavior and personality measures [1,22,23]. However, self-report and behavior do not always align [24], and it is therefore important to utilize a behavioral paradigm when testing the prevalence of curiosity for negative information. ...
Article
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This paper examined, with a behavioral paradigm, to what extent people choose to view stimuli that portray death, violence or harm. Based on briefly presented visual cues, participants made choices between highly arousing, negative images and positive or negative alternatives. The negative images displayed social scenes that involved death, violence or harm (e.g., war scene), or decontextualized, close-ups of physical harm (e.g., mutilated face) or natural threat (e.g., attacking shark). The results demonstrated that social negative images were chosen significantly more often than other negative categories. Furthermore, participants preferred social negative images over neutral images. Physical harm images and natural threat images were not preferred over neutral images, but were chosen in about thirty-five percent of the trials. These results were replicated across three different studies, including a study that presented verbal descriptions of images as pre-choice cues. Together, these results show that people deliberately subject themselves to negative images. With this, the present paper demonstrates a dynamic relationship between negative information and behavior and advances new insights into the phenomenon of morbid curiosity.
... One factor that may complicate the use of oculomotor avoidance as a measure of disgust is the phenomenon of "morbid curiosity" (Zuckerman and Litle 1986). There is a small body of research suggesting that some potentially disgusting images (e.g., grotesque art, wounds) can elicit interest (Turner and Silvia 2006). ...
... Increased initial viewing of the disgusting US may reflect what is colloquially referred to as "rubbernecking"; that is, the tendency to stare at certain negatively-valenced stimuli out of fascination (i.e., "morbid curiosity"; Oosterwijk 2017; Oosterwijk et al. 2015;Turner and Silvia 2006;Zuckerman and Litle 1986). Turner and Silvia argue that such rubbernecking is motivated by the emotion of interest, which is elicited by novel stimuli that hold the potential for expanding our understanding of the world. ...
... The finding that disgusting stimuli elicit competing approach and avoidance tendencies is consistent with a small body of research on the phenomenon of morbid curiosity (Oosterwijk et al. 2015;Turner and Silvia 2006;Zuckerman and Litle 1986). Turner and Silvia (2006) found that participants rated disgusting paintings (e.g., Francisco Goya's Saturn Devouring His Son) as unpleasant, yet highly interesting. ...
Article
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During human development, disgust is acquired to a broad range of stimuli, from rotting food to moral transgressions. Disgust’s expansion surely involves associative learning, yet little is known about Pavlovian disgust conditioning. The present study examined conditioned disgust responding as revealed by oculomotor avoidance, the tendency to look away from offensive stimuli. In two experiments, oculomotor avoidance was acquired to a neutral image associated with a disgusting image. However, to our surprise, participants initially dwelled on disgusting images, avoiding them only after multiple exposures. In Experiment 1, this “rubbernecking” response delayed oculomotor avoidance of the associated neutral image. In Experiment 2, we exhausted rubbernecking prior to conditioning by repeatedly exposing participants to the disgusting images. This procedure elicited earlier oculomotor avoidance of the associated neutral stimulus, essentially fast-forwarding conditioning. These findings reveal competing motivational tendencies elicited by disgust stimuli that complicate associative disgust learning.
... As such, it is important to stress that if protective vigilance is the ultimate reason for paying attention to horrid events, humans would likely not be able to pinpoint and express this as a conscious reason for becoming a purposeful and interested consumer of horror and true crime. Zuckerman and Litle (1986) found that morbid curiosity exists across a wide variety of individuals, lending evidence to it being an evolved mechanism. Interestingly, although Kidd and Hayden (2015) argued that we might think of curiosity is seeking and engaging in activities not directly related to reproduction, eating, and survival, morbid curiosity might serve as protective vigilance to increase the likelihood of survival and thus reproduction. ...
... Therefore, there may be a positive relation between sensation-seekers and morbid curiosity and consumption of morbid media. Zuckerman and Litle (1986) documented the association between morbid curiosity and sensation seeking. However, they felt that the term morbid curiosity had negative connotations to it. ...
... They documented that more morbidly curious individuals (i.e., those high in CAME) are high in sensation seeking. Unsurprisingly, because men are typically higher in sensation seeking, they also documented that men were higher than women for CAME (Zuckerman and Litle 1986). Aluja-Fabregat (2000) slightly modified the CAME scale to observe for sensation seeking and morbid curiosity in young teens who spoke Catalan (a language used in eastern Spain). ...
Article
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A plethora of movies, television programs, podcasts, and online videos are dedicated to horror and terror, with fictional (e.g., zombies) and nonfictional (e.g., serial killing) themes. Morbid curiosity is a phenomenon where individuals attend to, or seek information about, horrid subjects, such as terror and death. Moreover, morbid curiosity has been tied with sexual curiosity and sensation seeking in past research, with men typically demonstrating more of each phenomenon. We hypothesized that interest in the topic of serial killers and other morbid academic and entertainment topics would be positively associated with morbid curiosity, sexual curiosity, and sensation seeking. Data supported these hypotheses with some notable gender differences. Viewed through the lens of evolutionary psychology, interest in horrific events, such as serial killing, may be a product of protective vigilance. We discuss these results, limitations, and future directions for research.
... found a positive correlation between liking for horror and a combination of the sensation-seeking factors. Zuckerman and Litle (1986) found that frequency of horror film attendance correlated with disinhibition, thrill and adventure seeking, and boredom susceptibility, but in men only. The sex difference in this study highlights an important constraint on the model, and that is, individual differences (such as sex) may interact with sensationseeking type to predict viewing, preference for, or enjoyment of horror film (see below). ...
... The most consistent individual difference predicting individuals' response to horror film is biological sex: men and boys enjoy frightening and violent visual material more than do women and girls (Zuckerman and Litle, 1986;Harris et al., 2000;Hoffner and Levine, 2005). Correlations between intensity of "scary media" or horror and the enjoyment of horror in men are consistently positive (Hoffner and Levine, 2005). ...
Article
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Why do we watch and like horror films? Despite a century of horror film making and entertainment, little research has examined the human motivation to watch fictional horror and how horror film influences individuals’ behavioral, cognitive, and emotional responses. This review provides the first synthesis of the empirical literature on the psychology of horror film using multi-disciplinary research from psychology, psychotherapy, communication studies, development studies, clinical psychology, and media studies. The paper considers the motivations for people’s decision to watch horror, why people enjoy horror, how individual differences influence responses to, and preference for, horror film, how exposure to horror film changes behavior, how horror film is designed to achieve its effects, why we fear and why we fear specific classes of stimuli, and how liking for horror develops during childhood and adolescence. The literature suggests that (1) low empathy and fearfulness are associated with more enjoyment and desire to watch horror film but that specific dimensions of empathy are better predictors of people’s responses than are others; (2) there is a positive relationship between sensation-seeking and horror enjoyment/preference, but this relationship is not consistent; (3) men and boys prefer to watch, enjoy, and seek our horror more than do women and girls; (4) women are more prone to disgust sensitivity or anxiety than are men, and this may mediate the sex difference in the enjoyment of horror; (5) younger children are afraid of symbolic stimuli, whereas older children become afraid of concrete or realistic stimuli; and (6) in terms of coping with horror, physical coping strategies are more successful in younger children; priming with information about the feared object reduces fear and increases children’s enjoyment of frightening television and film. A number of limitations in the literature is identified, including the multifarious range of horror stimuli used in studies, disparities in methods, small sample sizes, and a lack of research on cross-cultural differences and similarities. Ideas for future research are explored.
