Article

A Multicomponent Conceptualization of Authenticity: Theory and Research

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And if by chance I wake at night and I ask you who I am, oh take me to the slaughterhouse I will wait there with the lamb. —Leonard CohenWhatever satisfies the soul is truth. —Walt WhitmanI prefer to be true to myself, even at the hazard of incurring the ridicule of others, rather than to be false, and to incur my own abhorrence. —Frederick DouglassIn this chapter, we present research and theory pertaining to our multicomponent perspective on authentic functioning. We begin with a historical account of various philosophical perspectives on authentic functioning and briefly review several past and contemporary psychological perspectives on authenticity. We then define and discuss our multicomponent conceptualization of authenticity and describe each of its components and their relationships to other constructs in the psychology literature. Next, we present an individual differences measure we have developed to assess dispositional authenticity and each of its components, and we report findings attesting to the adequacy of its psychometric properties. In addition, we present findings from a variety of studies we have conducted to examine how authenticity relates to diverse aspects of healthy psychological and interpersonal functioning. These studies pertain to a wide range of phenomena, including the following: verbal defensiveness, mindfulness, coping styles, self‐concept structure, social‐role functioning, goal pursuits, general well‐being, romantic relationships, parenting styles, and self‐esteem. Following this, we discuss potential downsides or costs for authentic functioning and describe some future directions for research on authenticity.

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... Scholarly interest in employee authenticity, or "being your true self at work," has rapidly increased over the past few years (19). Authentic self-awareness is the extent of knowledge (and trust in that knowledge) about various aspects of one's self and the motivation to expand that knowledge (20). Employees with high levels of authentic self-awareness consider their self as a whole (e.g., physical appearance, internal states including cognitions and emotions, motives and intentions, social commitments) and are invested in understanding and learning more about their "true self" (21). ...
... Consistent with this possibility, experimental work has shown that people who have a more stable sense of selfa trait that is associated with greater self-concept clarity (24) and greater integration of positive and negative information (25) are more likely to treat negative feedback as a challenge rather than a hindrance (26). Clarity and stability of the self-concept, as well as integration of positive and negative information into the self-concept, are all important components of authentic self-awareness (20,27). ...
... Our findings are consistent with prior research suggesting that high authentic selfawareness constitutes a psychological resource and coping mechanism (19)(20)(21), as it seems to make employees less susceptible to the detrimental consequences of weight-based stereotype threat. It is important to note, however, that authentic self-awareness did not moderate the association between weight-based stereotype threat and work ability when only employees with obesity were considered in the analysis. ...
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Employees with overweight or obesity are often stereotyped as lazy, unmotivated, and less competent than employees with normal weight. As a consequence, employees with overweight or obesity are susceptible to stereotype threat, or the concern about confirming, or being reduced to, a stereotype about their group. This survey study examined whether employees with overweight or obesity experience stereotype threat in the workplace, whether it is associated with their perceived ability to meet their work demands (i.e., work ability), and whether high levels of knowledge about one’s self (i.e., authentic self-awareness) can offset a potential negative association. Using a correlational study design, survey data were collected from N = 758 full-time employees at three measurement points across 3 months. Employees’ average body mass index (BMI) was 26.36 kg/m² (SD = 5.45); 34% of participants were employees with overweight (BMI between 25 and <30), and 18% of participants were employees with obesity (BMI > 30). Employees with higher weight and higher BMI reported more weight-based stereotype threat (rs between 0.17 and 0.19, p < 0.001). Employees who experienced higher levels of weight-based stereotype threat reported lower work ability, while controlling for weight, height, and subjective weight (β = −0.27, p < 0.001). Authentic self-awareness moderated the relationship between weight-based stereotype threat and work ability (β = 0.14, p < 0.001), such that the relationship between stereotype threat and work ability was negative among employees with low authentic self-awareness (β = −0.25, p < 0.001), and non-significant among employees with high authentic self-awareness (β = 0.08, p = 0.315). The findings of this study contribute to the literature by showing that weight-based stereotype threat is negatively associated with employees’ perceived ability to meet their work demands, particularly among those employees with low authentic self-awareness.
... According to Kernis and Goldman (2006), authenticity is when people can continue their daily life according to their reality, that is, their essence, without being inhibited. Deriving from the empirical results in many domains, Kernis and Goldman (2006) emphasized that the authentic self consists of four elements that are interrelated but represent different dimensions, which are expressed as awareness, unbiased processing, authentic behavior, and relational authenticity. ...
