ArticlePDF Available

The relationship between emotional intelligence and alexithymia

Abstract and Figures

In this study, the empirical association between the apparently similar constructs of emotional intelligence and alexithymia was examined using latent variable analysis in a large community sample of adults (N=734). The Twenty-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and the BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i) were used to assess alexithymia and emotional intelligence. Results revealed that although the constructs are independent, they overlap considerably and are strongly and inversely related.
Content may be subject to copyright.
The relationship between emotional intelligence and
James D.A. Parker
*, Graeme J. Taylor
, R. Michael Bagby
Department of Psychology, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada, K9J 7B8
Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto and Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada
Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, and Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Clarke Division,
Toronto, Canada
Received 24 June 1999; received in revised form 18 November 1999; accepted 24 January 2000
In this study, the empirical association between the apparently similar constructs of emotional intelli-
gence and alexithymia was examined using latent variable analysis in a large community sample of adults
(N=734). The Twenty-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and the BarOn Emotional Quotient
Inventory (EQ-i) were used to assess alexithymia and emotional intelligence. Results revealed that although
the constructs are independent, they overlap considerably and are strongly and inversely related. #2000
Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Alexithymia; Emotional intelligence; Structural equation modelling
1. Introduction
Introduced by Salovey and Mayer (1989/1990) a decade ago, the construct of emotional intel-
ligence is generating considerable public interest, mostly due to the popularization of the concept
by Goleman (1995, 1998). A conceptually similar construct is alexithymia. Although less well
known in the popular press, the alexithymia construct was introduced almost 30 years ago
(Nemiah and Sifneos, 1970; Nemiah, Freyberger & Sifneos, 1976) and has generated a far greater
amount of empirical research than has the emotional intelligence construct (Taylor, Bagby &
Parker, 1997). A comparison of the de®nitions of emotional intelligence and alexithymia suggests
that the two constructs are closely related.
0191-8869/00/$ - see front matter #2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
PII: S0191-8869(00)00014-3
Personality and Individual Differences 30 (2001) 107±115
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +1-705-748-1283; fax: +1-705-748-1580.
E-mail address: (J.D.A. Parker).
Derived from the broader construct of social intelligence, emotional intelligence was de®ned
originally by Salovey and Mayer (1989/1990) as ``the ability to monitor one's own and others'
feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one's
thinking and actions'' (p. 189). This de®nition encompasses two subtypes of personal intelligence
described by Gardner (1983) Ð intrapersonal intelligence (the ability to access one's own feeling
life) and interpersonal intelligence (the ability to read the moods, intentions, and desires of oth-
ers). Bar-On (1996, 1997), who has worked extensively on developing a comprehensive inventory
for assessing emotional intelligence since 1980, employs a much broader de®nition of the con-
struct, which includes adaptive capacities and abilities to control impulses and cope with stress, as
well as intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligence.
Whereas the emotional intelligence construct emerged from an integration of an array of
research ®ndings on how people appraise, communicate, and use emotion (Salovey & Mayer,
1989/1990), the alexithymia construct, formulated by Nemiah et al. (1976), arose primarily from
a cluster of cognitive and aective characteristics that had been observed in clinical situa-
tions, initially among patients with so-called `classical' psychosomatic diseases (Nemiah &
Sifneos, 1970; Ruesch, 1948), and later among patients with substance use disorders (Krystal
& Raskin, 1970), posttraumatic stress disorders (Krystal, 1968), and eating disorders (Bruch,
The salient features of the alexithymia construct include diculties in identifying and describ-
ing subjective feelings, a limited imaginal capacity, and an externally oriented style of thinking
(Taylor, Bagby & Parker, 1991, 1997). Although diculty in monitoring the feelings and emo-
tions of other people is not part of the de®nition, empirical studies have shown that individuals
with high degrees of alexithymia experience diculties in accurately identifying emotions in the
facial expressions of others (Lane et al., 1996; Parker, Taylor & Bagby, 1993b); and clinicians
report that alexithymic individuals manifest a limited capacity for empathizing with the emo-
tional states of others (Krystal, 1979; McDougall, 1989; Taylor, 1987). In addition, there is
empirical evidence that alexithymia is associated with diculties in discriminating among dier-
ent emotional states (Bagby, Parker, Taylor & Acklin, 1993), and with a limited ability to think
about and use emotions to cope with stressful situations (Parker, Taylor & Bagby, 1998; Schaer,
Although Salovey and Mayer (1989/1990; Salovey, Hsee, and Mayer, 1993) acknowledge an
overlap of the emotional intelligence and alexithymia constructs, they have made little attempt to
evaluate empirically the relationships between the two constructs. One possible explanation for
this is that these investigators have yet to introduce a standardised method for assessing emo-
tional intelligence. Salovey and Mayer's (1989/1990) de®nition of the construct was oper-
ationalized recently, however, by Schutte et al. (1998), who developed and validated a 33-item
self-report scale. In a mixed, but rather small, university student and community sample
(N25), this scale correlated strongly and negatively (rÿ0:65) with the 26-item Toronto
Alexithymia Scale (TAS; Taylor, Ryan & Bagby, 1985).
In a more recent study, Davies, Stankov and Roberts (1998) used the three factor scales of the
Twenty-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20; Bagby, Parker & Taylor, 1994a) to assess the
appraisal and expression of emotions in the self and the recognition of emotions in others. In a
second-order factor analysis, which included a number of dierent scales related to emotional
intelligence, the TAS-20 factor scales loaded signi®cantly on factors pertaining to `emotional
108 J.D.A. Parker et al. / Personality and Individual Dierences 30 (2001) 107±115
clarity' and/or `emotional awareness'. In addition, one of the TAS-20 factors (externally-oriented
thinking) correlated negatively with Mehrabian and Epstein's (1970) questionnaire measure of
emotional empathy.