... Результаты показывают, что мужчины с высоким уровнем психотизма не проявляли интереса к содержанию стимулов. Это противоречит исследованиям , в которых сообщалось о повышенном внимании лиц с высоким уровнем психотизма к фильмам, содержащим сцены насилия [16, 29], но согласуется с данными, свидетельствующими о низком внимании таких лиц к агрессивным изоб- ражениям [24] . В некоторых из указанных исследований также проводилась оценка влияния пола и психотизма на восприятие сцен насилия, но каких-либо различий между испытуемыми разных полов не было выявлено. ...
... В некоторых из указанных исследований также проводилась оценка влияния пола и психотизма на восприятие сцен насилия, но каких-либо различий между испытуемыми разных полов не было выявлено. Вероятно, такие расхождения обусловлены возрастными особенностями испытуемых: повышенное внимание обнаружено в исследованиях, проведенных на подростковых группах [16, 29], для которых в целом характерен поиск впечатлений, тогда как участники настоящего эксперимента и исследования [24] были взрослыми людьми. Картина распределения оценок наших испытуемых соответствует основному определению понятия " психотизм " , согласно которому люди с высоким уровнем психотизма отличаются холодностью и отсутствием эмпатии [1, 14] . ...
Article
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Differences in cognitive and emotional ratings of involving aggressive content texts in men and women with different level of psychoticism are analyzed. Texts with scenes of violence previously subjected to expert procedure of identification of content's emotivity were estimated by the probationers by means of cognitive questionnaire. It enables to scale emotional, informational and activational components of these texts' content. According to obtained data, maximal significant differences in the texts' ratings were revealed between groups of men and women with high level of psychoticism, thus confirming the existence of sex differences in the mechanisms that determine psychoticism. The results are discussed in the context of modern researches of psychoticism.
... Sensation seeking is a multifaceted individual difference variable with components including experience seeking, thrill and adventure seeking, disinhibition, and susceptibility to boredom (Zuckerman 2005). Researchers apply it to segment the market and to analyse sexual and risky consumer behaviour (Zuckerman & Litle 1986). The sensation seeking disposition can be viewed in light of its impact on cognitive processing (Ball & Zuckerman 1992). ...
... Compared with low sensation seekers, high sensation seekers have a higher preference for motifs that depict sex or morbid events (Schierman & Rowland 1985;Zuckerman & Litle 1986). Leone and D'Arienzo (2000) interpret such findings as an indication that high sensation seekers are characterised by lower base arousal, and that communications that arouse are more appealing to high sensation seekers. ...
Article
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Despite the prominent use of sexual appeals in advertising, little is known about how consumers process messages that contain explicit versus implicit sexual appeals. This research presents the results of two studies that tested whether product type and individual consumer differences in sensation seeking moderated the effects of sexual appeal type. In Study 1, we conducted an experiment and found that an explicit sexual appeal was more effective in promoting a sexually related product, while an implicit sexual appeal was more effective in promoting a non-sexually related product. The above-mentioned results only held for high sensation-seeking participants, not for those who are low sensation seekers. In Study 2, we used a different manipulation of product type and replicated the results. The findings underscore how important it is for marketers to learn more about how different sexual appeals work. The findings also illuminate how practitioners can avoid negative consumer reactions to a sexual appeal.
... Also, the more people know the information and the more sources that spread it, the higher the likelihood of accepting that information. The curiosity is psychologically defined as the desire of knowledge and experiences that lead to exploratory behavior and the acquisition of new information [10]- [12]. It is also associated with the reward of two kind of triggers, the cognitive curiosity and sensory curiosity [10]. ...
... The curiosity is psychologically defined as the desire of knowledge and experiences that lead to exploratory behavior and the acquisition of new information [10]- [12]. It is also associated with the reward of two kind of triggers, the cognitive curiosity and sensory curiosity [10]. A person often gets curious about some behaviors of his/her friends; a phenomenon known as the social curiosity in psychology [12]. ...
Article
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Most information spreading models consider that all individuals are identical psychologically. They ignore, for instance, the curiosity level of people, which may indicate that they can be influenced to seek for information given their interest. For example, the game Pok\'emon GO spread rapidly because of the aroused curiosity among users. This paper proposes an information propagation model considering the curiosity level of each individual, which is a dynamical parameter that evolves over time. We evaluate the efficiency of our model in contrast to traditional information propagation models, like SIR or IC, and perform analysis on different types of artificial and real-world networks, like Google+, Facebook, and the United States roads map. We present a mean-field approach that reproduces with a good accuracy the evolution of macroscopic quantities, such as the density of stiflers, for the system's behavior with the curiosity. We also obtain an analytical solution of the mean-field equations that allows to predicts a transition from a phase where the information remains confined to a small number of users to a phase where it spreads over a large fraction of the population. The results indicate that the curiosity increases the information spreading in all networks as compared with the spreading without curiosity, and that this increase is larger in spatial networks than in social networks. When the curiosity is taken into account, the maximum number of informed individuals is reached close to the transition point. Since curious people are more open to a new product, concepts, and ideas, this is an important factor to be considered in propagation modeling. Our results contribute to the understanding of the interplay between diffusion process and dynamical heterogeneous transmission in social networks.
... Trends in media preferences generalize to moving pictures. Zuckerman and Litle (1986) measured several personality traits, including sensation seeking, and asked about frequency of viewing X-rated and horror movies. Sensation seeking correlated with two newly created measures: one for curiosity about sexual events, and one for curiosity about morbid events (CASE and CAME, respectively, though perhaps the acronyms should have been reversed). ...
... Similarly, Litle (1986) found that only low sensation seekers experienced an increase in general arousal near the end of a horror movie, when the main villain was killed. Again, high sensation seekers were the ones who failed to react emotionally. ...
Thesis
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I sought to explain why many people willingly expose themselves to apparently unpleasant media, such as horror movies. Participants (N = 133) completed a modified version of the Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP; Payne et al., 2005), which assessed initial affective reactions to screenshots from movies that were either frightening or neutral. The time between exposure to the screenshots and assessment of affect was either short (100 ms) or long (1000 ms). Explicit attitudes about the movies and about the horror genre were also assessed, in addition to the following personality variables: The Big Five, Machiavellianism (from the Supernumerary Personality Inventory), Sensation Seeking, and Psychopathy. There was little evidence for a direct connection between implicit reactions and explicit attitudes, but I found overall support for an aftermath- based model of horror enjoyment, in which affect gets increasingly positive after a horrific stimulus has been removed from the screen. However, this relief-like pattern was moderated by Agreeableness and Sensation Seeking. Personality correlates of horror liking (both explicit and implicit) were examined. Furthermore, gender differences supported a gender socialization theory of reactions to frightening media. Theoretical implications and practical applications are discussed.
... Disagreement among scholars about whether pornography use is associated with condomless sex stems in part from a debate about whether the relationship is confounded by sensation seeking (Eaton et al., 2012;Hertlein, Emmers-Sommer, & Kennedy, 2014;Koletic, Stulhofer, Tomic & Cuca, 2019;Luder et al., 2011;Martyniuk, Briken, Sehner, Richter-Appelt, & Dekker, 2016;Peter & Valkenburg, 2011b;Rosser et al., 2013;Sinkovic et al., 2013). High sensation seekers prefer novel, concentrated, and intense feelings and experiences (Zuckerman, 1994), and sexually explicit media provide these feelings (Schierman & Rowland, 1985;Zuckerman & Litle, 1986). ...
