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Personality and Charisma

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Abstract

In this paper we review prior theory and empirical evidence relevant to the personality characteristics that differentiate charismatic leaders from noncharismatic leaders. We conclude from this review that charismatic leaders in present day complex organizations fit the stereotypical image of supportive, sensitive, nurturing, and considerate leaders such as Mahatma Gandhi or Nelson Mandela, rather than the traditional stereotype of aggressive, demanding, dominant and critical leaders such as Jim Jones or Field Marshall George Montgomery. We then present a review of research relevant to four traits that theoretically differentiate personalized (self-aggrandizing, non-egalitarian, and exploitive) charismatic leaders from socialized (collectively oriented, egalitarian, and nonexploitive) charismatic leaders. We conclude that the personality traits of the need for power, power inhibition, Machiavellianism, authoritarianism, narcissism, self esteem and locus of control are traits that are likely to differentiate personalized from socialized charismatic leaders.

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... To build a coherent pathway model, we draw from the following theoretical lenses: charismatic leadership theory (House, 1977;House and Howell, 1992;Shamir and Howell, 2018), which defines leader values, and CSR strategic modes (e.g., Aguilera et al., 2007;Pless et al., 2012;Carter and Greer, 2013;Miska et al., 2014;Waldman, 2014;Maak et al., 2016;Gond et al., 2017), a foundation for the concept of CSR orientation. Charismatic leadership theory is an influential value-based leadership framework popular in the micro-discipline (organizational behavior). ...
... The essence of SCL lies in their high moral standards and integrity (Avolio et al., 2004;Waldman, 2014). Our characterization of socialized charismatic leader values is largely drawn from the accumulated work on SCL (e.g., House and Howell, 1992;Waldman and Yammarino, 1999;Waldman and Javidan, 2009;Antonakis et al., 2016;Wowak et al., 2016;Shamir and Howell, 2018). According to this stream of research, socialized charismatic leaders are guided by ethicality and morally altruistic principles. ...
... In other words, a high need for power combined with a high level of activity inhibition drives socialized charismatic leaders to seek power for serving the greater good for society. With a self-controlled power motive, these leaders apply restraint in the use of their power and direct it toward social responsibility instead of personal gain (House and Howell, 1992;Vergauwe et al., 2018). ...
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In response to both internal and external expectations and pressures, companies increasingly consider corporate social responsibility (CSR) as an essential factor in their strategic planning, but in a very diverse manner. To help synthesize the flourishing research in CSR variation across firms, we propose a three-orientation framework to map out a wide range of CSR strategies in current literature. Furthermore, we emphasize the importance of executive leadership and suggest that differences in leader’s values are the key drivers of CSR heterogeneity. This study offers a parsimonious model that maps out three primary pathways between leadership values and CSR strategic configurations. Drawing from charismatic leadership theory, we argue that three distinct types of leader power motives define three modes of leader’s strategic decision frames, which, in turn, influence corresponding CSR orientations. Specifically, socialized charismatic leaders favor prosocial decision frame that results in integrative CSR orientation; neutralized charismatic leaders embrace instrumental decision frame leading to strategic CSR mode; and personalized charismatic leaders tend to adopt self-serving CSR strategies driven by the self-serving decision frame. This holistic view advances the knowledge about the micro-foundations of CSR drivers and the essential role of leader values.
... Concernant le leadership charismatique, il est également conceptualisé en partie par des comportements de leaders. Cependant, la différence se situe au niveau de l'attribution du charisme et de ses effets (e.g., l'identification avec le leader) qui dépendent de la perception des subordonnés (House & Howell, 1992 ;Yukl, 1999). Par exemple, selon Conger & Kanungo (1987) (Bass, 1985 ;Shamir, House & Arthur 1993 ;Yukl, 1999). ...
... Nonobstant, des ambigüités persistent notamment au niveau de la nature du leadership charismatique qui est souvent présentée comme un leadership plus dominant, fort et autoritaire. House & Howell (1992) avaient déjà remarqué que le charisme était associé à différentes personnalités (e.g., Hitler) qui ont fini par favoriser cette association. Ces auteurs ont fait la différence entre deux types de leadership charismatique : le leadership charismatique socialisé et le leadership charismatique personnalisé. ...
... Le premier fait référence à un leadership plus égalitaire et focalisé sur les subordonnés tandis que le deuxième se focalise sur un leadership plus dominant et autoritaire. House & Howell (1992) ont expliqué que ces deux types de leadership ne sont pas mutuellement exclusifs. Un leader peut combiner les deux aspects du leadership charismatique ou les utiliser individuellement. ...
Thesis
Les stéréotypes de genre représentent l’un des principaux déterminants dans la perception du leadership des hommes et des femmes. Les stéréotypes des hommes ont été davantage associés à un leadership efficace que ceux des femmes. Par conséquent, les hommes sont généralement perçus comme plus légitimes et préparés pour occuper les rôles de leaders. Cependant, depuis quelques années, plusieurs arguments suggèrent que cette association est renversée. Actuellement, les stéréotypes des femmes seraient davantage associés à un leadership efficace, et cela les conférerait un avantage de leadership sur les hommes. Or, les propositions de l’avantage du leadership où certaines qualités stéréotypées seraient supérieures à d’autres vont à l’encontre des prémisses de base du leadership. Le leadership se déroule dans un contexte. Le contexte influence la portée, la validité et l’impact du leadership. Ainsi, les effets d’un type de leadership dans une situation ne se vérifieront pas forcément dans une autre. En effet, certains critiques ont proposé que les recherches devraient plutôt se focaliser sur les contextes où un éventuel avantage pourrait se vérifier. De ce fait, à travers cinq études, incluant quatre expérimentales, une corrélationnelle et la validation d’une échelle sur la perception de la crise, la présente thèse visait à déterminer si les différents types de crise pourraient constituer un avantage de leadership pour les hommes ou pour les femmes. Nous avons formulé l’hypothèse selon laquelle l’évaluation des leaders et du type de leadership dépendrait de leur congruence avec le contexte. Les résultats de nos études confirment partiellement nos hypothèses. Si dans la plupart des situations les traits agentiques et communaux ont été en effet évalués en congruence avec le type de crise, concernant les comportements, contrairement à ce que nous avons prédit, ceux considérés comme typiques des femmes (i.e., de considération) ont été davantage préférés dans toutes les situations. Cependant, indépendamment de leur préférence, l’efficacité des traits agentiques et communaux et des comportements de considération et de structure ont été médiatisés par les sentiments d’incertitude, d’injustice et de contrôle présents dans la crise. Dans la plupart des situations ils ont été perçus comme efficaces ou ont favorisé l’évaluation des leaders. Finalement, nos résultats montrent que si la réussite organisationnelle est davantage attribuée aux hommes, l’efficacité dans les situations de crises est également davantage attribuée aux hommes. Cependant, pour résoudre la crise, les hommes et les femmes n’ont pas été préférés de la même manière dans toutes les situations. Les femmes ont été davantage préférées que les hommes pour résoudre une crise relationnelle. Ces résultats sont discutés à la lumière des arguments de l’avantage du leadership et de l’impact du contexte sur le leadership. Nous argumentons que malgré l’impact évident du contexte sur le leadership, les femmes, à cause des injonctions imposés par les stéréotypes de genre, pourraient effectivement avoir un avantage de leadership sur les hommes.
... Armstrong & Cummins (2009) assert that charismatic leaders can positively impact their followers by influencing their self-focus. Consequently, the subordinates are more willing to participate and make sacrifices for the vision (House & Howell, 1992), thereby enhancing their organizational achievement, for this case, academic performance. Through idealized influence, the leader provides role modeling for high ethical behavior and instills pride in their follower; thereby, they gain the respect and trust of such followers (Yukl, 2010). ...