The aim of the present study was to examine further the relationship between the alexithymia
construct, as measured by the TAS-20, and Bar-On's (1996, 1997) model of emotional intelli-
gence, as measured by the EQ-i, using latent variable analyses. We predicted that the TAS-20
total score and the scores for each of its three factors would be independent of, but strongly and
inversely associated with, the total score of the EQ-i.
2. Method
2.1. Subjects
The sample was comprised of 734 adults (329 men and 405 women) residing in several small
cities and towns in central Ontario, Canada. The participants were invited to take part in the
study by means of advertisements posted in the local community. The mean age of the sample
was 32.53 years (SD 13:98). The sample had a mean level of education of 13.58 years
(SD=1.78). Eighty-six percent of the participants identi®ed themselves as White, 4% as Black,
4% as Asian, 2% as Native American, and 4% did not indicate their race. All participants were
informed that they would be asked to complete two questionnaires for a research study on emo-
tions and personality. The questionnaires were completed by the research participants in their
own homes under the supervision of one of several research assistants.
2.2. Measures
The 20-Item Toronto alexithymia scale (TAS-20) is a widely used self-report measure of alex-
ithymia with a ®ve-point Likert rating format (Bagby et al., 1994a; Taylor et al., 1997). The TAS-
20 consists of three factors: diculty identifying feelings (Factor 1), diculty describing feelings
(Factor 2), and externally-oriented thinking (Factor 3) (Bagby et al., 1994; Parker, Bagby, Tay-
lor, Endler & Schmitz, 1993a; Taylor et al., 1997). The TAS-20 has demonstrated convergent and
discriminant validity, and scores show high agreement with observer ratings of alexithymia
(Bagby, Taylor & Parker, 1994).
The BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i; Bar-On, 1997) is a 133-item inventory with
13 subscales that cluster into four second-order factors Ð intrapersonal (emotional self-aware-
ness, assertiveness, self-regard, self-actualization, independence), interpersonal (empathy, rela-
tionship skills, social responsibility), adaptability (problem solving, reality testing, ¯exibility), and
stress management (stress tolerance, impulse control) Ð and two subscales that assess general
mood (happiness and optimism). The EQ-i also contains two validity subscales (positive impres-
sion and negative impression). As the purpose of this study was to examine only the core features
of emotional intelligence, only the four second-order factors that assess the central facets in Bar-
On's model of emotional intelligence were used in the analyses. The reliability and construct
validity of the inventory have been demonstrated with samples from several dierent countries
(Bar-On, 1997). Con®rmatory factor analysis of the EQ-i has indicated that the four second-order
J.D.A. Parker et al. / Personality and Individual Dierences 30 (2001) 107±115 109
factors are highly correlated and best represented as a unitary construct. As such, all model test-
ing in the present study used a single scale score to assess and represent the emotional intelligence
3. Results
Means and standard deviations for the TAS-20 and its three factors and the EQ-i and its four
second-order scales are presented in Table 1. The men scored higher than the women on the TAS-
20 total scale [t7323:99, p<0:001], the diculty describing feelings factor [t7324:15,
p<0:001], and the externally-oriented thinking factor [t7324:91, p<0:001]. Women scored
higher than men on the total EQ-i [t7323:52, p<0:001] and on the Intrapersonal scale of the
EQ-i [t73212:18, p<0:001]. Although the dierences between men and women on these
scales were statistically signi®cant, this signi®cance is likely attributable to the large sample size.
As a further check on combining male and female data together, the covariance matrices (four
EQ- i scales and the 20 items from the TAS-20) for men and women were compared using Sta-
tistica 5.1 (StatSoft, 1995). The criteria for equivalence was a Steiger±Lind RMSEA Index
(RMSEA; Steiger & Browne, 1984) less than 0.10, a Population Gamma Index (PGI; Tanaka &
Huba, 1985) greater than 0.90, and an Adjusted Population Index (APGI; StatSoft, 1995) greater
than 0.80. The RMSEA was 0.031, the PGI was 0.988, and the APGI was 0.975. The magnitude
of the three indexes suggests that the covariance matrices were virtually identical for men and
women. The internal reliabilities (Cronbach's alpha) for the measures are also displayed in Table
1. All these coecients are in the acceptable range.
The relationships between the TAS-20 and its three factors and the EQ-i and its four second-
order factors were examined using Pearson product moment correlations. As shown in Table 2,
Table 1
Means, standard deviations, and internal reliability coecients for the TAS-20 and the EQ-i for men (N329) and
women (N405)
Scale Men Women
Mean SD Alpha Mean SD Alpha
DIF 13.66 5.84 0.85 13.50 5.42 0.80
DDS 13.12 4.34 0.76 11.79 4.28 0.76
EOT 20.37 5.07 0.66 18.41 4.91 0.67
Total score 47.15 11.98 0.85 43.70 11.21 0.83
Intrapersonal 149.02 20.53 0.93 146.55 20.41 0.93
Interpersonal 109.86 14.83 0.86 121.61 11.20 0.82
Adaptability 92.17 12.99 0.86 93.67 11.98 0.85
Stress management 64.23 10.31 0.84 63.63 9.95 0.83
Total score 413.28 49.43 0.90 425.46 43.80 0.88
TAS-20 is the Twenty-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale; DIF=diculty identifying feelings; DDF=diculty
describing feelings; EOT=externally oriented thinking; EQ-i is the BarOn Emotionl Quotient Inventory.
