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Convergent validation of the Social Axioms Survey

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Abstract

Social axioms are generalized statement beliefs about oneself, the social and physical environment, or the spiritual world. A recently developed measure of social axioms was validated in a sample of female college students (N=182) from the USA. Five established measures were used to demonstrate convergent validity for the Social Axioms Survey (SAS). The five dimensions of the survey (Control by Fate, Reward for Application, Social Cynicism, Spirituality, and Social Flexibility) were predictably related to the established measures. In addition, a number of self-reported behaviors were also significantly correlated with the social axioms dimensions. While the USA data lend support to the validity of the SAS, validation in other cultures is needed. In addition, the emic aspects of social beliefs in individual cultures should be explored.

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... People in a country typically share some assumptions about the world, called social axioms, which represent implicit expectations about themselves, society, and the spiritual world (Leung et al., 2002). They are the basic premise people rely upon to guide their everyday life (Leung & Bond, 2008;Singelis, Hubbard, Her, & An, 2003). Research has identified the social axioms in over 40 societies (Bond et al., 2004b), and shown that they predict several specific beliefs and behaviors like economic positions, vocational interests, and coping strategies (Bond et al., 2004b;Fasce & Avendaño, 2020). ...
... The social axioms framework was developed with the goal of identifying universal aspects of culturally related social beliefs with references of the social world rather than abstract ideals like social values (Leung et al., 2002;Singelis et al., 2003). Thus, social axioms can function as people's social beliefs within the context of people's everyday norms, but unlike other cultural approaches to populism (e.g., Staerklé & Green, 2018;Uyheng & Montiel, 2020) social axioms can represent broad social beliefs across cultural contexts (Leung & Bond, 2008). ...
... The five individual-level axioms are social cynicism, reward for application, religiosity, social flexibility, and fate control. Social cynicism indicates people's negative evaluation of humanity like disliking certain groups or institutions or suspecting the misuse of power by others (Leung et al., 2002), and lower interpersonal trust (Singelis et al., 2003). Reward for application is the belief that hard work, knowledge, and careful preparation can lead to positive outcomes. ...
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Populism is on the rise with various movements having electoral breakthroughs. Most social-science research on populism has focused primarily on party tactics and rhetoric, and a definition for the term itself; only recently has populism emerged as a psychological construct. We contribute to this growing literature with two studies (n = 456 and n = 5,837) that investigated the cultural worldviews underpinned in populist attitudes. Using the social axioms model, an etic framework for assessing people’s generalized social expectations, we linked populist attitudes to universal dimensions of culture. We found that higher levels of social cynicism and social flexibility, and to a lesser extent, lower levels of fate control and reward for application predicted populist attitudes. These findings indicate that people who endorse populist attitudes, across a range of contexts, are cynical regarding the social world, believe in alternative solutions to social dilemmas, but may also perceive a world that is difficult to control and potentially unfair. The discussion focuses on the cultural forces that may drive or facilitate populist attitudes across context and time.
... Social axioms have been found to predict perceptions of the self (e.g., self-esteem; Chen et al., 2016) and others (e.g., generalized trust; Singelis, Hubbard, Her, & An, 2003), social attitudes (e.g., political attitude; Keung & Bond, 2002), and social behaviors (e.g., trust behavior; Kurman, 2011). We contend that social axioms serve as a lens through which individuals interpret and understand environmental issues. ...
... Social cynicism directs people's attention to potential social threats and deceptions. In general, people with a strong belief in social cynicism tend to have a negative view on others (e.g., lower generalized trust; Singelis et al., 2003) and social institutions (e.g., lower political trust; Pattyn, Van Hiel, Dhont, & Onraet, 2012). This cynical view of the social world may drive people to reject mainstream narratives and discard scientific evidence regarding specific social and environmental issues. ...
... Fate control is related to but different from an external locus of control as it encompasses a dialectical view that outcomes are both determined by external forces and controllable by superstitious tactics. Singelis et al. (2003) found that fate control was weakly related to the belief in an external locus of control. Fate control embodies a pre-deterministic view of life outcomes. ...
Article
Why do people respond to environmental issues differently? In this research, we approach this question by referring to the role of social axioms, a set of generalized beliefs that embody people’s assumptions and expectations about how the social world functions. There are five social axioms specifically: social cynicism, reward for application, social complexity, fate control, and religiosity. We contend that when facing environmental issues, people will resort to their social axioms as these axioms help them understand those issues and evaluate their capability to tackle them through personal and/or collective efforts. As expected, in three studies, we found that the five axioms were associated with environmental attitude and efficacy beliefs: reward for application and social complexity were associated with a more pro-environmental orientation, whereas social cynicism, fate control, and religiosity were related to a less pro-environmental orientation. In Study 3, we additionally demonstrated the unique contribution of social axioms in explaining environmentalism with values and big five personality traits controlled for. These findings support the use of the concept of social axioms as a novel framework for understanding individual differences in environmentalism. This framework offers insights into how people process environment-related information and events and determine their mitigation and adaptation strategies.
... 'Kind-hearted people usually suffer losses', 'powerful people tend to exploit others', 'it is easier to succeed if one knows to take shortcuts'). Previous literature has related social cynicism with low interpersonal trust (Singelis, Hubbard, Her, & An, 2003), highlighting that this correlation derives from the belief that the other will exploit you if the opportunity arises (Bond, Leung, Au, Tong, De Carrasquel, et al., 2004). Social cynicism has been related also to a lower use of collaborating and compromising conflict style (Bond, Leung, Au, Tong, & Chemonges-Nielson, 2004), and to a higher use of assertive influence tactics, ...
... Individuals high in social cynicism are less trusting and more rigid in their understanding of social events. They are characterized by low interpersonal trust and have a negative view of human nature and social institutions (Singelis et al., 2003). Such negative view could be fuelled by the information shared and collected through the usage of social network. ...
... Excluding what they have in common, Facebook supports more identity, presence and relationships while YouTube is more focused on sharing and groups. (Kietzmann et al., 2011) Considering that social cynicism is correlated with low interpersonal trust (Singelis et al., 2003), users with a high level of social cynicism are less inclined to develop relationships. Moreover, since this correlation derives from the belief that the other will exploit you if the opportunity arises (Bond, Leung, Au, Tong, De Carrasquel, et al., 2004), the same users tend to avoid information sharing about their identity and presence. ...
Chapter
In a world where around 3.5 billions of the entire population are active social media users, the individual usage behavior of social network sites and related aspects should require further investigation. Specifically, this paper focuses on the social network dependence, considering the utilitarian and goal-oriented facet rather than the psychological one, usually referred as addiction. It combines an analysis of personal cultural values with Media System Dependency theory, investigating the role of social axioms in affecting the social network dependence. Using a large dataset composed by 622 observations, we developed and validated a research model to shed new light on the investigation of dependence phenomena in the context of social network sites, exploring the role of individual beliefs.
... The distinction between fate control and external control was supported by empirical findings, albeit limited. A few studies reported the correlation between the two control beliefs in both Eastern and Western cultures [51,52]. Using internal-external scale [5], Singelis and colleagues [52] reported a correlation of 0.18 between the two beliefs in the US. ...
... A few studies reported the correlation between the two control beliefs in both Eastern and Western cultures [51,52]. Using internal-external scale [5], Singelis and colleagues [52] reported a correlation of 0.18 between the two beliefs in the US. Using the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory (CPAI) [53], Chen and colleagues [51] reported a moderate correlation of 0.28 between fate control and external control in the internal versus external locus of control personality subscale in Chinese culture. ...
... Although people endorsing fate control belief think that life is pre-determined, they believe that there are ways for people to influence the negative impact of fate. A high level of fate control is positively correlated with having a lucky number and reading one's horoscope [52], both aiming to increase a sense of control over one's future. Some researchers argued that believing in a lucky number or preferring a lucky number is an illusion of control [84]. ...
Article
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The development of control-related constructs has involved different approaches over time, and yet internal and external locus of control are conceptualized as dichotomous factors influencing active versus avoidant coping strategies. While external control is associated with avoidance, a similar belief construct fate control, which denotes that life events are pre-determined and influenced by external forces but predictable and alterable, challenges the assumption of incompatibility between fate and agency. To develop a dynamic model of control, we suggest that external control would affect avoidant coping, which in turn would affect psychological distress, whereas fate control would affect both active and avoidant coping when dealing with stress. The model was supported among Hong Kong Chinese using a cross-sectional approach in Study 1 (n = 251) and hypothetical stressful scenarios in Study 2 (n = 294). The moderating effect of perceived controllability was observed in coping behaviors using a diary approach in Study 3 (n = 188). Our findings offer an alternative perspective to the dichotomous view of control and provide implications for coping strategies and mental well-being.
... Religiosity has been already linked to unwarranted beliefs (Singelis et al., 2003) and to social conservatism (Bond et al., 2004). Moreover, the relationship between authoritarian predisposition and normative religious doctrines has been widely documented (e.g. ...
... Fate Control has also been associated with social conservatism, to the endorsement of traditionalism (Bond et al., 2004;Leung et al., 2007), and to unfounded beliefs (Singelis et al., 2003). Hence, this social axiom may be closely linked to the conventionalism dimension of authoritarianism. ...
... People who endorse this social axiom tend to prioritise good social relationships over the defence of potentially conflicting ideas, showing heightened levels of social conformity and uncritical attitude. Thus, they are prone to accommodation as conflict resolution, social desirability, and lack of self-acceptance (Bond et al., 2004;Chen et al., 2006;Singelis et al., 2003). Nevertheless, if Reward for Application works as a background during pseudoscientific belief acquisition, then the mechanism should be strongly susceptible to being suppressed, or reverted to, if short-term incentives change (e.g. ...