Article
This paper presents meta-analytic findings on the association between pornography consumption and condomless sex. Results were based on 45 reports spanning two decades. Data from 18 countries, with a participant total of over 35,000, were located. Higher levels of pornography consumption were associated with an elevated likelihood of engaging in condomless sex. A model-based meta-analysis did not support the viewpoint that the pornography use–condomless sex association is spurious and confounded by sensation seeking. Instead, a path analysis suggested that pornography use energizes consumers' sensation seeking desires, in turn making them more likely to engage in condomless sex. Although the results indicated homogeneity of effect sizes across most contexts tested, the type of pornography content consumed moderated the pornography use–condomless sex relationship. Viewing pornography that does not show condoms was associated with an increased risk for having sex without condoms, whereas consuming pornography showing condoms was unrelated to sexual risk.
... As a disposition that trigger students' desire to learn (Topliff, 2013), inquisitiveness is an effective variable in predicting student achievement (Arnone, Grabowski, & Rynd, 1994;Von Stumm, Hell, & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2011). On the other hand, based on empirical findings, inquisitiveness disposition being related to characteristics such as emotional intelligence (Leonard & Harvey, 2007), personality traits (Zuckerman & Litle, 1986;Reio & Callahan, 2004), self-efficacy (Çağırgan-Gülten, Yaman, Deringöl, & Özsarı, 2011), and success and goal orientation (Eren, 2009) show that inquisitiveness disposition has positive effects on cognitive performance (Alberti & Witryol, 1994). Therefore, inquisitiveness is one of the prominent characteristics that enable individuals to think over a subject. ...
Article
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The aim of this study is to examine the causal relationships between high school students' inquisitiveness, open-mindedness, causal thinking, and rational and intuitive decision-making dispositions through an assumed model based on research data. This study was designed in correlational model. Confirmatory factor analysis and path analysis, which are structural equation modelling applications, were used to explain these relationships. The participants were 404 students studying in five high schools in Usak province. Critical Thinking Dispositions Scale developed by Yücel and Uluçinar (2013) was used to identify the high school students' inquisitiveness, open-mindedness and causal thinking dispositions. As for identifying rational and intuitive decision-making dispositions, an adaptation of the decision-making inventories by Scott and Bruce (1995) and Bachard (2001) was employed. The findings of the study show that inquisitiveness and open-mindedness dispositions directly affected casual thinking. In addition, causal thinking was found to have an effect on rational decision- making and intuitive decision making dispositions.
... Por outro lado, de acordo com o modelo geral da agressão, a exposição repetida à violência na mídia pode levar a uma personalidade agressiva (Anderson & Bushman, 2002). Nesta perspectiva, que foca nas características pessoais e situacionais, sugere-se que os traços de personalidade, como os cinco fatores, devem ser estudados (Anderson, Carnagey, Flanagan, Benjamin, Eubanks & Valentine, 2004 Já se verificou, por exemplo, correlação da preferência por filmes de terror e eróticos com o traço de busca de sensações (Zuckerman & Litle, 1986). Weaver (1991), por sua vez, corroborou a importância dos traços de personalidade, usando o modelo de Eysenck, para se entender a preferência midiática. ...
... Some measures of behavior, such as horror film attendance, are only weakly correlated with sensation seeking (Tamborini & Stiff, 1987). Moreover, the relationship between overall sensation seeking and horror attendance may not be significant for women, and different subscales predict horror film attendance differently for men and women (Cantor & Sparks, 1984;Zuckerman & Litle, 1986). ...
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From scary stories to horror films and haunted houses, the horror genre is wildly popular. Although horror aims to elicit fear and anxiety in its audience, many people with anxiety are horror fans and some report using horror to cope with their anxiety. In this article, we provide a theoretical rationale for why people with anxiety might find relief in horror films. First, we discuss aspects of horror that could make it particularly alluring to people with anxiety and how some features of horror films have the potential to reduce anxiety in the moment. Next, we examine how engagement with horror could build skills for resilience in more generalized situations. We build on processes from evidence- based therapies (i.e., cognitive behavioral therapy and exposure therapy) to explain how horror media has the potential to be used as a therapeutic tool. Finally, we discuss steps for future research on horror as a therapeutic tool for anxiety-related disorders.
... A final facet to Neuroticism is "depression", with people high in this trait being prone to feelings of guilt and sadness. More generally, the facets of Neuroticism such as anger/hostility and depression are evidenced with people scoring high on this trait experiencing greater emotional swings (Zuckerman & Litle, 1986). ...
Article
Widespread use of online social networks has made them a prominent form of media for many consumers. The variety of features available to users has bridged the gap between an interpersonal and mass communication medium, allowing users to perform both functions. This analysis examines users of social network sites and considers whether psychological traits play a role in their media use, and the gratifications they may attain while on these sites. The analysis uses traditional uses and gratification categorizations, as well as medium-specific categorizations. With major social network sites offering similar features, categorizations can be made based on a feature's general function. Deviating from previous studies, this analysis also examines the use of social network site features dependent on the role of the user. It is believed that the gratifications attained from online social networks will be dependent on the role the user plays in the communication. ^ Results of this analysis suggest that certain uses and gratifications attained by social network sites can be predicted by psychological traits. Canonical correlation analysis offers further structure in our understanding of these relationships. Findings from this analysis suggest that Conscientious people are less likely use social networks sites to pass time or for habitual use. As suggested by the facets of Extraversion, people high in this trait were more likely to use social network sites for information expression. While predicting certain media uses, the roles of Openness to Experience, Agreeableness and Neuroticism in predicting uses of social network sites is less clear. While Neuroticism has been the strongest predictor of media use for other communication mediums, results of this analysis did not find this to be true for online social networks. ^ When distinguishing the role of the user as either a source or receiver of information, results of this research question suggest that users of social network site differ in their use of features dependent on role. As such, future uses and gratifications studies should consider wording questions in a way that they can distinguish the user's role in the communication.
... High sensation seekers are attracted to activities that elicit " varied, novel, and complex sensations " (Zuckerman, 1994, p.27). Such sensations are more likely to be found in dominance-themed and violence-themed media content (Zuckerman & Litle, 1986). In addition, affection-themed SEIM has been characterized by its focus on one climax in a romantic setting, lower pace and slower overall development of the story (Laan et al., 1994; Ogas & Gaddam, 2012). ...
Article
Communication scholars have repeatedly highlighted the importance of studying the type of content that media users are exposed to. However, although adolescents use sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) frequently, we know little about which specific types of SEIM they are exposed to. Moreover, knowledge is lacking about the antecedents of exposure to different types of SEIM and whether these antecedents differ between boys and girls. The present two-wave panel survey among 1557 Dutch adolescents addressed these lacunae by studying exposure to affection-themed, dominance-themed and violence-themed SEIM. Younger adolescents were more often exposed to affection-themed SEIM, while older adolescents and adolescents with higher levels of academic achievement were more frequently exposed to dominance-themed SEIM. Hyper masculine boys and hyper feminine girls were more frequently exposed to violence-themed SEIM.
... Finally, it was theorized that susceptibility or desensitization to violent programs could influence viewers' reactions when exposed to nonviolent/violent ad stimuli. Consequently, a short version of Zuckerman and Litle's (1986) curiosity about morbid events (CAME) scale ("It does not bother me to see extreme violence portrayed in movies or television" and "TV news should show us the results of war and crime, no matter how gory, so we do not have any illusions about those topics") was applied. The test results suggest no significant differences across conditions. ...
