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Evaluation of methods used to determine realized energy savings

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Abstract

Most methods to determine realized total energy savings at national or sectoral level make choices, or neglect problems, which hamper the calculation of sound and useful energy-saving figures. Issues are the choice of the right aggregation level, the appropriate variables to construct a reference energy consumption trend, the energy quantities to be applied and interaction between various effects. Uncertainty margins for results lack in most presentations as well. This paper presents six methods, illustrates the adverse effects of certain choices and problems, and investigates how these methods deal with them. The methods are scored with respect to the issues mentioned above. Finally, a number of improvements are suggested, among which the use of final energy demand expressed in primary energy units, and bottom-up analyses at the level of real saving options. The last option is the more important, as it could provide top-down evaluation results (total savings from decomposition) as well as bottom-up policy monitoring results, both being crucial to new European energy-saving policy.

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... A key issue in energy efficiency policy analysis is the measurement of energy savings attributed to policies, in order to evaluate the impact of policies (Boonekamp, 2006). The ESD introduced the obligation for MSs to measure energy savings induced by policies (Hull et al., 2009). ...
... The European EMEEES project identified two complementary methodologies for evaluating the savings: the bottom-up (BU) and the top-down (TD) approaches (Thomas et al., 2012;Kollmann, 2010, 2011;Bukarica and Tomsic, 2017). The BU assesses the energy savings in each individual project covered by the policy and then sums the individual savings (Boonekamp, 2006(Boonekamp, , 2011Thomas et al., 2012). BU methods do not adequately capture behavioural changes, which may increase or decrease the calculated energy savings (Reichl and Kollmann, 2011). ...
Article
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Over the last two decades, the European Union and its Member States have introduced policies aimed at improving energy efficiency. The Energy Service Directives (ESD) introduced the concept of measurement of energy savings attributed to policies. Two different and complementary methodologies for the evaluation of energy savings have been developed under the ESD: the bottom-up (BU) approach, based on a technical analysis of each measure, and the top-down (TD) approach, based on the analysis of how energy intensity changes over time. BU methods can hardly take into account policy-induced behavioural changes, whereas TD methods have difficulties in disentangling policy-induced savings from other savings. Econometric models have been proposed as a viable alternative to deal with both drawbacks. The purpose of this article is to present an econometric model aimed at estimating the energy savings induced by energy efficiency policies in the EU Member States in the period 1990–2013. We introduce an explicit measure of Energy Policy Intensity based on the MURE database, which is used as explanatory variable in a dynamic panel model for 29 European countries. Our results suggest that energy consumption in 2013 in Europe would have been about 12% higher in the absence of energy efficiency policies.
... Theoretically, top-down effects can be further explained by bottom-up analysis, although available bottom-up data often do not match with top-down national data. There have been multiple efforts to develop good methods to measure energy efficiency, and a wide range of literature on this topic exists (e.g., Phylipsen et al. 1997;Boonekamp 2005Boonekamp , 2006Cahill and Ó Gallachoír 2012a;Farla and Blok 2001). However, users of this information have different requirements regarding the energy efficiency indicators that have to be produced. ...
... The SEC is a physical energy efficiency indicator, which is sometimes also called physical energy intensity (PEI) (Phylipsen et al. 1997;Farla and Blok 2000). Several authors (Worrell et al. 1994;Phylipsen et al. 1997;Boonekamp 2006;Cahill and Ó Gallachoír 2012b) reserve the term SEC for the ratio between energy and physical production (Joule/kg) and define energy intensity as the ratio of energy and monetary values (Joule/€). ...
Article
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Sound evaluation needs sound numbers. But measuring energy savings is measuring something that is not used and can meet unexpected difficulties. The European Commission has made strong efforts to harmonize methods to measure energy efficiency and energy savings and to monitor the progress towards the goals of the Energy Efficiency Directive. However, in practice, multiple methods are still used, which may lead to confusion. In this paper, we use the Netherlands as a case study to analyze this phenomenon. In the Netherlands, three national indicators on energy efficiency exist, next to a European indicator next to the impact of individual policy instruments. The large differences and sometimes contradictory results of the different indicators lead to questions about what is the “best” method. This paper studies the reasons behind the differences between the methods used for industrial energy efficiency improvement in the Netherlands. It compares detailed bottom-up data from individual policy instruments with top-down national figures. We disentangle the impact of volume, efficiency, and structure effects. In this way, we visualize the differences between several methods and the impact of the choice of metrics used in those methods. This helps understanding why care should be taken when comparing industrial energy efficiency results from different countries.
... For more information please refer toBoonekamp &De Coninck, 2011 andCansino et al., 2011. ...
... For more information please referBoonekamp & De Coninck, 2011;P. Boonekamp, 2006 andBrounen et al., 2012. ...
Conference Paper
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In 2012 the Municipality of Ferrara, Italy, signed up to the Covenant of Mayors, the mainstream European movement involving local authorities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by 2020 by increasing energy efficiency and through the use of renewable energy sources. The GHG target reduction defined in Ferrara is 25%, with two thirds of the saved emissions from buildings. One of the actions of the CoM Sus-tainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP) is related to the SUNSHINE project (Smart UrbaN ServIces for Higher eNergy Efficiency, www.sunshineproject.eu) for the implementation of a buildings energy pre-certification service, using open geodata already available from authoritative sources. The Municipal Departments have been deeply involved in the modelling and crea-tion of a public repository of detailed geodata on building energy performance, based on the draft “CityGML Energy ADE”. The building energy pre-certification service is an automatic process to rapidly es-timate the energy performance of buildings at large-scale, using geographical - geomet-ric, physical and thermal properties of buildings. To efficiently run the service, a dedicated mobile application (Map4Data) was im-plemented to allow professional users to check “on-the-field” the correctness and com-pleteness of buildings’ geodata properties (e.g. age of construction, uses, heights, floors, etc.).
... The SEC is a physical energy efficiency indicator, which is sometimes also called the unit energy consumption (UEC) or physical energy intensity (PEI) (Phylipsen et al. 1997). Several authors (Worrell et al. 1994;Phylipsen et al. 1997;Boonekamp 2006;Cahill and Ó Gallachoír 2012b) reserve the term SEC for the ratio between energy and physical production (J/kg) and define energy intensity as the ratio of energy and monetary values (J/€). Although energy intensity is sometimes used as a proxy for energy efficiency, they are not the same. ...
... The energy-saving effect can be calculated by comparing the actual energy use with a reference use. Several methods exist to calculate this reference use, where choices have to be made on the selected reference system, the variable to construct reference energy consumption, the level of aggregation, interaction between saving effects, interaction with other effects and the chosen quantity to value energy consumption (Boonekamp 2006). These choices have a large impact on the outcome. ...