... Armstrong & Cummins (2009) assert that charismatic leaders can positively impact their focus. Consequently, the subordinates are more willing to participate and make vision (House & Howell, 1992), thereby enhancing their organizational achievement, for this case, academic performance. Through idealized influence, the leader provides role modeling for high ethical behavior and they gain the respect and trust of such followers (Yukl, 2010). ...
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Leadership plays an essential role in any education development and quality of students' academic performance. In many parts of the world, including the developed and developing countries, there is the recognition that schools require influential leaders and managers if they are to provide the best possible education for their students. This study explores the relationship between transformational leadership and academic performance of secondary school students in Kirinyaga County. Education plays a vital role in bringing enlightened transformation in society. Therefore, understanding how the administration can improve students' performance in the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) examinations in Kirinyaga County, is central to this study. The study examined teachers' idealized management practices as an essential indicator for a transformative leader on students' academic performance in KCSE. The study adopted an explanatory sequential mixed method research. This approach involved collecting quantitative data first, analyzing it and then developing qualitative interviews to follow the initial findings. The qualitative design focused on phenomenology, to understand how teachers' experienced idealized influence and how it affected their student's academic performance. In the quantitative phase, surveys were used to determine teachers' idealized Management practices (IMP) on Students Academic Performance (SAP). A random sampling of 48 teachers and 359 students were selected to participate in the survey from the total population of 484 teachers and 9,904 students. The researcher interviewed teachers to qualify their transformational leader knowledge on transformational leadership and experience in relation to their students' performance. Besides was a documentary analysis to obtain more information on students' academic performance. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics, analysis frequencies, means, standard deviations and percentages were calculated and presented in tables. Results revealed that IMP has a significant favorable influence on KCSE academic performance of 0.208 at alpha value 0.05 level of significance (2-tailed). Future research may focus on the impact of teachers and transformational leadership on school culture, among other areas of interest, to inform educational officers and other professionals working to support young people through effective transformational leadership around idealized management practices. Keywords: Idealized influence, practices, Academic performance, Transformational leadership
... It is possible that narcissistic CEOs, who are characterised by low emotional stability and a need for external recognition, do not take into account those around them [82], and they also may end up demonstrating exploitative behaviour [55,[83][84][85], which could be hidden by convincing their subordinates to make sacrifices in pursuit of big goals [81]. This would mean employee recognition and reward processes being used to create a greater benefit for the CEOs. ...
... However, splitting CEOs by level of narcissism reveals differing results with regard to incentive instruments. This supports the argument that a CEO's personality has a notable influence on decision-making and, more specifically, on incentive systems, as discussed in several studies [11,74,81,83]. ...
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The purpose of this work is to analyse the preferences of Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) in relation to the different components of incentive systems: financial vs. non-financial. The incentive systems could be an instrument for the sustainable development of Firms. Upper Echelons Theory establishes that the traits of executives affect the decision-making processes, and among these traits, narcissism is a potentially influential factor in these processes. Therefore, the extent to which the level of narcissism influences the choice of one instrument or another is also analysed. For this purpose, a choice experiment has been carried out to analyse the preferences of CEOs. The questionnaire developed incorporates both the choices about different systems and the NPI-16 test that allows individuals to be classified according to their narcissistic nature. The main results show that, in general, there is a stronger preference for non-financial instruments than for financial instruments in the design of incentive systems. However, narcissistic CEOs show a clear inclination towards financial incentives that bring them benefits rather than provide incentives.
... Armstrong & Cummins (2009) assert that charismatic leaders can positively impact their followers by influencing their self-focus. Consequently, the subordinates are more willing to participate and make sacrifices for the vision (House & Howell, 1992), thereby enhancing their organizational achievement, for this case, academic performance. Through idealized influence, the leader provides role modeling for high ethical behavior and instills pride in their follower; thereby, they gain the respect and trust of such followers (Yukl, 2010). ...
... Armstrong & Cummins (2009) assert that charismatic leaders can positively impact their focus. Consequently, the subordinates are more willing to participate and make vision (House & Howell, 1992), thereby enhancing their organizational achievement, for this case, academic performance. Through idealized influence, the leader provides role modeling for high ethical behavior and they gain the respect and trust of such followers (Yukl, 2010). ...
Chapter
Christians who want to contribute to civil society and combat corruption need to know more than just biblical theology and biblical ethics. They also need to understand what civil society is and to have a good grasp of the meaning of democracy and of their rights and responsibilities as citizens. Public theology exists to help them understand these issues and become informed participants in democratic processes. It is easy to be sceptical about democracy in Africa given the inequalities, violence, corruption, nepotism, poverty, xenophobia and ethnic politics that have characterized the postcolonial era. The constitutions of African nations may speak of democracy, but in many respects Africa seems to have turned its back on the possibility of a democracy that protects human rights, equality and participation. Yet we should not forget that it was a growing understanding of democratic values that led to the end of the exploitative colonial era and the re-emergence of independent nations in Africa. So we should not dismiss what democracy has to offer. Instead, we should apply ourselves to thinking about the potential of democracy to address Africa’s societal ills. This may also involve us in rethinking our own understanding of what democracy means.
... Charismatic leaders are likely to build an egalitarian, non-exploitative, and altruistic organizational culture. Nevertheless, the behavior of charismatic leaders can increase the risk levels of the organization by introducing instability and uncertainty into decision-making processes [16]. Charismatic leaders inspire followers to take risks and motivate followers to achieve high corporate objectives [17][18][19]. ...
... Charismatic leaders transform organizations and members in ways that are distinct from other leaders. They are capable of motivating followers to invest the most effort through articulating a vision for an organization's future [16,36]. Charismatic leaders also inspire followers to pursue self-development [37] and lead to the satisfaction of followers. ...
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Although prior research has emphasized the disproportional contributions to organizations of charismatic leadership, an emerging line of research has started to examine the potentially negative consequences. In this paper, a theoretical framework was proposed for a study of unethical pro-organization behavior through psychological safety based on social information processing theory, which reveals the detrimental effect that charismatic leadership can have on workplace behavior. To explore this negative possibility, a time-lagged research design was applied for the hypotheses to be verified using 214 pieces of data collected from a service company in China. According to the results, unethical pro-organizational behavior was indirectly influenced by charismatic leadership through psychological safety. Moreover, when employees experienced high performance pressure, charismatic leadership was positively associated with unethical pro-organizational behavior through psychological safety. The implications of these findings were analyzed from the perspectives of charismatic leadership theory and organizational ethical activities to alter the unethical pro-organizational behavior.
... Frontiers in Psychology 03 frontiersin.org TL posits that group performance can be linked to leaders who are high in dominance, self-confidence, a need to influence, who are able to articulate their goals and vision, perceived well, and have high expectations of their subordinates (House and Howell, 1992). Indeed, an extensive study investigating U.S. military personnel on exercise, conducted by Bass et al. (2003) found that platoon (a conventional unit of c. 30 soldiers) potency was positively correlated to TL. ...
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As performance psychology expands to address different environments, military settings are viewed as a natural extension. In certain cases, however, we suggest that a sub-optimal approach has been employed, due to a lack of specific knowledge of military culture and context, coupled with a diminished emphasis on conducting psychological research targeted directly on military performance. In this paper we explore the specific and importantly unique challenges encountered when researching and consulting with Special Operation Forces (SOF) within the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) alliance. To support both researchers and practitioners, we offer an overview of the current state of knowledge in this specific domain. We highlight key differences between SOF and conventional forces, then look at the specific requirements for developing performance psychology in the SOF context. Finally, we offer some perspectives on where opportunities might have been missed and offer some suggestions for more impactful (and accurate) research and practice.