Article
Despite strong evidence on the effectiveness of advertising rhetoric, the extant literature has not theorized or empirically assessed conditions under which this effectiveness may be nullified. The present research argues that the application of rhetoric in advertisements grounded in controversial topics such as violence and eroticism may be ineffective. Results from two studies suggest that the application of a widespread rhetorical figure such as resonance within controversial ad settings cannot attenuate consumers’ negative responses and under certain conditions may even worsen them. Implications for advertising theory and practice, along with study limitations and future research avenues, are presented.
... Extant literature shows that curiosity can drive people to seek miserable experiences, such as watching horrendous scenes (Zuckerman & Litle, 1986), exploring dangerous terrains (Kashdan, Rose, & Fincham, 2004;Loewenstein, 1999), and trying ruinous drugs (Green, 1990). However, such evidence comes largely from noncontrolled research. ...
Article
Curiosity-the desire for information-underlies many human activities, from reading celebrity gossip to developing nuclear science. Curiosity is well recognized as a human blessing. Is it also a human curse? Tales about such things as Pandora's box suggest that it is, but scientific evidence is lacking. In four controlled experiments, we demonstrated that curiosity could lead humans to expose themselves to aversive stimuli (even electric shocks) for no apparent benefits. The research suggests that humans possess an inherent desire, independent of consequentialist considerations, to resolve uncertainty; when facing something uncertain and feeling curious, they will act to resolve the uncertainty even if they expect negative consequences. This research reveals the potential perverse side of curiosity, and is particularly relevant to the current epoch, the epoch of information, and to the scientific community, a community with high curiosity.
... According to Zuckerman and Litle (1985), the need for novel and arousing experience may explain people's curiosity to witness or read about sensational events. Our curiosityarousing elements are in line with the distinction they draw between "curiosity about morbid events" (CAME), which refers to death or violence, and "curiosity about sexual events" (CASE) (Zuckerman and Litle, 1985: 51). ...
Article
This study examined the relationship between two mechanisms of online participation - clicking and commenting - as well as the characteristics of heavily clicked versus highly commented-upon news items. Based on 15,431 items from a popular Israeli website, correlations between clicking and commenting were calculated for 12 separately analysed months from 2006 to 2011. In addition, overlap rates were determined, showing that 40-59% of the heavily clicked items in any given month were different from the highly commented-upon items. A subsequent content analysis indicated that while sensational topics and curiosity-arousing elements were more prominent among the heavily clicked items than among the highly commented-upon items, political/social topics and controversial elements were more prominent among the highly commented-upon items. The study contributes to deepening our understanding of the role of user comments in constructing social/group identity and offers a new perspective on a prolonged controversy surrounding audiences’ news preferences.
... One account for the observed phenomenon is sensation seeking theory (Zuckerman, 1979;Zuckerman & Litle, 1986), which suggests that individual differences in the need for novel and arousing experience leads to the motivation to seek "sensational" events. According to a sensation-seeking account, children would choose negative images more than older participants because of an increased desire for the arousal or intense sensations they provoke. ...
Article
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Although common sense suggests that we are motivated to pursue positive and avoid negative experiences, previous research shows that people regularly seek out negative experiences. In the current study, we characterized this tendency from childhood to young adulthood. Due to the known increases in risky behavior and sensation seeking in adolescence, we hypothesized that adolescents would show an increased engagement with negatively valenced stimuli compared to children and adults. Participants aged 4‐25 (N =192) completed a behavioral task assessing motivation to engage with negative, positive, and neutral images. On each trial, participants viewed two small images and selected one to view at a larger size for up to 10s. Trials were organized into three valence conditions: negative versus positive images (matched on arousal), negative versus neutral images, and positive versus neutral images. Although participants chose positive images more than neutral or negative images, participants selected negative images frequently, even when given a positive (28% of trials) or neutral (42% of trials) alternative. Contrary to expectations, the tendency to choose negative images was highest in early childhood and decreased linearly with increasing age, and the tendency to choose positive images increased linearly with age. These results provide insight into how motivation to engage with emotional stimuli varies across age. It is possible that the novelty and rarity of negative experiences drives children to pursue these stimuli. Alternatively, children may find negative images less aversive, which would caution against assuming that these stimuli elicit the same motivational states in individuals of all ages.
... Sensation seeking reflects the desire for new and exciting individual experiences in the physical, mental and social domain (Zuckerman, 1990(Zuckerman, , 2005 (Schierman & Rowland, 1985;Zuckerman & Litle, 1986). Chang and Tseng (2013) suggested that product type and sensation seeking simultaneously infl uence the selection of sex-appeal type. ...
Article
This study empirically compares the influence of sex-appeal fashion Point-of-Purchase (POP) types on attitude towards advertising. It also highlights the moderating roles of gender and the level of sensation seeking. Three sex-appeal fashion POP types (nude/semi-nude/body conscious) were developed for this study and the interaction effect of the types of sex-appeal fashion POP advertising and gender was tested. In addition, interaction effect of the types of sex-appeal fashion POP advertising and the level of sensation seeking (high/low) was tested. The results found that gender influenced consumer attitudes toward sex-appeal fashion POP advertising type. Male consumers showed a more favorable attitude toward advertising for the nude type than others; however, female consumers showed a more favorable attitude toward advertising for semi-nude and body conscious type than the nude type. The results also found a significant two-way interaction effect of sexual POP advertising types and sensation seeking on attitude toward POP advertising. High sensation seekers preferred nude and semi-nude type POP advertising to body conscious POP advertising. It is useful to investigate how various marketing factors support attitude toward POP advertising in the context of sexual fashion POP advertising and which factors exert the strongest influence within different degrees of nudity.
... Decisions regarding intrinsically rewarding stimuli are targeted less frequently 2 and even less is known about the neural representation of seeking negative information that, at first glance, does not seem to have reward value at all 3 . Similarly, in the field of curiosity-defined as an intrinsically motivated drive state for information 4-6 -research on curiosity for negative information is scarce 2 (see for exceptions [7][8][9][10]. A handful of neuroscience studies have demonstrated that curiosity engages similar neural circuits as extrinsic reward, but only when examining positive or neutral material, such as trivia questions (e.g., 11,12 ). ...
Article
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People often seek out stories, videos or images that detail death, violence or harm. Considering the ubiquity of this behavior, it is surprising that we know very little about the neural circuits involved in choosing negative information. Using fMRI, the present study shows that choosing intensely negative stimuli engages similar brain regions as those that support extrinsic incentives and "regular" curiosity. Participants made choices to view negative and positive images, based on negative (e.g., a soldier kicks a civilian against his head) and positive (e.g., children throw flower petals at a wedding) verbal cues. We hypothesized that the conflicting, but relatively informative act of choosing to view a negative image, resulted in stronger activation of reward circuitry as opposed to the relatively uncomplicated act of choosing to view a positive stimulus. Indeed, as preregistered, we found that choosing negative cues was associated with activation of the striatum, inferior frontal gyrus, anterior insula, and anterior cingulate cortex, both when contrasting against a passive viewing condition, and when contrasting against positive cues. These findings nuance models of decision-making, valuation and curiosity, and are an important starting point when considering the value of seeking out negative content.
... Although Litman (2005) identified the need for closure (NFC: Webster & Kruglanski, 1994) as a dispositional variable likely to represent irrational wanting, the one study in which this proposition was examined found weak support (Litman, 2010). A second potential exemplar of irrational wanting is the construct of morbid curiosity (Zuckerman & Litle, 1986), which involves a compelling motivation to acquire information that may be disliked, feared, or experienced as disturbing (e.g., due to violence, gruesomeness, disgust, etc.). However, few studies to date have examined morbid curiosity and none have specifically examined it with respect to wanting and liking conditions. ...