110 J.D.A. Parker et al. / Personality and Individual Dierences 30 (2001) 107±115
the TAS-20 and its three factors correlated signi®cantly with the total score and the four factors
of the EQ-i. Lower levels of emotional intelligence and its four components were associated with
higher levels of alexithymia and its salient facets. The magnitude of these correlations are uni-
formly moderate to large in magnitude, suggesting a signi®cant amount of overlap.
In order to determine if alexithymia and emotional intelligence are independent constructs, we
tested a series of two-factor models with alexithymia hypothesized as one latent factor and emo-
tional intelligence hypothesized as the other latent factor. As some investigators (e.g., Deary,
Scott & Wilson, 1997) have suggested that the three TAS-20 factors, as a whole, may not best
represent the alexithymia construct, we tested separate two-factor models for each of the three
facets of the alexithymia construct (using congruent items from the TAS-20), as well as for total
alexithymia (using the three subscales from the TAS-20). Emotional intelligence was estimated
using the four second-order factor scales from the EQ-i (intrapersonal, interpersonal, stress
management, and adaptability).
The various models were tested using con®rmatory factor analysis with Statistica 5.1 (StatSoft,
1995). Following the recommendation of Cole (1987), and Marsh, Balla and McDonald (1988),
the goodness-of-®t of the various models was evaluated using multiple criteria: the goodness-of-®t
index (GFI; Jo
Èreskog & Sorbom, 1986), the adjusted GFI (AGFI; Jo
Èreskog & Sorbom, 1986), the
Non-Normed Fit Index (NNFI; Bentler, 1990), the Comparative Fit Index (CFI; Bentler, 1990),
and the Root Mean Square Residual (RMS; Bentler, 1990). Multiple criteria were used because
each index has dierent strengths and weaknesses in assessing the goodness-of-®t between a
hypothetical model and the actual data (Cole, 1987). Based on recommendations of Anderson
and Gerbing (1984), Bentler (1992), Cole (1987), and Marsh et al. (1988), the following criteria
were used to indicate the goodness-of-®t of the model to the data: GFI>0.850; AGFI>0.800,
NNFI>0.900, CFI>0.900, and RMS<0.10.
The ®rst model examined the relationship between emotional intelligence (estimated by the
intrapersonal, interpersonal, adaptability, and stress management scales from the EQ-i) and the
latent alexithymia variable of `diculty identifying feelings' (estimated from items 1, 3, 6, 7, 9, 13,
and 14 on the TAS-20). The GFI (0.919), AGFI (0.875), NNFI (0.900), CFI (0.911), and RMS
(0.052) all met the criteria standards for adequacy of ®t. The parameter estimate between the
emotional intelligence and diculty identifying feelings factors was ÿ0.78 (p<0:001). Given the
magnitude of this parameter estimate, we also examined whether the measured variables were
better represented by a one-factor model. The one- and two-factor models could then be com-
Table 2
Correlations between the TAS-20 and EQ-i (N734)
EQ-i TAS-20
Identify feelings Describe feelings Externally oriented thinking Total score
Intrapersonal ÿ0.58 ÿ0.62 ÿ0.35 ÿ0.66
Interpersonal ÿ0.38 ÿ0.47 ÿ0.41 ÿ0.54
Adaptability ÿ0.59 ÿ0.46 ÿ0.37 ÿ0.62
Stress management ÿ0.54 ÿ0.33 ÿ0.20 ÿ0.47
Total score ÿ0.64 ÿ0.61 ÿ0.42 ÿ0.72
All correlations are signi®cant (p<0:01).
J.D.A. Parker et al. / Personality and Individual Dierences 30 (2001) 107±115 111
pared by testing the dierence in the goodness-of-®t chi-squares (Breckler, 1990). The two-factor
solution was found to oer a better ®t to the data than the one-factor model [chi-square
difference 282:43 (df 1), p<0:001].
The second model examined the relationship between emotional intelligence (estimated by the
same four EQ-i scales used in the previous analysis) and the latent alexithymia variable of `di-
culty describing feelings' (estimated from items 2, 4, 11, 12, and 17 on the TAS-20). The GFI
(0.917), AGFI (0.857), NNFI (0.900), CFI (0.905), and RMS (0.053) all met the criteria standards
for adequacy of ®t. The parameter estimate between the emotional intelligence and diculty
describing feelings factors was ÿ0.70 (p<0:001). Given the magnitude of this parameter esti-
mate, one- and two-factor models for the measured variables were compared by testing the dif-
ference in the goodness-of-®t chi-squares. The two-factor solution was found to oer a better ®t
to the data than the one-factor model [chi-square difference 239:84 (df 1), p<0:001].
The third model examined the relationship between the latent variable of emotional intelligence
(estimated by the four EQ-i scales used in the previous analyses) and the latent alexithymia vari-
able of `externally-oriented thinking' (estimated from items 5, 8, 10, 15, 16, 18, 19, and 20 on the
TAS-20). The GFI (0.908), AGFI (0.865), NNFI (0.887), CFI (0.896), and RMS (0.066) all met
the criteria standards for adequacy of ®t. The parameter estimate between the emotional intelli-
gence and externally-oriented thinking factors was ÿ0.55 (p<0:001). One- and two-factor mod-
els for the measured variables were also compared by testing the dierence in the goodness-of-®t
chi-squares. The two-factor solution was found to oer a better ®t to the data than the one-factor
model [chi-square difference 337:77 (df 1), p<0:001].