... These leaders tend to dominate and exploit their powers (Aronson, 2001). They are arrogant, unforgiving, mean, demanding, and lack integrity (House & Howell, 1992, Naseer et al., 2016. Their main goal is to achieve personal goals with a materialistic approach to achieve the desired goals. ...
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Purpose: This study examines the interactive effects of despotic leadership and Islamic work ethic (IWE) on the job outcomes of employees, that is, job performance and vigor. Methodology: Using a time lag design, we collected data from 201 regular faculty members of a medium-sized private university in Pakistan. Findings: The analysis revealed that despotic leadership relates significantly to the employee job performance but not vigor. IWE showed a significant effect on vigor, but not on job performance. In addition, the results also confirmed that IWE moderates the relationship between despotic leadership and vigor but not for job performance. Significance: This study added value to the body of knowledge by examining the moderating role of IWE between despotic leadership, vigor, and job performance. Limitations: Limitations and future directions for research have also been discussed. Practical Implications: Employees who work under the supervision of despotic leaders must be given proper training to minimize the fear of such leaders. The findings of the study also provide some important possibilities for the part of IWE in increasing the positive energies (i.e. vigor) at work.
... Adhering to the situational leadership theory would entail collaborative work among the stakeholders of the school to attain the vision, mission, goals, and objectives of the school. As a result, the study's primary goal is to synthesize the culture and nature of principals' leadership roles (Fernandez & Vecchio, 1997;House & Howell, 1992). ...
Article
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Leadership circulates via the networks of positions that make up organizations. People's resources serve as the medium and currency of leadership. This research focuses on integrating the culture and nature of the principals' leaders and responsibilities in the school while adhering to the situational leadership theory. The descriptive survey technique of research was utilized in this study. Findings show, that principals must also properly manage opportunities. The principal may be an educational expert continually by creatively scientifically integrating ideas, materials, and human resources to meet the demands of time while also being supportive of his subordinates' accomplishments. When working habits and interpersonal connections are shown in the workplace, effectivity occurs.
... Visionary is the ability of an organization to establish a long-term vision through any means of inspirational, communicational, ideological, and intellectual expertise (Douglas & Fredendall, 2004;House & Howell, 1992). In particular, visionary explains single-minded individual who is committed in the pursuit of his or her vision while confronting skeptic naysayers and inadequacy of external resources (Sarasvathy & Venkataraman, 2011). ...
Article
This study examined the effects of locus of control, tolerance of ambiguity, vision, persistence, and resilience on entrepreneurial competency, performance, and sustainability among micro-enterprises in Kelantan, Malaysia. Adopting a cross-sectional design, the authors collected data from 403 micro-entrepreneurs. The findings revealed that locus of control and vision significantly influenced entrepreneurial competencies. In turn, entrepreneurial competencies, locus of control, and visionary traits significantly affected micro-enterprise performance. The findings also revealed a positive effect of entrepreneurial competencies and performance on micro-enterprise sustainability. The findings also confirmed a significant mediating effect of entrepreneurial competencies on the relationship between locus of control and vision and enterprise performance. The government and developmental organizations should collaborate to enhance locus of control, vision, and resilience traits in order to facilitate micro-enterprise sustainable performance.
... Among the four effectiveness criteria we consider in the current study, such a curvilinear relationship might especially be expected for adaptive performance and charismatic leadership, as moderate levels of psychopathic traits promote stress-immunity and fearlessness (Benning et al., 2005;Lilienfeld & Widows, 2005), which may serve to deal appropriately with unexpected and stressful situations at work. Moreover, different psychopathic features, such as risk taking, persuasiveness, glibness, and (superficial) charm, have also been related to charismatic leadership (Conger et al., 1997;House & Howell, 1992). At high levels, however, these features may reflect reckless, manipulative, exploitative, and inauthentic behavior, which in turn is expected to reduce effectiveness levels (Banks et al., 2016;Kaiser et al., 2015;Landay et al., 2019). ...
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Research on the relationship between psychopathy and leadership effectiveness has adopted very different perspectives on psychopathy. To advance this field of research, the current paper introduces an overarching framework of “successful psychopathy” (Lilienfeld et al., 2015) to the leadership domain, comprising three conceptual models (the differential-severity model, the moderated-expression model, and the differential-configuration model) and their “hybrid” forms, which are combinations of two or three models. We test the three alternative conceptual models and four hybrid models in two independent samples of leader-subordinate dyads (N1 = 178 and N2 = 668) whereby leaders’ self-reported psychopathy is related to a range of subordinate-rated effectiveness criteria, including three performance dimensions and charismatic leadership. A recurrent pattern of findings across both studies provides evidence for differential effects for the various psychopathy subdimensions, whereas little support was found for the models assuming curvilinear and/or moderated effects. Implications for research on leader psychopathy are discussed.
... In an organizational context, Power-motivated employees search for situations in which they can help other employees, take the lead, and look for opportunities to reach higher and more prestigious positions in an organization. Researchers suggested that charismatic leaders have a high implicit Power motive (House & Howell, 1992) and found evidence in a study linking the implicit Power motive of US presidents to charismatic leadership behavior (House et al., 1991). ...
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This study extends research on the link between personality and Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB) by investigating whether the implicit Affiliation, Achievement, and Power motives contribute to the prediction of CWB beyond basic personality traits. Employees high in Affiliation, Achievement, and Power motives may disengage from CWB because it is not rewarding and thwarts goal attainment. In Study 1 (N = 263), we found that Affiliation predicted self-rated CWB beyond traits. In Study 2 (N = 121), we found that Affiliation and Power predicted supervisor-rated CWB. Our findings thus suggest to also consider implicit motives as personality determinants of CWB.
... There are many forms of leadership analyzed in literature: servant (Dierendonck 2011;Patterson 2003;Sendjaya, Sarros, and Santora 2008;Spears 1995) and authentic (Avolio and Gardner 2005;May et al. 2003;Shamir and Eilam 2005), spiritual (Benefiel 2005;Bindlish, Dutt, and Pardasani 2012;Bouckaert and Zsolnai 2011;Brophy 2015) and contemplative (Grandy and Sliwa 2017;Gunnlaugson 2011), responsible (Pless 2007;Pless and Maak 2011) and ethical (Brown and Treviño 2006;McKenna 2011;Schaubroeck et al. 2012;Toor and Ofori 2009), transformational (Bono and Judge 2004;Bass and Steidlmeier 1999;Gumusluoglu and Ilsev 2009) and charismatic (House and Howell 1992;J. A. Conger, Kanungo, and Menon 2000;J. ...
Article
Sustainable development is now seen as the business paradigm for the 21st century and poses a significant dilemma for managers, which is to balance economic goals, environmental impact and social development. In recent years, more and more attention has been paid to sustainable entrepreneurship as a concept combining triple bottom line (TBL) aspects since introducing social and ecological values and goals, in addition to economic ones, is seen as a long-term strategy for survival and value creation. Italy’s socio-economic context where there are a large number of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and social enterprises has proven to be a good field for new hybrid forms of for-purpose business. This paper is a single case in-depth study conducted over three years (2017–2019) analyzing Mondora, a certified and legally recognized Benefit Corporation that has introduced full-spectrum teal practices in its governance structure and is shifting the paradigm as a flourishing enterprise. The aim of this paper is to analyze the legal and governance framework of Mondora as a benefit corporation and delineate a best-case example that embraces new leadership practices as a pilot for future research on benefit corporations. The implications lie in the fact that the typology of the social entrepreneur present in benefit corporations has the characteristics of the quantum leader outlined by Tsao and Laszlo (2019).