... A preferência de cores revelou uma diferença significativa entre altos valores de DIS e o uso de uma ou mais cores na pintura da roupa da figura humana, verificando-se que o TAS está positivamente correlacionado com o uso de cores vivas (e.g., vermelho) para pintar a figura humana (Rosenbloom, 2006b). Em fotografias, televisão, filmes e leitura, sujeitos com maior procura de sensações exibem um maior nível de interesse por conteúdos sexuais e violentos (Zuckerman & Litle, 1986). Seguindo este princípio, é de concluir que a experiência na vida real é geralmente mais estimulante, e como tal, os que mais procuram sensações tendem a preferir estas situações (e.g., música ao vivo, experimentar) enquanto para os sujeitos com menor procura de sensações a simples observação é suficiente para proporcionar o nível óptimo de activação (Zuckerman, 1994). ...
Thesis
A personalidade consiste num conjunto de características biopsicossociais estáveis, traduzindo-se numa individualidade a nível do comportamento, pensamento e afectos. Segundo as teorias psicométricas, o estudo da personalidade pode ser realizado através das diferenças individuais e dos chamados traços de personalidade. Entre as várias teorias da personalidade destacamos a teoria dos traços de personalidade de Eysenck (composta por quatro dimensões: Psicoticismo, Extroversão, Neuroticismo e Sinceridade) e o traço procura de sensações de Zuckerman. Estes dois modelos apresentam-se teórica e empiricamente correlacionados, pois a procura de sensações de Zuckerman aparece directamente correlacionada com as dimensões Psicoticismo e Extroversão de Eysenck, e inversamente correlacionada com a dimensão Sinceridade. A correlação entre a procura de sensações e a dimensão Neuroticismo surge de forma fraca ou nula. Este trabalho pretende conhecer a relação entre estes traços de personalidade através da replicação do estudo de Eysenck e Zuckerman (1978), de modo a averiguar se estas correlações se mantêm na época actual e numa amostra constituída por 64 estudantes do sexo feminino, do primeiro ano do curso superior de Psicologia, às quais foi aplicada a Escala de Procura de Sensações de Zuckerman (SSS) e o Questionário da Personalidade de Eysenck (EPQ). Os resultados foram consistentes com o esperado, apresentando-se a procura de sensações de Zuckerman significativa e positivamente correlacionada com as dimensões Psicoticismo e Extroversão de Eysenck, e negativamente correlacionada com a dimensão Sinceridade. A dimensão Neuroticismo não se manifestou correlacionada com a procura de sensações. Estes dados permitem confirmar que a procura de sensações de Zuckerman e as dimensões da personalidade de Eysenck estão correlacionadas e esta correlação mantém-se relativamente constante apesar das diferenças temporais e culturais. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: traços de personalidade, estudantes do ensino superior procura de sensações, psicoticismo, neuroticismo, extroversão, sinceridade, Eysenck, Zuckerman.
... Hariri et al., 2002;Wright et al., 2004;Stark et al., 2007;Borg et al., 2013). Nevertheless, people also experience fascination, interest or curiosity when faced with negative events (Zuckerman and Litle, 1986;Rimé et al., 2005;Turner and Silvia, 2006). These states have received no attention in affective neuroscience so far, even though comparing the neural representation of fascination with those of fear and disgust provides an important opportunity to examine how the brain instantiates different experiences that contain the same affective (i.e. ...
Article
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Negative stimuli do not only evoke fear or disgust, but can also evoke a state of "morbid fascination" which is an urge to approach and explore a negative stimulus. In the present neuroimaging study, we applied an innovative method to investigate the neural systems involved in typical and atypical conceptualizations of negative images. Participants received false feedback labeling their mental experience as fear, disgust or morbid fascination. This manipulation was successful; participants judged the false feedback correct for 70% of the trials on average. The neuroimaging results demonstrated differential activity within regions in the 'neural reference space for discrete emotion' depending on the type of feedback. We found robust differences in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and the lateral orbitofrontal cortex comparing morbid fascination to control feedback. More subtle differences in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and the lateral orbitofrontal cortex were also found between morbid fascination feedback and the other emotion feedback conditions. The present study is the first to forward evidence about the neural representation of the experimentally unexplored state of morbid fascination. In line with a constructionist framework, our findings suggest that neural resources associated with the process of conceptualization contribute to the neural representation of this state. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
... Por outro lado, de acordo com o modelo geral da agressão, a exposição repetida à violência na mídia pode levar a uma personalidade agressiva (Anderson & Bushman, 2002). Nesta perspectiva, que foca nas características pessoais e situacionais, sugere-se que os traços de personalidade, como os cinco fatores, devem ser estudados (Anderson, Carnagey, Flanagan, Benjamin, Eubanks & Valentine, 2004 Já se verificou, por exemplo, correlação da preferência por filmes de terror e eróticos com o traço de busca de sensações (Zuckerman & Litle, 1986). Weaver (1991), por sua vez, corroborou a importância dos traços de personalidade, usando o modelo de Eysenck, para se entender a preferência midiática. ...
Article
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Theoretically, our media preference is in line with our personality traits, but many studies are needed to advance in this area. The objective of this study was to determine whether there are differences in the five personality factors in groups with a movie preference as well as to test a brief personality inventory. Two studies were conducted with high school and university students, using the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI). The results showed more Agreeableness for those students who reported a preference for horror movies than for those who prefer suspense. Those who prefer suspense showed less Conscientiousness than those who prefer horror, action, romance and drama. Those who preferred romantic movies, when compared to those who prefer comedies, presented more Conscientiousness. These results are maintained by controlling the sex and the age. We conclude that the TIPI is a measure that can be used in research to understand group differences in the five personality factors.
... First, people may value the arousal evoked by aversive information. Research on the personality dimension of sensation seeking has indeed identified a positive relationship between the desire for thrill and adventure and curiosity for negative content ( [41,42]; see also Ref. ...
Article
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In recent years, empirical work has documented a curiosity for negative content – people deliberately view images detailing death, violence or harm or engage with other aversive stimuli. The question that emerges from this work is why people are curious about aversive information. Our central premise is that curiosity for negative content can be valuable – it may serve fundamental psychological functions and have beneficial outcomes. In terms of benefits, negative content may provide an individual with an opportunity to acquire knowledge, reduce uncertainty, experience valued emotions, or engage with the experiences of others. At the same time, the exploration of negative information may be costly. In this article, we discuss which factors may motivate or discourage the exploration of negative content.
... Curiosity may also override regret aversion [46] and lead to behaviors such as watching horrendous movie scenes, engaging in substance use and unsafe sex, or exploring dangerous terrains (e.g. in Refs. [47][48][49]). Curious people were also found to be more likely to violate social norms [6] and spend scarce resources in order to obtain answers to various questions [36]. ...
Article
In the current review, we propose to look at curiosity from the goal systemic perspective and differentiate between curiosity as a motive/goal, which engenders various activities (means) aimed at satisfying it, and information-seeking behaviors which can, but do not have to be, driven by the curiosity motivation as such. We thus assume that people can adopt various behaviors in order to satisfy their curiosity. On the other hand, they can behave in a curious and inquisitive manner in order to satisfy 'incurious' motives (e.g. to obtain a reward or attain cognitive closure). We also analyze a special case in which the mere activity of information gathering and exploration becomes the goal in itself. Then, mere performance of this activity can be rewarding.