Article
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Recent research highlights the implications of group dynamics in the acceptance and promotion of misconceptions, particularly in relation to the identity-protective attitudes that boost polarisation over scientific information. In this study, we successfully test a mediational model between right-wing authoritarianism and pseudoscientific beliefs. First, we carry out a comprehensive literature review on the socio-political background of pseudoscientific beliefs. Second, we conduct two studies (n = 1189 and n = 1097) to confirm our working hypotheses: H1 – intercorrelation between pseudoscientific beliefs, authoritarianism and three axioms (reward for application, religiosity and fate control); H2 – authoritarianism and social axioms fully explain rightists’ proneness to pseudoscience; and H3 – the association between pseudoscience and authoritarianism is partially mediated by social axioms. Finally, we discuss our results in relation to their external validity regarding paranormal and conspiracy beliefs, as well as to their implications for group polarisation and science communication.
... There is strong empirical confirmation for their distinctive interactions and predictive power in a wide range of cross-cultural samples. For example, regarding methods of conflict resolution and coping styles (Bond, Leung, Au, Tong, & Chemonges-Nielson, 2004), locus of control, social desirability, interpersonal trust, cognitive flexibility, and unfounded beliefs (Singelis, Hubbard, Her, & An, 2003). Furthermore, social axioms have shown greater validity and predictive power than personality traits and values in relation to social behavior (Bond et al., 2004;Iliescu, Dincă, & Bond, 2017). ...
... In this regard, it is considered as a cognitive support for socially conservative worldviews (Bond et al., 2004). People who endorse this social axiom tend to reject potentially conflicting ideas, thus showing strong disposition toward accommodation as conflict resolution style, social desirability, lack of selfacceptance, search for security, conformism, and uncritical attitude (Singelis et al., 2003;Bond et al., 2004;Chen, Cheung, Bond, & Leung, 2006;Leung et al., 2007). For those reasons, we can expect positive associations between this construct and the conventionalism and submission dimensions of authoritarianism. ...
... Contrastingly, social cynicism and social complexity are expected to be unrelated to authoritarian attitudes. On one hand, social cynicism is strongly associated with general interpersonal mistrust (Singelis et al., 2003), particularly against social institutions and powerful people (Leung et al., 2007). Hence, we might expect from these subjects a negative assessment of those in positions of authority and of social conventions. ...
Article
We carry out an exhaustive analysis of both right-wing and left-wing forms of authoritarianism in order to assess the specific predictors of these illiberal agendas. Firstly, we conduct a literature review on authoritarianism as a multidimensional psychological construct, with emphasis on its controversial links to the political spectrum, religion, and economic conservatism. Moreover, we review its potential associations with social axioms, as an interesting psychological framework to aid understanding of authoritarian attitudes. We extract three working hypotheses from this literature review, all successfully tested in two empirical studies (n = 1097 and n = 1102). Our results suggest that the strongest predictor of right-wing authoritarianism is social conservatism, whereas left-wing authoritarianism is better understood as an illiberal backlash against conservatism-related constructs. Both authoritarian agendas may be motivated by their opposed expectations of reward for conventional behavior.
... It is inversely related to well-being indicators such as life satisfaction , hope (Bernardo, 2013;Bernardo & Nalipay, 2016), and self-esteem (Neto, 2006), while positively related to psychological distress (Kuo, Kwantes, Towson, & Nanson, 2006), loneliness (Neto, 2006), and death ideation (Hui et al., 2007). Individuals high in social cynicism have low interpersonal trust (Singelis, Hubbard, Her, & An, 2003), and their manner of dealing with interpersonal conflict is through competition, avoidance, and accommodation (Bond, Leung, Au, Tong, Chemonges-Nielson, 2004). Social cynicism is associated with stronger beliefs in external locus of control and supernatural power (Singelis et al., 2003), as well as maladaptive ways of coping characterized by wishful thinking (Bond, Leung, Au, Tong, Chemonges-Nielson, 2004) and emotional rumination (Chen, Cheung, Bond, & Leung, 2005). ...
... Individuals high in social cynicism have low interpersonal trust (Singelis, Hubbard, Her, & An, 2003), and their manner of dealing with interpersonal conflict is through competition, avoidance, and accommodation (Bond, Leung, Au, Tong, Chemonges-Nielson, 2004). Social cynicism is associated with stronger beliefs in external locus of control and supernatural power (Singelis et al., 2003), as well as maladaptive ways of coping characterized by wishful thinking (Bond, Leung, Au, Tong, Chemonges-Nielson, 2004) and emotional rumination (Chen, Cheung, Bond, & Leung, 2005). ...
... Among the participants, 44 (9.8%) got a score of at least 38, which indicates that they are likely to be suffering from PTSD. Based on the criteria set by the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) for PTSD, 262 (58.74%) of the participants reported at least one symptom of intrusion; 146 (32.74%) reported at least one symptom of avoidance; 155 (34.75%) reported at least two symptoms of negative alterations in cognitions and hopeful (Bernardo & Nalipay, 2016), and external locus of control that increases their helplessness and sense of vulnerability (Hui & Hui, 2009;Singelis et al., 2003) may also prevent them from making revisions in their negative conceptualization of the trauma experience, making them dwell more on the negative aspects, rather than exploring its positive side. Their use of maladaptive ways of coping, such as emotional rumination (Chen et al., 2005), may make them less likely to engage in more deliberate ways of cognitive processing, which is important in the development of PTG (Tedeschi & Calhoun, 2004). ...
Article
The positive psychology movement has impelled trauma research to focus not only on debilitating aspects of trauma experiences, but also on its positive outcomes such as posttraumatic growth (PTG). We investigated how the social themes of religiosity, reward for application, and social cynicism, as part of the individual’s distal culture, contribute to PTG among natural disaster survivors. We tested a model wherein social axioms of religiosity, reward for application, and social cynicism predict PTG, and their relationships are mediated by adaptive cognitive processing of trauma. The model was tested in a sample of Filipino survivors of typhoon Haiyan using structural equation modeling. The results support the proposed model except for the influence of social cynicism. The findings suggest that generalized beliefs about the social world play an important role in the development of PTG, and must be considered to understand how growth occurs in the aftermath of a traumatic event.
... Specifically, Social Complexity seemed to predict the coping style of problem solving, while Fate Control mostly seemed to predict the strategies of distancing. Safdar, Lewis, & Daneshpour, 2006;Singelis et al., 2003). ...
... Additionally, some indication of predictive and discriminatory power of the five social axioms scales, also supporting the convergent validity of the SAS, has been reported in previous research for a sample of Greek students ; in this study, social axiom dimensions were correlated with locus of control -both external and internal. These findings were in line with the relevant literature showing satisfactory validity analyses for the five social axioms dimensions Singelis et al., 2003). The same holds for the Ways of Coping Checklist five factors that seemed to be correlated significantly with wellbeing aspects, self-efficacy, optimism and neurotism (Karademas, 2007). ...
Article
Social axioms are individual assessments of psychological, social, material and spiritual reality expressed as generalized beliefs or assertions about the relationship between two entities or concepts. This study explores how social axioms are associated with coping styles in a Greek sample composed of students and adults. Previous studies of how social axioms are related to coping styles showed that Social Complexity predicted the coping style of problem solving, Fate Control predicted the strategies of distancing, and Social Cynicism predicted the wishful thinking coping processes. In the present study, the 82 item questionnaire version of the Social Axioms Survey (SAS) was employed, along with the Folkman and Lazarus questionnaire of coping styles adapted in the Greek language. Both questionnaires were administered to a sample of 192 individuals, of 48 men and 144 women, among whom 108 were adults and 84 were university students. The sample was composed by two age groups: young adults-students of age 18-30 years (43.8%) and adults of age 31-59 years (56.3%). The results showed that Social Cynicism was not correlated in any way with coping strategies; however, Social Complexity was significantly associated with problem solving strategies, and Fate control was also associated with wishful thinking and distancing coping strategies.
... These two social axioms were suggested to be related to the self-regulatory process (Hui & Bond, 2010), while reward for application was also related to active coping and adjustment (Safdar, Lewis, & Daneshpour, 2006). Although no empirical study has yet tested the relationship between social axioms and precautionary behaviors against a pandemic, we expect social cynicism to have a negative association with adherence to COVID-19 precautionary behaviors because a higher level of social cynicism has been found to be associated with a lower level of self-regulation and a higher tendency to distrust authorities that provide health guidance (Hui & Bond, 2010;Singelis, Hubbard, Her, & An, 2003). On the other hand, reward for application is expected to have a positive association with adherence to COVID-19 precautionary measures because stronger beliefs in positive outcomes were associated with effort, better coping, and the tendency to try harder after unsuccessful experiences (Singelis et al., 2003). ...
... Although no empirical study has yet tested the relationship between social axioms and precautionary behaviors against a pandemic, we expect social cynicism to have a negative association with adherence to COVID-19 precautionary behaviors because a higher level of social cynicism has been found to be associated with a lower level of self-regulation and a higher tendency to distrust authorities that provide health guidance (Hui & Bond, 2010;Singelis, Hubbard, Her, & An, 2003). On the other hand, reward for application is expected to have a positive association with adherence to COVID-19 precautionary measures because stronger beliefs in positive outcomes were associated with effort, better coping, and the tendency to try harder after unsuccessful experiences (Singelis et al., 2003). ...
Article
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In the face of the global pandemic of coronavirus disease‐2019 (COVID‐19), people’s adherence to precautionary behavioral measures (e.g. social distancing) largely influences the effectiveness of those measures in containing the spread of the coronavirus. The present study aims at testing the applicability of the health belief model (HBM) and generalised social beliefs (i.e. social axioms) to explore strategies for promoting adherence to COVID‐19 precautionary measures. We conducted a telephone survey with a two‐step stratified random sampling method and obtained a probability sample of 616 adults in Macao, China (18–87 years old; 60.9% women) in April 2020. Our participants showed stronger adherence to some COVID‐19 precautionary measures (e.g. face mask wearing; 96.4%) but not others (e.g. social distancing; 42.3%). Their adherence to those measures was found to be significantly associated with four HBM factors and two social axioms, after controlling for gender, age, and years of education. The HBM and the generalised social beliefs of social cynicism and reward for application can be applied to understanding adherence to precautionary measures against COVID‐19. Strategies based on beliefs were proposed to facilitate the promotion of precautionary measures.