... According to Kernis and Goldman (2006), authenticity is when people can continue their daily life according to their reality, that is, their essence, without being inhibited. Deriving from the empirical results in many domains, Kernis and Goldman (2006) emphasized that the authentic self consists of four elements that are interrelated but represent different dimensions, which are expressed as awareness, unbiased processing, authentic behavior, and relational authenticity. Such authenticity is a portrayal of self-determined self and autonomous functioning; therefore, we believed that it would be increased during our psychodrama intervention as people's basic psychological needs are supported. ...
... The Authenticity Inventory. To assess the multicomponent authentic structure of the self, we used this inventory developed by Kernis and Goldman (2006), which has been found to be valid and reliable in the Turkish language (Imamoglu, Gunaydin, & Selcuk, 2011). This adapted short form consisting of 27 items under four factors were (a) relational authenticity (with eight items; e.g., ''In general, I place a good deal of importance on people I am close to understanding who I truly am''); (b) unbiased processing (with seven items; e.g., ''I find it very difficult to critically assess myself''-reverse coded); (c) awareness (with six items; e.g., ''I know very well why I do the things that I do''); and (d) authentic behavior (with six items; e.g., ''Even if others criticize or reject me for this, I try to be consistent with my personal values''). ...
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Psychodrama as a group therapy and intervention technique is based on role-plays as a way of rehearsing life. It has 100 years of history, and it has been widely used in different life domains and purposes since then. On the other hand, sometimes it has been criticized for lacking the methodological rigor of modern psychological science. Qualitatively and quantitatively, including a case study, we aim to show the effectiveness of psychodrama using a motivational science framework theoretically and empirically. We discuss why psychodrama is effective from an applied social psychological perspective—that is, to demonstrate that psychodrama fits well with self-determination theory (SDT), one of the renowned theories of human motivation, wellbeing, and development. Therefore, this article theoretically integrates those two streams of discussions in one vein of explanation: Psychodrama is effective because in many ways it is supportive of basic psychological needs via play and volitional action, which is necessary for autonomous functioning as depicted by SDT. We test and elaborate on this argument with a case study of a psychodrama group, with the three points of measurements taken before and after the group process as well as 2 years later in follow-up. We found expected and unexpected results regarding autonomous functioning and its associated variables as self-compassion and authenticity throughout time. We discuss the findings for further advancement of theory and practice of both psychodrama and SDT as well as its implications for partially supported hypotheses to guide further evidence-based research attempts in psychodrama.
... Authenticity can be summarized as maintaining a mindful and unbiased awareness of one's internal states and self-aspects (e.g., emotions, beliefs, and values), and striving to behave in a congruent manner (Kernis & Goldman, 2006;Ryan & Deci, 2004). More authentic behaviors are therefore more fully endorsed by the individual, based upon their value-system and wider self-concept. ...
... More authentic behaviors are therefore more fully endorsed by the individual, based upon their value-system and wider self-concept. Since individuals are in a constant state of self-development, their self-concept and strivings to enact it require continual reassessment and adjustment-thus, authenticity necessitates open self-awareness and non-defensive flexibility (Kernis & Goldman, 2006). Authenticity here is conceptualized as a process or perpetual act of "becoming" (Kasser & Sheldon, 2004), as opposed to a categorical status that can be achieved. ...
... Self-determination theory argues that there is substantial value in such a construct, given it is considered integral to the satisfaction of basic psychological needs that are conducive to well-being (Ryan & Deci, 2002). Indeed, considerable research has corroborated the association with well-being indicators (see Deci & Ryan, 2000;Kernis & Goldman, 2006), providing an impetus for research aimed at clarifying the conditions that facilitate more authentic living. ...
Article
Despite research demonstrating positive outcomes of conscious death reflection, very little research directly examines a core proposition of existential psychologists—that death reflection provides an opportunity for more authentic living. The current study compared individuals chronically exposed to genuine mortality cues (funeral/cemetery workers, n = 107) to a matched control sample ( n = 121) on autonomous motivation. It also assessed the moderating role of six constructs implicated in growth-oriented processing of death reflection: psychological flexibility, curiosity, neutral death acceptance, death anxiety, approach-oriented coping, and avoidant coping. Funeral/cemetery workers were significantly higher on autonomous motivation, and death-related work was found to have a more positive association with autonomous motivation for those higher on flexibility and lower on death anxiety. This has implications for both understanding which individuals are most likely to experience growth motivations when confronting death, and potential avenues for facilitating these motivations to enhance well-being.