... The need for power stems from a person's desire to influence, teach or encourage others, and this mainly to demonstrate one's own superior capabilities vis-à-vis others (Winter, 2010a). Powermotivated employees have good leadership abilities (House and Howell, 1992), excel in (organizational) politics (Winter, 2010b;Blickle et al., 2018), and flourish in hierarchically structured organizations in which they aim for high-level positions so that they can control the direction in which their company or organization is moving (McClelland and Boyatzis, 1982). Kumar and Beyerlein (1991) showed that need for power is positively associated with political activity, and Winter (2005Winter ( , 2010a demonstrated that power motivation scores of American presidents were significantly related to historians' ratings of presidential greatness and the making of "great" decisions. ...
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This article contributes to the literature on the roots of Public Service Motivation (PSM) by turning to the psychological theory of basic human motives. The study explores the differential associations of explicit and implicit basic human motives with PSM, Attraction to Policy-Making (APM), Commitment to the Public Interest (CPI), Compassion (COM), and Self-Sacrifice (SS). Methodologically, the research contributes to the literature by introducing a measurement instrument new to Public Administration: the Brief Implicit Association Test (BIAT). The BIAT is an easy-to-use and flexible tool to probe into the human unconsciousness, offering ample opportunities for further research in Public Administration and Management.
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This study proposes that there is relationship between transformational leadership and employee’s voice as well as relational identification as a mediation and proactive personality as a moderator. Structural Equation Modeling was used to analyze data gathered from employees at the Ministry of Law and Human Rights through questionnaires. The findings revealed that transformational leadership has a significant effect on employee’s voice and relational identification; relational identification mediates the relation between transformational leadership and employee voice behavior, and proactive personality will weaken the transformational effect on employee’s voice behavior. This study enriches empirical studies that employee’s voice can represent the opinions and ideas of employees with the presence of relational identification, proactive personality, and transformational leadership in the organization. Furthermore, transformational leadership can build relational identification that is strengthened by a proactive personality so that employees are happy to convey their voices.
Chapter
What is transformational leadership, and what is our area of focus? What relationship does transformational leadership have to other leadership theories? What is the critique of transformational leadership?
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The chapter attempts to investigate the impacts of leadership styles during digital transformation era on stakeholders. The styles employed by leaders affect stakeholders. It focuses on examining leaders' perceptions of digitalization and its impacts on stakeholders. Leaders, boards of directors and shareholders, employees, customers, and regulators are the major subjects for investigation. Qualitative research is employed for the contemporary nature of the topic being studied. Open-ended interviews are the research method. Chief executives of banks representing services sector are the participants to this research.
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שאלת דמות היזם בכלל ודמות היזם החברתי בפרט היא סוגיה מרכזית בספרות המחקרית. יש הטוענים כי דמות היזם אינה מובחנת מדמויות אחרות והמאמץ לנבא ולאפיין אישיות יזמית הוא מאמץ עקר. לטענתם יזמות היא תכונה מגוונת, נרכשת הנמצאת במגוון היבטים אנושיים ואינה ייחודית למגזר מקצועי או לעיסוק מסוים. אחרים טוענים כי דמותו של היזם בתחום מסוים של יזמות – מובחנת ובעלת מאפיינים הייחודיים רק לה. שאלת דמות היזם עולה ביתר שאת בהקשר החברתי וזאת משום שמדובר בתחום אינטרדיסציפלינרי אשר מוביליו נעים בין תחומי פעולה שונים ופועלים בארגונים מסוגים שונים. תחומי פעולה שונים אשר כוללים את כל קשת הפעילות האפשרית בתחומי הרווחה, החברה, החינוך, הכלכלה והסביבה ועבודה בסוגים שונים של ארגונים כמו, ארגונים ללא כוונות רווח, עסקים־חברתיים ויוזמות חברתיות במסגרת עסקים. כך שההטרוגניות הגדולה מאתגרת, עוד יותר, את חקירת מאפייניו של היזם החברתי. כך עולה השאלה מי הם היזמים החברתיים ומהם המאפיינים האישיים, האישיותיים והמוטיבציוניים שלהם?
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למידה מבוססת סימולציה היא טכניקה המדמה את תנאי הזירה המקצועית למטרות למידה ותרגול מיומנויות, בין אם מיומנויות יסוד או מיומנויות טכניות. הסימולציה נולדה בעולם הרפואי והצבאי ומשם התפתחה לתחומי דעת נוספים כדוגמת הכשרת מורים. בעוד שהשימוש בסימולציה נפוץ מאוד בתחומי הרפואה והסיעוד ובמחקר הוכחה יעילות הכלי, הטמעת הסימולציה בתחום הכשרת מורים עודנה בראשיתה. המאמר הנוכחי מוקדש לגיבוש מושגי של למידה מבוססת סימולציה בחינוך. המודלים השונים המופעלים ניזונים מתשתית תיאורטית דומה וכוללים את המושגים הבאים: שחקן סימולציה, תרחיש סימולציה, תחקיר סימולציה ומנחה סימולציה. נוכח העובדה כי מיעוט מחקרים קיים בתחום הלמידה המבוססת סימולציה בשדה הכשרת המורים, נחוצים מחקרים שממוקדים ברכיבים השונים שמרכיבים יחד את שקרוי 'סימולציה'.
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Styles of leadership can be differentiated in terms of their outcome (constructive or destructive), mechanism (collaborative or coercive) and their effects on the followers (developmental or regressive). Two leadership styles, charismatic and inspiring, are described and contrasted. The former is regressive, based on a projection of the followers’ ideal-ego onto and fusion with the idealized leader. The effect of inspiring leadership is developmental, the leader provides an exemplar of the followers’ ego-ideal to which they aspire in a more realistic manner. Charismatic leadership promotes an “as if” mentality, inspiring leadership promotes a “what if” mentality. Charismatic leadership creates a divided state of mind, inspiring leadership encourages a more integrated state of mind. Actual leaders use both styles of leadership to varying degrees.
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Political movements founded by charismatic leaders are often considered ephemeral. Existing literature argues that because they rest on unmediated, emotional attachments between leaders and followers, these movements either fade quickly after their leaders disappear or transform into routinized parties. Yet, charismatic movements around the world have proven surprisingly resilient and have retained their personalistic core. Focusing on Argentine Peronism and Venezuelan Chavismo, this book investigates the nature and trajectory of charismatic movements from the perspectives of both leaders and followers. Using interviews, focus groups, and survey experiments, Caitlin Andrews-Lee reveals that charismatic movements can emerge, survive, and become politically revived by sustaining - not discarding - their personalistic character. Followers' charismatic attachments to the movement founder can develop into an enduring, deeply affective political identity that successors can reactivate under certain conditions by portraying themselves as symbolic reincarnations of the founder. Consequently, charismatic movements can have lasting, deleterious effects on democracy.
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Political movements founded by charismatic leaders are often considered ephemeral. Existing literature argues that because they rest on unmediated, emotional attachments between leaders and followers, these movements either fade quickly after their leaders disappear or transform into routinized parties. Yet, charismatic movements around the world have proven surprisingly resilient and have retained their personalistic core. Focusing on Argentine Peronism and Venezuelan Chavismo, this book investigates the nature and trajectory of charismatic movements from the perspectives of both leaders and followers. Using interviews, focus groups, and survey experiments, Caitlin Andrews-Lee reveals that charismatic movements can emerge, survive, and become politically revived by sustaining - not discarding - their personalistic character. Followers' charismatic attachments to the movement founder can develop into an enduring, deeply affective political identity that successors can reactivate under certain conditions by portraying themselves as symbolic reincarnations of the founder. Consequently, charismatic movements can have lasting, deleterious effects on democracy.