... People with social cynicism have reported to have a higher degree of tendency toward competition and a lower tendency toward collaboration and compromise in resolving conflicts . They also tend to have lower levels of interpersonal trust (Singelis, Hubbard, Her, & An, 2003). Given these attributes of lower trust and a greater tendency to engage in negative social behaviors, social cynicism may hinder individuals from building relatedness with others and their institutions. ...
... People who believe in reward for application are more likely to participate in school activities (Zhou et al., 2009), and their school integration would therefore be enhanced. Reward for application is associated with a positive approach to interpersonal relations (Singelis et al., 2003) and thus facilitates the ability to develop and maintain friendships, which is a predictor of school belonging . We hence hypothesized that reward for application (T1) would predict higher school belonging (T2). ...
Article
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Background: This longitudinal study investigated the temporal stability of social axioms, which are generalised social beliefs, and tested their prospective effects on individuals' flourishing, among students, as well as the extent to which they can be potentially mediated by perceived sense of belonging at school. Methods: Participants were 195 Chinese university students, who voluntarily completed a questionnaire measuring social axioms (at baseline, 1-year follow-up, and 2-year follow-up studies), school belonging (at 1-year follow-up study), and flourishing (at baseline and 2-year follow-up studies). Results: Results showed supportive evidence for five types of social axioms being generally stable across these time intervals. After controlling for baseline flourishing, high baseline social cynicism significantly predicted a lower level of follow-up flourishing, whereas high baseline reward for application predicted a higher level of follow-up flourishing. Furthermore, higher levels of social cynicism predicted lower levels of school belonging, and the latter partially mediated the effect of social cynicism on follow-up flourishing. Conclusions: All social axioms are relatively stable across time. Social cynicism, reward for applications, and school belonging are the most salient predictors for flourishing among Chinese university students.
... To what extent are the present findings related to the research on social complexity? Known as one of the social axioms (Leung et al., 2002) of cultures, social complexity refers to the general beliefs that social problems may have multiple solutions and that people can behave inconsistently due to situational demands (e.g., Leung et al., 2002;Singelis et al., 2003). As social complexity does not seem to differ between China (M = 3.79) and the United States (M = 3.87; Leung et al., 2012), it is an unlikely explanation for the present findings. ...
... As social complexity does not seem to differ between China (M = 3.79) and the United States (M = 3.87; Leung et al., 2012), it is an unlikely explanation for the present findings. Nonetheless, social complexity has been shown to predict flexible thinking (Singelis et al., 2003) and the tendency to compromise in interpersonal tasks (Bond et al., 2004). These findings suggest that a complex view of the social world may encourage people to consider multiple possibilities for social problems as opposed to using rigid rules. ...
Article
We examined cultural differences in people’s lay theories of demeanor—how demeanor may be perceived as a straightforward and reliable reflection of reality (convergence theory) or as a deviating reflection of reality (divergence theory). Across different domains of competition, Euro-Canadians perceived greater competence in an opponent with a competent demeanor, whereas Chinese paradoxically perceived greater competence in an opponent with no signs of competence (Studies 1–4b). The results, unexplained by attributional styles (Study 1), likability (Study 3), or modesty (Study 3), suggest that Euro-Canadians endorse a stronger convergence theory than Chinese in their inferences of competence. Corroborated with qualitative data (Study 4a), such cultural differences were explained by the beliefs that demeanor can be a misleading reflection of reality, verified in college and community (Study 4b) samples. We discuss the implications for social perception, intergroup dynamics, and self-presentation in competitions.
... For instance, reward for application, which is one of these social beliefs, represents a general belief that hard work and careful planning has positive consequences. Although studies have shown that employees' social world views may predict their work-related behavior and attitudes (Andersson & Bateman 1997;Singelis, et al., 2003;Youssef & Luthans, 2007), only one study has looked into social beliefs as determinants of OCB (Kwantes, Karam, & Kuo, 2008). They found that employees who scored high on social cynicism considered OCB (particularly conscientious behavior) more as extra-role than intra-role behavior, whereas the reverse was true for employees who scored high on religiosity beliefs. ...
... Daha önceki araştırmalar, çalışanların genel inanışları ile iş tutumları ve davranışları arasında ilişki bulunduğunu göstermiştir. (Andersson & Bateman 1997;Singelis, et al., 2003;Youssef & Luthans, 2007). Ancak, Leung ve arkadaşları genel inanışları daha sistematik bir biçimde araştırmış ve genel inanışların bir çok davranışı yordadığını saptamışlardır (Leung at al., 2002). ...
... Leung & Bond, 2004). This belief was found to be positively correlated with cognitive flexibility, which refers to a person's awareness of different alternatives in any given situation and his or her willingness to be flexible (Singelis, Hubbard, Her, & An, 2003). Social complexity belief was also shown to be associated with the openness personality type, which encompasses openness to different information and alternatives (S. ...
... K. Leung and Li (2008) posited that social beliefs predict individual CQ. Specifically, they proposed that social complexity belief is positively related to CQ because people who endorse social complexity also tend to have high levels of cognitive flexibility (Singelis et al., 2003) and openness (S. Chen, Bond, & Cheung, 2006), which have been linked to CQ. CQ encompasses cognitive flexibility and the ability to adjust cognitive structures to align with different cultural settings (Earley, Murnieks, & Mosakowski, 2007). ...
Article
Contact-based cross-cultural training (CCT) is essential in cultural intelligence (CQ) development; however, little is known about how individual differences and training characteristics influence CQ development. This work argues that in the context of contact-based CCT, a participant’s social complexity belief predicts the perception of disconfirmation in culturally shaped expectations, and ultimately his or her CQ development. Furthermore, using person–situation interactionist research, this study explores the interaction of social complexity belief with perceived optimal contact characteristics: common goals, personalized contact, equal status, and support of authorities. The hypotheses were tested in a pre- and postdesign study involving 174 management students who participated in a multiweek contact-based CCT. The results reveal that social complexity belief is positively associated with CQ development and that the perception of disconfirmation mediates this relationship. The perception of common goals by a CCT participant during contact attenuates the positive effect of his or her social complexity belief on the perception of disconfirmation. These findings highlight the importance of considering individual differences and training characteristics in CCT design and selection.
... Additionally, the static, distorted, negative, and nonflexible worldview that is present in many cynical individuals Singelis, Hubbard, Her, & An, 2003) bears much resemblance to Shneidman's concept of constriction, which is the belief that suicide (i.e., ceasing existence or ceasing consciousness) is an individual's one and only option to alleviate or escape his or her psychological pain (Shneidman, 1993). Thus, the cynical person, similar to a constricted person, may experience greater difficulty in generating and implementing alternative and adaptive solutions to stressors, thereby increasing suicide risk, as evidenced by decreased cognitive flexibility in both types of people (Singelis et al., 2003;Shneidman, 1996). ...
... Additionally, the static, distorted, negative, and nonflexible worldview that is present in many cynical individuals Singelis, Hubbard, Her, & An, 2003) bears much resemblance to Shneidman's concept of constriction, which is the belief that suicide (i.e., ceasing existence or ceasing consciousness) is an individual's one and only option to alleviate or escape his or her psychological pain (Shneidman, 1993). Thus, the cynical person, similar to a constricted person, may experience greater difficulty in generating and implementing alternative and adaptive solutions to stressors, thereby increasing suicide risk, as evidenced by decreased cognitive flexibility in both types of people (Singelis et al., 2003;Shneidman, 1996). As such, and in light of the highly dispositional nature of cynicism compared to the more acute nature of psychache, it appears that high levels of cynicism would be more likely to lead to high levels of psychache, rather than the reverse being true. ...
Article
Research is burgeoning regarding the beneficial association of forgiveness with numerous health-related outcomes; however, its particular relationship to suicidal behavior has received relatively little attention. Both cynicism and psychache, or agonizing psychological pain, have displayed deleterious associations with suicidal behavior, but have rarely been incorporated into more comprehensive models of suicidal behavior. Consistent with the recent development of a theoretical model regarding the forgiveness–suicidal behavior association, the present study utilized an undergraduate sample of college students (N = 312) to test a mediation-based model of the cross-sectional association of forgiveness with suicidal behavior, as serially mediated by cynicism and psychache. Dispositional forgiveness of self and forgiveness of uncontrollable situations were each indirectly associated with less suicidal behavior via less psychache. Also, dispositional forgiveness of others was indirectly associated with less suicidal behavior via less cynicism and less psychache, in a serial fashion. The present results are consistent with the extent literature on the forgiveness–suicidal behavior association, cynicism, and psychache, and pending future studies, may be utilized to inform further treatment efforts for individuals at a high risk of attempting suicide.
... Reward for application shares some common variance with conscientiousness as a personality trait ( Chen, Fok, Bond, & Matsumoto, 2006). People high on reward for application are more likely to have an internal locus of control ( Singelis et al., 2003) and are likely to approach tasks in a planned, assertive, and 'agentic' way ( Bond, 2009). It is likely that in interpersonal relations, people high on reward for application are more likely to expand personal effort in keeping the relationship going. ...
... However, if the social axiom of partner A contributes to the dyadic adjustment of the same partner A, this means that social axioms also play a role in the processing and construction of reality. This is consonant with predictions made by Bond (1988) or Singelis et al. (2003) in which social axioms are shown to shape the way in which people explain and help create their daily successes and failures ( Leung, Hui, & Bond, 2007). Finally, we need to remark on the high correlations obtained in our sample between the social axiom dimensions, but not among the personality dimensions, of the two members of a couple, which points to the fact that worldview compatibility may be more important than personality compatibility for couple satisfaction. ...