Article
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In 2008, the Dutch voluntary agreements on industrial energy efficiency faced fundamental changes to their monitoring methodology. Where the old method was based on measuring the improvement of energy use per unit of production, the new method focuses on the energy savings from projects implemented by participating companies. Advocates of the new method claim that it gives a better view of the companies’ efforts to save energy, as it shows their deliberate changes in production processes, whereas opponents emphasise that the relation with ‘real’ energy efficiency is lost. By applying the two methods on the same group of companies, the results can be compared and show to what extent the choice of monitoring method affects the key message to policy makers. Of special interest is the relation between energy and production in the period 2008–2012, a period with large fluctuations in the level of production and energy use as a result of the economic crisis. The data show that energy-saving projects made a significant impact on energy use in the analysis period, although their effect is smaller than that of other factors such as fluctuations in production and in the number of participating companies. The old method shows a result for the period 2005–2013 that is less than half of that of the new method, mainly because of a decrease in efficiency during years of decreasing production. The analysis clearly shows that the two methods do not show the same development of energy efficiency improvement and should be presented as such.
... The deeper analysis of measurement issues during the implementation process of Directive 2006/32/EC brought some progress with regard to methodological problems and data constraints related to the measuring of energy efficiency (see e.g. Bowie and Malvic 2005, Boonekamp 2006, Eichhammer et al. 2008, Thomas et al. 2012. The main focus of these studies was on the development of a suitable framework for the measurement and verification of energy savings at the level of a country. 2 The authors addressed the key measurement problems and the tried to harmonise the so-called "top-down" and "bottom-up" measurement methods which were recommended in Directive 2006/32/EC for the Member States' reporting of target achievement 3 . ...
... Taking together the various definitions of energy efficiency and problems in comparing energy efficiencies, we are led to discuss several aspects or dimensions of energy efficiency:  The reference evolution or baseline of to which the time evolution of an energy efficiency measure is to be compared  The output and input analysed which are the use-values to be achieved with different physical energy inputs.  The moment or period of time for which a level of energy efficiency is to be reached or the between two measures of energy efficiency shall be compared 6 See, for example, Lebot et al. (2004), Moezzi (1998), Pérez-Lombard et al. (2013 and Boonekamp (2006). 7 This definition is also in line with Directive 2012/27/EU where "energy efficiency" is defined as the ratio of output of performance, service, goods or energy, to input of energy and energy savings (Art. ...
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Energy efficiency is widely accepted as a simple and cost-effective way to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. It is accordingly a corner stone of European energy and climate policies. However, in formulation of explicit political energy efficiency goals as well as in monitoring these targets, discussions arise both concerning the concrete definition and the measurement. Accordingly, there is a lack of clarification and in-depth discussions of several fundamental aspects or dimensions of measuring energy efficiency, in particular in a political context. Here, we discuss and analyse two aspects of energy efficiency and ways to measure it, namely the formulation of a baseline and the accounting methods, in order to clarify ongoing discussions. We find that both top-down and bottom-up methods contain a series of “adjustment settings” which can strongly influence the degree of energy efficiency target achievement. Additionally, several baselines can be meaningfully defined and used in a political context. We find a factor of 10 or more between different meaningful definitions of energy efficiency easily achievable. Our results indicate that rigorous definitions should be used for formulating and monitoring energy efficiency targets in a political context if exactly the same understanding of target is to be achieved.
... As such, improving energy efficiency entails using less energy to produce the same amount of services or useful output (Patterson, 1996). Energy savings concerns the amount of energy that is not used (Boonekamp, 2006). Quantifying energy savings from an energy efficiency improvement, therefore, requires measuring or estimating consumption with and without implementation of an energy efficiency improvement measure (Abeelen et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Improving energy efficiency in industries is imperative for sustainable transitions. This article explores the logic behind calculating energy savings from energy efficiency improvements. Based on a qualitative study of industry-research projects and policies to improve energy efficiency in Norway, the article presents different ways energy savings are estimated when assessing the viability of novel technologies. Here, energy savings are calculated as the difference in energy consumption between a proposed technology (use-case) and an alternative scenario (base-case). We discuss the heterogeneity of the chosen cases of comparison, as they are associated with a wide variety of uncertainty, contextual preconditions, estimates, and projections. Further, we trace the calculations of energy savings of one of these projects as they move from the context of research and technology assessment to official reporting. We show how the circumstances where these numbers are produced become black-boxed as the calculations are transformed and aggregated into a policy program-specific measurement “energy results” in Norway. Our findings show that the project and policy objectives and measurements point in somewhat different directions. Through this, we unpack the logic inscribed in energy savings calculations and the way these are applied to reach multiple goals.
... Thomas et al. [1] developed and discussed several bottom-up and top-down methods for evaluating energy savings in general. An evaluation of methods used to determine realised energy savings was conducted by Boonekamp [2]. Abeelen compared several top-down and bottom-up methods for monitoring the Dutch Long-Term Agreement [3]. ...
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This paper studies the factors underlying the evolution of the energy consumption for space heating in residential buildings by linking top-down analysis, based on meso-indicators, and bottom-up analysis, based on policy evaluations. The top-down analysis (i.e. the perspective from energy statistics) allows one to separate the change in total energy use into activity level, societal factors and energy efficiency gains. The explanatory power of the resulting meso-(statistical) indicators is often limited, if the underlying factors are not examined (e.g. changes in heating levels and patterns, weather effects, cost of energy and policies regarding insulation and heating system standards). We overcome most of these drawbacks by conducting a bottom-up analysis (i.e the perspective from single policy measures), which enables us to discern the contribution of energy efficiency policies to the changes observed with the meso-analysis. We focus on space heating consumption in the residential sectors for Germany and Switzerland. A major aim of this analysis is to show the contribution of energy efficiency policies (such as thermal building regulation, subsidy programmes, fiscal measures etc.) towards the changes in this indicator. The results show that the progress in energy efficiency (both autonomous and policy induced) in both countries had the greatest effect (-776 PJ for Germany, −42 PJ for Switzerland) regarding the change in energy consumption for space heating in the period from 2000 to 2016. However, the impacts of “technical and comfort” rebounds (+436 PJ for Germany, N/A for Switzerland) and other developments such as societal changes (+316 PJ for Germany, +35.5 PJ for Switzerland) were found to compensate for a significant part of the energy efficiency gains. In both countries, it was possible to link physical energy efficiency indicators to policy evaluation, but limitations were also identified which are primarily related to data gaps.
... CO 2 emissions cost, c CO 2 , is used in Equation (37). Application of this approach to simple payback period estimation includes the "frozen technology" assumption [44], meaning that the technology is operated with the same feed rates and produces products of the same quality as in the evaluation period. Net present value (NPV) is calculated using Equation (39) ...