... Authenticity is directly and indirectly linked to subjective wellbeing constructs such as life satisfaction (Vainio and Daukantaitė, 2016;Hwang and Kim, 2019) and engagement (Van den Bosch et al., 2019;Ortiz-Gómez et al., 2020;Sutton, 2020). Authenticity is essential to understanding adaptive characteristics pertaining to optimal self-esteem (Kernis, 2003;Kernis and Goldman, 2006) and employees who experience high levels of authenticity are strongly intrinsically motivated (Van den Bosch and Taris, 2018a,b) and exhibit self-regulatory and goal-directed behaviour (Chen and Murphy, 2019). Authenticity has also been shown to negatively relate to turnover intention (Ogruk and Anderson, 2018) and positively relate to work engagement, job satisfaction and performance (Metin et al., 2016). ...
... Most commonly authenticity has been related to being true to the core self (Kernis, 2003), Frontiers in Psychology | www.frontiersin.org the true self (Kernis and Goldman, 2006;Schmader and Sedikides, 2018) or the real self (Hewlin et al., 2020;Sutton, 2020). Perspectives of being true to a whole self (Glavas, 2016), the spiritual self (Kiesling et al., 2006), ideal self (Vainio and Daukantaitė, 2016) or being true to one's best-self (Roberts et al., 2005;Cable et al., 2013;Goodwin, 2019) have also been used to define authenticity. ...
... Earlier conceptual frameworks of authenticity emphasise the complexity of the concept and explain that being authentic involves self-awareness and understanding, processing of selfrelevant evaluative information, behavioural consistency with one's values and norms and open relational functioning (Kernis and Goldman, 2006). The tri-dimensional framework of Wood et al. (2008) have become popular and conceptualise authenticity as a disposition defined by one's ability to follow and live according to one's true emotions and values (authentic living); perceived congruence between your conscience and actual experience (low self-alienation); and one's ability to resist external influences and expectations. ...
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Law enforcement poses a difficult work environment. Employees’ wellbeing is uniquely taxed in coping with daily violent, aggressive and hostile encounters. These challenges are compounded for women, because law enforcement remains to be a male-dominated occupational context. Yet, many women in law enforcement display resilience and succeed in maintaining a satisfying career. This study explores the experience of being authentic from a best-self perspective, for women with successful careers in the South African police and traffic law enforcement services. Authenticity research substantiates a clear link between feeling authentic and experiencing psychological wellbeing. The theoretical assumption on which the study is based holds that being authentic relates to a sense of best-self and enables constructive coping and adjustment in a challenging work environment. A qualitative study was conducted on a purposive sample of 12 women, comprising 6 police officers and 6 traffic officers from the Western Cape province in South Africa. Data were gathered through narrative interviews focussing on experiences of best-self and were analysed using interpretive phenomenological analysis. During the interviews, participants predominantly described feeling authentic in response to work-related events of a conflictual and challenging nature. Four themes were constructed from the data to describe authenticity from a best-self perspective for women in the study. These themes denote that the participating women in law enforcement, express feeling authentic when they present with a mature sense of self, feel spiritually congruent and grounded, experience self-actualisation in the work–role and realign to a positive way of being. Women should be empowered towards authenticity in their world of work, by helping them to acquire the best-self characteristics needed for developing authenticity.
... Specifically, self-connection involves acting in alignment (component three) with one's awareness of the self (component one) by using one's acceptance of this awareness (component two) to facilitate behaviors that align with the perceived self. This component of self-connection is similar to conceptualizations of self-determined decisions in Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1980 as well as authentic behavior (Kernis & Goldman, 2006;Wood, Linley, Maltby, Baliousis, & Joseph, 2008). That is, behavioral alignment involves deciding to act in ways that authentically reflect the perceived self. ...
... In part, the proposed definition of self-connection shares some relation with concepts of authenticity (Kernis & Goldman, 2006;Wood et al., 2008) but can also be distinguished from them. In their development of a measure of dispositional authenticity, Wood and colleagues (2008) argued that authenticity primarily includes authentic living-the degree to which a person's behavior matches their self. ...
... This most strongly maps onto the self-alignment component of self-connection, but is only one of three necessary components of self-connection. Other conceptualizations or operationalizations of authenticity also may include some form of awareness or acceptance (see Kernis & Goldman, 2006). These differ from how we conceptualize awareness and acceptance in self-connection. ...