Article
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This study investigates the relationship between personality, social axioms, and dyadic adjustment. A sample of 420 participants (210 heterosexual couples), approximately evenly distributed between four ethnic backgrounds (Romanian, Hungarian, German, and Rroma), was investigated in a cross-sectional approach with the Romanian versions of the Social Axioms Survey, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. The analyses were based on the actor–partner interdependence model. The results showed that social axioms show incremental validity over personality traits in the prediction of dyadic adjustment, attesting to the usefulness of a worldview measure in predicting interpersonal outcomes over and above that provided by a measure of personality. Three of the five dimensions of social axioms were associated with dyadic adjustment, with either actor or partner effects. A few significant differences have been found between the various ethnic groups on effects of the social axioms on dyadic adjustment: The positive actor effect of reward for application is not visible for German men, the negative partner effect of social cynicism is not detectable for Rroma men, and the negative partner effect of social complexity is not visible for Rroma women. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Personality Psychology
... Principala miză a cercetării a constitut-o realizarea unui diagnostic românesc pe baza modelului axiomelor sociale, întregind un portret identitar ce se conturează în ultimii ani (Gavreliuc, Cîmpean, Gavreliuc, 2009;Guan, Bond, Dincă, Iliescu, 2010, in press (Bond, Leung et al, 2004a, 2004bBond, 2005;Chen et al., 2006aChen et al., , 2006bLeung, Bond, 2004;Singelis et al, 2003). Apoi, ne vom preocupa de valorificarea conceptului de -cultură organizaţională‖ din mediul educaţional, care ar putea fi examinată pornind de la consistenta literatură de specialitate centrată pe conceptul de -dimensiuni culturale‖, prin tradiţia de cunoaştere inaugurată de Geert Hofstede şi discipolii săi (Hofstede, 1980(Hofstede, /2001(Hofstede, , 1986(Hofstede, , 2002Smith, Dugan, Trompenaars, 1996;Schwartz, 1992Schwartz, , 1994Schwartz, , 1999Schwartz, Bardi, 2001;Schwartz, Bardi, Bianchi, 2000;Schwartz, Rubbel, 2005 (Neto, 2006, Bond et al., 2004, Safdar, Lewis & Daneshpour, 2006, Leung et al., 2007. ...
... săptămînă; religiozitatea se asociază cu o agreabilitate mai mare şi practica religioasă mai intensă; controlul destinului este relaţionat cu un număr mai mare de afecţiuni cardiace mortale.La nivel individual, o serie de alte studii au găsit de asemenea relaţii semnificative cu o multitudine de variabile, deopotrivă personale, cît și structurale.Singelis et al. (2003) au observat că printre studenţii din colegiile americane, cinismul social corelează negativ cu încrederea interpersonală şi flexibilitatea cognitivă; complexitatea socială se relaționează pozitiv cu flexibilitatea cognitivă, cu starea de confort în conversaţiile cu persoane străine şi cu deschiderea relațională mai pronunțată, chiar dac ...
... Although cynical followers and leaders share a common view on the social world, social cynicism also implies several tendencies that may undermine the development of positive exchange relationships (Fu et al., 2004;Li et al., 2011;Singelis et al., 2003). These dynamics of cynicism may thus, to a certain extent, offset the positive effects of congruence. ...
... Specifically, congruence in social cynicism has a considerably stronger relationship with LMX when leaders and followers are low than when they are high in cynicism. Even though congruence in social beliefs can facilitate high-quality relationships between leaders and followers, the characteristics of social cynicism-e.g., distrust in other's abilities and intentions (Fu et al., 2004;Singelis et al., 2003)-seem to partly offset the positive dynamics of congruence. Thus, social cynicism seems to set a limit for the LMX quality that leaders and followers can develop. ...
Article
Prior research suggests that leaders' social cynicism can undermine important follower outcomes such as followers' motivation and performance. However, these studies have exclusively focused on leaders' social cynicism and neglected that followers' views on the social world might also influence the leadership process. On the basis of theories of social beliefs and person–supervisor fit, we offer an integrative perspective and predict that it is the congruence between leaders' and followers' social cynicism that shapes leadership dynamics. Data from 116 leader–follower dyads from a broad range of organizations and industries support our model: Polynomial regression and response surface analyses show significant congruence effects of leaders' and followers' social cynicism on followers' extra-role behaviors and followers' proactive work behaviors. These positive effects of congruence on follower outcomes are transmitted by leader–member exchange quality. Finally, congruence effects are stronger when leaders' and followers' social cynicism is low rather than high. Overall, our study suggests that it is the correspondence between leaders' and followers' social cynicism that influences followers' leader–member exchange, extra-role, and proactive behavior. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for designing functional leader–follower dyads in organizations.
... Social cynics are socially hostile, unaligned to social norms, and low in social desirability (Dincă & Iliescu, 2009;Singelis, Hubbard, Her, & An, 2003). Research has shown that nonconformity weakens the relationship between exposure to thinness norms and internalization of such ...
... The Role of Social Beliefs in Body Image Research 23 example, peers. Cynical individuals' negative view about human relations and high level of interpersonal mistrust may lead them to distrust the negative feedback from others (Lai et al., 2007;Singelis et al., 2003). Future research can test this argument by incorporating the above explanatory variables in the study, such as mistrust. ...
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... -"mental inertia" ("mentalities") of the educational environment, which could be adequately investigated by a sum of increasingly influential theoretical studies of the last 4-5 years in the intercultural register, represented by social axioms proposed by Michael Harris Bond andKwok Leung in their research coordinated between 2002 and2008 (Bond, Leung et al, 2004a, 2004b, Bond, 2005, Chen et al., 2006a, 2006b, 2006cLeung, Bond, 2004;Singelis et al, 2003). ...
... The dimension of individualism/collectivism has to do with the relationship the individual has with the group and more generally with society. Hofstede points out that the nature of this relationship determines not only how people think about themselves and their immediate group but the "structure and functioning of many institutions aside from the family" (Hofstede, 1980/2003, p210, apud Ogden & Cheng, 2005. ...
... Specifically, cynical people have negative generalized ideas (or a worldview) that others are intrinsically self-centered and ethically flawed. Extremely cynical persons are often distrustful and skeptical, and regard others as having malicious and self-serving intents even when none exist, since they believe that others will pursue their own self-interest by any means necessary (Singelis et al., 2003;Stavrova & Ehlebracht, 2016;Stavrova et al., 2020). As a result of their impression of a dog-eat-dog world, extremely cynical persons are typically less sympathetic (e.g., Dincă & Iliescu, 2009). ...
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With the unstable work environment brought about by high levels of turnover and employee burnout, many firms have sought fresh human capital to fill critical roles. The strain of having to complete job duties in an understaffed environment made remaining employees feel as though they are not being paid enough to do more work for the same pay. However, incoming workers required higher wages to match market demands. Owing to the existence of pay secrecy policies having the potential of making existing workers feel ostracized because elements of seniority, loyalty, and distrust of their employers, a cycle of cynicism and deeper senses of ostracism likely are occurring. With the support of the literature surrounding workplace ostracism, pay secrecy policies, and cynicism, we sampled general workers in the United States (n = 372) to determine if cynicism had the potential to further impact the negative relationship of perceptions of pay secrecy policies and workplace ostracism. Our findings suggest cynicism moderates the proposed relationship at average and high levels indicating that cynicism will buffer feelings of ostracism in an environment where there are negative perceptions of pay secrecy. We discuss how our findings add to the literature through being the first study to explore our hypothesized relationship. Furthermore, we add to understanding of how the aging workforce likely is experiencing cynicism and ostracism associated with pay secrecy policies. Beyond discussing our findings, we give suggestions for future research.
... Hence, people high in social complexity are likely to switch their strategies such that they can respond in a situationally appropriate way. Social complexity is also strongly correlated with flexibility in cognitive domains (Dincă & Iliescu, 2009;Singelis et al., 2003), and hence it should be relevant to coping flexibility. However, empirical evidence is still needed to show how and why social complexity directly relates to coping flexibility. ...
Article
Background and objective : Past research has shown that worldviews can influence coping strategies but coping is often regarded as a stable person-based behavioral characteristic. The present research aims to examine how one component of worldviews – social complexity – influences the flexibility of coping strategies across situations. Design : In two cross-sectional studies and one prospective study, we tested a mediation model in which the perceived complexity of the social world (i.e., social complexity) predicted coping flexibility through dialectical thinking. Results : Across three studies, social complexity consistently facilitated dialectical thinking, which in turn fostered the cross-situational flexibility of coping strategies at a single time point and over 12 months. Conclusions : Believing in complex causes of phenomena and multiple solutions to problems facilitates a cognitive style of viewing issues from multiple perspectives and tolerating contradictions, which are conducive to the flexible evaluation and implementation of effective strategies to cope with problems. Theoretical and practical implications of the present research are discussed.
... Worldwide studies have explored their functional utility (e.g., Bond et al., 2004a;Chen et al., 2016;Leung and Bond, 2004). Social axioms serve as general knowledge about the world and predict attitudinal and behavioral variables in different domains, such as modest behavior (Chen et al., 2017), political attitudes (Keung and Bond, 2002), paranormal beliefs (Singelis et al., 2003), vocational interests (Bond et al., 2004a), attitudes toward help-seeking (Kuo et al., 2006), and gambling behavior (Wu et al., 2019). Social axioms significantly predict self-worth and wellbeing indicators, such as life satisfaction (Chen et al., 2005;Lai et al., 2007), psychological distress (Kuo et al., 2006), negative affect (Tang and Wu, 2010), suicidal ideation (Lam et al., 2010), and death anxiety . ...
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The present research aims to identify cognitive and affective factors that explain participation in societal events from a social psychological perspective. This study examined the role of generalized beliefs about the world in the prediction of collective action, and adopted a diary method by collecting daily measures for two consecutive weeks during the 2014 Hong Kong protests. Social identity was significantly associated with group-related emotions and social axiom was significantly associated with group efficacy, in turn affecting social movement participation. Multilevel analyses showed that group-related emotions and group efficacy explained the effect of time on participation in the movement. Students exhibited variability in the extent of their participation: protesters who “went out to the streets” were more driven by group-related emotions than were the non-protesters who “stayed in.” The findings attested to the added value of worldviews in explaining the psychological mechanisms of collective action.
... Such belief may conceivably be formed as a result of interpersonal hurts and unresolved conflicts in the past. With such a negative view of the social world, social cynics are predisposed with less kindness and greater self-absorption (Bond et al., 2004), higher sensitivity to potential threats and deception in social contexts (Hui & Hui, 2009), and higher personal mistrust (Singelis et al., 2003). Social cynicism predicted worse social interactions in terms of provision and receipt of support after the 9/11 terrorist attack (Kaplan et al., 2004). ...