... Such individuals might tend to avoid building dependency relations with the media in general, and specifically with the media as a way to be entertained (i.e., with the goal of play in mind) because they are less 48)Finn, 1997. 49)Weaver, 1991;Zuckerman & Litle, 1986. likely to feel as though they get anything out of that relationship.Some support was found for hypothesis 2. Individuals with higher levels of neuroticism were significantly more likely to depend on the media for achieving self understanding than those with lower levels of neuroticism. ...
Article
This study investigated hypothesized relationships between three personality traits, as defined by PEN model (Psychoticism, Extraversion and Neuroticism), and individual media dependency. The basic idea of the study was that individuals` goals are related to active media use, and the goals will be different based on differences in individuals` personality types. In addition, this study attempted to find whether there are gender difference in constructing media dependency relations with the media. The study was conducted online and the total number of participants was 337 (158 male and 179 female). Correlation analyses indicated no relationship between the extraversion and any of the IMD media use categories. Lower levels of psychoticism were related to a greater likelihood of utilizing the media in an effort to obtain self understanding and having fun more than higher levels of psychoticism. Individuals with higher levels of neuroticism were significantly more likely to depend on the media for achieving self understanding than those with lower levels of neuroticism. When the variable of participant gender was controlled for, there were different patterns of the relationships between personality types and IMD goals. This study showed that to varying degrees certain personality types are related to the goals individuals seek to fulfill with the media use. The implications of the study were discussed.
Article
This study presents the results of a survey of 269 undergraduate students conducted to examine fright experiences caused by video games. Over half of the participants reported game-induced fear. Sex, sensation-seeking, and empathy all emerged as important individual differences in terms of enjoyment of frightening content, consumption of frightening content, and frequency of fright experience. Interactivity and presentations of realism also predicted fear. This work identifies titles, stimuli, and features that caused fright experience.
Article
The present study attempted to predict selective exposure to media messages as a function of personality and situation, which has rarely been examined in prior relevant research. Employing a quasi-experimental method, the interplay between prevailing perceived threat from the economic crisis that started in 2008 and each of the two personality types when dealing with threat – repression and sensitization – was examined to predict online news selection behavior, as unobtrusively recorded. A significant interaction between perceived threat and sensitization tendency was obtained for both the selection of financial crisis-related news and avoidance of financial crisis-unrelated news. The implications of this exclusive pattern of online news selection behavior are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
For more than three decades, the uses and gratifications framework has been used to examine viewer's motivations for watching television. With the introduction of new media, consumers are provided with alternatives for attaining their media use requirements. Remaining consistent over time, personality traits are an accepted means in which individual differences can be compared. This analysis examines uses and gratifications found in past television studies while also considering uses and gratifications results of new media studies. Using quadratic regression and analysis of interrelations, patterns linear regression alone cannot detect were identified. Results of this analysis found Extraversion to negatively predict certain television uses, differing from previous studies in which no relationship was present. Consistent with past studies, Neuroticism positively predicted several media uses. Analysis also suggested that the understanding of traits can be improved by undertaking an analysis of interrelations and, to a lesser extent, quadratic regression analysis.
Article
Az elmúlt negyven évben számos filozófus, pszichológus, film- és irodalomkutató foglalkozott azzal a kérdéssel, hogy miért élvezi a közönség a negatív érzelmeket olyan szórakozási formák esetében, mint a horrorfilm. A legtöbb elmélet úgy próbálja megmagyarázni a horror-paradoxont, hogy a félelmet mint az élvezet forrását kiemeli a magyarázatból és azt állítja, hogy a közönség valami mást élvez ezekben a filmekben. Kutatások bizonyítják, hogy a közönség valójában a félelmet élvezi és nem valami mást. A félelem nem csupán egyetlen „negatív érzelem”, hanem különféle viszonylag független fiziológiai, viselkedési és élményállapotok komplexuma, amelyen belül a félelem érzése és az ettől az érzéstől való szenvedés különválasztható. Egyetlen horrorfilmre sem jellemző, hogy folyamatosan stresszkeltő lenne az elejétől a végéig. A stresszkeltő ingerek hullámokban érkeznek és a hullámok között megnyugtató szekvenciák találhatók. Az enyhe és rövid ideig tartó félelemkeltő stressz, valamint ennek a stressznek a feloldása dopamin-aktivitást vált ki, amely a test számára jutalomérzést nyújt. A horror műfaj az izgalmat keltő szórakoztatás egy extrém formája, amely így két fázisban is testi jutalmazással jár. A horrorfilmek közönsége azonban csak 5-6 százalékát teszi ki a mozibajáróknak, amíg az izgalmat keltő szórakoztatás enyhébb formái nagyon népszerűek. A horror kedvelői egy szűkebb réteget képviselnek, amelyet magas szenzációkeresés és bizonytalanságtűrés, valamint alacsony szorongás- és undorérzékenység jellemez.
Article
A Lethal Behaviors (LB) scale and Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS) Form V were completed by 535 university students. The Pearson correlation of the scores on Lethal Behaviors scale with sensation seeking was .60 and was .53 with the Thrill and Adventure Seeking subscale of Zuckerman's scale. Younger men were significantly higher in both lethal behaviors and sensation-seeking.
Chapter
The first statement of an optimal level of arousal construct in personality theory was in Freud’s constancy principle (Breuer & Freud, 1895/1937): There is a tendency to preserve at a constant level the intracerebral excitement. An excess of it becomes burdensome and annoying, and there arises an urge to consume it .... I believe we can also assume a level of the intracerebral tonic excitement, namely that it also has an optimum. On this level of tonic excitement, the brain is accessible to all external stimuli. (p. 143)
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Some research suggests that males and females differ in terms of their enjoyment from viewing televised sports characterized as either violent combative (e.g., football and hockey), violent aggressive (e.g., basketball and soccer), or stylistic (e.g., figure skating and gymnastics) in nature. However, no theory-based explanation for the above differences has been supported. Zuckerman's (1994) theory of sensation seeking offers face validity in this context, as gender differences have been associated with the personality trait as has the consumption of violent media and contact sports (Krcmar Green, 1999; Schroth, 1994). A snowball quota sample (n = 305) was employed to investigate adults' (18+) interest in viewing different types of sports telecasts (i.e., combative and stylistic). Four hypotheses were formulated based on the existing literature, with two of them being fully supported and a third receiving limited support. Among the key results, adult respondents' interests in viewing telecasts of combative or stylistic sports differed significantly by gender. In addition, reported interest in watching coverage of violent combative sports was positively related to sensation seeking for both sexes. Meanwhile, interest in viewing stylistic sports on television was a negative function of the trait for females. The theoretical and applied implications of the results are discussed, along with directions for future research in this area.
Article
Purpose: Music video viewing is a very popular pastime among adolescents. The publiccriticism of music videos has encouraged researchers to examine the effects of music videoexposure. Although an association between music video exposure and several health riskbehaviors (e.g. drinking) has been found, the relationship between music video viewing andrisky driving has remained largely unexamined. In this study the relationship betweenadolescents' music video viewing and risky driving such as driving after consuming alcoholand joy riding is explored.Methods: Participants were 354 adolescent males and females who participated in a panelstudy (2 - year interval). Respondents were 17 or 18 years old during the first wave of datacollection and did not have their driver's license yet. They completed a questionnaire onmusic video viewing, sensation seeking, aggression, attitudes towards joy riding and drivingafter the consumption of alcohol, and the intention to perform these behaviors in the future.Two years later the respondents had obtained their driver's license and were questioned ontheir actual risky driving behavior. The relationships between these constructs were analyzedusing structural equation models.Results: The results indicate that music video viewing is indirectly associated with joy ridingand driving after the consumption of alcohol through the attitudes towards these behaviors andthe intention to perform these behaviors in the future. More music video viewing resulted in amore positive attitude towards risky driving, even after controlling for sensation seeking andaggression. These attitudes are positively related to the intention to perform these recklessbehaviors in the future and these intentions are, in turn, a good predictor of the actual riskydriving behavior two years later. Conclusions: The results indicate that music video viewing during adolescence is animportant and significant predictor of risky driving two years later.