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We provide a theoretical framework for what it means to be self-connected and propose that self-connection is an important potential contributor to a person’s well-being. We define self-connection as consisting of three components: 1) an awareness of oneself, 2) an acceptance of oneself based on this awareness, and 3) an alignment of one’s behavior with this awareness. First, we position the concept within the broader self literature and provide the empirical context for our proposed definition of self-connection. We next compare and contrast self-connection to related constructs, including mindfulness and authenticity. Following, we discuss some of the potential relationships between self-connection and various aspects of mental health and well-being. Finally, we provide initial recommendations for future research, including potential ways to promote self-connection. In all, we present this theory to provide researchers with a framework for understanding self-connection so that they can utilize this concept to better support the efforts of researchers and practitioners alike to increase individuals’ well-being in various contexts.
... Subsumed within this simple question is another, more complex one: "How do I know that who I say I am is truly me?" The question is not merely philosophical; in fact, individuals' perceptions of what it means to be true to themselves have strong links to their psychological health and social functioning (Kernis & Goldman, 2006). In the following two studies, we argue that how authentic an identity element feels depends on whether that element (a) is highly enacted or concealed, and (b) satisfies or thwarts certain identity-specific motives. ...
... Authenticity is traditionally studied as a trait linked to eudemonic well-being (Kernis & Goldman, 2006) and psychological health (Schlegel & Hicks, 2011). Recently, however, authenticity has been explored as a state-level variable, reflecting a state of congruence between an individual's identity and their actions within a given situation (Lenton, Bruder, Slabu, & Sedikides, 2013). ...
Article
Special Issue description: Despite equal rights, minority groups such as ethnic minorities, LGBTQ + people, and people with mental or physical disabilities face discrimination on a day-to-day basis in subtle and hard-to-recognize forms. As discrimination slips beneath the surface, it becomes difficult to fight the stigma using collective social identity coping mechanisms. Instead, individual mobility responses such as distancing the self from the stigmatized identity (“self-group distancing”) become more viable as a way to improve one's individual standing. In this overview of the state of the art, we take a social identity lens to reflect on the current empirical knowledge base on self-group distancing as a coping mechanism and provide a framework on what self-group distancing is; when, where and why self-group distancing likely occurs; and what its consequences are at the individual and the collective level. The contributions in this special issue provide novel insights into how these processes unfold, and serve as a basis to set a future research agenda, for example on what can be done to prevent self-group distancing (i.e., interventions). Together, the insights highlight that while self-group distancing may seem effective to (strategically and temporarily) alleviate discomfort or to improve one's own position, on a broader collective level and over time self-group distancing tends to keep the current unequal social hierarchy in place.
... For instance, Lopez and Rice (2006) found that attachment security was associated with engagement in more honest and intimate interactions with a romantic partner. Moreover, attachment security has been found to be associated with higher authenticity levels, perceived partner authenticity, and overall relational satisfaction (Kernis & Goldman, 2006;Wickham, 2013). ...
... Indeed, research has indicated that the perception that people's authentic selves are known by their partners is linked to greater relationship satisfaction (Rivera et al., 2018). Kernis and Goldman (2006) found that people who value authenticity in their relationships report them to be more satisfying and engage in constructive relationship behaviors such as self-disclosure. Of particular relevance to the current research, authenticity has been linked to forms of concern for self and others within romantic relationships (Brunell et al., 2010;Tou et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Attachment theory has long been a theoretical framework for addressing individual differences regarding well-being in romantic relationships. Forms of concern have also received growing attention regarding relational well-being and satisfaction. In the current study, we comprised an adult sample and investigated a theoretically driven model in which forms of concern mediate the covariance between attachment orientation and relational romantic authenticity and satisfaction. Our results largely support our hypotheses and we discuss how they underscore the importance of the caregiving experience within romantic relationships.
... Although people are generally considered to strive toward authenticity, it is unclear how often they actually succeed in doing so. Many researchers have argued that authenticity is often thwarted by social constraints (Bargh et al., 2002;Harter, 2002;Kernis & Goldman, 2006;Lopez & Rice, 2006;Ryan & Ryan, 2019;Sheldon et al., 2012;Wood et al., 2008). For example, because being one's true self may have social costs such as being negatively evaluated by others or being excluded, people may hide their true self and conform to the expectation of others. ...
... Furthermore, ratings may be affected by social desirability. Since authenticity is typically highly valued, while inauthenticity is considered to be false (Harter, 2002;Kernis & Goldman, 2006), people may have over-reported the former and under-reported the latter. ...