The fourth model examined the relationship between the latent variable of alexithymia (esti-
mated using the three TAS-20 subscales of `diculty identifying feelings', `diculty describing
feelings', and `externally-oriented thinking') and emotional intelligence (estimated by the four
EQ-i scales used in the previous models). The GFI (0.967), AGFI (0.912), NNFI (0.956), CFI
(0.934), and RMS (0.067) all met the criteria standards for adequacy of ®t. The parameter esti-
mate between alexithymia and emotional intelligence was ÿ0.94 (p<0:001). Given the very high
parameter estimate between alexithymia and emotional intelligence, one- and two-factor models
for the measured variables were compared by testing the dierence in the goodness-of-®t chi-
squares. Consistent with the previous analyses, the two-factor model was found to oer a better
®t to the data than the one-factor model [chi-square difference 47:09 (df 1), p<0:001].
4. Discussion
The results of this study con®rm our prediction that alexithymia and emotional intelligence are
independent but strongly correlated (inversely) constructs. While the parameter estimates and the
Pearson correlations examining the associations between the latent and nonlatent factors of the
TAS-20 and the total EQ-i score were strong, for each of the latent models tested a two-factor
solution was superior to a one-factor solution. The ®nding that each of the TAS-20 factors pro-
duced moderate to high parameter estimates with the EQ-i factor suggests that the various facets
of the alexithymia construct are related to emotional intelligence.
The ®nding of a strong negative correlation between the TAS-20 and the EQ-i is consistent
with Schutte et al.'s (1998) ®nding of a negative correlation between the TAS and their 33-item
112 J.D.A. Parker et al. / Personality and Individual Dierences 30 (2001) 107±115
emotional intelligence scale, and provides further evidence that alexithymia and emotional intel-
ligence are inverse but strongly overlapping constructs. Although Davies et al. (1998) questioned
the reliability of the TAS-20 and whether there is an adequate methodology for assessing the
emotional intelligence construct, the TAS-20 and EQ-i total scales and factor scales demonstrated
acceptable levels of internal consistency in this sample, as they have done in previous studies with
a variety of non-clinical populations (Bar-On, 1997; Bagby et al., 1994a; Parker et al., 1993a).
Moreover, Davies et al.'s (1998) conclusion about the reliability of the TAS-20 is compromised as
these investigators failed to reverse the scoring on the negatively keyed items on the scale (L.
Stankov, personal communication, November 16, 1999).
The total TAS-20 and its three factors correlated signi®cantly and negatively with the intrapersonal
and interpersonal factors of the EQ-i, which encompass the two personal intelligences described by
Gardner (1983) and the two central facets of emotional intelligence in Salovey and Mayer's (1989/
1990) de®nition (i.e., emotional self-awareness and empathy). These ®ndings are consistent with
clinical reports that high alexithymic individuals manifest a limited capacity for empathizing with the
emotional states of others (Krystal, 1979; McDougall, 1989; Taylor, 1987), and with ®ndings from
an earlier study (Taylor et al., 1997) in which all three factors of the TAS-20 correlated negatively
with the aective orientation scale (Booth-Butter®eld & Booth-Butter®eld, 1990); the latter scale
assesses the extent to which individuals are aware of and use emotions to guide communication.
In the present study, signi®cant negative correlations were obtained between the TAS-20 and
its three factors and the adaptability and stress management factors of the EQ-i. These ®ndings
are consistent with results from previous studies in which alexithymia was found to be associated
with maladaptive defense and coping styles (Parker et al., 1998), vulnerability to stress (Bagby et
al., 1994b), and psychiatric disorders and somatic illnesses that involve problems in the modula-
tion of distressing aects (Taylor et al., 1997).
Given that previous research has found alexithymia to be associated with both illness beha-
viour (Lumley, Tomakowsky & Torosian, 1997) and increased mortality from all causes (Kau-
hanen, Kaplan, Cohen, Julkunen & Salonen, 1996), the ®ndings from the present study raise the
possibility that high emotional intelligence might be a protective factor for mental and physical
health. Future studies using longitudinal and prospective designs might evaluate this possibility.
Meanwhile, the ®ndings from the present study should alert clinicians and researchers to recog-
nize that the presence of alexithymic characteristics in their patients suggest low emotional intel-
ligence, and that highly alexithymic individuals not only lack the capacity to use emotions to
guide their behaviour, but are also intolerant of stress and have limited adaptive resources.
Although alexithymia and emotional intelligence are inverse but strongly overlapping con-
structs, alexithymia is a more narrowly de®ned construct than Bar-On's (1997) broad con-
ceptualization of emotional intelligence. Indeed, as Mayer, Salovey and Caruso (2000, in press)
point out, the EQ-i is based on a model of emotional intelligence, which combines mental abilities
concerned with understanding emotions with a diverse set of personality characteristics that Bar-
On (1997) relates to the potential to succeed in life. For example, as noted earlier, the intra-
personal second-order factor of the EQ-i assesses not only emotional self-awareness, but also
assertiveness, self-regard, self-actualization, and independence. And in addition to assessing the
ability to empathize, the interpersonal factor of the EQ-i assesses relationship skills and social
responsibility. Although the TAS-20 may correlate with many of these characteristics, they are
not part of the de®nition of the alexithymia construct; nor are they included in the models of
J.D.A. Parker et al. / Personality and Individual Dierences 30 (2001) 107±115 113
emotional intelligence proposed by Salovey and Mayer (1989/1990) and Mayer et al. (2000, in
press). Future research might investigate the relationship between alexithymia and models of
emotional intelligence that restrict themselves to mental abilities concerning the awareness and
cognitive processing of emotion.