... In particular, cynical individuals have negative generalized beliefs (or a worldview) that others are fundamentally self-interested and morally bankrupt. Believing that others will further their self-interest by any means necessary, highly cynical individuals are typically distrusting and suspicious, and tend to view others as having malicious and selfish intentions even when none exist (Singelis et al., 2003;Stavrova & Ehlebracht, 2016;Stavrova et al., 2020). Because their perception of a dog-eat-dog world shapes a view that the concerns and emotions of others are ingenuine (Kaplan et al., 2004;Leung et al., 2002), highly cynical individuals tend to be less SOCIAL EXCLUSION AND CYNICISM 5 empathic (e.g., Dinca & Iliescu, 2009). ...
Article
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Extant findings are mixed on whether social exclusion impacts prosociality. We propose one factor that may underlie the mixed results: Cynicism. Specifically, cynicism may moderate the exclusion-prosociality link by influencing interpersonal empathy. Compared to less cynical individuals, we expected highly cynical individuals who were excluded to experience less empathy and, consequently, less prosocial behavior. Using an online ball-tossing game, participants were randomly assigned to an exclusion or inclusion condition. Consistent with our predictions, the effect of social exclusion on prosociality through empathy was contingent on cynicism, such that only less-cynical individuals responded to exclusion with greater empathy, which, in turn, was associated with higher levels of prosocial behavior. We further showed this effect to hold for cynicism, but not other similar traits typically characterized by high disagreeableness. Findings contribute to the social exclusion literature by suggesting a key variable that may moderate social exclusion's impact on resultant empathy and prosocial behavior and are consistent with the perspective that people who are excluded try to not only become included again but to establish alliances characterized by reciprocity.
... The belief that good outcomes result from one's own effort and perseverance aligns with the belief that one's intelligence can be improved with effort and persistence. Previous studies showed that reward for application was positively associated with achievement values (Leung et al., 2007), intrinsic attitudes towards striving (Zhou, Leung, & Bond, 2009), and trying harder after failure (Singelis, Hubbard, Her, & An, 2003). Among students, reward for application was associated with higher academic aspirations (Leung, Chen, & Lam, 2010), perceived academic control, and behavioural intentions to study (David, 2012;Liem, Hidayat, & Soemarno, 2009). ...
Article
Background: Meta-analytic studies show that the benefits of the growth mindset on academic achievement are heterogenous. Past studies have explored how individual characteristics and proximal environmental factors could explain these variations, but the role of the broader sociocultural environment has seldom been explored. Aims: We investigated society-level social axioms to explain variations in growth mindset effects on achievement across cultures. We hypothesized that three society-level social axioms (social complexity, fate control, and reward for application) imply social norms that would either support or obstruct the growth mindset effect. Sample and methods: We conducted multilevel SEM with random slopes using data from 273,074 students nested within 39 countries/territories. Results: We found weaker growth mindset effects in societies with stronger social complexity beliefs; societies believing that there are multiple solutions to problems have social norms that obstruct the growth mindset effects on achievement. No moderating effects were found with other social axioms. Conclusion: Relevant cultural-level normative beliefs should be considered to better assess the relevance of the growth mindset construct.
... Previous research found that fate control was positively correlated with external locus of control (Singelis et al., 2003). When people believe that one's life, including one's health status, is largely predetermined by external forces beyond their control (e.g., fate and destiny), they tend to feel more vulnerable to the external threats, such as disease (Taiwo, 2015) and death (Hui, Bond, & Ng, 2007). ...
Article
Ingroup bias could be a significant hindrance in a context where intergroup collaboration is crucial, which makes it essential to investigate ingroup bias during pandemics. This research investigated the influence of individuals' belief in fate control on ingroup bias in helping with COVID-19, and the mediating role of risk perception of COVID-19. To test our hypothesis, we analyzed the data from a community sample (n = 318) collected at the initial stage of the COVID-19 outbreak in China. We found that fate control was positively associated with ingroup bias in donation to the patients with COVID-19 and the frontline healthcare professionals. Moreover, the mediating role of risk perception of COVID-19 was significant. A higher level of fate control was associated with higher risk perception of COVID-19, which was, in turn, related to stronger ingroup bias in donation across individuals. These findings highlight the substantial role of general worldview in shaping individuals' responses to pandemics.
... In fact, because effortful behaviors do not guarantee success, reward for application may even diminish life satisfaction. Singelis, Hubbard, Her, and An [28] found that people high in reward for application tended to continue striving for success even after a failure. Reward for application may therefore increase the imbalance between effort spent and reward received [29], which has been shown to be detrimental to life satisfaction [30]. ...
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Over the past few decades, the role of self-views in life satisfaction has been extensively investigated. Recently, growing attention has been directed to the question of whether an optimistic worldview, termed “reward for application”, helps boost life satisfaction. Conceptually, the association between reward for application and life satisfaction can be paradoxical. Due to various methodological and theoretical shortfalls, previous investigations were unable to draw a robust conclusion on this association. To address these shortfalls, two cross-lagged panel studies were conducted with different time lags. Over and above the potential confounds of self-views (namely, self-esteem and self-rated personality traits), reward for application had a positive effect on lagged life satisfaction among both adolescents and young adults, while the reverse effect was not found. Moreover, we found support for the multiplicative effect between worldviews and self-views, in which the positive effect of reward for application on life satisfaction was attenuated by high self-esteem.
... The belief that good outcomes result from one's own effort and perseverance aligns with the belief that one's intelligence can be improved with effort and persistence. Previous studies showed that reward for application was positively associated with achievement values (Leung et al., 2007), intrinsic attitudes towards striving (Zhou, Leung, & Bond, 2009), and trying harder after failure (Singelis, Hubbard, Her, & An, 2003). Among students, reward for application was associated with higher academic aspirations (Leung, Chen, & Lam, 2010), perceived academic control, and behavioural intentions to study (David, 2012;Liem, Hidayat, & Soemarno, 2009). ...
Article
Background Expectancy–value theory posits that higher levels of utility‐value yield better achievement outcomes. Much of the existing research on utility value has focused on the individual as the unit of analysis. Person–culture fit theory, however, suggests that it is also important to consider the fit between the person and the broader society one is embedded in. The greater the fit, the more optimal outcomes ensue. However, to our knowledge past studies have not examined utility value from a person–culture fit perspective. Aims This study aimed to examine whether person–culture fit in utility value, defined as the match between the student’s and the society’s utility value perceptions, is associated with more optimal outcomes. More specifically, we examined (1) how utility value predicted achievement and (2) whether societal‐level utility value changed the magnitude of the relationship between student‐level utility value and achievement. Sample We used the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009 data provided by 502,261 15‐year‐old students from 73 countries/societies. Methods Multilevel random‐slopes structural equation modelling was used. Results Across all societies, students with higher utility value had better achievement. Moreover, in societies where schooling is highly valued, students’ utility value was a stronger predictor of achievement in reading, math, and science confirming our person–culture fit hypothesis. Conclusion These findings signify the importance of person–culture fit in utility value. It also has important implications for motivation research by demonstrating the need to take the broader societal context into account and moving beyond an exclusive focus on the individual student as the unit of analysis.
... This result of the study is consistent with the opinion of Li, Zhou and Leung (2011) indicating that individuals who have high social cynicism have less satisfactory social networks due to their competitive stance. Singelis, Hubbard, Her, and An (2003) suggest that social cynicism is negatively correlated with interpersonal trust. Wei, et.al. ...
Article
The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between student cynicism and students’ life satisfaction. This study is in correlational survey model. The sample of the study consists of 554 Turkish high school students, who were selected by simple random sampling method. Findings show that female students have more cynical attitudes towards their schools than male students. And, female students are less satisfied with their school and living environment but more satisfied with their friends than male students. Students who think about studying at another school have higher levels of student cynicism but lower levels of school satisfaction and living environment satisfaction than those who do not think so. The findings reveal the negative relationships between student cynicism and students’ life satisfaction. The strongest relationship has been determined to be between institutional cynicism and reduced sense of school satisfaction. Path analysis indicates that four subscales of student cynicism affect students’ life satisfaction. It is possible to examine the premises that lead to the perception of student cynicism and their impacts. For future research, it is recommended to examine the ways to alleviate the negative effects of student cynicism and improve the outcomes. Anahtar Kelimeler Cynicism, Student cynicism, Life satisfaction, Students' Life satisfaction
... Prin urmare, aria tematică explorată prin intermediul proiectului de faţă angajează două registre teoretice majore. În primul rînd, avem în vedere "inerţiile mentale" ("mentalităţile") din mediul educaţional, care ar putea fi adecvat investigate prin intermediul unui corp teoretic tot mai influent în studiile de factură interculturală din ultimii ani, reprezentat de axiomele sociale propuse de către Michael Harris Bond, Kwok Leung şi întregul corp teoretic pe care l-au articulat echipele pe care le-au coordonat între 2002 şi 2010 (Bond, Leung et al, 2004a, 2004bBond, 2005;Chen et al., 2006aChen et al., , 2006bLeung, Bond, 2004;Singelis et al, 2003). Apoi, ne vom preocupa de valorificarea conceptului de "cultură organizaţională" din mediul educaţional, care ar putea fi examinată pornind de la consistenta literatură de specialitate centrată pe conceptul de "dimensiuni culturale", prin tradiţia de cunoaştere inaugurată de Geert Hofstede şi discipolii săi (Hofstede, 1980(Hofstede, /2003(Hofstede, , 1986(Hofstede, , 2002Smith, Dugan, Trompenaars, 1996;Schwartz, 1992Schwartz, , 1994Schwartz, , 1999Schwartz, Bardi, 2001;Schwartz, Bardi, Bianchi, 2000;Schwartz, Rubbel, 2005;Schwartz, Caprara, & Vecchione, 2010). ...