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Alkylate produced by catalyzed reaction of isobutane and olefin-rich streams is a desired component for gasoline blending. Fractionation of the alkylation reactor effluent is energy demanding due to the presence of close boiling point components and solutions cutting its energy intensity; expenses associated with this process are investigated intensely nowadays. This paper presents a novel conceptual design and techno-economic analysis of alkylation reaction effluent fractionation revamp to reach a cut in energy costs of the fractionation process without the need to revamp the rectification columns themselves, providing thus an alternative approach to a more sustainable alkylation process. Two cases are considered—A. additional steam turbine installation or B. combustion engine-driven heat pump-assisted rectification. Mathematical modeling of the considered system and its revamp is applied using the “frozen technology” approach. Real system operation features and seasonal variations are included considering the refinery’s combined heat and power (CHP) unit operation and CO2 emissions balance both internal and external to the refinery. Case A yields an expectable yearly benefit (saved energy minus additionally consumed energy minus CO2 emissions increase; expressed in financial terms) of €110–140 thousand, net present value (NPV) of −€18 to €272 thousand and produces 3.3 GWh/year of electric energy. Case B delivers a benefit of €900–1200 thousand, NPV of −€293 to €2823 thousand while producing 33 GWh/year of electricity. Both cases exhibit analogous simple payback periods (8–10 years). Marginal electric efficiency of Case B (78.3%) documents the energy integration level in this case, exploiting the system and CHP unit operation synergies. CHP unit summer operation mode and steam network restrictions significantly affect the seasonal benefit of Case B. CO2 emissions increase in both cases, Case A and Case B, considering the refinery level. However, including external CO2 emissions leads to emissions decrease in both cases of up to 26 kton/year (Case B.) The presented results document the viability of the proposed concepts comparable to the traditional (reference) solution of a high performance (COP = 8) heat pump while their performance sensitivity stresses the need for complex techno-economic assessment.
... The inconsistent approach to measuring energy savings and monitoring and verification leads to considerable uncertainties as to whether the anticipated energy savings will be delivered. Following the implementation process of the Energy Services Directive in 2006 similar issues were discussed in the literature (Boonekamp 2006;Thomas et al. 2012). This literature can form the basis of a clear and consistent approach to monitoring and verification of energy savings across the EU. ...
... The inconsistent approach to measuring energy savings and monitoring and verification leads to considerable uncertainties as to whether the anticipated energy savings will be delivered. Following the implementation process of the Energy Services Directive in 2006 similar issues were discussed in the literature (Boonekamp 2006;Thomas et al. 2012). This literature can form the basis of a clear and consistent approach to monitoring and verification of energy savings across the EU. ...
Technical Report
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The aim of the present study is to support the European Parliament in understanding the current situation of the implementation of the Article 7 of the 2012 Energy Efficiency Directive with regard to residential consumers and buildings. We look at key facts highlighted in the energy economic and behavioural sciences literature on energy use by residential consumers and at results of the assessments of the implementation of the Directive, analysing the policy measures implemented in the Member States and providing some examples of best practices. We deepen the level of detail of our analysis for two Member States (the United Kingdom and Italy) looking at the policy framework in which Article 7 is being implemented and evaluating the policies measures planned for its implementation. We conclude the study by highlighting a series of policy relevant issues and by providing a number of policy recommendations
... The inconsistent approach to measuring energy savings and monitoring and verification leads to considerable uncertainties as to whether the anticipated energy savings will be delivered. Following the implementation process of the Energy Services Directive in 2006 similar issues were discussed in the literature (Boonekamp 2006; Thomas et al. 2012). This literature can form the basis of a clear and consistent approach to monitoring and verification of energy savings across the EU. ...
Article
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The European Union's Energy Efficiency Directive calls for EU Member States to put in place ambitious energy efficiency policies and requires them to establish energy saving targets. One of the most important Articles of the Directive is Article 7, which required Member States to implement Energy Efficiency Obligations and/or alternative policy instruments in order to reach a reduction in final energy use of 1.5% per year. This paper assesses how Article 7 has been applied by Member States and what the implications are. Analysing the plans of all 28 Member States we evaluate how Article 7 is implemented across the EU. This includes an analysis of the types of policies used, the distribution of the anticipated savings across the different policy instruments, and whether or not the way Article 7 is applied in reality meets the requirements set by the Directive. Our analysis shows that Member States take very different approaches with some using up to 112 policy measures and others just one. We also identify areas of concern particularly related to the delivery of the energy savings with respect to the Article 7 requirements, the calculation methods, and the monitoring and verification regimes adopted by Member States. We model to what extent the projected savings are likely to materialise and whether or not they will be sufficient to meet the target put forward by Article 7. In our paper we also make suggestions for modifying the Energy Efficiency Directive in order to address some of the problems we encountered.
... The inconsistent approach to measuring energy savings and monitoring and verification leads to considerable uncertainties as to whether the anticipated energy savings will be delivered. Following the implementation process of the Energy Services Directive in 2006 similar issues were discussed in the literature (Boonekamp 2006;Thomas et al. 2012). This literature can form the basis of a clear and consistent approach to monitoring and verification of energy savings across the EU. ...
... For subsectors that are not the subject of detailed bottom-up modeling, a focus on the potential reduction in emissions through widely used, 'cross-cutting' technologies can be useful. An example of this approach is the Usable Energy Database (UED), 9,10 produced by the present authors for the UK industrial sector as part of the research program of the UK Energy Research Centre (UKERC). ...
Article
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Progress in reducing industrial energy demand and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions is evaluated with a focus is on the situation in the United Kingdom (UK), although the lessons learned are applicable across much of the industrialized world. The UK industrial sector is complex, because it may be viewed as consisting of some 350 separate combinations of subsectors, devices and technologies. Various energy analysis and carbon accounting techniques applicable to industry are described and assessed. The contributions of the energy-intensive (EI) and nonenergy-intensive (NEI) industrial subsectors over recent decades are evaluated with the aid of decomposition analysis. An observed drop in aggregate energy intensity over this timescale was driven by different effects: energy efficiency improvements; structural change; and fuel switching. Finally, detailed case studies drawn from the Cement subsector and that associated with Food and Drink are examined; representing the EI and NEI subsectors, respectively. Currently available technologies will lead to further, short-term energy and CO2 emissions savings in manufacturing, but the prospects for the commercial exploitation of innovative technologies by mid-21st century are far more speculative. There are a number of nontechnological barriers to the take-up of such technologies going forward. Consequently, the transition pathways to a low carbon future in UK industry by 2050 will exhibit large uncertainties. The attainment of significant falls in carbon emissions over this period depends critically on the adoption of a limited number of key technologies [e.g., carbon capture and storage (CCS), energy efficiency techniques, and bioenergy], alongside a decarbonization of the electricity supply. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.
... This has two important implications. First, a baseline for energy consumption must be assumed, which is especially challenging when energy-consuming technologies are numerous and decentralized (Boonekamp, 2006). This is the reason why measurement and verification are mostly performed ex ante under white certificate schemes, rather than ex post as in cap-and-trade programs such as the U.S. Acid rain program or the European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading System (E.U. ...