This study was supported by a research grant to the ®rst author (]410-95-0634) from the Social
Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC). The authors would like to
thank Reuven Bar-On for his comments and Dana Reker for her help with collecting the data
used in this study.
Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1984). The eect of sampling error on convergence, improper solutions, and
goodness-of-®t indices for maximum likelihood con®rmatory factor analysis. Psychometrika, 49, 155±173.
Bagby, R. M., Parker, J. D. A., Taylor, G. J., & Acklin, M. W. (1993). Alexithymia and the ability to distinguish
dierent emotional states. Poster presentation at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychosomatic Society,
Charleston, SC, March, .
Bagby, R. M., Parker, J. D. A., & Taylor, G. J. (1994a). The Twenty-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale Ð I. Item
selection and cross-validation of the factor structure. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 38, 23±32.
Bagby, R. M., Taylor, G. J., & Parker, J. D. A. (1994b). The Twenty-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale Ð II. Con-
vergent discriminant, and concurrent validity. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 38, 33±40.
Bar-On, R. (1996). The era of the ``EQ'': De®ning and assessing emotional intelligence. The 104th Annual Convention
of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, .
Bar-On, R. (1997). BarOn emotional quotient inventory. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems Technical manual.
Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative ®t indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 238±246.
Bentler, P. M. (1992). On the ®t of models to covariances and methodology to the Bulletin. Psychological Bulletin, 112,
Booth-Butter®eld, M., & Booth-Butter®eld, S. (1990). Conceptualizing aect as information in communication pro-
duction. Human Communication Research, 16, 451±476.
Breckler, S. J. (1990). Applications of co-variance structure modelling in psychology: Cause or concern? Psychological
Bulletin, 107, 260±273.
Bruch, H. (1973). Eating disorders. Obesity, anorexia nervosa, and the person within, Basic BooksNew York.
Cole, D. A. (1987). Utility of con®rmatory factor analysis in test validation research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical
Psychology, 55, 584±594.
Davies, M., Stankov, L., & Roberts, R. D. (1998). Emotional intelligence: In search of an elusive construct. Journal of
Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 989±1015.
Deary, I. J., Scott, S., & Wilson, J. A. (1997). Neuroticism, alexithymia, and medically unexplained symptoms. Per-
sonality and Individual Dierences, 22, 551±564.
Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books.
Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.
Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.
Èreskog, K. G. & Sorbom, D. (1986). LISREL VI: Analysis of linear relationships by maximum likelihood, instrumental
variables, and least square methods. Mooresville, IN: Scienti®c Software.
Kauhanen, J., Kaplan, G. A., Cohen, R. D., Julkunen, J., & Salonen, J. T. (1996). Alexithymia and risk of death in
middle-aged men. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 41, 541±549.
114 J.D.A. Parker et al. / Personality and Individual Dierences 30 (2001) 107±115
Krystal, H. (1968). Massive psychic trauma. New York: International Universities Press.
Krystal, H. (1979). Alexithymia and psychotherapy. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 33, 17±31.
Krystal, H. & Raskin, H. (1970). Drug dependence. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.
Lane, R., Sechrest, L., Reidel, R., Weldon, V., Kaszniak, A., & Schwartz, G. (1996). Impaired verbal and nonverbal
emotion recognition in alexithymia. Psychosomatic Medicine, 58, 203±210.
Lumley, M. A., Tomakowsky, J., & Torosian, T. (1997). the relationship of alexithymia to subjective and biomedical
measures of disease. Psychosomatics, 38, 497±502.
Marsh, H. W., Balla, J. R., & McDonald, R. P. (1988). Goodness-of-®t indexes in con®rmatory factor analysis: The
eect of sample size. Psychological Bulletin, 103, 391±410.
Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. (2000). Competing models of emotional intelligence. In R. J. Sternberg,
Handbook of human intelligence (pp. ±). New York: Cambridge University Press.
McDougall, J. (1989). Theatres of the body: A psychoanalytic approach to psychosomatic illness. New York: Norton.
Mehrabian, A., & Epstein, N. (1970). A measure of emotional empathy. Journal of Personality, 40, 525±543.
Nemiah, J. C., Freyberger, H., & Sifneos, P. E. (1976). Alexithymia: A view of the psychosomatic process. In O. W.
Hill, Modern trends in psychosomatic medicineVol. 3 (pp. 430±439). London: Butterworths.
Nemiah, J. C., & Sifneos, P. E. (1970). Aect and fantasy in patients with psychosomatic disorders. In O. W. Hill,
Modern trends in psychosomatic medicineVol. 2 (pp. 26±34). London: Butterworths.
Parker, J. D. A., Bagby, R. M., Taylor, G. J., Endler, N. S., & Schmitz, P. (1993a). Factorial validity of the 20-item
Toronto Alexithymia Scale. European Journal of Personality, 7, 221±232.
Parker, J. D. A., Taylor, G. J., & Bagby, R. M. (1993b). Alexithymia and the recognition of facial expressions of
emotion. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 59, 197±202.
Parker, J. D. A., Taylor, G. J., & Bagby, R. M. (1998). Alexithymia: Relationship with ego defense and coping styles.
Comprehensive Psychiatry, 39, 91±98.
Ruesch, J. (1948). The infantile personality. Psychosomatic Medicine, 10, 134±144.