Article
Researchers have assumed that people generally strive toward authenticity, yet have also argued that authenticity may often be impeded by social constraints. Against this backdrop, it is unclear whether people feel authentic or inauthentic more often in everyday life. To address this question, we examined the retrospective frequency of these feelings. As researchers have conceptualized authenticity and inauthenticity in various ways, we also tested for generalization of the results across different conceptualizations. Our results indicate that authenticity occurs more often than inauthenticity in everyday life. While the results largely generalized across different conceptualizations of authenticity and inauthenticity, there was nonetheless some variation. Future research, therefore, should take different conceptualizations of authenticity and inauthenticity more into account.
... One dimension many people care about when it comes to managing impressions is authenticity. People want to act in ways that are consistent with their ''true self'' and care about being perceived as authentic (Kernis & Goldman, 2006), for good reason. Perceptions of authenticity are linked to positive outcomes across a variety of domains, including hospitality (Grandey et al., 2005), morality (Gino et al., 2015), medicine (Á rnason, 1994), and academia (Archer, 2008). ...
... Authenticity describes the perception that a person is acting consistently with their true and core values (Gecas, 1991;Kernis & Goldman, 2006). Verbal authenticity extends this general definition by indicating a person who communicates their true and core self with words to reveal their psychological focus. ...
Article
This article examines how verbal authenticity influences person perception. Our work combines human judgments and natural language processing to suggest verbal authenticity is a positive predictor of interpersonal interest (Study 1: 294 dyadic conversations), engagement with speeches (Study 2: 2,655 TED talks), entrepreneurial success (Study 3: 478 Shark Tank pitches), and social media engagements (Studies 4a–c; N = 387,039 Tweets). We find that communicating authenticity is associated with increased interest in and perceived connection to another person, more comments and views for TED talks, receiving a financial investment from investors, and more social media likes and retweets. Our work is among the first to evaluate how authenticity relates to person perception and manifests naturally using verbal data.
... This process is built on empathy perceived by one's interaction partner as accurate, and ultimately builds trust. Interpersonal processes promoting secure connection are likely enhanced by a perceived authenticity in the behavior of self and other (Kernis, & Goldman, 2006), whereas inauthenticity may be perceived in experiences of disconnection (Sedikides et al., 2017). ...
... The second auxiliary theme of sincerity captured the interpretation that interaction partners' participation in a meaningful connection was "not fake," but rather was consistent with their intrinsic intentions and true regard for oneself. Research suggests that even with prosocial intentions, such as lying to protect someone from feeling bad, insincerity has the potential to negatively impact interactions (Lemay & Clark, 2008) or the security of a relationship (Kernis & Goldman, 2006), and participants indeed described being guarded against any insincerity. ...
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Feeling meaningfully connected to others is an important aspect of lifespan development. Given that a sense of connectedness should be, in part, contingent on the kinds of social interactions people have in their daily life, this dissertation aims to explore across three studies what kinds of social interactions are perceived as meaningful connections, how people experience such interactions, and how these experiences are related to important aspects of well-being. The first study explores qualitatively what kinds of interactions people experienced as meaningful connections in the first weeks of the COVID-19 pandemic. Thematic analysis of written stories of meaningful connection from 88 participants identified four overarching themes: openness to the other, affirmation of the self, emotional uplift, and meeting of basic needs. The context of the pandemic also enhanced the meaning of social connection, offered a common struggle to connect over, and motivated prosociality. The second study investigated people's lived-experiences of feeling meaningfully connected to others. Thirty adults were interviewed about recent social interactions that felt to them like meaningful connections. Phenomenological analysis identified a central theme of feeling regarded. Five auxiliary themes were also identified as essential to experiencing meaningful connection: interest, sincerity, attending, mutuality, and safety. The third study leveraged a person-centered quantitative approach to empirically describe different ways in which people may experience a sense of meaningful connection in social interactions. A scale was created from themes of the first two studies of this dissertation that includes nine interpersonal and psychological indicators of meaningful connection. Responses from 341 adults were analyzed using latent profile analysis and five distinct profiles of interactions experienced as meaningful connection were identified. Further analyses explored differences between participants belonging to each profile in terms of how meaningfully ii connected they felt in their reported interactions, as well as their global levels of psychological well-being and loneliness. Heterogeneity was found for meaningful connectedness and psychological well-being, but not for loneliness. Overall, this dissertation suggests there are a variety of ways of experiencing meaningful connection in social interactions, and contributes descriptive nuance to the important literature around social connection.
... The latter is particularly relevant for SNS use and the present study, since it means presenting oneself in a way that is consistent with how one knows the self (Knoll et al., 2015). Such authentic self-expression is achieved by acting in accordance with one's values, preferences, and needs (Kernis & Goldman, 2006). This requires a person to be "true to oneself in most situations" (Wood et al., 2008, p. 386), insofar as the person is aware of their inner states and able to express them in behavior and emotion accordingly. ...