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Lucrarea urmăreşte realizarea unei diagnoze a sănătăţii organizaţionale din mediul educațional romînesc în termenii credințelor generale despre lume, dimensiunilor culturale și patternurilor relaționale, prin evidenţierea influenţei exercitate asupra conduitelor disfuncţionale de către o serie de logici explicative implicite, asumate generalizat. În analiza noastră vom examina pertinenţa premisei care alimentează o întreagă retorică a lamentaţiei în mediul public românesc privitoare la performanţa profesională scăzută din mediul educaţional, pusă pe seama resurselor modeste, climatului de muncă nefacilitant şi „moştenirilor” grele ale trecutului mai mult sau mai puţin recent (evocatoare fiind, bunăoară, discuţiile de pe forumul edu_cer_ro, care reunesc un grup de elită al cercetării ştiinţifice autohtone), şi vom încerca să individualizăm contribuţia fiecărui registru în obţinerea acestei ”stări de fapt”.
... Our findings showing that cognitive ability in adolescence contributes to decreased levels of cynicism in adulthood provide some preliminary support for a causal effect of competence. However, another causal direction is possible as well: as cynicism is closely related to distrust (Singelis, Hubbard, Her, & An, 2003), cynical (vs. less cynical) individuals might be more distrustful of the opinions and knowledge of others, a behavior that can eventually prevent them from expanding their knowledge and understanding. ...
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Cynicism refers to a negative appraisal of human nature – a belief that self-interest is the ultimate motive guiding human behavior. We explored laypersons’ beliefs about cynicism and competence and to what extent these beliefs correspond to reality. Four studies showed that lay people tend to believe in cynical individuals’ cognitive superiority. A further three studies based on the data of about 200,000 individuals from 30 countries debunked these lay beliefs as illusionary by revealing that cynical (vs. less cynical) individuals generally do worse on cognitive ability and academic competency tasks. Cross-cultural analyses showed that competent individuals held contingent attitudes and endorsed cynicism only if it was warranted in a given socio-cultural environment. Less competent individuals embraced cynicism unconditionally, suggesting that – at low levels of competence – holding a cynical worldview might represent an adaptive default strategy to avoid the potential costs of falling prey to others’ cunning.
... It may prime protective social cynicism which is a belief that humans are self-serving, self-centered, and cannot be trusted (Kanter & Mirvis, 1989;Southwell & Pirch, 2003) . Social cynicism positively correlates with low interpersonal trust (Singelis et al ., 2003) . It has a pervasive influence on a variety of attitudes and behaviours (Chen et al ., 2016); including one's tolerance for ambiguity . ...
Article
This study sought to characterise lifestyle factors of trust and caution among South African university students (n = 196; females = 78 .06%; median age = 21 years) . The students completed an online survey on trustworthiness in cultural context . The data were analysed using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to construct pathways among the trust and caution with social cynicism, and tolerance for ambiguity . Results indicate social cynicism to predict generalised caution, but not generalised trust . Tolerance for ambiguity was not a significant predictor of generalised trust, nor of generalised caution .
... Not surprisingly, among the Confucian-influenced societies studied, China ranked first in Confucian work dynamism, followed in order by Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, Vietnam, Korea (South), Thailand, and Singapore (Hofstede, 2001). In addition to influencing Asian countries, Confucianism has also been shown to affect Asian Americans in the United States (e.g., Hyun, 2001;Singelis, Hubbard, Her, & An, 2003). ...
Article
The present research aims to develop and validate a measure of resilience that reflects the influence of Confucian philosophies and Chinese cultural lay beliefs. Based on a representative sample of 1,419 college students from universities and a clinical sample of 214 cardiac patients in Hong Kong, reliability, construct validity, and criterion validity of the Resilience Style Questionnaire (RSQ) were examined. A two-factor structure of the RSQ was explored and validated in both samples. Results showed that the two factors of the RSQ (i.e., perseverance and optimistic approach to life) were significantly associated with a variety of mental health indicators in both samples. Furthermore, the RSQ explained additional variances above and beyond those explained by the Ego-Resiliency Scale, the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC), and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale in multiple mental health indicators among college students and cardiac patients. These findings showed that the RSQ is a reliable and valid tool in assessing resilience among Chinese and other groups influenced by Confucianism.
... This is due to a sharp decline in public trust of the government, labor unions, and businesses (Lipset and Schneider, 1983;Andersson and Bateman, 1997), inflicted by corruption (money laundering) and lofty salaries and bonuses (Andersson and Bateman, 1997;Wilhelm, 1993). A careful synthesis of the management literature suggests that employee cynicism occurs as a result of lack of organizational trust (Kim et al., 2009;Chiaburu et al., 2013), psychological contract violation (Pugh et al., 2003;Bashir and Nasir, 2013), perceived organizational politicsfor example self-serving behaviors (FitzGerald, 2002;Ferris and Hochwarter, 2010)high level of downsizing (Pugh et al., 2003), emotional exhaustion ( Johnson and O'Leary-Kelly, 2003;FitzGerald, 2002), and trait (Singelis et al., 2003). Cynics distrust the motives of their superiors or employers, which reduces their social ties with the target (Kanter and Mirvis, 1989;Neves, 2012), because they believe that when presented with an opportunity employers will exploit their contributions (Guastello et al., 1992;Pugh et al., 2003). ...
Article
Purpose The conceptualization of service sabotage failed to adequately tap the domain of interest. Phenomena like turnover and service sabotage are difficult to measure and are not suitable for individual-level study. However, “intention” is suitable for individual-level or management-oriented studies. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach A new scale (eight items) to measure the intention to sabotage was developed and tested using a sample of bank ( n =313) and insurance ( n =258) employees in Nigeria. Cynicism and the desire for justice are the roots of sabotage. As such, the inability to stabilize institutionalized work processes and procedures may cause employees to be overcome with the intention to sabotage service, prior to the actual sabotage. Drawing on conservation of resources theory, this paper investigates the impact of employee cynicism on intention to sabotage as moderated by procedural justice. Findings The analyses suggest that employee cynicism is related to the intention to sabotage, and procedural justice moderates the relationship between employee cynicism and intention to sabotage. The findings endorse the model of interest, and implications of this study for research and practice are discussed. Originality/value The study differentiated service sabotage from intention to sabotage, and developed and tested a scale to measure the intention to sabotage.
... For example, individuals who endorse social complexity beliefs tend to adopt conflict resolution styles involving compromise and collaboration (Bond et al., 2004). They also utilize more structured approaches to knowledge acquisition (Bernardo, 2004(Bernardo, , 2009) and cognitive flexibility that facilitates a flexible and creative style of problem solving (Leung et al., 2012;Singelis, Hubbard, Her, & An, 2003). Thus, individuals high in social complexity beliefs are more likely to engage in divergent thinking and are more flexible in handling tasks and challenges and in dealing with issues and problems. ...
Article
Objective: Most studies on posttraumatic growth (PTG) have focused on personal characteristics, interpersonal resources, and the immediate environment. There has been less attention on dynamic internal processes related to the development of PTG and on how these processes are affected by the broader culture. Calhoun and Tedeschi's (2006) model suggests a role of distal culture in PTG development, but empirical investigations on that point are limited. The present study investigated the role of social complexity-the generalized belief about changing social environments and inconsistency of human behavior-as a predictor of PTG. Social complexity was hypothesized to be associated with problem-solving approaches that are likely to give rise to cognitive processes that promote PTG. Method: A sample of 446 survivors of Typhoon Haiyan, 1 of the strongest typhoons ever recorded at the time, answered self-report measures of social complexity, cognitive processing of trauma, and PTG. Results: Structural equation modeling indicated a good fit between the data and the hypothesized model; belief in social complexity predicted stronger PTG, mediated by cognitive processing. Conclusion: The results provide evidence for how disaster survivors' beliefs about the changing nature of social environments and their corresponding behavior changes are predictors of PTG and suggest a psychological mechanism for how distal culture can influence PTG. Thus, assessing social complexity beliefs during early the phases of a postdisaster psychosocial intervention may provide useful information on who is likely to experience PTG. Trauma workers might consider culture-specific social themes related to social complexity in disaster-affected communities. (PsycINFO Database Record
... Beliefs can be seen as axioms helping us to decide how to interact with the world [1]. One could argue that one of their functions is to eliminate the need to actively and consciously evaluate other possibilities about a given situation: by believing that stealing is bad, I can avoid having to decide whether I will pay or steal my groceries. ...
... First, based on the instrumentality function of social axioms, we hypothesize that reward for application would relate to loci-of-hope dimensions that emphasize capacity and agency towards goal attainment that involves oneself and significant others (Bernardo, 2013), but not locus-of-hope that involves supernatural forces. Second, the instrumentality function of fate control suggests reliance on mechanism of supernatural forces and is characterized by external locus of control, while the instrumentality of religiosity indicates reliance on workings of supernatural forces associated with traditional religious beliefs (Singelis, Hubbard, Her, & An, 2003). Thus, both fate control and religiosity should positively relate with externalspiritual locus-of-hope, but not the other three loci-of-hope. ...
Article
Are generalized beliefs about the social world (social axioms) related to loci-of-hope? Three hypotheses are proposed based on the instrumentality and ego-defensiveness functions of social axioms. Results from 843 participants from three Asian groups generally support the hypotheses: (a) reward for application predicts internal, external-family, and external-peer loci-of-hope, (b) fate control and religiosity predict external-spiritual locus-of-hope, and (c) social cynicism negatively predicts internal locus-of-hope. Although there are minor differences across cultural groups, results show how hope may derive from generalized social beliefs.
... OSL can be related to both the fate and the control aspects of this dimension. Regarding the fate aspect, OSL and fate control relate positively to belief in the paranormal (Groth-Marnat & Pegden, 1998;Irwin, 1993;Singelis, Hubbard, Her, & An, 2003;Smith, Johnson, & Hathaway, 2009). Zuckerman (1994) ascribes paranormal beliefs in high OSLs to their cognitive style, which tends to emphasise broad cognitive generalization and use more complex cognitive categories. ...