Salovey, P., Hsee, C. K., & Mayer, J. D. (1993). Emotional intelligence and the self-regulation of aect.
In D. M. Wegner, & J. W. Pennebaker, Handbook of mental control (pp. 258±277). Englewood Clis, NJ: Prentice
Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1989/1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 9, 185±211.
Schaer, C. E. (1993). The role of adult attachment in the experience and regulation of aect. Doctoral dissertation, Yale
Schutte, N. S., Malou, J. M., Hall, L. E., Haggerty, D. J., Cooper, J. T., Golden, C. J., & Dornheim, L. (1998).
Development and validation of a measure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Dierences, 25, 167±
StatSoft (1995). Statistica for Windows. Tulsa, OK: StatSoft.
Steiger, J. H., & Browne, M. W. (1984). The comparison of independent correlations between optional linear compo-
sites. Psychometrika, 49, 11±24.
Tanaka, J. S., & Huba, G. J. (1985). A ®t index for covariance structure models under arbitrary GLS estimation.
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 38, 197±201.
Taylor, G. J. (1987). Psychosomatic medicine and contemporary psychoanalysis. Madison, CT: International Uni-
versities Press.
Taylor, G. J., Bagby, R. M., & Parker, J. D. A. (1991). The alexithymia construct: A potential paradigm for psycho-
somatic medicine. Psychosomatics, 32, 153±164.
Taylor, G. J., Bagby, R. M. & Parker, J. D. A. (1997). Disorders of aect regulation: Alexithymia in medical and psy-
chiatric illness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Taylor, G. J., Ryan, D., & Bagby, R. M. (1985). Toward the development of a new self-report alexithymia scale. Psy-
chotherapy and Psychosomatics, 44, 191±199.
J.D.A. Parker et al. / Personality and Individual Dierences 30 (2001) 107±115 115
... A pesar de que la escasez de estudios longitudinales sobre la relación entre el UPI y la alexitimia impide establecer relaciones causales, los resultados encontrados, así como la evidencia de que los individuos con alexitimia muestran una tendencia a tratar de regular sus emociones mediante comportamientos compulsivos (Taylor et al., 1991) y de que los individuos con altos niveles de alexitimia podrían utilizar Internet con la finalidad de mitigar sus problemas emocionales, haciéndolos más propensos al UPI (Bolat et al., 2018). Aunque existe poca evidencia del efecto de intervenciones enfocadas directamente en reducir la alexitimia (Hemming et al., 2019), si se tiene en cuenta que la inteligencia emocional parece ser un factor protector tanto de la alexitimia (Obeid et al., 2021;Parker et al., 2001) como del UPI (Arrivillaga et al., 2020Sechi et al., 2021), y considerando que es posible incrementar el nivel de inteligencia emocional mediante programas de intervención apropiados (Hodzic et al., 2018;Mattingly & Kraiger, 2019), se puede concluir que intervenciones centradas en aumentar la inteligencia emocional de adolescentes y jóvenes, podría tener efectos positivos en la reducción de los niveles de alexitimia y UPI. ...
Full-text available
El presente meta-análisis examinó la relación entre el uso problemático de internet y la alexitimia, que es la incapacidad de reconocer las emociones. Para ello, se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en las bases de datos Scopus, PsycInfo, PubMed, Web of Science y ProQuest, recuperando un total de 26 tamaños del efecto independientes pertenecientes a 25 artículos que cumplían los criterios de inclusión. La muestra total estaba compuesta por 13,313 sujetos. Los resultados revelan una asociación entre el uso problemático de Internet y la alexitimia (r = .25), por lo que aquellos sujetos que muestran mayores puntuaciones de alexitimia presentan altos niveles de uso problemático de internet. No se aprecia la presencia de sesgo de publicación. Se discuten las implicaciones y las limitaciones del trabajo. También, se apunta la necesidad de continuar investigando la relación entre las dos variables, especialmente mediante estudios de tipo longitudinal y en grupos de edad variados.
... Still, the actual development and maintenance of IGD depend on interactions of such predisposing personal core elements with various moderating and mediating cognitions, affects and behaviors. Several factors are associated with both and could be relevant in the relationship between alexithymia and IGD severity, such as emotional intelligence (Parker et al., 2001;Parker et al., 2013), maladaptive coping strategies (Besharat, 2010;Lin et al., 2021;Schneider et al., 2018), loneliness (Qualter et al., 2009;Yu et al., 2022) and social anxiety (Dalbudak et al., 2013;Yu et al., 2022). ...
Full-text available
Background Social and emotional deficits are assumed to be involved in the development and maintenance of internet gaming disorder (IGD). Alexithymia refers to a personality construct, which is characterized by deficits in emotional awareness and processing. The constructs of alexithymia and depression share similarities, and depression is a common comorbidity of IGD patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between alexithymia and IGD when controlling for depression symptom severity. Moreover, we compared alexithymia traits of IGD patients with those of non-pathological video gamers. Methods In a cross-sectional study n = 38 male IGD patients (EG) were recruited at specialized healthcare services in Germany. In addition, n = 39 male non-pathological video gamers (CG) were recruited via social media and bulletin board announcement. Both groups completed questionnaires measuring alexithymia (TAS-20), depression symptom severity (BDI) and IGD severity (s-IAT). Results Alexithymia and depression symptom severity both predicted IGD severity. Yet, when including both factors in multiple regression analysis, only alexithymia predicted IGD severity. The prevalence of alexithymia in the EG was 34.2 % (n = 13). None of the non-pathological video gamers scored above the cut-off indicating alexithymia. IGD patients showed higher traits of alexithymia in general and on each subscale, irrespective of whether or not they were currently consuming video games. As previously observed, depression symptom severity was significantly greater in IGD patients compared to healthy video gamers. Yet, group differences in alexithymia traits remained stable, with a ~29 % decrease of effectiveness in the relationship, when controlling for depression symptom severity and sociodemographic factors. Conclusion The results reveal that alexithymia is associated with and predicts IGD severity independently of depression symptom severity. Moreover, alexithymia is highly prevalent in IGD patients.