Article
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White certificate schemes mandate energy companies to promote energy efficiency through flexibility mechanisms, including the trading of energy savings. They can be characterized as a quantity-based, baseline-and-credit system for the diffusion of energy efficient technologies. This paper offers a comprehensive comparison of experiences with white certificate schemes in Great Britain, Italy and France. Starting from the identification of the key drivers underlying each scheme, it proposes an original interpretation of this type of scheme as an adaptive instrument, in the sense that it can take different forms in response to specific institutional contexts. The analysis shows that schemes perform well in terms of static efficiency - they generate net social benefits over the period considered - though there are large discrepancies in cost-effectiveness due to various technical potentials across countries. They achieved mixed results regarding dynamic efficiency - the ability to induce and sustain technological change over the long run. Market transformation occurred in Great Britain, but was poorly incentivized in Italy and France due to inadequate compliance cost recovery rules. Substantial organisational change has occurred in every country, mainly by strengthening vertical relationships between obliged parties and upstream businesses. Overall, the obligation (rather than the market component) drives the early phases of the schemes.
... Frozen technology and energy trends simulation and two bottom-up methods presented, as well as supply results at the detailed level of specific policy measures. Boonekamp [14] compared the six methods to evaluate energy savings at a national or sectoral level. He illustrated the adverse effects of certain choices and problems of the individual methods. ...
Article
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In this paper, we assess 13 process technologies to improve energy efficiency in the Chlor-Alkali sector of Shandong province in China up to 2025 using a technoeconomic approach. The results show energy efficiency improvement (EEI) potentials of 9% in the caustic soda and 38% in the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) production process compared to a frozen-efficiency development. The most influential technologies are energy-efficient electrolysis technology in brine electrolysis step and heat recovery technology in Vinyl Chloride Monomer synthesis (VCM) step. The energy savings can be translated into mitigated CO2 emissions of 10 Mt in 2025. The larger part of this potential is found to be costeffective from a firm's perspective. In conclusion, significant saving potentials are still available. However, to achieve the all potentials, additional energy policies are needed.
... Without a loss of accuracy, the complex model can be transformed into a kind of perturbation analysis, where the properties of the system are calculated at a chosen basic state and, provided that the deviation from the basic state is small, the new system properties can be obtained from the basic system ones by using its marginal parameters. [1,2,11] This fits very well to our optimization purposes, since the below proposed system changes ("deviations" from the basic state) can be considered sufficiently small. ...
Conference Paper
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Variny, M., Mierka, O.: Identification and reduction of some of avoidable exergy losses in a large industrial steam heat and power plant, Editor: Markoš, J., In
... In response to this request, several ideas have been put forth for what such a quantitative analysis might look like (e.g., Boonekamp, 2006). Unfortunately, progress has been slow in successfully developing and implementing any kind of harmonizing calculations or models. ...
... However, the European approach originates in a different economical need for efficiency, which also provides a shorter payback period for various measurements. Meanwhile, several international studies have been conducted on the effectiveness of energy efficiency programs of member states of the EU or the OECD [1][2][3][4]. Due to a different economic background and social perspectives, these studies can not directly provide enough information for predicting a successful implementation of a similar program in other countries, e.g. the United States. However, lessons learned by more energy efficient countries would be very valuable and of high importance for policy makers in the U.S. and other nations in their efforts of increasing the effectiveness of planned incentives and programs. ...
Conference Paper
The authors present a comparative study on effectiveness of energy policies for the building sector that are presently implemented in selected countries in Europe versus selected states in the U.S. Socio-economic factors affecting energy consumption on both sides of the Atlantic are identified from a human behavior perspective. Various identified factors known to affect energy efficiency and consumption have been positioned in diagrams based on four primary directions: lifestyle, economy, environment, and technology. In a second step various programs and incentives are positioned in the same diagram to demonstrate how well these strategies address the factors identified before. This is done for selected countries and continents in sub-diagrams to allow a comparison of effectiveness and provide a tool for predicting the effectiveness of a possible policy or program transfer to other nations. The research conducted so far suggests that energy efficiency policies and measures implemented in the United States do not always target the factors that have been identified to most significantly influence energy consumption. The results indicate that there might be a significant gap between parameters that are guiding factors affecting energy consumption, and parameters targeting a proper implementation of energy efficient policies. The authors strive to provide a tool that will help policy makers and other decision makers to evaluate and compare their incentives and programs against those from other countries and benefit from lessons learned by mapping various policies towards specific efficiency parameters.
... The studies about energy retrofit and costs regard evaluation of methods used to determine and to realize energy saving and relation between energy saving and growth factor. Several articles [5][6][7][8][9] analyzed and described the European situation and described different methods to develop indicators able to evaluate energy saving technologies. The Netherlands Normalisation Institute (NNI) [10] development the Energy Performance Coefficient (EPC) and Assady [11] adopted multi-objective methods. ...
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In OCSE and developed Countries, the sectors which mostly suffered the 2008 financial and economic crisis, was the construction and real estate sectors. Furthermore, the buildings are responsible of about 40% of incidence on emission. The economic crisis did not allow realizing new buildings, and the existing buildings have too much greenhouse emission, that needs to be reduced. The Energy Retrofit could be a way to improve both sectors, because it reduces emissions and helps the real estate sector. However, the Energy Retrofit has some difficulties in order to evaluate both economic and technical solution. In this paper we present an Energy Retrofit simulation about an Italian case study: one building typology that is supposed realized in several different periods, having different thermo-physic parameters. For each period, four energy retrofit actions will be applied, together with the software evaluation of energy performance
... This approach to the savings concept is commonly used for the evaluation, measurement and verification of those energy savings that are subject to energy contracts, typically between energy consumers and energy services companies, and for the measurement and verification of national energy savings targets, which are a keystone of energy policy in many developed countries. Details on the methods to measure energy savings through this approach are beyond this paper's scope and may be found in Boonekamp (2006), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (2011), Efficiency Valuation Organisation (2010), Boonekamp and Thomas (2009) and Bosseboeuf et al. (2005). However, it should be highlighted that 'hypothetical savings' are commonly misunderstood by final consumers; indeed, sending 'savings and efficiency messages' when energy consumption is increasing could be seen by someone, at least, as misleading. ...
Article
Energy efficiency is a central target for energy policy and a keystone to mitigate climate change and to achieve a sustainable development. Although great efforts have been carried out during the last four decades to investigate the issue, focusing into measuring energy efficiency, understanding its trends and impacts on energy consumption and to design effective energy efficiency policies, many energy efficiency-related concepts, some methodological problems for the construction of energy efficiency indicators (EEI) and even some of the energy efficiency potential gains are often ignored or misunderstood, causing no little confusion and controversy not only for laymen but even for specialists. This paper aims to revisit, analyse and discuss some efficiency fundamental topics that could improve understanding and critical judgement of efficiency stakeholders and that could help in avoiding unfounded judgements and misleading statements. Firstly, we address the problem of measuring energy efficiency both in qualitative and quantitative terms. Secondly, main methodological problems standing in the way of the construction of EEI are discussed, and a sequence of actions is proposed to tackle them in an ordered fashion. Finally, two key topics are discussed in detail: the links between energy efficiency and energy savings, and the border between energy efficiency improvement and renewable sources promotion.