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This study is intended to introduce social axiom theory to South African business researchers and, in this process, to provide new empirical evidence pertinent to the South African context. We examine social axioms in the largest and most representative national metropolitan population ever studied, providing scores for social axiom dimensions at the individual-level and nation-level, as well as assessments of relations with sociodemographics, values, personality and life satisfaction. The results support the convergent validity, discriminant validity and composite reliability of the 25-item brief version of the Social Axioms Scale. We extend prior research on social axioms and personality by examining relations with optimum stimulation level (OSL), an important personality construct studied in marketing and human resource management. A hierarchical regression model illustrates the power of social axioms in predicting life satisfaction, over and above the effects of sociodemographics, values and optimum stimulation level. Several points of departure for fruitful business research are identified.
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Theorists acknowledge that conspiracy beliefs represent an established psychological construct. The study of conspiracy beliefs is important because allied ideation potentially influences everyday attitudes and behaviors across a range of domains (i.e., cognitive, social, cross-cultural, and political psychology). In this article, we analyze the internal structure and construct validity of the Spanish adaptation of the Generic Conspiracist Beliefs Scale (GCBS). Correlational and confirmatory factor analyses using an international sample of 732 Spanish-speakers revealed a five-factor structure equivalent to the original instrument. Convergent validity was demonstrated using educational level, political orientation, need for uniqueness, and four social axioms (social cynicism, religiosity, reward for application, and fate control). In comparison to two English samples (N = 794 and N = 421), the adaptation demonstrated satisfactory, although restricted, levels of invariance. Accordingly, findings support the use of this translated form of the GCBS with Spanish speakers.
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Purpose This paper aims to examine the effect of social cynicism on consumer cynicism. The negative inferred motive is tested as a mediator between social cynicism and consumer cynicism; whereas, negative affectivity is tested as a moderator between social cynicism and negative inferred motive. Design/methodology/approach The study was carried out in India using a mixed-method approach. In the first stage, a survey was conducted to test the moderated mediation model, followed by in-depth interviews in the second stage. The survey was analysed using structural equation modelling, while themes were generated from the data collected through interviews. Findings The study established the effect of social cynicism on consumer cynicism. Negative inferred motive mediated the relationship between social cynicism and consumer cynicism. Negative affectivity moderated the influence of social cynicism on negative inferred motive. Research limitations/implications With rising anti-consumption behaviours, it is imperative to understand why consumers turn cynical towards marketers. The study indicates that consumer cynicism is influenced by previous experiences of the consumer with the society and is not merely a reaction to arm-twisting by firms. As social cynicism cannot be changed drastically, understanding how it impacts consumer cynicism would help a firm handle its marketing efforts better. Originality/value The study empirically validates the relationship between social cynicism and consumer cynicism. The mediating effect of negative inferred motive on consumer cynicism was also validated. The study is also the first to point out the moderating role of negative affectivity on the relationship between social cynicism and negative inferred motive.
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Healthy organizations are ones that can, to an extent, overcome employee characteristics that result in negative outcomes by creating policies and procedures that minimize the results of these individual differences. The relationship between general social cynicism and three forms of cynicism about one's organization - cognitive, affective, and behavioral - was explored, along with the extent to which organizational justice - distributive, procedural, and interactional - moderates that relationship in two samples - part-time and full-time employees. Findings suggest that social cynicism is related to employees' organizational cynicism when conceptualized as a cognition, but not when conceptualized as an affect or a behavior in part-time employees. Autonomy was added as an additional predictor of organizational cynicism for full-time employees. In this sample, social cynicism was related to all three forms of organizational cynicism and interacted with perceptions of distributive injustice to predict affective organizational cynicism, and with autonomy to predict behavioral organizational cynicism. These results support the conclusion that the effect of employee social cynicism on their cynicism about the organization may be moderated by instituting policies emphasizing greater fairness and autonomy-granting.
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The present study investigates the predicting effects of willingness to communicate (WTC) and cognitive flexibility (CF) on oral communication strategy (OCS) use among Turkish learners of English as a foreign language. It was conducted at a state university in Turkey at the spring semester of 2015-2016 academic year. A total of 150 students (female N = 74; male N = 76) at the second half of the preparation programme participated in the study. In order to measure WTC of participants, WTC scale (McCroskey, 1992) was employed. Cognitive flexibility was measured by CF scale (Martin & Rubin, 1995) while OCS scale (Nakatani, 2006) was used to find out participants' oral communication strategies. Pearson correlation coefficients revealed that each variable has positive correlations with each other. Standard multiple regression analysis indicated that cognitive flexibility was the best predictor for almost each strategy used in oral communication (social-affective, fluency oriented, negotiation for meaning, accuracy oriented, message reduction and alteration, message abandonment, and attempt to think in English). As the various individual differences were seen to have interrelations in the process of L2 learning, the study concludes that individual differences may lead learners to use some specific oral communication strategies.
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The objective of this study was to validate the new Social Axioms Survey II (SASII) . The study sample comprised university students (n = 793) as well as their family members and friends (n = 645) . Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) following an initial exploratory factor analysis yielded a five-factor model: social cynicism, social complexity, reward for application, religiosity, and fate control . The findings of this study support the use of the new SASII in South Africa for research purposes .
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The flexibility model of bisexuality views bisexuality as the successful integration of homosexual and heterosexual identities into a dual sexual orientation. In addition, the model characterizes bisexual individuals as cognitively and interpersonally flexible. In this study, the authors tested the “bisexuals are more flexible” hypothesis. Participants (N = 640; 40% bisexuals) completed an online survey that included the Cognitive Flexibility Scale, the Battery of Interpersonal Capabilities, and the Outness Inventory. Bisexuals and nonbisexuals did not differ on the two measures of psychological flexibility or outness. Asexuals, however, scored lower on cognitive flexibility and outness. Outness scores were correlated with scores on both measures of psychological flexibility, which suggests that persons who are more open about their sexual orientation are also more flexible, cognitively and interpersonally.
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A number of cultural dimensions have been proposed to account for similarities and differences in psychological processes and outcomes across cultures. These dimensions are mostly based on value contrasts, such as individualism-collectivism. Dimensions based on other conceptual frameworks need to be explored for a more comprehensive understanding of the dynamics giving rise to cultural similarities and differences.
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The trajectory of bereaved people’s psychological symptoms has not been fully understood. This study examined how the effects of bereavement change over time, as moderated by a belief in fate control, which is the recognition that events are predetermined by some impersonal forces, and that there are ways to influence these fated outcomes. In this controlled group prospective study, 2,077 Chinese responded to six waves of survey. They completed the fate control scale at Wave 1, and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale at Waves 2 through 6. At Wave 3, 198 reported having lost a family member recently. Fate control predicted depressive mood at all four post-loss measurements, anxiety at three post-loss measurements, and stress at two post-loss measurements. Bereavement status predicted the psychological symptoms at only Wave 3. Latent growth modeling showed that the bereaved people’s mood trajectory depended on whether they believed in fate. In particular, there was an interaction effect between bereavement status and fate control on the latent linear growth factor, and also on the latent quadratic growth factor, of depressive mood. The harmful effects of holding a strong belief in fate control on depressive mood are aggravated by a loss experience.
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In this study, the author analyzes the relationship between Cognitive Flexibility and Perceived Stress in college students in terms of gender, age and socio-economic status. To achieve this, the author adapted the Cognitive Flexibility Scale (Martin and Ruben, 1990) to Turkish culture.
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In this study, the author analyzes the relationship between Cognitive Flexibility and Perceived Stress in college students in terms of gender, age and socio-economic status. To achieve this, the author adapted the Cognitive Flexibility Scale (Martin and Ruben, 1990) to Turkish culture.
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This study proposes a model of how deeply held beliefs, known as ‘social axioms, moderate the interaction between reputation, its causes and consequences with stakeholders. It contributes to the stakeholder relational field of reputation theory by explaining why the same organizational stimuli lead to different individual stakeholder responses. The study provides a shift in reputation research from organizational-level stimuli as the root causes of stakeholder responses to exploring the interaction between individual beliefs and organizational stimuli in determining reputational consequences. Building on a conceptual model that incorporates product/service quality and social responsibility as key reputational dimensions, the authors test empirically for moderating influences, in the form of social axioms, between reputation-related antecedents and consequences, using component-based structural equation modelling (n = 204). In several model paths, significant differences are found between responses of individuals identified as either high or low on social cynicism, fate control and religiosity. The results suggest that stakeholder responses to reputation-related stimuli can be systematically predicted as a function of the interactions between the deeply held beliefs of individuals and these stimuli. The authors offer recommendations on how strategic reputation management can be approached within and across stakeholder groups at a time when firms grapple with effective management of diverse stakeholder expectations.
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This paper reports three studies on Polish - German and Polish - Russian relations in the context of their difficult history (World War 2 and communist oppression), as well as process of reconciliation between the nations. The paper addressed questions and hypotheses on mechanisms responsible for constructive coping with the past, through apologies by the perpetrators and forgiveness on the side of their former victims. Bilateral relations with Poland's' neighbors had opposite trajectories after World War 2. In case of Germans, initial hostility was slowly transformed into friendship and cooperation in European Union and NATO. At the same time, reparations to victims of the Nazi were paid by Germany. Based on earlier literature it has been hypothesized that their apology, if seen as genuine, will facilitate forgiveness and dissociate intergroup forgiveness from perception of in-group harm. The opposite trajectory characterizes Polish - Russian bilateral relations, where communist rule and oppression were depicted as friendship. We hypothesized that such situation would lead to cynicism and thus hinder forgiveness and empathy. Research findings (Study 1) reflect these developments: Germans are seen as more remorseful and are more forgiven than Russians. In order to inspect the relationship between remorse and forgiveness, a study that followed an experimental design was conducted. Its results suggest that the effect of apologies and their sincerity was found in study 2 as facilitating factors to forgiveness felt by Poles' also, the impact of the magnitude of harm was buffered by these conciliatory moves by German leaders. Study 3 concerned a situation of insincere reconciliation in Polish-Russian relations. Results show that such situation leads to cynicism and inhibits forgiveness, as well as compassion toward victims from the other nation.