... Research in cultural clinical psychology has also focused on alexithymia, a concept that describes difficulties in identifying and describing subjective feelings, along with an externally oriented style of thinking (Parker, Taylor, & Bagby, 2001). Two studies (Dere, Falk, & Ryder, 2012;Ryder et al., 2008) found higher scores of alexithymia among Chinese than among Euro-Canadians, an effect that was entirely explained by the difference in externally oriented thinking. ...
Complex post-traumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) was introduced as a new diagnostic category in ICD-11. It encompasses PTSD symptoms along with disturbances in selforganisation (DSO), i.e., affect dysregulation, negative self-concept, and disturbances in relationships. Quantitative research supports the validity of CPTSD across different cultural groups. At the same time, evidence reveals cultural variation in the phenomenology of PTSD, which most likely translates into cultural variation with regard to DSO. This theoretical review aims to set the ground for future research on such cultural aspects in the DSO. It provides a theoretical introduction to cultural clinical psychology, followed by a summary of evidence on cultural research related to PTSD and DSO. This evidence suggests that the way how DSO symptoms manifest, and the underlying aetiological processes, are closely intertwined with cultural notions of the self and interpersonal relationships. We propose directions for future research and implications for culturally sensitive clinical practice.
... The connections represent mean effect sizes (r) of all reported correlations and are colored according to the direction of correlation (blue for positive, purple for negative). Importantly, because (a)lexthymia and its facets were conceptually inverted, so were corresponding connections: publications documenting negative correlations between alexithymia and intelligence (e.g., Parker et al., 2001), for example, are displayed as positive (blue) connections between the two nodes. Additionally, the network layout was structured using the strength of the mean effect sizes. ...
Expertise refers to outstanding skill or ability in a particular domain. In the domain of emotion, expertise refers to the observation that some people are better at a range of competencies related to understanding and experiencing emotions, and these competencies may help them lead healthier lives. These individual differences are represented by multiple constructs including emotional awareness, emotional clarity, emotional complexity, emotional granularity, and emotional intelligence. These constructs derive from different theoretical perspectives, highlight different competencies, and are operationalized and measured in different ways. The full set of relationships between these constructs has not yet been considered, hindering scientific progress and the translation of findings to aid mental and physical well-being. In this article, we use a scoping review procedure to integrate these constructs within a shared conceptual space. Scoping reviews provide a principled means of synthesizing large and diverse literature in a transparent fashion, enabling the identification of similarities as well as gaps and inconsistencies across constructs. Using domain-general accounts of expertise as a guide, we build a unifying framework for expertise in emotion and apply this to constructs that describe how people understand and experience their own emotions. Our approach offers opportunities to identify potential mechanisms of expertise in emotion, encouraging future research on those mechanisms and on educational or clinical interventions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... However, one might also expect weaker relationships between selfreport and performance-based measures of emotional awareness, as has been observed with self-report and performance-based EI measures (Austin 2004;Petrides 2011;Webb et al. 2013). Self-report measures of alexithymia, which ask individuals similar questions about their understanding of emotions (Parker et al. 2001), have also not been found to correlate strongly with performance-based emotional awareness measures (Maroti et al. 2018). While the studies linking emotional awareness scores to other performance-based emotional skills measures provide some initial insights, they will need to be replicated and extended in future work. ...
Full-text available
Emotional awareness is the ability to conceptualize and describe one’s own emotions and those of others. Over thirty years ago, a cognitive-developmental theory of emotional awareness patterned after Piaget’s theory of cognitive development was created as well as a performance measure of this ability called the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS). Since then, a large number of studies have been completed in healthy volunteers and clinical populations including those with mental health or systemic medical disorders. Along the way, there have also been further refinements and adaptations of the LEAS such as the creation of a digital version in addition to further advances in the theory itself. This review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the evolving theoretical background, measurement methods, and empirical findings with the LEAS. The LEAS is a reliable and valid measure of emotional awareness. Evidence suggests that emotional awareness facilitates better emotion self-regulation, better ability to navigate complex social situations and enjoy relationships, and better physical and mental health. This is a relatively new but promising area of research in the domain of socio-emotional skills. The paper concludes with some recommendations for future research.
The relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and numerous positive outcomes has sparked considerable interest from educators and researchers in training and promoting various emotional and social competencies in youth. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a new school-based program for elementary school students designed to develop various EI-related competencies in children—the “Umbrella Project.” Five hundred and twenty-nine students (44% boys) who attended six schools in the Waterloo, Ontario area, completed a self-report measure of EI before and after participating in the unique training program. Total EI and a majority of EI subscales showed significant improvement from pretest to post test. Girls also showed higher total EI and interpersonal scores regardless of assessment session. The results are very encouraging and suggest regular classroom-based resources and curriculum activities can foster the development of a cross-section of emotional and social competencies.