... GDP of a country or value added of a sector). The choice for either physical or monetary indicators of activity in top-down monitoring of energy efficiency trends ARTICLE IN PRESS depends, among other things, on the desired aggregation level in combination with data availability and data quality (Freeman et al., 1997; Farla and Blok, 2000; Worrell et al., 1997; Boonekamp, 2006). It is widely accepted that for the evaluation of energy efficiency developments in the manufacturing industry, the use of physical indicators of activity, either stand-alone or in combination with monetary indicators, contributes to a better understanding of energy efficiency developments. ...
Article
We studied energy efficiency trends in the Dutch manufacturing industry between 1995 and 2003 using indicators based on publicly available physical production and specific energy consumption data. We estimated annual primary energy efficiency improvements in this period at 1.3% on average, with the individual sub-sectors ranging between −0.1% and 1.5%. Energy efficiency developments with respect to electricity, fuels/heat and non-energy use have been monitored separately and are shown to differ significantly (for the sum of the sectors studied: 1.9% for electricity, 2.6% for fuels/heat and −0.1% for non-energy use). We combined our results with those from a previous, similar study for 1980–1995 and show that over the full time period, efficiency improvements of 1% per year have been achieved on average. Based on comparison with other sources and a detailed uncertainty analysis, we conclude that we developed a reliable top-down monitoring framework for studying energy efficiency trends of the manufacturing industry that can also be applied in other countries where similar data are available. We also showed that substantial differences exist between energy consumption data available from energy statistics and according to the Long Term Agreement monitoring reports, stressing the need for ongoing independent checks of available energy consumption data to avoid problems in future evaluations of energy efficiency policies.
... It is worth of noting that, although the output could be more than one, as in the case of a gas engine cogenerator (electricity and hot water for example), each equipment is usually defined by only one input (fuel or electric energy). Conservation equations are considered to solve each subsystem with a quasi-steady approach (i.e. the variables are considered constant between two time-steps) [7] [8]. Before starting the description of the numerical model equations, it is essential to introduce the feature of the variables involved in the mathematical representation. ...
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This paper presents an optimal management control strategy for power systems in industrial plants. A dedicated code has been developed to perform system analysis and simulation. The energy/mass balances existing between building and power plant has been depicted through a mathematical model based on vector equations, taking into account the behaviour of each system component. The main result is the definition of the power plant component set points satisfying the energy load under predefined optimization criterion (i.e. system efficiency, costs, pollutant emissions). Input data are the industrial plant loads, both electric and thermal, the technical characteristic of the installations, and the cost of electricity and fuel. As a general result we show that the optimal management of a power plant is as significant as the efficiency of its components for energy saving purposes. In particular, the correlation between the component set point profiles and the energy/cost/pollution savings is highlighted. Yearly simulations are performed on an existing energy system of an industrial plant varying the frequency of energy load dataset. The considered time steps are month, half a day, 4 h and 1 h. The results demonstrate that the whole power plant management leads to a global reduction of the cost and that the availability of more detailed energy load dataset leads to better operation cost estimation. As expected, considering a large time-step, the variation of energy load is not appreciable.The energy saving potential of this method is demonstrated allowing the best plant management solution under different energy loads.
... Th ird, there is an infi nite pool of energy to be saved and carbon emissions to be reduced: energy savings are necessarily measured relative to a fi ctitious baseline and through technological changes because the baseline is so open (cf. Boonekamp 2006). It is convenient to choose a reference system that makes the proposed or actual program or change look good. ...
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Th e energy analysis research and policy community faces a strong internal set of traditions and curbs that are socially and fi scally desirable to follow. Th ey take form in a set of conven-tionalized frameworks and assumptions, operating separately from and sometimes contradicting scientifi c ideals. Th ese frameworks constrain what can be said and limit the scope in which hesitations, contraindications, and doubts can be recog-nized. Th is denial allows us to press on with our work, but locks out a possibly vital set of hidden knowledge and unaddressed questions. Th e community knows much more than it has found a way to work with. Toward liberating this knowledge, we focus on the fi eld's constraints, so that they can become a topic of conversation and reveal potential margins of manoeuvre for change. We identify a set of frameworks facing energy policy analysts, implementers, and researchers that serve as a sort of motive power behind these constraints. Th ese include the mundane, the need to please sponsor and colleagues, semi-commitment to pre-ordained fi ndings, and the problem of funding restrictions, but also more hidden limitations, for ex-ample, results defy theory and thus become discountable, limits to the applicability and availability of numerical data, results or directions that tread on particular moral judgments, discourag-ing results, and lack of audience for an idea or fi nding.
... Because of the energy production being on the border between technical and economic sphere, some economic expressions have penetrated into this area and became quite widely used by the technicians as well. One example of those expressions, widely employed by Thorin et al. (2005), Boonekamp (2006), and Carapellucci and Milazzo (2007) is "marginal quantities" which, in a strict technical sense, are first-order partial derivatives. However, in energy production business as well as in economics, their meaning is broader than that, including the meaning of "last", "highest", and similar expressions. ...
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It is far more important how the cogeneration units are operated than whether they represent the latest technology progress or not. Therefore, for the management of cogeneration units it is a key issue to find optimal operating conditions bringing in the largest income. This may be achieved by combined marginal and overall performance criteria application. To prove this statement, two cogeneration units operating in the Slovak Republic, marked as A and B, were examined. Both of them use the liberal market environment and participate in provisioning ancillary services. Marginal profit values without and with ancillary services provisioning clearly indicate the most advantageous base load value, which is in both cases in the middle of the load regulation range. As shown, together with the total profit function, they are very suitable indicators of the optimal load location and a flexible tool for the market situation evaluation. Heat delivery capability of B to customers reaches its maximum at the middle of the load regulation range, again reinforcing the optimal part load operation. Being equipped with supplementary firing, the marginal steam production of B was found to be higher than 100 % which confirms that the rules for marginal quantities values are not as strict as those for overall and specific quantities.
... Prior research on alternative fuels has generally focused on regional, technology, or policy levels of analysis (Boonekamp, 2005;Bose, 1998;Dondero andJose, 2005 Ogden et al., 2004) that hold limited practical value to smaller local governments. Moreover, few studies to date have examined the implementation process of fleet conversion, nor have they assessed the cost effectiveness or environmental outcomes of fleet conversion of smaller organizations. ...
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... We will not go into detail on this subject, but refer the reader to Reichl & Kollmann (2010) for a more detailed discussion about defining this baseline. Boonekamp (2006) gives a comprehensive overview of the issues involved in quantifying the effects of energy savings and Thomas et al., (2009) discuss the importance of accuratly measuring the effectiveness of the ESD. ...
... GDP of a country or value added of a sector). The choice for either physical or monetary indicators of activity in top-down monitoring of energy efficiency trends depends, among other things, on the desired aggregation level in combination with data availability and data quality (Freeman et al., 1997;Farla and Blok, 2000;Worrell et al., 1997;Boonekamp, 2006). ...