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Research on unethical leadership has predominantly focused on interpersonal and high-intensity forms of harmful leader behavior such as abusive supervision. Other forms of harmful leader behavior such as excessively pressuring subordinates or acting in self-centered ways have received less attention, despite being harmful and potentially occurring more frequently. We propose a model of four types of harmful leader behavior (HLB) varying in intensity (high vs low) and orientation (people/relationships or tasks/goals): Intimidation, Lack of Care, Self-Centeredness, and Excessive Pressure for Results. We map out how these relate to other constructs in the unethical leader behavior field in order to integrate the existing work on how leaders can cause harm to followers. Next, in five studies ( N = 35, N = 218, N = 352, N = 160, N = 1921 in 196 teams), we develop and test a new survey instrument measuring the four proposed types of perceived HLB. We provide initial validity evidence for this new measure, establish its psychometric properties, and examine its nomological network by linking the four types of HLB to related leadership constructs and soft and hard outcome correlates at the individual and team level. We find that HLB is negatively related to constructive forms of leadership (e.g., ethical and transformational) and positively to unethical ones (e.g., abusive supervision). HLB is also related in the expected direction to job satisfaction, engagement, psychological safety, knowledge sharing, knowledge hiding, deviance, and objectively recorded team-level stress-related absenteeism.
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In den vorangegangenen Kapiteln wurde immer wieder Bezug genommen auf „die Führungskraft“, ohne sie weiter zu spezifizieren. Eine solche Spezifizierung ist jedoch notwendig, da jede Führungskraft auch erstmal nichts anderes als ein Individuum in einem Unternehmen ist. Dieses Individuum hat in seiner Rolle, genau wie jeder andere Mitarbeiter auch, eigene unternehmensrelevante Eigenschaften und Merkmale, die sich unter den Oberbegriffen Leistungsfähigkeit und Leistungsbereitschaft differenziert zusammenfassen lassen. D. h., die Produktivität auch einer Führungskraft wird von seiner individuellen Leistungsfähigkeit und Leistungsbereitschaft bestimmt (Gutenberg, 1958, S. 57).
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„Understanding the nature of an individual`s leadership requires an attempt to understand the core of her inner life.“ (Lappiere, 1991) Das Führungsvermögen einer Führungskraft kann man nicht an äußerlichen Kennzeichen festmachen. Es steckt im Inneren und kommt nur durch Verhalten zum Ausdruck.
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Social attractiveness in human leaders is defined as charisma, the set of leadership characteristics such as vision, emotions, and dominance used by leaders to share beliefs, persuade listeners, and achieve goals. Charisma is expressed through voice quality manipulations reflecting physiologically-based qualities and culturally-acquired habits to display leadership. These manipulations are adapted by the speakers to the social environment where they intend to be perceived as charismatic. Charisma in political speech is observed here to unveil the biological abilities versus the culturally-mediated strategies in leaders’ speech according to different social contexts in which political communication takes place. Manipulations of vocal pitch, loudness, and phonation types are shown to cause both cross-cultural and culture-specific social attractiveness and consequently, are key factors for charisma effectiveness. Charismatic voice is then intentionally and unintentionally controlled by the human leaders to carry the perlocutionary salience of persuasive speech and influence listeners’ choice of leadership.
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Leadership development in cyberspace presents new challenges within an abstract interactive environment. The flexibility and versatility of virtual spaces offers many freedoms from ordinary rules and restrictions. Examining relevant signature character strengths under the high six virtues of Wisdom, Courage, Humanity, Justice, Temperance, and Transcendence (Peterson & Seligman, 2004) provide guidance for virtual leadership. Aspiring authentic transformational leaders must continue their awareness of selfhood and society in cyberspace milieus by opening their human apertures while leveraging their signature character strengths.
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The external image of party leaders has often been analysed through their behaviour or reflection in the media. However, we know little about how party leaders are seen internally. This article addresses this gap in the literature and seeks to explain what determines the variation in party members’ perceptions of leadership styles. It builds on the transactional–transformational continuum and uses original survey data from a modified version of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. The analysis includes 12 political parties with parliamentary representation from Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania between 2004 and 2018. The findings of the mixed-effects linear regression illustrate that in general older and active party members are more likely to see their leaders as transformational. The determinants of leadership style assessment differ greatly across political parties.
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This study tested whether self-concept discrepancy theory (Higgins, 1983) provides a psychological model for distinguishing among different aspects of depression and anxiety. Nondepressed, slightly depressed, and moderately depressed undergraduates filled out a variety of standard questionnaires—the Beck Depression Inventory, Blatt Depressive Experiences Questionnaire, Emotions Questionnaire (measuring chronic rather than momentary affect), and Hopkins Symptom Checklist (Depression, Anxiety, Hostility, and Somatization subscales)—as well as the Selves Questionnaire, which was created to measure self-concept discrepancy. The Selves Questionnaire asked subjects to list up to 10 attributes associated with each of six different self-concepts. Each self-concept involved a particular domain of the self (i.e., the “actual” self, the “ideal” self, or the “ought” self) combined with a particular standpoint on that self (i.e., the subject's “own” standpoint or the standpoint of a significant “other”). To calculate ...
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Charismatic leadership has been largely overlooked by organizational theorists. In part, the problem can be attributed to the lack of a systematic conceptual framework Drawing from political science, sociology, and social psychology, this paper addresses the problem by proposing a model linking organizational contexts to charismatic leadership. A series of research hypotheses is offered.
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The empirical literature on charismatic or transformational leadership demonstrates that such leadership has profound effects on followers. However, while several versions of charismatic leadership theory predict such effects, none of them explains the process by which these effects are achieved. In this paper we seek to advance leadership theory by addressing this fundamental problem. We offer a self-concept based motivational theory to explain the process by which charismatic leader behaviors cause profound transformational effects on followers. The theory presents the argument that charismatic leadership has its effects by strongly engaging followers' self-concepts in the interest of the mission articulated by the leader. We derive from this theory testable propositions about (a) the behavior of charismatic leaders and their effects on followers, (b) the role of followers' values and orientations in the charismatic relationship, and (c) some of the organizational conditions that favor the emergence and effectiveness of charismatic leaders.