... This requires a person to be "true to oneself in most situations" (Wood et al., 2008, p. 386), insofar as the person is aware of their inner states and able to express them in behavior and emotion accordingly. Being authentic has been empirically linked to better mental health and wellbeing (Kernis & Goldman, 2006;Smallenbroek et al., 2017;Wood et al., 2008). ...
Article
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Self-presentation on social network sites (SNS) such as Instagram is often assumed to be inauthentic or even fake. While authenticity on SNS has been linked to increased well-being, most research has investigated it either monolithically (e.g., via screen time measures) or with regard to stable self-presentations (e.g., in Facebook profiles). In contrast, this study compares subjective authenticity perceptions within users and between self-presentations via two SNS features—Stories vs Posts. Drawing on the affordances approach, we theorize and test whether and how Stories produce greater state authenticity than Posts. Results from a preregistered within-subjects study comparing self-reports on N = 489 Posts and N = 546 Stories from N = 202 Instagram users show that by allowing more spontaneous self-presentation, Stories indeed produced (slightly) higher authenticity perceptions than Posts. However, subjective authenticity was high in both features, indicating that they similarly offer a space for authentic online self-presentation.
... Many factors determine authenticity, such as ethical behavior, consciousness, subjectivity, self-processes, and social or relational contexts, and make it hard to define. Nonetheless, authenticity has been defined in contrast to "whatever is fake, unreal, or false" (Lindholm, 2008, p. 2) and in contrast to inauthenticity, that is, false behavior or self-deception (Kernis & Goldman, 2006). ...
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It is rather contradictory that there is a high demand for authenticity in today’s virtual space, where some platforms encourage the proliferation of idealized images, the products of digital alteration. Previous studies have examined how social media users perceive the authenticity and credibility of new digital celebrities—influencers—and the impacts on advertising outcomes. Authenticity in media communication has been defined in many ways, but most definitions include factors such as sincerity, trustworthiness, accuracy, originality, and spontaneity. Prior research on authenticity in computer-mediated communication emphasized the importance of three levels of authenticity, that of the source, of the message, and of the interaction. How social media influencers (SMIs) perceive their own authenticity is an understudied topic. SMIs are simultaneously perceived by their audiences as celebrities, experts, and consumers. Expanding their audiences is one of their goals. Being authentic at the beginning of one’s SMI career as a content creator might be simple, but it becomes much more challenging after one’s audience has grown significantly. Sponsorship can pose a challenge to an SMI’s authenticity. The present study aims to explore the role that authenticity plays for SMIs and develop a theoretical framework for understanding the self-perceived authenticity of SMIs. For this purpose, in-depth interviews were conducted with SMIs that have both national and international audiences ( N = 20). Sincerity, expertise, uniqueness, commitment to values, mediated realness, visibility, communication style, spontaneity, transparent and creative brand endorsement, commitment to followers, and frequency of interaction are the components of the proposed model.
... Researchers have examined authenticity as a state and trait. State authenticity refers to the feeling of expressing one's core characteristics (e.g., personal feelings, values, beliefs) in a given context (Fleeson & Wilt, 2010;Sedikides et al., 2017), rather than regardless of the context (trait; Kernis & Goldman, 2006;Sheldon et al., 1997). Schmader and Sedikides (2018) proposed an "identity fit" model to understand triggers and outcomes of state authenticity (State Authenticity as Fit, SAFE). ...
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Bicultural individuals navigate and identify with two cultures. Biculturals differ in levels of Bicultural Identity Integration (BII)—how much their two cultural identities are combined and compatible (high BII) versus divided and conflicting (low BII). We hypothesized that during conformity in cultural ingroup contexts, biculturals with low BII feel inauthentic (being untrue to themselves), whereas biculturals with high BII feel authentic (being true to themselves). Across four experiments with Asian-Americans, expressing cultural conformity (vs. non-conformity) in Asian or American contexts produced felt inauthenticity among participants with low BII but not high BII (Studies 1–3). Felt inauthenticity was due to cultural identity threat (perceived identity exclusion) (Study 2). Activating self-kindness counteracted felt inauthenticity for low BII participants during cultural conformity (Study 3) and produced felt authenticity (Study 4). Our findings imply that responding kindly to the self makes biculturals at ease in their cultural homes, at least temporarily.