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Local actions are currently seen as of major importance for the achievement of climate change mitigation overall targets. As they become more and more patent, it is essential to know more about the extent of their influence. How much are local actions actually contributing to climate change mitigation? What is the effectiveness, relevance and efficiency of these actions, and what are their effects in terms of energy savings and GHG emissions reduction? The main objective of this work is to review the existing work on the evaluation of climate and energy policies considering the difficulties that come along with the assessment of the effects of local actions. In order to do so, an analytical framework composed by the following features was developed: moment of the evaluation; object; geographical scope; causal links consideration; and merit assessment. Despite the existence of several studies that may contribute to the assessment of local actions, the reviewed approaches do not fully assess the contribution of local actions towards climate change mitigation – either by not decoupling its effects from other ongoing or past policies or by not providing their merit assessment. Nevertheless, the analysis of existing approaches was important to acknowledge the implications of different options, providing some guidelines for the development of an improved evaluation methodology. The review has proven the need for an ex-post approach that focus on the actual effects of local actions (considering potential interactions with other policies and the local context) as well as the importance of a merit assessment based on comprehensive benchmarks.
An improved GM(1,1) model is presented to measure energy savings effect of energy policies from 1999 to 2004 in Jiangsu province. The improved GM(1,1) can take full advantage of new information in sequence of raw data for a small sample size prediction. The predicted energy intensities are derived from the prediction of applying the improved GM(1,1) model. And the energy savings are obtained from the differences of predicted energy consumption and actual energy consumption from 1999 to 2004. From the results we can find that in the beginning of implemented energy policies the energy consumption grows slowly and energy savings effects are obvious. However, the actual energy consumption has exceeded the predicted energy consumption in terms of results in this paper in 2004. This phenomenon represents that the energy policies has reached the best effects and some new energy savings policies should be formulated to keep both economic growth and energy savings sustainable. Our analysis in this paper is consistent with the decision-making of Chinese government. In the end of 2004 the “medium and long term specific schema on energy savings” is formulated and some other energy savings measures have been formulated to achieve the goal in the specific schema from 2004.
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The iron and steel industry, as the largest energy consuming industry in China, is as well as one of the most important sources of CO2 emissions and other pollutants. To improve the emission reduction and energy saving for Chinese iron and steel industries, an integrated steel plant combined with a series of advanced energy saving technologies was proposed in this study. The economic and emission reduction potential assessment was carried out for each technology. After calculations and analysis, the proposed technologies were then evaluated from the technical, environmental, and economic aspects, respectively and significant results were obtained.
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In this paper, the coefficient of energy consumption (CEC) for air conditioning system is proposed. The CEC is defined as a annual energy consumption of the air conditioning system divided by the accumulative supposed air conditioning load. The calculation method is also introduced for its generally populated. Then, in the empirical study, a building in Zhengzhou city in China, is selected for the test of validity. The results indicated that it is can be taken as an effective energy consumption evaluation method for air conditioning system.
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In this paper we analyze policy interactions between two innovative climate and energy policy instruments, namely White Certificates (WhC) and Joint Implementation (JI) that target at energy efficiency improvement and reductions of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. We have selected The Netherlands and Bulgaria as a case study given that the former has a cumulated experience in energy efficiency policies and the latter for a growing potential in JI projects as a host country. Based on a method of analyzing policy interactions, we demonstrate how a possible design of such a scheme can take place and how it should function. A couple of parameters that deserve attention are a baseline definition and a conversion rate for credits. Our basic finding is that an integrated scheme is complementary and can assist substantially in achieving Dutch national United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Kyoto Protocol targets. Dutch electricity and gas suppliers (parties that receive energy efficiency obligations) can implement energy efficiency projects domestically and in other countries, hence reducing total abatement costs. Furthermore, such a scheme can stimulate further energy efficiency actions from other stakeholders participating in energy markets. Based on an ex-ante assessment, a carefully designed hybrid WhC and JI scheme appears to be effective in terms of targets, efficient, generating positive impacts on markets and society, while uncertain in stimulating innovation.
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White certificate schemes mandate energy companies to promote energy efficiency with flexibility mechanisms, including the trading of energy savings. A unified framework is used to estimate the costs and benefits of the schemes implemented in Great Britain in 2002, in Italy in 2005 and in France in 2006. ‘Negawatt-hour cost’ estimates reach 0.009€/kWh saved in Great Britain and 0.037€/kWh saved in France, which compares favourably to energy prices in those countries. Moreover, the benefits of reduced energy bills and CO2 emissions saved exceed the costs; thus, white certificate schemes pay for themselves. Overall, the policy instrument is cost-effective and economically efficient. A closer look at the differences amongst countries provides general insights about the conceptualization of the instrument: (a) Compared to utility demand-side management, to which they are related, white certificate schemes provide more transparency about energy savings, but less transparency around costs; (b) the substantial efficiency discrepancy between the British scheme and its French counterpart can be explained by differences in technological potentials, coexisting policies and supply-side systems in these countries and (c) the nature and amount of costs influence compliance strategies. Notably, if energy suppliers are allowed to set their retail price freely, they tend to grant subsidies to end-use consumers for energy efficient investments. KeywordsWhite certificate schemes–Energy efficiency–Effectiveness–Cost-effectiveness–Social efficiency
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This paper examines the effectiveness of ODEX in measuring energy efficiency improvements by comparing it to an alternative proxy for energy efficiency, namely an index of energy intensity with structural effects removed, calculated using the Logarithmic Mean Divisia (LMDI) decomposition technique. Both approaches are subjected to tests to determine their accuracy, using the industry sector in Ireland as a case study. While the LMDI performs better than ODEX, the results yielded by both in their chained forms are influenced by fluctuations in the data used to calculate them. A method is proposed to quantify the effects of fluctuations on the results. For Irish industry data, these effects are found to be significant. It is recommended that the effects of data fluctuations be evaluated when calculating a chained top-down indicator to measure energy efficiency. KeywordsODEX-Energy efficiency indicator-Energy intensity-LMDI-Divisia-Decomposition analysis-Index theory
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Trigeneration or combined heat, cooling and power (CHCP) is becoming an increasingly important energy option, particularly on a small-scale basis (below 1 MWe), with several alternatives nowadays available for the cooling power production and the coupling to cogeneration systems. This paper deals with the introduction of a suitable framework for assessing the energy saving performance of trigeneration alternatives, orientated towards energy planning studies and the development of regulatory policies. In particular, a new generalized performance indicator—the trigeneration primary energy saving (TPES)—is introduced and discussed, with the aim of effectively evaluating the primary energy savings from different CHCP alternatives. The potential of the TPES indicator is illustrated through specific analyses run over different combinations of trigeneration equipment, providing numerical examples based on time-domain simulations to illustrate the dependence of the energy saving characteristics on the CHCP system configurations and equipment, as well as on the loading levels. In addition, the key aspect of adequately establishing the reference efficiencies for the conventional separate production of electrical, thermal and cooling power is addressed in detail. This aspect affects both equipment selection and potential profitability of the considered solutions under the outlook of receiving financial incentives.