Chapter
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This study explored the relationships among methamphetamine use and violent behavior, methamphetamine use and risky sexual conduct, as well as the role of personality traits as moderating variables. The sample was comprised of 339 respondents, aged 16–30 years old and included comparison groups of alcohol only users, methamphetamine users, and non-substance users. The results indicated that during the 6 months prior to data collection, individuals who used alcohol or methamphetamines were more likely to be involved in violence and high-risk sex than non-substance users. Perhaps most important, methamphetamine users were more likely to be involved in assault and unprotected sex than alcohol-only users. In addition, the results suggest that personality trait differences, specifically volatile temper, accounted for the overwhelming majority of explained variance in the prevalence of assault. In fact, when controlling for personality traits, substance use ceased to be a significant predictor of the prevalence of assault. While volatile temper was the key predictor of the prevalence of violence, it was not associated significantly with the co-occurrence of substance use and violence. However, the co-occurrence of substance use and assault was significantly greater for respondents who used methamphetamines as compared to alcohol-only users. With regard to risky sexual behavior, the findings indicate that substance use, alcohol-only, and methamphetamines heightened the risk for unprotected sexual intercourse even when controlling for demographics and personality traits.
Chapter
Advertising is ubiquitous in the modern world. Indeed, individuals get bombarded with myriads of ad messages on a daily basis. In order to overcome the cluttered environment, ad practitioners often employ techniques grounded on controversial topics such as violence (e.g., Manceau and Tissier-Desbordes, 2006). At the same time, ad professionals intensify the use of rhetorical devices as an additional means to persuade (e.g., Phillips and McQuarrie, 2002). Nonetheless, the psychological determinants of viewers’ responses to such ad practices are still elusive. For example, despite the relevance of fundamental cognitive and affective constructs such as values and emotions within advertising (e.g., Holbrook and Batra, 1987; Homer and Kahle, 1988), no previous study has investigated their effects on controversial ad contexts employing rhetoric as a means to persuade.
Book
This document reports on a rapid evidence assessment (REA) of the evidence of harm to adults relating to exposure to extreme pornographic materials<br /
Book
This document reports on a rapid evidence assessment (REA) of the evidence of harm to adults relating to exposure to extreme pornographic materials.<br /
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Findings on gender differences and different relationship between film preferences and personality factors among women and man are pretty consistent. Disputes appear within results interpretation: Whether „the woman films“ consist of preferred content or they consider female point of view. The purpose of the conducted study is to analyse relationship between personality traits and film preferences at women. Five personality factors and sensation seeking subdimensions impact on certain film genre preferences was considered. Sample consisted of 165 women between 20 and 32 years old (M=23.67; SD= 1.85). Basic personality traits were assessed with 50-item version of Goldberg’s IPIP Big-Five questionnaire (International Personality Item Pool; IPIP50, 2001). Five scales provided measures of: extraversion (EXT), agreeableness (PRI), conscientiousness (SAV), emotional stability (EMS) i culture (KUL). IPIP scales reliability coefficients are in a range between α=.74 and α=.84. Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS; Zuckerman, 1994) was used for dimensions: sensation seeking (TAS), experience seeking (ES), desinhibition (DIS) and boringness sensitivity (BS). Besides separate dimension scores, the SSS scale provides overall sensation seeking measure. In film genre preferences (comedy, romantic, drama, action, horror, documentary i science-fiction) respondents were asked to estimate how much they love certain movie genre. Answers were in a range between 1 (not at all) do 7 (totally). Responses were analysed for each separately or in the frame of the first Hotelling principal component, which was considered as overall measure of film preferences. Film preferences were analysed first. In the inspection of relationship between personality traits and film preferences regression model was tested. Personality factors and sensation seeking subdimensions were defined as predictors in the simple multiple regression model. In the mediation model, personality factors were mediation variables while overall measure of sensation seeking was independent variable. Film preferences were represented through first principal component was dependent variable and in both models. Results show that comedy and romantic movies are most favorite. Nor results of multiple regression analysis (R=.21, F(9,158)=.77=.21, p=.64) nor mediation analysis (R=.04, F(6,158)=.57, p=.64) indicate any relations between personality traits and different film genre preferences. Study provides no contribution to the question of „female movies“ personality basis. Beside control study on male and addition female samples, need for reconsideration of operationalization of variables related to different movie preferences was noticed. Key words: personality traits, sensation seeking, movie genre preferences, female.
Article
To date, the use of taboos in advertising has produced mixed results. Such discrepancies require explanation. Relying on construal-level theory and the concept of psychological distance, this research focuses on taboo ads' effects on consumers' responses. The findings from three studies show that for different product categories (Study 1: perfume; Studies 2 and 3: alcohol) and across different taboo types (sex, violence, and a mixture of sex and violence), different distance dimensions (Study 1: spatial; Study 2: social), and different construal-level manipulations (low, high), an increase in the psychological distance (or construal) level attenuates consumers' unfavorable attitudinal and behavioral reactions while a decrease in the psychological distance (or construal) level intensifies consumers' responses. Furthermore, response intensity varies depending on the taboo type used, such that both violent and mixed taboo types produce more negative responses. Finally, gender has an impact, such that women react more negatively than men to different taboos, both across distance dimensions and across distance (construal) levels. A discussion of these findings and their implications, as well as suggestions for future research, concludes the article.
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The increasing violence broadcasted by the media is subject of concern and social interest. Hard emissions frequently raise the accusation toward the mass media of fostering a morbid curiosity in the audience just to raise audience ratings. But the concept of morbid curiosity includes wide and imprecise meanings. The object of this paper is to (re)construct the meaning of morbidity and morbid curiosity in relation to the watching of serious violence in TV News programs. 16 focus groups have been object of discourse analysis after the viewing 4 videos of a violent piece of TV news. The analysis shows that the dimension of curiosity and interest vs. illness and evil is structuring the discourse; and the participants highlight the positive and legitimate effects that can be attributed to the “gaze” on violence as much as to the scenes. “Watching” with interest is necessary to get the positive effects of the broadcasting of violent images.
Article
An experiment was carried out to investigate relationships between individuals' personality characteristics and their perceptions of violent TV portrayals. A panel of 40 viewers rated brief violent episodes from five categories of programming, contemporary British crime-detective series, American police series, westerns, science-fiction series and cartoons on eight scales. These responses were then related to viewers' scores on the N, E and P dimensions of the EPQ. Results showed that violent scores from contemporary settings were rated as more serious than scores from non-contemporary and fantastic settings. In addition, viewers exhibited individual differences in ratings of TV violence which were related to certain of their EPQ scores. In particular, high N scorers tended to perceive violence generally, but especially that from contemporary British drama, as more serious than did low N scorers. This study indicates the need to include personality measures in the analysis of audience reactions to TV violence.