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TAT protocols for 237 managers obtained at the managers' entry into the American Telephone and Telegraph Company were retrieved, scored for the personality variables in question, and correlated with the levels of promotion attained after 8 and 16 yrs. As predicted, the leadership motive pattern (moderate–high need (n) for Power, low n-Affiliation, and high Activity Inhibition) was significantly associated with managerial success after 8 and 16 yrs for the nontechnical managers. Among these Ss, n-Achievement was also associated with success, but only at lower levels when individual contributions were more important than the ability to influence people. Measures of maturity were associated with success, but only within subgroups of managers. None of these measures was associated with success for technical managers with engineering responsibilities. (11 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Studied the relevance of Machiavellianism as a personality style for leadership in the context of experimental task groups; Ss were 84 male undergraduates. The experimental design preselected (using Machiavellian scales) 14 high Machiavellians (Machs) and 14 low Machs and assigned them as leaders of task groups who constructed toy cube bridges under either a favorable or an unfavorable situation. In the favorable situation, the leader was presented to the group as technically qualified, and his authority was emphasized (high leader power). Task performance was evaluated according to a single criterion (structured task). In the unfavorable situation, the leader's qualities or special status were not emphasized (low power), and task performance was evaluated according to multiple criteria (unstructured task). No performance differences were found between high and low Mach led groups. Significant differences were observed in group interactions. High Mach leaders gave more orders and were less involved in reducing tension. They were also less directive and requested more assistance when the situation was unfavorable, whereas the low Machs' behavior across situations remained unchanged. (8 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A subjective expected utility (SEU) model is employed as a heuristic device to generate hypotheses and to integrate the existing experimental evidence concerning the behavior of the source of influence. As predicted from the SEU model, strong bargainers did initiate more threats to a weak opponent than vice versa. Similarly, the closer the weak bargainer was in strength to the strong bargainer, the more influence the weaker bargainer attempted. When the bargainers were power equals, pairs with high punishment potential used fewer threats than the weaker pairs. As the size of possible retaliation increased for the equal-power pairs, SEU for influence decreased, and the number of influence attempts likewise decreased. When the source and the target are equal in power and influence attempts will increase toward liked others and take the form of promises and persuasion. Relatively powerful persons are likely to be chosen as targets of influence attempts and are also most likely to initiate such attempts themselves.
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review Kelman's (1958) theory on social influence processes and deduce from it hypotheses concerning a differential use of social influence processes by socialized and personalized leaders [review] the work of McClelland and his colleagues on the power motive and deriving hypotheses concerning the two types of charismatic leadership based on a differential exercise of power describe the behaviors of the two charismatic types the effects of socialized and personalized leaders on followers and on the perpetuation of the mission are outlined, citing examples from the literature to illustrate the varying effects discuss the implications for theory on organizational and individual effectiveness (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between narcissism and creativity. 71 subjects were asked to identify themselves as being highly creative or not highly creative. Subjects were then given the Barron Symbolic Equivalents Test to measure level of creativity and the Narcissistic Personality Inventory to measure their level of narcissism. Four groups were formed using the subjects' self-report and their Barron scores. Each group was then compared on the Narcissistic inventory scores. A significant difference in the narcissism scores was found between the high-creativity/high-self-report group and all other groups. The greatest difference was found between the high-creativity/high-self-report group and the low-creativity/low-self-report group. Upon further analysis a significant correlation of .25 was found between scores on Barron's test and the narcissism measure, which suggests that there is a small but positive and significant relationship between the personality variables of creativit...
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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We argue in this paper that in an age of complexity, change, large enterprises, and nation states, leaders are more important than ever. However, their effectiveness depends on their personality and charisma and not solely on their control over bureaucratic structures. We used a study of U.S. presidents to test a general model of leader effectiveness that includes leader personality characteristics, charisma, crises, age of the institution headed by the leader, and leader effectiveness. Age of the presidency accounted for approximately 20 percent of the variance in presidential needs for power, achievement, and affiliation. Presidential needs and a measure of leader self-restraint in using power, the age of the presidency, and crises accounted for 24 percent of the variance in presidential charisma. Age of the presidency, crises, needs, and charisma together predicted from 25 percent to 66 percent of the variance in five measures of presidential performance. Our study demonstrates that personality and charisma do make a difference.
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Social psychologists generally have rejected the notion that leadership can be explained by divine inspiration, inherited characteristics, or by a fortuitous combination of personal traits. Some modern theorists have proposed instead a situational theory of leadership, arguing that persons who emerge as leaders do so because their special talents are essential to the group at the moment. The same person, therefore, is unlikely to persist in a position of leadership from one group setting to another unless the conditions are similar.
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Charismatic business leaders are often heralded as corporate heroes by orchestrating turnarounds, launching new enterprises, engaging in organizational renewal or change, and obtaining extraordinary performance from individuals. The effectiveness of these leaders may be interpreted by executives as an unqualified recommendation for such leadership in their organizations. However the risks involved in charismatic leadership are at least as large as the promises. What is missing from current discussions about charisma is consideration of its darker side. In this article we focus on a paradox that emerges whenever one discusses leaders such as Robert Campeau, Max DePree, Lee lacocca, Ross Johnson, Ralph Larsen, and Michael Milken: why are some charismatic leaders destructive, while others are beneficial to followers, organizations, and even entire societies? Drawing on the results from an interview study as well as the popular management literature, we describe the qualities and values that differentiate ethical and unethical charismatic leaders. We also examine the impact ethical and unethical charismatic leaders have on followers and how organizations can develop ethical charismatic leaders.
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This research examines the leadership behaviors, influence tactics, and career experiences of champions of technological innovations. Content analysis of the interview transcripts of a matched sample of 25 champions and nonchampions indicated that champions exhibited more charismatic leader behaviors and used a wider variety of influence tactics than nonchampions. Champions also held more job positions, worked in more divisions and geographic locations, and had greater previous innovation experience during their careers than nonchampions. Implications of the findings for organization theory and practice and directions for future research are discussed.
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Leader influence is analyzed in terms of operant theory. The characteristics of leader-mediated stimuli and the way they are tied to the subordinate's newly exhibited and already acquired behavior are proposed as critical determinants of leader influence. Dependent parameters of leader influence on subordinate motivation and behavior acquisition are identified. The relevant literature on learning and leadership is reviewed and a number of hypotheses are suggested. Constraints on leader influence through the manipulation of reinforcement and punishment are discussed. Requirements of the operant methodology are examined. These suggest that future research on the effects of leader reinforcement should use rigorous experimentation and the procedures of behavior observation.
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A survey of 90 student leaders at the US Naval Academy indicated that the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) can be used to understand transformational and transactional leadership behaviors and the leader's self-perception accuracy. Ss were classified as high-low categories of leadership (i.e., leaders and followers). Leaders who were evaluated as sensing and feeling types by the MBTI were the most transformational and used the most positive reinforcement with followers. Leaders who were introverts and sensing types had the most accurate self-perceptions. Transformational leader behaviors were related to reported extra effort on the part of followers. The most common type of leadership observed, active intervening with criticism when work was below standard, was unrelated to followers' extra effort. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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Nowadays, with organizations growing ever flatter and responsibility being pushed further down the ranks, admitting to a desire for power is a little out of fashion. But as the research in this 1976 classic HBR article shows, power is essential to good management. In fact, when it comes to managing big companies, the desire for power-that is, a manager's desire to have an impact, to be strong and influential-is more important than the need to get things done or the wish to be liked. The need to achieve,while important in small companies, actually becomes counterproductive in large, complex organizations, leading managers to try to do things themselves rather than spread tasks among many people. And managers who need to be liked tend to make exceptions for particular subordinates' needs, undermining morale. As their testimony reveals, other employees view those exceptions as unfair. But seeking power is not the same as seeking glory. People who want power only to further their own careers, rather than the goals of the organization, tend to have subordinates who are loyal to them but not to the company, making them less effective on the whole. And wanting power is not the same as throwing it around. Correlations between employee morale and sales figures show that individuals who manage by fiat are less effective than those whose style is more democratic. if the research paints a complex picture of the role that power plays in good management, it also demonstrates how great the potential is for improvement once managers become familiar with their own motives and styles. As the many examples show, top executives can learn to tell who the good managers are likely to be and to train existing ones to be more effective.