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Several index decomposition methods are commonly employed to provide a top-down view of energy consumption trends in manufacturing industry. These approaches typically use value added data for an industrial sector to decompose energy trends into structural, intensity and activity effects. Additionally in Europe a commonly employed top-down indicator called ODEX uses units of physical output, rather than value added, to analyse energy efficiency developments only. Therefore it has been difficult to compare ODEX directly to decomposition approaches. This paper presents a new decomposition method called VALDEX, based on the existing ODEX methodology, but using value added data. Extending ODEX to a full decomposition method allows tests commonly used in index decomposition theory to be applied and enables direct comparison with other methods. This helps evaluate the robustness of the existing ODEX methodology. Using industry data from three European countries, the results yielded by five decomposition methods are compared. In the cases examined, both the Laspeyres and VALDEX methods have significant residuals. Laspeyres consistently overestimates total energy consumption while VALDEX underestimates it. Methods that produce small or no unexplained residuals give converging results for each effect for the countries analysed, and provide a more reliable view of energy trends.
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The EU and its member states are developing their ow policies targeting at energy supply, energy demand an environmental goals that are indirectly linked to ener use. As these policies are implemented in an alread policy crowded environment, interactions of these i struments take place, which can be complements competitive or self exclusive. As a starting point, we tes White Certificates for energy efficiency improvement i the end-use sectors. Our main research questions are: i) to provide a genereral explanatory framework for analyzing energy and climat policy interactions by employing suitable methods, an ii) to evaluate these methods and draw conclusions fo policy makers when introducing White Certificates wit other policy instruments stressing the critical condition that affect their performance. A core lesson is that when evaluating ex-ante instru ments, a variety of economic and technological method must be applied. Based on these methods, several endo enous and exogenous conditions affect the performanc of White Certificates schemes with other policy instru ments. Due to the innovative character of White Ce tificates and the uncertainty of hidden costs embedde into it, ex-ante evaluations should focus not only on th effectiveness and efficiency of the scheme, but on sever. other criteria which express the political acceptabilit and socioeconomic effects. We argue finally that Whit Certificates can make effective use of market forces an can assist in overcoming market barriers towards ener efficiency, and we expect that under certain precondi Lions, it can be integrated with other policy instrument and allows to achieve cost effectively multiple enviro mental objectives.
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Decomposition of CO2 data of the Netherlands shows that much progress has been made with reduction of CO2 emissions by changing to less CO2 intensive technologies. Demand also shifted to products that are produced with less CO2 emission. Further, shifts in the inputs needed in the production process also decreased the CO2 emissions. These effects, however, were more than compensated by increased CO2 emission due to economic growth. Especially growth of exports led to much more CO2 emissions. Consequently, emissions of CO2 remain a persistent environmental problem in spite of large improvements in the field of energy efficiency and carbon content of energy use. Policy measures affecting marginal costs of 'dirty' products, like an international system of emissions trading, could affect the demand for these products, and hence decrease emissions efficiently. A different policy may affect the Dutch competitive position, since the emission of CO2 is closely related to exports. In any way, action needs to be taken since the analysis suggests that otherwise the aims of the Kyoto-protocol may not be reached.
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We discuss some methodological and application issues related to decomposing national industrial energy consumption into changes associated with aggregate industrial production level, production structure and sectoral energy intensity. Past studies are classified and reviewed with respect to study scope and decomposition technique. A framework for decomposition method formulation which incorporates three different approaches is presented. Several specific methods are described and their applications are illustrated with an example. Relevant application issues, such as method selection, periodwise vs time-series decomposition, significance of levels of sector disaggregation, and result interpretation are discussed.
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This article review energy indicators, which are developed to describe the links between energy use and human activity in a disaggregated manner. After briefly reviewing a number of early and current efforts to develop indicators, we discuss the basic concepts of various indicators and the methodologies used to derive them. We also review the use of decomposition methods to aid in the analysis of trends in energy use and comparisions of uses between countries. These carbon indicators can play an important role in aiding negotiations over carbon reduction targets and evaluating progress toward meeting abatement goals.
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Since the first oil price shock of 1973 -74, there has been considerable reduction in total energy use per unit of total output. This development has many names: increasing energy conservation, demand elasticity, increasing energy productivity, or, conversely, decreasing energy intensity.
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In the Netherlands it seems likely that the large number of new policy measures in the past decade has influenced the response of households to changing prices. To investigate this issue the energy trends in the period 1990–2000 have been simulated with a bottom-up model, applied earlier for scenario studies, and extensive data from surveys. For a number of alternative price cases the elasticity values found are explained using the bottom-up changes in energy trends. One finding is that the specific set of saving options defines for a great part the price response. The price effect has been analysed too in combination with the policy measures standards, subsidies and energy taxes. The simulation results indicate that the elasticity value could be 30–40% higher without these measures.
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In the past, many studies on energy efficiency levels were not comparable due to differences in economic structure between countries. In the project ‘International Comparisons of Energy Efficiency’ efforts are undertaken to develop methods that do account for such differences. In this paper, we identify structural differences in energy intensive industries and describe ways to incorporate these differences in international comparisons of energy efficiency. For the iron and steel, aluminium, cement, pulp and paper, ammonia, chlorine and alkali, and petrochemicals sectors, structural differences mainly arise in product (quality) mix and import/export streams. In addition to structural indicators, also non-structural, explanatory indicators are identified, such as the penetration of energy efficient equipment and Combined Heat and Power generation. Feedstock mix and process type can either be structural or explanatory indicators, depending on whether or not product mix is affected. A number of issues regarding data quality and other pitfalls are described, mainly related to aggregation level and system boundaries between different industry sectors, and between the industry and energy transformation sectors. The methodologies developed show that structural differences can be taken into account in cross-country comparisons of energy efficiency if appropriate physical energy efficiency indicators are used.
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In a bottom-up model for the simulation of the future energy use of households, called SAVE households, a large number of saving options were analysed in conjunction with the growth of the number of inhabitants, dwellings, households and other structural changes which influence energy use before savings. The calculated change in energy use from the base year level was presented in the form of so-called volume, structure and saving effects. This model was adapted to serve as a monitoring tool. In 1996, it was used for the first time, for the official annual monitoring exercise of environmental trends in the Netherlands, as a tool to analyse the changes in household energy use in the period 1990–1995.If sufficient information on a detailed level is available, the approach based on the adapted simulation model has a number of advantages over other methods, eg energy intensity analysis methods using the disaggregation of energy use. The model offers a very flexible structure with regard to the preferred definition of saving options and structural changes. Furthermore, the adapted model is capable of handling the interdependence between structural changes and saving options and the substitution between different energy carriers. In addition, very complex changes with regard to energy use, such as smaller household sizes or a higher fraction of dwellings with district heating, can be easily analysed.
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While energy intensity in China has fallen almost continuously since the onset of economic reform in the late 1970s, beginning in 1996 the data show a striking decline in China’s absolute level of energy use. Most of this decline can be accounted for by falling coal consumption in the industrial sector. In order to investigate this energy puzzle, this paper employs a unique set of panel data for approximately 2500 of China’s most energy intensive large and medium-sized industrial enterprises during 1997–1999. Rising relative energy prices, research and development expenditures, and ownership reform in the enterprise sector, as well as shifts in China’s industrial structure, emerge as the principal drivers of China’s declining energy intensity and use.