... Authenticity is not easily taught and cannot be trained. Instead, humility and authenticity emerge through self-awareness of personal strengths and weaknesses, learned preferences and impact on others in interpersonal (Kernis & Goldman, 2006;Cynthia Denise McCauley et al., 2010), intra-relational and trans-relational contexts (Gibbs, 2007). This requires an "active, continuous disposition to examine [oneself] and [their] actions and to listen to others when they can give [them] information about ...
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Robert Greenleaf introduced servant leadership in 1970 as an ‘others first’ philosophy to benefit followers, organisations and society. While research suggests a link between servant leadership and spirituality—an individually constructed set of beliefs, practices, and experiences that may or may not draw from religion—research has yet to explore if and how spirituality develops across multi-faith, multi-ethnic aspiring servant leaders in Aotearoa-New Zealand. This study used a case study methodology to explore how 12 international students developed spiritually, as defined by the Spiritual Development Framework (SDF) proposed by Benson, Scales, Syvertson and & Roehlkepartain (2012), through an Aotearoa-New Zealand tertiary servant leader course. Development was also considered against the dimensions of Servant Leadership Behaviour Survey (SLBS) as proposed by Sendjaya, Sarros and Santora (2008). The present study found evidence of spiritual and servant leader development before the course through mentoring and modelling by family and faith communities and evidence of development during the course in the spiritual development processes of awareness, connection and a way of living and through reciprocal and experiential learning based on professional practice and reflection. The findings support the inclusion of spirituality as a dimension of servant leadership and suggests further servant leader development should build on spiritual practice and formative mentoring by family and faith communities and provide emotional support for learners in their servant leader development.
... As one example, consider authenticity: 'Just be yourself' is the advice given to people facing innumerable interpersonal situations, implying that being who you really are, in any given situation, is likely to lead to positive outcomes. This advice is supported by a large body of evidence documenting the positive association between authenticity and psychological well-being (e.g., Kernis & Goldman, 2006;Robinson & Clifford, 2012). Yet, we must not ignore the fact that authenticity is not widely available to all people and that the authentic expression of the self may rest on another likely source of optimal functioning -privilege. ...
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The problem of inequality presents an important opportunity for positive psychology. We review the many ways that marginalization (including stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination) affects the well-being of minoritized people and suggest that positive psychologists turn their attention to the ways their research interests can be harnessed to remedy this situation—by focusing on the links between positive psychological characteristics and experiences as predictors of stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination among perpetrators (not simply victims) of bias. We review the limited evidence that exists for such links and for the potential for positive psychology interventions to reduce prejudice. We suggest that incorporating prejudice in positive psychological scholarship can help to resolve controversies in the field. Finally, we provide concrete recommendations for future research practice that will address the goal of a positive psychology that promises fulfillment for all people in a diverse world.
... As one example, consider authenticity: 'Just be yourself' is the advice given to people facing innumerable interpersonal situations, implying that being who you really are, in any given situation, is likely to lead to positive outcomes. This advice is supported by a large body of evidence documenting the positive association between authenticity and psychological well-being (e.g., Kernis & Goldman, 2006;Robinson & Clifford, 2012). Yet, we must not ignore the fact that authenticity is not widely available to all people and that the authentic expression of the self may rest on another likely source of optimal functioning -privilege. ...
Article
Full-text available
The problem of inequality presents an important opportunity for positive psychology. We review the many ways that marginalization (including stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination) affects the well-being of minoritized people and suggest that positive psychologists turn their attention to the ways their research interests can be harnessed to remedy this situation – by focusing on the links between positive psychological characteristics and experiences as predictors of stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination among perpetrators (not simply victims) of bias. We review the limited evidence that exists for such links and for the potential for positive psychology interventions to reduce prejudice. We suggest that incorporating prejudice in positive psychological scholarship can help to resolve controversies in the field. Finally, we provide concrete recommendations for future research practice that will address the goal of a positive psychology that promises fulfillment for all people in a diverse world.
... In such cases, they may safely disclose, which helps resolve their need for authenticity. This could also occur in reverse: The need for authenticity consists of the motivation to stay true to oneself (Kernis & Goldman, 2006), which can be fulfilled by feeling allowed and encouraged to be oneself within a social environment. If LGB employees experience this in a relationship with co-workers (for example because they constantly talk about their love for RuPaul's Drag Race), this may facilitate disclosure. ...