Article
A study was carried out to examine viewers' perceptions of violent TV portrayals characterized by different degrees of observable harm to victims and by different programme settings. These perceptions were also related to viewers' personality scores on the EPQ. A panel of 40 individuals rated 18 brief TV scenes depicting violence in American crime-detective or science-fiction settings which resulted in fatal or non-fatal injury, or no observable harm to victims. Results showed that harmful violence was rated as significantly more serious than harmless violence in American crime-detective settings, but that the perceived consequences of violence were less salient discriminating attributes of content in science-fiction settings. There were also individual differences in ratings in that older people and lower P scores tended to perceive harmful violence as more violent, frightening and likely to disturb others than were younger people with higher P scores.
Article
Tested 63 new items for the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS) in an attempt to develop new scales representative of hypothesized dimensions of sensation seeking. An experimental form was given to 332 and 92 undergraduates at 2 universities. Data from the 1st university was factor analyzed separately for males and females. Besides the general factor running through diverse items, 4 factors were extracted from the rotated factor loadings: thrill and adventure seeking, experience seeking, disinhibition, and boredom susceptibility. The 1st 3 factors showed good factor and internal scale reliability in both sexes and samples. Since boredom susceptibility was not well defined in females and was of minimal reliability, it was retained as a subscale for males only. (24 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Reviews the trait of sensation seeking and the biological phenomena associated with it: strength of the initial orienting reflex, augmenting vs reducing of the average evoked potential, MAO, and gonadal hormones (both androgen and estrogens). Both psychological and biological measures have retest reliabilities that are characteristic of stable traits. Twin studies show moderate to strong genetic control of the personality and of several biological measures. Several behavioral characteristics that are associated with the trait in humans are also related to the biological traits in animals, including sociability and social dominance, reactivity to novel situations, and play. In humans, sexual experience, interest in new situations, experiences with drugs, manic-depressive tendencies, and psychopathy are associated with both sensation seeking and its biological correlates. Age and sex differences show some parallels and some differences between sensation seeking and its biological correlates. (6 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Theory and common correlates suggest a relationship between dimensions of personality measured by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and the Sensation-Seeking Scale. In order to examine these relationships, the 2 tests were given to 219 American and 879 English adults of both sexes. Sensation-seeking was positively correlated with the traits of extraversion and psychoticism as measured by the EPQ, but there was no relationship between sensation-seeking and the trait dimension of neuroticism. (26 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A comparative method of studying the biological bases of personality compares human trait dimensions with likely animal models in terms of genetic determination and common biological correlates. The approach is applied to the trait of sensation seeking, which is defined on the human level by a questionnaire, reports of experience, and observations of behavior, and on the animal level by general activity, behavior in novel situations, and certain types of naturalistic behavior in animal colonies. Moderately high genetic determination has been found for human sensation seeking, and marked strain differences in rodents have been found in open-field behavior that may be related to basic differences in brain neurochemistry. Agonistic and sociable behaviors in both animals and humans and the trait measure of sensation seeking in humans have been related to certain common biological correlates such as gonadal hormones, monoamine oxidase (MAO), and augmenting of the cortical evoked potential.The monoamine systems in the rodent brain are involved in general activity, exploratory behavior, emotionality, socialization, dominance, sexual and consummately behaviors, and intracranial self-stimulation. Preliminary studies have related norepinephrine and enzymes involved in its production and degradation to human sensation seeking. A model is suggested that relates mood, behavioral activity, sociability, and clinical states to activity of the central catecholamine neurotransmitters and to neuroregulators and other transmitters that act in opposite ways on behavior or stabilize activity in the arousal systems. Stimulation and behavioral activity act on the catecholamine systems in a brain–behavior feedback loop. At optimal levels of catecholamine systems activity (CSA) mood is positive and activity and sociability are adaptive. At very low or very high levels of CSA mood is dysphoric, activity is restricted or stereotyped, and the organism is unsocial or aggressively antisocial. Novelty, in the absence of threat, may be rewarding through activation of noradrenergic neurons.
Article
The genetic and environmental contributions to the trait of sensation seeking were analyzed using the responses of 422 pairs of twins to the Sensation Seeking Scale (Form IV). The biometrical method of Jinks and Fulker was applied to the data. The data fit the model indicating the likelihood of a predominantly additive gene action controlling the general trait. The heritability figure of 58% (69% of the reliable variance) was quite high for a personality trait. Data from other studies suggest that the heritability of the personality trait rests upon specific inherited biological traits, such as the biochemicals of the brain and gonadal hormones which affect arousability of the central nervous system and relevant traits, such as mood, impulsivity, risk taking, and sociability.
Article
Compared the factor structure of the Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS) in English and American samples, and constructed a new form of the SSS, applicable to both groups. The English Ss consisted of 254 males and 639 females from the Maudsley Twin Register, ages 15–70 yrs. The American sample included 97 male and female undergraduates. Three of the 4 factors showed good cross-national and cross-sex reliability (i.e., significant and reasonably high resemblance between the 4 national and sex symbols). English and American males did not differ on the total SSS score, but American females scored higher than English females. Males in both countries scored higher than females on the total SSS score and on the Thrill and Adventure-Seeking and Disinhibition subscales. Significant age declines occurred for both sexes, particularly on Thrill and Adventure Seeking and Disinhibition. (24 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
: A total of 53 female and 50 male students were shown a 11/2-hr film program preceded and followed by control periods of equal duration. Adrenaline and noradrenaline excretion increased significantly in both groups during the film period in relation to control levels before and after. During the film period, sexual arousal was the main emotional reaction reported by both sexes, the self-rating scores as well as their increases, however, being significantly higher in the male group. This difference in reported subjective reactions was paralleled by a corresponding difference in the urinary excretion of adrenaline, both the excretion levels and the increases over the control levels being significantly higher in the males. Possible explanations for the sex differences are discussed. Changes that occurred in the urine flow, specific gravity, and creatinine excretion during and after this type of psychosexual stimulation are reported, as are some psychoendocrine relations. Their possible significance is discussed against the background of the Kinsey hypothesis that men are more prone than women to sexual arousal from visual stimuli. Copyright (C) 1969 by American Psychosomatic Society
Article
A review of field studies on the possible relation of exposure to TV violence to subsequent aggressive behaviors indicates that such studies have produced mixed results and that there is little evidence of causality. Correlational research has established a small but significant association between viewing TV violence and aggressiveness, but evidence for a causal relationship is again minimal. There is no substantial evidence for a cumulative effect of TV viewing, nor has it been demonstrated that the effect of TV viewing depends on a crucial period or is delayed. In addition, correlations between viewing violence on TV and aggression do not consistently increase with age. It is concluded that although exposure to and preference for violent programming on TV is correlated with aggressive behavior, there is no evidence that viewing violence in natural settings causes an increase in subsequent aggressiveness. (48 ref)
Article
This article reports the development of a Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS) designed to quantify the construct: "optimal stimulation level." Items were written, using the construct as a guide, and given to undergraduates. The items were factor analyzed. A general factor was found and the item-factor correlation pattern was similar in males and females. In another sample, satisfactory reliability for the SSS was obtained and it was found to be positively correlated with field independence as measured by the Embedded Figures Test. In a third sample, nonsignificant correlations between SSS and Howard's Stimulus Seeking Maze tests were found. A significant negative correlation between SSS and anxiety, as measured by the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List was obtained.
Sexual attitudes and experiemce: attitude and personality correlations and changes produced by a course in sexuality
  • Zuckerman
The genetics of sensation seeking
  • Fulker
Research on pornography
  • Zuckerman
Sensation seeking in England and America: cross-cultural, age and sex comparisons
  • Zuckerman
A correlational test in humans of the biological models of sensation seeking, impulsivity, and anxiety
  • Zuckerman