Article
At the request of policy makers a new tool, called MONIT, has been developed for the presentation and analysis of historical energy use and emission trends. The tool is based on the concept of constructed energy balances. The system covers Dutch national and sectoral energy use and the accompanying CO2 emissions, from 1982 onwards. In the presentation part the energy balance with statistical figures is corrected for disruptions in statistics and yearly climate variations. Next to time series for all energy variables and sectors, information is also available about the final demand for electricity or heat and about co-generation, primary energy use as well as direct and indirect CO2 emissions. In the analysis part the energy use developments are mapped with a step-by-step constructed set of energy balances, starting from the base year balance. In each step a supplementary explanatory factor is introduced and the effects are made into an updated balance. In this way the actual changes in energy use are unravelled into 14 explanatory factors, including four different energy-related structural changes, five saving factors, fuel mix changes and changes in export and import of energy. It is possible to reconstruct the actual energy balances within a small margin and most of the 14 contributing factors can be calculated with only a small uncertainty. The MONIT system offers policy makers an integrated set of monitoring results with different levels of information content: statistical data, time series, final and primary energy use, direct and indirect CO2 emissions, intensities and policy relevant contributions to the actual changes in energy and emission variables.
Article
This paper reviews the evolution of manufacturing energy use in eight industrialized nations: West Germany, Denmark, France, Japan, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Manufacturing energy use fell in these nations by 16% between 1973 and 1988 while manufacturing valueadded increased by 41%. Reduced energy intensities in six industry groups --paper and pulp; chemicals; stone, clay and glass; iron and steel; nonferrous metals; and other manufacturing -- were the primary source of this apparent decoupling of energy use and output. Between 1973 and 1988, intensity reductions would have driven down sectoral energy use by 32% if the level and composition of output had remained constant. Structural change, or shifts in the product mi, would have reduced energy use by 11% if the total level of output and the energy intensities of each industry group had remained constant.
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This paper analyzes the change of aggregate CO2 emissions in the, OECD from 1960 to 1995 based on a complete decomposition approach. The, study indicates that developed countries have achieved a considerable decrease in their CO2 emissions mainly due to improved energy efficiency and fuel switching. However, some member countries of the OECD have found it difficult to achieve the environmental targets set at Rio de Janeiro in 1992, and should reconsider their energy policies in light of information given at the UN Climate, Change Conference in Kyoto.
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In this paper an analysis of the developments in energy use between 1980 and 1994 is presented. For analysis a method was used in which energy efficiency effects can be separated to a large extent from structural effects.
Article
In economic models, the aggregate consumption of energy resources is normally expressed either in terms of its total heating value (e.g. Btus or barrels of oil equivalent) or in terms of its economic value (e.g. Divisia indices or total expenditures). For most major OECD countries, we find that it matters little whether various energy resources consumed in the industrial sector are aggregated in terms of their heating value or their economic value — similar trends emerge regardless of which measure is adopted. Consequently, as a practical matter, macroeconomic and energy modeling efforts need not be too concerned about which measure of total energy usage is adopted. The prominent exceptions are the United States and Mexico, where measures of total industrial sector energy use based on heating values and economic values diverge greatly due to some unique trends in electrification and energy prices. Consequently, attention to aggregation issues may be an important consideration in efforts to model the energy consumed in the US or Mexico.
SAVE-ODYSSEE Monitoring tools for energy efficiency in Europe—energy efficiency index ODEX. Presentation at the ESD expert workshop MURE; Mesures d'Utilisation Rationelle de l'Energie; Part 2: Back-casting
  • B Lapillonne
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Lapillonne, B., Pollier, K., Bosseboeuf, D., 2004. SAVE-ODYSSEE Monitoring tools for energy efficiency in Europe—energy efficiency index ODEX. Presentation at the ESD expert workshop, Brussels, September 2004, see website ECEEE. MURE, 2003. MURE; Mesures d'Utilisation Rationelle de l'Energie; Part 2: Back-casting. FhG-ISI, ISIS, Enerdata and ADEME.
MURE-Odyssee News-Newsletter of the MURE and Odyssee databases
  • Odyssee
Odyssee, 2003. MURE-Odyssee News—Newsletter of the MURE and Odyssee databases. FhG-ISI, ISIS, Enerdata and ADEME.
Handbook on interna-tional comparisons of energy efficiency in the manufacturing industry Effectiveness of energy efficiency policy in the greenhouse sector Indicators of energy use and carbon emissions: explaining the energy economy link
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Phylipsen, G.J.M., Blok, K., Worrell, E., 1998. Handbook on interna-tional comparisons of energy efficiency in the manufacturing industry. Report no. 98022, NW&S, Utrecht University. RK, 2003. Effectiveness of energy efficiency policy in the greenhouse sector (in Dutch). Algemene Rekenkamer, TK-28780. SDU, Den Haag. Schipper, L., Murtishaw, S., Unander, F., Ting, M., 2001. Indicators of energy use and carbon emissions: explaining the energy economy link. Annual Review of Energy & Environment 26, 49–81.
Uncertainty in energy saving figures—background report to ''realised energy savings 1995-2002'' (in Dutch) Energy Savings 1990-1994; The Target for 2000 Half Way Out of Sight? (in Dutch) Note 96
  • A Gijsen
  • P G M Boonekamp
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  • W Groot
Gijsen, A., Boonekamp, P.G.M., 2004. Uncertainty in energy saving figures—background report to ''realised energy savings 1995-2002'' (in Dutch)', Report 773001030/2004, RIVM, Bilthoven. Groot, W., 1996. Energy Savings 1990-1994; The Target for 2000 Half Way Out of Sight? (in Dutch). Note 96/IV/15. CPB, Den Haag.
Measuring savings target fulfilment in the proposed directive on energy end-use efficiency and energy services (COM(2003)0739: developing a framework for a harmonised measurement scheme for energy efficiency improvements in the EU
  • R Bowie
  • H V Malvik
Bowie, R., Malvik, H.V., 2005. Measuring savings target fulfilment in the proposed directive on energy end-use efficiency and energy services (COM(2003)0739: developing a framework for a harmonised measure-ment scheme for energy efficiency improvements in the EU'. In: Proceedings ECEEE Summer Study 2005.
Results MAP Energy Distribution Sector
  • Energiened
EnergieNed, 1995. Results MAP Energy Distribution Sector 1995 (in Dutch).
Explaining Dutch emissions of CO2
  • A Hoen
  • M Mulder
Uncertainty in energy saving figures-background report to “realised energy savings
  • A Gijsen
  • P G M Boonekamp
SAVE-ODYSSEE Monitoring tools for energy efficiency in Europe-energy efficiency index ODEX. Presentation at the ESD expert workshop
  • B Lapillonne
  • K Pollier
  • D Bosseboeuf
The need for statistical analysis and reporting requirements: some suggestions for regression models
  • M Blasnik
MURE; Mesures d’Utilisation Rationelle de l’Energie
  • Mure