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The complexities of everyday life reinforce the need to be cognitively flexible. Cognitive flexibility refers to a person's awareness of communication alternatives, willingness to adapt to the situation, and self‐efficacy in being flexible. Three studies were conducted to establish further the validity of the Cognitive Flexibility Scale (Martin & Rubin, 1995). In Study One, cognitive flexibility was positively related to two other identified constructs of communication competence, assertiveness and responsiveness. In Study Two, respondents’ assessments of their own cognitive flexibility were positively related to ratings from their friends. In Study Three, a positive relationship was found between being cognitively flexible and confidence in performing communication behaviors.
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In developing a new scale, this article makes theoretical and measurement distinctions between vertical and horizontal individualism and collectivism. Vertical collectivism includes perceiving the selfas a part (or an aspect) of a collective and accepting inequalities within the collective. Horizontal collectivism includes perceiving the self as a part of the collective, but seeing all members of the collective as the same; thus equality is stressed. Vertical individualism includes the conception of an autonomous individual and acceptance of inequality. Horizontal individualism includes the conception of an autonomous individual and emphasis on equality. Measurement of these constructs is preferable theoretically and empirically (better internal consistency) to either of the more general constructs of individualism and collectivism or the constituent elements of these constructs, such as self-reliance, hedonism, family integrity, and so on. The usefulness of these theoretical distinctions is demonstrated and their implications are discussed.
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To broaden our conceptual framework for understanding cultural differences, the present article reports two studies that examined whether pancultural dimensions based on general beliefs, or social axioms, can be identified in persons from five cultures. A Social Axioms Survey was constructed, based on both previous psychological research primarily in Europe and North America on beliefs and qualitative research conducted in Hong Kong and Venezuela. Factor analyses of these beliefs from student as well as adult samples revealed a pancultural, five-factor structure, with dimensions labeled as: cynicism, social complexity, reward for application, spirituality, and fate control. In the second study, this five-factor structure, with the possible exception of fate control, was replicated with college students from Japan, the United States, and Germany. The potential implications of a universal, five-factor structure of individual social beliefs were discussed, along with the relation of this structure to indigenous belief systems and to culture-level analyses.
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This study considered age and sex differences on aggressive and responsive communication traits. Participants reported their argumentativeness, verbal aggressiveness, communication apprehension, assertiveness, responsiveness, cognitive flexibility, and affective orientation. Significant interactions were found for argumentativeness, verbal aggressiveness, dyadic communication apprehension, and cognitive flexibility. There were main effects for age and sex for responsiveness and affective orientation, and a main effect for sex for assertiveness. Implications are that studying age along with sex allows for a better understanding of differences on communication traits
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Two experiments examined the reliability and validity of the Cognitive Flexibility Scale. 247 undergraduates in Exp 1 completed the Cognitive Flexibility Scale, the Communication Flexibility Scale, and the Rigidity of Attitudes Regarding Personal Habits Scale. Scores on cognitive flexibility were positively related to communication flexibility and negatively related to rigidity. Scores on communication flexibility were also negatively related to rigidity. Exp 2 tested the scale's concurrent validity. 275 undergraduates completed the Cognitive Flexibility Scale, the Interaction Involvement Scale, the Self-monitoring Scale, and the Unwillingness to Communicate Scale. Results show the Cognitive Flexibility Scale to be internally reliable and supported its construct and concurrent validity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Publisher Summary This chapter addresses the universals in the content and structure of values, concentrating on the theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries, and its four basic issues: substantive contents of human values; identification of comprehensive set of values; extent to which the meaning of particular values was equivalent for different groups of people; and how the relations among different values was structured. Substantial progress has been made toward resolving each of these issues. Ten motivationally distinct value types that were likely to be recognized within and across cultures and used to form value priorities were identified. Set of value types that was relatively comprehensive, encompassing virtually all the types of values to which individuals attribute at least moderate importance as criteria of evaluation was demonstrated. The evidence from 20 countries was assembled, showing that the meaning of the value types and most of the single values that constitute them was reasonably equivalent across most groups. Two basic dimensions that organize value systems into an integrated motivational structure with consistent value conflicts and compatibilities were discovered. By identifying universal aspects of value content and structure, the chapter has laid the foundations for investigating culture-specific aspects in the future.
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A new social desirability scale was constructed and correlated with MMPI scales. Comparison was made with correlations of the Edwards Social Desirability scale. The new scale correlated highly with MMPI scales and supported the definition of social desirability. Ss need to respond in "culturally sanctioned ways."
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A survey of Chinese values was constructed and administered to university students in 22 countries around the world. An ecological factor analysis was run on the culture means for the 40 scale items and revealed four dimensions of cultural valuing. In a search for validities, country scores on these four factors were correlated with those derived from a Western survey of work-related values by Hofstede (1980). Three of the factors from the Chinese Value Survey (CVS) correlated at high levels with three of Hofstede's four, strongly suggesting the robust value dimensions of collectivism and compassion. The second CVS factor, Confucian work dynamism, was unrelated to any of Hofstede's, but correlated .70 with economic growth from 1965 to 1984. This validational evidence confirms the potential of instruments developed outside a Western cultural tradition for opening up new theoretical vistas to the attention of behavioral scientists.
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The International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology (IACCP), founded in 1972, will hold its Silver Jubilee Congress in August 1998. IACCP's active membership presently numbers over 600 persons from approximately 70 countries. The official language of the Association is English. The IACCP is affiliated with the International Union of Psychological Science and the International Association of Applied Psychology. This article provides an overview of the IACCP's aims, activities, publications, membership fees and student membership, and governance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Our aim in this book is to explore both conceptual and substantive approaches to the following questions: to what extent and why do many people share similar views in socially significant domains such as politics, the economy, race, and the sexes? The questions raised by the book are, we believe, important ones for social psychologists as well as for other social scientists, but they have not been at the heart of social psychology's concerns in recent decades. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A 25-item self-report questionnaire designed to assess belief in the paranormal was constructed, based on the results from factor analysis of a 61-item pool administered to 391 college students. Factor analysis revealed 7 independent dimensions composing belief in the paranormal. These factors were Traditional Religious Belief, Psi Belief, Witchcraft, Superstition, Spiritualism, Extraordinary Life Forms, and Precognition. The Paranormal Scale was constructed by selecting either 3 or 4 marker items to represent each of the 7 dimensions as paranormal subscales. Descriptive statistics for this Paranormal Scale and the 7 subscales are presented, as well as reliability statistics. Studies are presented that support the validity of this scale and its subscales with such personality/adjustment constructs as internal–external locus of control, sensation seeking, death threat, actual self–ideal self-concept, uncritical inferences, dogmatism, and irrational beliefs. (25 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This article is concerned with the process of moral development, or specifically, how children acquire a sense of right and wrong from their interactions with two major agents of socialization—parents and peers. The first section of the paper critically examines the literature on parental influences and draws several conclusions about the ways in which parents affect children's moral character. The focus then shifts to a review of the literature on peer group contributions to moral socialization. The paper concludes by examining the literature on cross-pressures, and offering a perspective on the ways in which parental and peer group influences combine to affect children's moral development.
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The effects of reward or reinforcement on preceding behavior depend in part on whether the person perceives the reward as contingent on his own behavior or independent of it. Acquisition and performance differ in situations perceived as determined by skill versus chance. Persons may also differ in generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. This report summarizes several experiments which define group differences in behavior when Ss perceive reinforcement as contingent on their behavior versus chance or experimenter control. The report also describes the development of tests of individual differences in a generalized belief in internal-external control and provides reliability, discriminant validity and normative data for 1 test, along with a description of the results of several studies of construct validity.
Social axioms. Presentation at the Regional Meeting of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology Contributions of parents and peers to children's moral socialization
  • M H Bond
  • England
  • G Brody
  • D Shaffer
Bond, M. H. (2001, July). Social axioms. Presentation at the Regional Meeting of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology, Winchester, England. Brody, G., & Shaffer, D. (1982). Contributions of parents and peers to children's moral socialization. Developmental Review, 2, 31–75.
Dimensions of political attitudes and their correlates with beliefs and values
  • D Keung
  • M H Bond
Keung, D., & Bond, M. H. (submitted). Dimensions of political attitudes and their correlates with beliefs and values.
Beyond individualism/collectivism; new dimensions of values Individualism and collectivism: theory, method, and applications
  • S H Schwartz
Schwartz, S. H. (1994). Beyond individualism/collectivism; new dimensions of values. In U. Kim, H. C. Triandis, C. Kagitcibasi, S. C. Choi, & G. Yoon (Eds.), Individualism and collectivism: theory, method, and applications. Newbury park, CA: Sage.
Social axioms: the search for universal dimensions of general beliefs about how the world functions
  • K Leung
  • M H Bond
  • S Reimel De Carrasquel
  • S Yamaguchi
  • G Bierbrauer
  • T M Singelis
Leung, K., Bond, M. H., Reimel de Carrasquel, S., Yamaguchi, S., Bierbrauer, G., Singelis, T. M. Social axioms: the search for universal dimensions of general beliefs about how the world functions. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology (in press).
Individualism and collectivism: theory, method, and applications
  • S H Schwartz
Schwartz, S. H. (1994). Beyond individualism/collectivism; new dimensions of values. In U. Kim, H. C. Triandis, C. Kagitcibasi, S. C. Choi, & G. Yoon (Eds.), Individualism and collectivism: theory, method, and applications. Newbury park, CA: Sage.
Regional and ethnic differences in social beliefs
  • T M Singelis
  • P Her
  • J Aaker
  • D P S Bhawuk
  • W Gabrenya
  • M Gelfand
  • J Harwood
  • J Tanaka-Matsumi
  • J Vandello
Singelis, T. M., Her., P., Aaker, J., Bhawuk, D. P. S., Gabrenya, W., Gelfand, M., Harwood, J., Tanaka-Matsumi, J., Vandello, J. Regional and ethnic differences in social beliefs (submitted for publication).
The Cognitive Flexibility Scale
  • Martin
Communication traits
  • Martin
Belief in paranormal phenomena
  • Tobacyk