Full-text available
هدفت هذه الدراسة إلى معرفة الفروق بين المراهقين والمراهقات في كل من التوافق الشخصي والتوافق الأسري والتوافق الدراسي والتوافق الاجتماعي، وكذلك التعرف علي مدي اسهام مكونات تمايز الذات ومنظور زمن المستقبل في التنبؤ في كل من التوافق الشخصي والتوافق الأسري والتوافق الدراسي والتوافق الاجتماعي لدى المراهقات ، واقتراح نموذج سببي لتأثير منبئات منظور زمن المستقبل على مكونات التوافق النفسي في ضوء منبئات تمايز الذات ، ولتحقيق هذا الهدف استخدمت الباحثة المنهج الوصفي التحليلي، ، وقد تكونت عينة البحث من (350) من المراهقين والمراهقات بالصف الأول والثاني بالمرحلة الثانوية لعام (2020-2021)، وقد وجدت الباحثة أنه عدم وجود فروق بين المراهقين والمراهقات في كل من التوافق الشخصي والتوافق الأسري والتوافق الاجتماعي، إلا أنه النتائج كشفت عن وجود فروق بين الذكور والإناث في التوافق الدراسي ولصالح الذكور من المراهقين ، كما يتضح قدرة كل من البحث عن المعرفة وثبات الذات والسعي نحو تحقيق السعادة في التنبؤ بالتوافق الشخصي ، وقدرة كل من البحث السعي نحو تحقيق السعادة والبحث عن المعرفة والتفاعل العاطفي في التنبؤ بالتوافق الأسري ، وقدرة كل من البحث عن المعرفة، والسعي نحو تحقيق السعادة، وثبات الذات في التنبؤ بالتوافق الدراسي، وقدرة كل من البحث عن المعرفة في التنبؤ بالتوافق الاجتماعي ، وتم اقتراح نموذج سببي لتأثير منبئات منظور زمن المستقبل على مكونات التوافق النفسي في ضوء منبئات تمايز الذات .
Full-text available
Abstract: The Office for National Statistics find that productivity in the UK remains sluggish. They describe this as a productivity puzzle. One reason many be associated with the accidental manager. These are people who are appointed to leadership positions with little or no leadership/ management skills and can drain productivity. This suggests that, not withstanding the development of leadership/ management theories, there continues to be a problem that needs to be addressed. This journal article, begins by comparing and contrasting the terms leadership and management and reflects upon a few of the main theories. The findings propose that there is no one right approach to leadership. However, the leader needs to have the requisite skills to adapt and adopt the appropriate leadership style for the situation. This requires the leader to make decisions that involve cognition, intuition and emotion. Therefore, the leader of the twenty first century needs to be able to influence and collaborate with others while recognizing that “words can hurt” and that some people can be more sensitive than others. It is, therefore important that leaders develop their emotional intelligence skills. The leader of the twenty first century also recognizes the damaging impact that passion killers and pathocratic influence can have on the organization. These factors can help build a high performing, passionate and healthy workplace in which people feel valued. In summing up, the role of leader and follower is increasingly blurred. It acknowledges the significance of allowing followers to take responsibility while recognizing leadership is a process not a position.
Full-text available
Disturbances in emotion are associated with the most of the diagnostic criteria of the personality disorders, though the role of emotional intelligence in the diagnosis of personality disorders has been the subject of limited research. The present study was designed to investigate the relationships between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) and personality disorder symptomatology in an undergraduate student sample. One hundred and twenty university students (28.3% male and 71.7 % female; M of age = 19.23, SD=2.45) were administered with (1) Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue) (Petrides, 2009), along with (2) The Personality Disorder Questionnaire-4 (PDQ-4) (Hyler E. Steven, 1994). A multivariate analysis of variance revealed a significant main effect for group with individuals without any personality disorder symptomatology scoring significantly higher than individuals with some personality accentuations on most TEIQue facets. The results suggest that different components of emotional intelligence contribute to the development of different personality disorder symptomatology, but more research is required to replicate the results with the clinical population. Key words: emotional intelligence, personality disorders.
It is noted that 7 of the 10 top-cited articles in the Psychological Bulletin deal with methodological topics. One of these is the Bentler-Bonett (1980) article on the assessment of fit in covariance structure models. Some context is provided on the popularity of this article. In addition, a citation study of methodology articles appearing in the Bulletin since 1978 was carried out. It verified that publications in design, evaluation, measurement, and statistics continue to be important to psychological research. Some thoughts are offered on the role of the journal in making developments in these areas more accessible to psychologists.
This book is a report, excellently edited, on the proceedings of the Wayne University workshops on the late sequelae of massive psychic trauma essentially focused on psychiatric manifestations in German concentration camp survivors. The proposition for this reviewer is the ability to retain objectivity in the face of having experience of almost ten years and over 300 cases vs having been a very active participant in that conference on record in this volume. Narcissistic investment vs critical judgment is the oldest "conflict of interest." Indeed a great deal of attention is given in the volume to the conflicts and defenses of the evaluating psychiatrists on both sides of the ocean. The problem of traumatic neuroses in the wake of major social disasters had been systematically explored after World Wars I and II with progressively greater insights and some value to the evolution of
This article presents a framework for emotional intelligence, a set of skills hypothesized to contribute to the accurate appraisal and expression of emotion in oneself and in others, the effective regulation of emotion in self and others, and the use of feelings to motivate, plan, and achieve in one's life. We start by reviewing the debate about the adaptive versus maladaptive qualities of emotion. We then explore the literature on intelligence, and especially social intelligence, to examine the place of emotion in traditional intelligence conceptions. A framework for integrating the research on emotion-related skills is then described. Next, we review the components of emotional intelligence. To conclude the review, the role of emotional intelligence in mental health is discussed and avenues for further investigation are suggested.