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An explanation of the effects of leader behavior on subordinate satisfaction, motivation, and performance is presented. The explanation is derived from a path-goal theory of motivation. Dimensions of leader behavior such as leader initiating structure, consideration, authoritarianism, hierarchical influence, and closeness of supervision are analyzed in terms of path-goal variables such as valence and instrumentality. The theory specifies some of the situational moderators on which the effects of specific leader behaviors are contingent. A set of general propositions are advanced which integrate and explain earlier fragmentary research findings. Several specific predictions are made to illustrate how the general propositions can be operationalized. The usefulness of the theory is demonstrated by showing how several seemingly unrelated prior research findings could have been deduced from its general propositions and by applying it to reconcile what appear to be contradictory findings from prior studies. Results of two empirical studies are reported that provide support for seven of eight hypotheses derived directly from the general propositions of the theory. A third study designed to test three of the original eight hypotheses is also reported. Two of these three hypotheses are successfully replicated. In the light of these results and the integrative power of the theory, it is argued that the theory shows promise and should be further tested with experimental as well as correlational methods.
Article
This study investigated the personality characteristics, leadership behaviors, and influence tactics of champions of technological innovations. Analyses of questionnaires and interview transcripts of twenty-five matched pairs of champions and nonchampions revealed that champions reported using transformational leader behaviors to a significantly greater extent than did nonchampions. Champions exhibited higher risk taking and innovativeness, initiated more influence attempts, and used a greater variety of influence tactics than nonchampions. Regression analysis of a model of champion emergence, relating personality characteristics, transformational leader behaviors, and influence tactics, showed that champions were significantly higher than nonchampions on all paths in the model.
Article
Studies included cover the period from 1900 to October 1957 and do not include those studies wherein children constitute the sample. The review is concerned with 7 personality characteristics (introversion-extraversion, dominance, interpersonal sensitivity, masculinity-feminity, conservatism, intelligence, and adjustment) and their relationship to such group behavior variables as leadership, popularity, conformity, task activity, total activity, and social-emotional activity. Most of the studies yielded low positive relationships, intelligence being the best predictor of individual behavior in the group. Considering the studies as a whole, the author is encouraged by the many clear trends which emerge. 151 refs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Reviews research that demonstrates the importance of motivation, incentive value, and probability of success, independently measured, for predicting achievement performance and the frequency with which affiliation acts are performed. Both theory and research lead to the following conclusions: (1) motive strength, particularly in relation to the strength of other motives in the person, is the more important determinant of operant act frequency; (2) incentive value is the more important determinant of cognitively based choices; (3) motive strength and probability of success combine multiplicatively to predict response strength or probability; and (4) all determinants, plus this last interaction, together account for over 75% of the variation in operants such as affiliative act frequency. The remainder of the variation is readily attributable to environmental opportunities. (51 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Conducted an industrial simulation experiment with 120 male graduate business students to determine the influence of the power motive on their use of power. Need for power (nPow) was assessed by D. G. Winter's (1973) TAT measure. 80 Ss scoring in the top and bottom thirds on the test acted as "supervisor" in the simulation by directing the labors of a work crew in the next room. One member of the crew, Man C, behaved as an ingratiator. Supervisors high and low on nPow evaluated Man C about the same when he was neutral and noningratiating in his manner, but when Man C was an ingratiator, high-nPow supervisors evaluated his performance more favorably than did low-nPow supervisors. High-nPow supervisors also perceived themselves as exerting greater influence on the work group. Findings are seen as extending the heuristic value of the nPow construct by demonstrating its relationships to use of power in an industry-like situation. (20 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The rejection by psychologists of the trait explanation of leadership emergence can be attributed to the results of 2 major types of studies: attempts to identify leadership traits and the use of rotation designs. Numerous reviews of the literature consistently note the failure to isolate a specific leadership trait. Using a rotation design, D. C. Barnlund (see record 1963-01124-001), after varying both the task and member composition of groups and computing the correlation of leadership rank in one group with the average leadership ranks received in all other groups, reported that leadership emergence varied across group situations. Thus, his data suggested that leadership is not a stable characteristic. The present study, however, used D. A. Kenny's (1981) social relations model to reexamine Barnlund's conclusion. This reanalysis suggests that between 49% and 82% (representing lower- and upper-bound estimates) leadership variance can be attributed to some stable characteristic. It is speculated that this characteristic, rather than being a traditional personality trait, may actually involve the ability to perceive the needs and goals of a constituency and to adjust one's personal approach to group action accordingly. (15 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study examines the relationships among hostility, grandiosity, dominance, narcissism, and self-esteem in samples of 84, 57, and 300 Ss. The intercorrelations among various self-report and observer ratings of these constructs suggest that (1) hostility, grandiosity, dominance, and narcissism are substantially intercorrelated and form a coherent system of constructs and (2) the common variance in this system of constructs significantly predicts variations in Ss' self-esteem. The notion that some people use grandiosity, dominance, and a more generalized narcissistic personality style to manage their hostility and maintain a sense of positive regard was evaluated using hierarchical analyses. The results of these analyses were consistent with this model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Presents data that support the construct validity of a narcissistic personality inventory developed R. N. Raskin and C. S. Hall (see record 1981-08131-001) to measure the degree to which normal individuals differ on narcissistic personality traits. Results from 97 undergraduate males show that higher narcissism scores were positively associated with defensive categories that involved the expression of aggression outward and negatively with categories of defense that avoid or inhibit the expression of aggression. (4 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
"The theme of this book is that leadership is a relationship between a person exerting influence and those who are influenced, and that it is best seen within the framework of group process." The book consists of studies dealing with conformity and leadership previously published by the author. 4 new chapters were added primarily emphasizing the peer influence under various conditions as well as an extensive bibliography of pertinent publications. (200-item bibliogr.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Response flexibility as a basis for leadership was examined. Ss were 108 students who completed the self-monitoring scale and 4 group tasks, interacting with different people on each task. Tasks required as leader styles either initiating structure, consideration, persuasion, or production emphasis. After each task, group members rated each other on perceived leadership and on 4 scales corresponding to the aforementioned leader styles. Results indicated that 59% of the variance in leadership emergence was trait based; for 2 of the 4 tasks, leader rankings were significantly correlated with task-relevant behaviors; self-monitoring was significantly correlated both with average leader rankings and with task-relevant behaviors on 2 of the tasks. These findings suggest that trait-based variance in leadership may be due to social perceptiveness and response flexibility. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
