Clark DM. On the induction of depressed mood in the laboratory: evaluation and comparison of the velten and musical procedures. Behav Res Ther 5: 27

University Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, U.K.
Advances in Behaviour Research and Therapy 12/1983; 5(1):27-49. DOI: 10.1016/0146-6402(83)90014-0


Two techniques for inducing depressed mood in the laboratory are described and evaluated. The Velten mood induction procedure has been shown to mimic the effects of naturally occurring depressed mood on a wide range of variables, some of which are unlikely to be susceptible to faking. It therefore appears that the Velten depression induction produces a state which is a good analogue of mild, naturally occurring retarded depression. However, between 30% and 50% of subjects fail to respond to the Velten. This makes it cumbersome for research purposes and raises questions about the generalizability of results obtained using it. The Musical mood induction procedure has been less extensively researched than the Velten. However the available evidence suggests that it also produces a good analogue of mild, naturally occurring retarded depression. In addition, it has the advantage that almost all subjects respond to it. Some commentators have taken the fact that the Velten procedure can induce depressed mood as evidence for the cognitive theory of depression. It is argued that this conclusion is invalid as it makes unwarranted assumptions about the strategies subjects use in order to change mood during the Velten procedure. Several practical points relating to the use of Velten and Musical induction procedures are discussed.

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    • "These, for example, include the imagination of emotionally driven events, the use of emotional statements whereby subjects are asked to try and feel the associated mood, the presentation of mood-suggestive stories, video clips and music, the receipt of positive/negative feedback on task performance, the exposition of certain social interactions, the exchange of gifts and the use of different facial expressions. 6 The motivation for using video clips as our mood-generating process stems from psychological studies suggesting that short films have one of the highest success rates in inducing moods in laboratory experiments and that they minimise experimenter demand effects (e.g.Clark, 1983;Martin, 1990). 7For the " Positive emotions " treatment, our aim was to induce the emotion of happiness. "
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    ABSTRACT: Emotions are commonly experienced and expressed in human societies; however, their consequences on economic behaviour have received only limited attention. This paper investigates the effects of induced positive and negative emotions on cooperation and sanctioning behaviour in a one-shot voluntary contributions mechanism game, where personal and social interests are at odds. We concentrate on two specific emotions: anger and happiness. Our findings provide clear evidence that measures of social preferences are sensitive to subjects' current emotional states. Specifically, angry subjects contribute, on average, less than happy subjects and overall welfare as measured by average net earnings is lower when subjects are in an angry mood. We also find that how punishment is used is affected by moods: angry subjects punish harsher than happy subjects, ceteris paribus. These findings suggest that anger, when induced, can have a negative impact on economic behaviour.
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    • "Remarkably, our effect suggests that comfortable/uncomfortable actions can be conceived as a new powerful mood inducer. Hence, our Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure, MAMIP, should be added to the list including the Musical Mood Induction Technique, MMIT [67], the Velten Mood Induction Procedure, VMIP [68], and the self-referential mood induction [69], to name only a few procedures used in controlled settings. "
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    ABSTRACT: Perception, cognition, and emotion do not operate along segregated pathways; rather, their adaptive interaction is supported by various sources of evidence. For instance, the aesthetic appraisal of powerful mood inducers like music can bias the facial expression of emotions towards mood congruency. In four experiments we showed similar mood-congruency effects elicited by the comfort/discomfort of body actions. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure, we let participants perform comfortable/uncomfortable visually-guided reaches and tested them in a facial emotion identification task. Through the alleged mediation of motor action induced mood, action comfort enhanced the quality of the participant's global experience (a neutral face appeared happy and a slightly angry face neutral), while action discomfort made a neutral face appear angry and a slightly happy face neutral. Furthermore, uncomfortable (but not comfortable) reaching improved the sensitivity for the identification of emotional faces and reduced the identification time of facial expressions, as a possible effect of hyper-arousal from an unpleasant bodily experience.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Taken together, these experimental comparisons and metaanalysis attempts gradually add to our knowledge of different affect/emotion induction procedures' efficacy. However, most studies to date either only focused on a couple of affect induction methods (Brewer et al., 1980; Clark, 1983; Baumgartner et al., 2006a; Jallais and Gilet, 2010) or just targeted one aspect of affective experience (e.g., anger in Lobbestael et al., 2008; sadness in Vuoskoski and Eerola, 2012). To provide a better-rounded picture of major affect induction techniques, a more extensive "
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    ABSTRACT: Affect is a fundamental aspect of the human mind. An increasing number of experiments attempt to examine the influence of affect on other psychological phenomena. To accomplish this research, it is necessary to experimentally modify participants' affective states. In the present experiment, we compared the efficacy of four commonly used affect induction procedures. Participants (38 healthy undergraduate students: 18 males) were randomly assigned to either a pleasant or an unpleasant affect induction group, and then underwent four different affect induction procedures: (1) recall of an affectively salient event accompanied by affectively congruent music, (2) script-driven guided imagery, (3) viewing images while listening to affectively congruent music, and (4) posing affective facial actions, body postures, and vocal expressions. All four affect induction methods were successful in inducing both pleasant and unpleasant affective states. The viewing image with music and recall with music procedures were most effective in enhancing positive affect, whereas the viewing image with music procedure was most effective in enhancing negative affect. Implications for the scientific study of affect are discussed.
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