Article

Clark DM. On the induction of depressed mood in the laboratory: evaluation and comparison of the velten and musical procedures. Behav Res Ther 5: 27

University Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, U.K.
Advances in Behaviour Research and Therapy 12/1983; 5(1):27-49. DOI: 10.1016/0146-6402(83)90014-0

ABSTRACT

Two techniques for inducing depressed mood in the laboratory are described and evaluated. The Velten mood induction procedure has been shown to mimic the effects of naturally occurring depressed mood on a wide range of variables, some of which are unlikely to be susceptible to faking. It therefore appears that the Velten depression induction produces a state which is a good analogue of mild, naturally occurring retarded depression. However, between 30% and 50% of subjects fail to respond to the Velten. This makes it cumbersome for research purposes and raises questions about the generalizability of results obtained using it. The Musical mood induction procedure has been less extensively researched than the Velten. However the available evidence suggests that it also produces a good analogue of mild, naturally occurring retarded depression. In addition, it has the advantage that almost all subjects respond to it. Some commentators have taken the fact that the Velten procedure can induce depressed mood as evidence for the cognitive theory of depression. It is argued that this conclusion is invalid as it makes unwarranted assumptions about the strategies subjects use in order to change mood during the Velten procedure. Several practical points relating to the use of Velten and Musical induction procedures are discussed.

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    • "These, for example, include the imagination of emotionally driven events, the use of emotional statements whereby subjects are asked to try and feel the associated mood, the presentation of mood-suggestive stories, video clips and music, the receipt of positive/negative feedback on task performance, the exposition of certain social interactions, the exchange of gifts and the use of different facial expressions. 6 The motivation for using video clips as our mood-generating process stems from psychological studies suggesting that short films have one of the highest success rates in inducing moods in laboratory experiments and that they minimise experimenter demand effects (e.g.Clark, 1983;Martin, 1990). 7For the " Positive emotions " treatment, our aim was to induce the emotion of happiness. "
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    No preview · Article · Jan 2016
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    • "Remarkably, our effect suggests that comfortable/uncomfortable actions can be conceived as a new powerful mood inducer. Hence, our Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure, MAMIP, should be added to the list including the Musical Mood Induction Technique, MMIT [67], the Velten Mood Induction Procedure, VMIP [68], and the self-referential mood induction [69], to name only a few procedures used in controlled settings. "
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    ABSTRACT: Perception, cognition, and emotion do not operate along segregated pathways; rather, their adaptive interaction is supported by various sources of evidence. For instance, the aesthetic appraisal of powerful mood inducers like music can bias the facial expression of emotions towards mood congruency. In four experiments we showed similar mood-congruency effects elicited by the comfort/discomfort of body actions. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure, we let participants perform comfortable/uncomfortable visually-guided reaches and tested them in a facial emotion identification task. Through the alleged mediation of motor action induced mood, action comfort enhanced the quality of the participant's global experience (a neutral face appeared happy and a slightly angry face neutral), while action discomfort made a neutral face appear angry and a slightly happy face neutral. Furthermore, uncomfortable (but not comfortable) reaching improved the sensitivity for the identification of emotional faces and reduced the identification time of facial expressions, as a possible effect of hyper-arousal from an unpleasant bodily experience.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Taken together, these experimental comparisons and metaanalysis attempts gradually add to our knowledge of different affect/emotion induction procedures' efficacy. However, most studies to date either only focused on a couple of affect induction methods (Brewer et al., 1980; Clark, 1983; Baumgartner et al., 2006a; Jallais and Gilet, 2010) or just targeted one aspect of affective experience (e.g., anger in Lobbestael et al., 2008; sadness in Vuoskoski and Eerola, 2012). To provide a better-rounded picture of major affect induction techniques, a more extensive "
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