148 MALE UNDERGRADUATES, DOMINANT IN EITHER THE ACHIEVEMENT, AFFILIATION, OR POWER MOTIVE, PLAYED A SERIES OF PRISONER'S DILEMMA GAMES. SS PLAYED 3 1-TRIAL GAMES VARYING IN PAYOFF MATRIX (A), A 30-TRIAL GAME WITHOUT COMMUNICATION, (B), AND A 30-TRIAL GAME WITH COMMUNICATION (C). AFFILIATION SS WERE HYPOTHESIZED TO BE MOST COOPERATIVE, POWER SS MOST CONFLICTIVE, AND ACHIEVEMENT SS INTERMEDIATE. THE A GAMES SHOWED THE ACHIEVERS TO BE MOST COOPERATIVE, AFFILIATORS MOST DEFENSIVE, AND POWER SS MOST EXPLOITIVE. THESE DIFFERENCES WERE MINIMAL IN THE MOST THREATENING 1-TRIAL GAME. IN THE B GAME THE 1ST-TRIAL OUTCOME SIGNIFICANTLY AFFECTED SUBSEQUENT COOPERATION, BUT THE MOTIVATIONAL EFFECTS WERE SIGNIFICANT ONLY AMONG THOSE S PAIRS COOPERATING ON THE 1ST TRIAL. IN THE C GAMES THE 1ST-TRIAL EFFECT WAS AGAIN FOUND, ALTHOUGH THE MOTIVE GROUPS DID NOT DIFFER IN THEIR BEHAVIOR. FROM QUESTIONNAIRES, ACHIEVERS WERE REVEALED TO EMPHASIZE MUTUAL INTERESTS, POWER SS STRESSED SELF-INTEREST, WITH AFFILIATORS INTERMEDIATE. DATA ON CONFLICT DEADLOCKS AND INTERPERSONAL IMPRESSIONS SUPPORTED THE OTHER FINDINGS. MODIFIED INTERPRETATIONS OF THE MOTIVATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS ARE PRESENTED, AND IT IS CONCLUDED THAT THREAT MINIMIZES MOTIVATIONAL DIFFERENCES, AND INITIAL EXPERIENCES STRONGLY INFLUENCE SUBSEQUENT COOPERATION AND CONFLICT. (41 P. REF.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Three leader trait and leader-follower interaction models of leader appeal and leader performance are evaluated with data about the motive profiles of American presidents and American society, in both cases measured at a distance. Presidential appeal, defined in terms of electoral success, is significantly correlated with the congruence or match between the president's motive profile and that of his contemporary society. In contrast, presidential greatness, as rated by historians, as well as several important outcomes involving war and peace are associated with certain of the president's motives by themselves, but not with president-society congruence. (49 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Varied kind of subordinate problem encountered and number of subordinates supervised in a study of the use of supervisory power. Ss were 48 male undergraduates appointed to oversee the production of simulated workers. It was found that problems of discipline evoked Ss' use of coercive powers, while problems of ineptness evoked Ss' use of expert powers. Variations in the number of subordinates supervised influenced the amount of attention Ss could give to any 1 worker. This resulted in less time spent with poor workers and fewer pay raises given to satisfactory workers, when Ss were supervising large numbers of workers. Ss with little confidence in their leadership ability relied mainly on formally proscribed powers to correct poor performance, while more confident Ss used both informal persuasion and formally proscribed powers. It was also found that the nature of the problem manifested by a problem worker influenced the frequency of pay raises given to satisfactory workers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Reexamines, via meta-analysis, the relation between personality traits and leadership perceptions or extent of leader emergence, arguing that prior research on trait theories and leadership has been misinterpreted as applying to a leader's effect on performance when it actually pertains to the relation of leadership traits to leadership emergence. Further, based on current theories of social perceptions, several traits were expected to be strongly related to leadership perceptions. The meta-analytic technique of validity generalization was used with the 15 articles identified by R. D. Mann (see record 1960-04194-001) as investigating the relationship between personality traits and leadership. These studies were then pooled with 9 subsequent studies in an additional set of meta-analyses. Results support the expectation in that intelligence, masculinity–femininity, and dominance were significantly related to leadership perceptions. Findings show that variability across studies in the relation of these traits to leadership perceptions could be explained largely by methodological factors, indicating that contingency theories of leadership perceptions may not be needed. Both of these results contrast with the conclusions of earlier nonquantitative literature reviews on traits and leadership perceptions and with conventional thinking in the leadership area. (62 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Collected open-ended recollections of autobiographical memories from 142 undergraduates in 2 studies. The memory protocols were coded for themes of interpersonal intimacy (love and friendship, reciprocal communication or sharing, helping others and being helped, and tender interpersonal touching) and personal power (perceived strength, powerful inspiration, having impact, vigorous activity, and increased fame or recognition). Ss' intimacy and power motive scores were obtained by prior administration of the TAT. Ss scoring higher in intimacy motivation recalled specific peak experiences, great learning experiences, and (to a lesser extent) satisfying experiences that contained a preponderance of intimacy themes; Ss scoring lower on the intimacy motive did not. A similar relationship between power motivation and power themes in peak experiences and satisfying experiences was obtained. In addition, a positive correlation was found between the power motive and expressed feelings of anger in reports of unpleasant experiences. (49 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Conducted an industrial simulation experiment with 80 college males to determine the influence of the power motive and power stresses on activation as measured via the Activation–Deactivation Adjective Check List and R. F. Bales's (1970) interaction category "shows tension." Need for power ( n Power) was assessed by means of the TAT. Ss scoring among the top and bottom thirds of those taking the test acted as "supervisor" in the industrial simulation by directing the work of a work crew (which was actually fictitious) in the next room. Comments from members of the supposed work crew of high-school students were play-acted tape recordings. All work output was preprogrammed. A group stress condition presented the supervisor with worker comments that suggested group concern about performance. Supervisors exhibited roughly similar activation scores in response to the nonstress condition, regardless of n-Power scores, but supervisors high in n Power showed greater activation in response to group stress than did those low in n Power. (28 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
40 groups of 5 undergraduates came together to discuss a business study case; each group member had a different role and a role sheet specifying items of information available only to him/her. The case featured most of the characteristics I. L. Janis (1972) identified as the kinds of policy decisions that produce "groupthink." Need for power was assessed by the TAT. Extreme top and bottom scorers were group leaders, and an attempt was made to create group cohesiveness in 20 groups by offering a reward for best group performance. Groups whose leaders scored low on the power motive brought more factual information from their role sheets into group discussion and considered more action proposals than did leaders who scored high. Group cohesiveness did not affect the quality of the decision-making process. (24 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
We investigated the relation between goal specificity and difficulty and performance on an interdependent bargaining task. In all, 102 subjects competed as buyers and sellers in a 25-min market simulation in which each negotiator was assigned either a nonspecific do-your-best objective or a specific easy, moderate, or difficult goal. Results showed that negotiators who were assigned specific, difficult goals were individually more profitable than negotiators who were assigned easier or nonspecific goals. Concerning dyadic performance, nonspecific or easy goals led to compromise agreements. Integrative agreements that benefited both parties to the transaction were facilitated by assigning both negotiators a moderate goal or difficult-moderate disparate goals. When both negotiators had difficult goals, dyadic performance did not approach the integrative level. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
present an integration of a number of contemporary leadership theories labeled charismatic, transformational, or visionary / argue that it is the leader's ability to tie a follower's self-concept, and ultimately self-esteem, to the actualization of the leader's goals that comprises the essence of charismatic leadership effects / show how integrating aspects of self-theory with traditional models of motivation provides a basis for understanding the power effects that some leaders have on followers (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
It was hypothesized that a positive relationship would be found between narcissism and sensation seeking. 35 female and 29 male undergraduates were given both the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) and Form IV of the Sensation Seeking Scale. For both sexes, scores on the NPI correlated significantly with scores on the Disinhibition subscale of the Sensation Seeking Scale. Boredom Susceptibility was correlated with Narcissism for males, while scores on the General and Experience Seeking subscales correlated significantly with Narcissism for females. If disinhibition were a social form of sensation-seeking, the correlations with Narcissism for both sexes would be accounted for. Results support the construct validity of the NPI and provide evidence for regarding Narcissism as a dimension of personality. (12 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Evaluated unethical decision behavior under different policy and environmental conditions. A laboratory methodology used a simulated marketing decision task that was expanded to include an ethical decision. Ss were 165 graduate business students who made a series of decisions on whether to pay a kickback or not. In Exp I, when Ss were given a letter from the corporate president supporting ethical behavior, their ethical behavior was higher than for Ss who received a letter that did not support ethical behavior. The size of the kickback resulted in a directional effect, but the effect was not statistically significant. In Exp II, profit goals did not significantly influence ethical behavior, but an organizational ethics policy was found to significantly reduce unethical decision behavior. In both studies, foreign nationality, Machiavellianism (Mach V Scale), and economic value orientation (Allport-Vernon-Lindzey Study of Values) were positively related to unethical decision behavior. In addition, a post hoc analysis showed than an ethical predisposition measure was strongly related to ethical decision behavior. (10 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)