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Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) employees’ sexual identitymay be considered a concealable stigmatised identity. Disclosing it to others at work could potentially lead to discrimination and rejection, hence threatening their inclusion. Therefore, they may hide their sexual identity instead, which may then come at the cost of, e.g., guilt for not living authentically. However, disclosure is a continuum—rather than a dichotomy—meaning that LGB workers may decide to disclose selectively, i.e., telling some, but not all co‐workers. Most literature on disclosure focuses on the interplay between intrapersonal (e.g., psychological) and contextual (e.g., organisational) characteristics, thereby somewhat overlooking the role of interpersonal (e.g., relational) characteristics. In this article, we present findings from semi‐structured, in‐depth interviews with nine Dutch lesbian and gay employees, conducted in early 2020, to gain a better understanding of interpersonal antecedents to disclosure decisions at work. Through our thematic analysis, we find that LGB workers may adopt a proactive or reactive approach to disclosure, which relates to the salience of their sexual identity at work (high/low) and their concern for anticipated acceptance. Other themes facilitating disclosure include an affective dimension, being in a relationship, and associating with the employee resource group. We demonstrate the importance of studying disclosure at the interpersonal level and reflect on how our findings relate to literature on disclosure, authenticity, belonging, and social inclusion of LGB individuals at work.
... 45 The implications of inauthenticity are lack of awareness, ignorance, distortion, as well as an oversimplification of one's self-knowledge and moral standards. 47 A person living inauthentically is considered showcasing their counterfeit self. Inauthenticity alienates a person from their true and authentic sense of self 48 which encompasses many aspects of life, such as moral judgment, moral assessments of others' beliefs about the meaning of life, moral decision making, even general measures of well-being. ...
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Background: In the field of moral psychology, researchers have strived to understand the complex dynamics of corruption psychology. This study contributes to this area by presenting a theoretical model for sequential behavior, placing counterfeit behavior (CB) as a predictor and corruption tendencies (proneness to moral emotions, ie, guilt and shame/GASP) as the criterion. In addition, two bridging variables are assigned, ie, inauthenticity/counterfeit self (CS) and moral disengagement (MD). Methods: The research applied a correlational-predictive design and mediation analysis. Study 1 involved 978 participants of Indonesian nationality (380 males, 598 females; M age = 23.64 years old, SD age = 4.35 years), and found that GASP was predicted by MD, and MD was predicted by CS. Study 2, which applied a between-subject design, showed that CS was predicted by four kinds of everyday counterfeit behavior (backstabbing, fake listening, plagiarism, and religious hypocrisy). Results: The hypotheses of Study 1 and Study 2 were confirmed by the data analysis. By integrating both studies, this study advocates the view of moral consistency through variable configuration (ie moral emotions, self and behavior authenticity, moral engagement) that composes corruption tendencies - which to the best of the author's knowledge, has not been proposed in other studies. Conclusion: The novelty contained in the variable network is that counterfeiting, which is present in our daily life and considered to be ordinary and inevitable in the 4.0 Industry era, has a critical disrupting implication towards a person's morality.
... Furthermore, greater selfawareness, internalized moral perspectives, transparency of relationships, and balanced processing of information are promoted by referencing the behavioral patterns of the authentic leader [176]. Authentic leadership is related to a deep desire of the leader to build transparent relationships and interact with organization members [177]. When dealing with members, the leader's transparency builds stronger relationships based on trust. ...
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Situational leadership theory and the contingency approach of leadership were utilized and applied based on situational theory. Based on a total of four foundational theories, that is, bottom-up spillover theory, theories of prosocial behavior, and so on, this study empirically analyzed what influence a chief executive officer’s (CEO’s) sustainable leadership styles (servant, ethical, and authentic leadership) have on the psychological well-being and organizational citizenship behaviors of organization members. The study was conducted on adult employees of midsized or larger companies (including subsidiaries) across four countries: South Korea, the United Kingdom, the United States, and South Africa. Data were obtained from 649 adult employees. SmartPLS was used to conduct structural equation modeling analysis of the data. The results were as follows: (1) CEOs’ servant and authentic leadership styles had statistically significant positive (+) effects on employees’ psychological well-being; however, ethical leadership did not. (2) CEOs’ ethical leadership had a statistically significant (+) effect on employees’ organizational citizenship behavior; however, servant and authentic leadership did not. (3) Employees’ psychological well-being had a statistically significant (+) effect on organizational citizenship behavior. CEOs are attracting more attention than ever, leading companies in today’s rapidly changing times. This suggests that it is necessary to comprehend principles that show when, where, and how important leaders are and sustainable leadership styles that can increase their chances of success. Moreover, this study derived constructive implications that a leader can overcome today’s challenges through sustainable leadership styles.
... Maternal antipathy, relative to neglect, has been shown to be a stronger predictor of externalizing and internalizing problems, such as youths' nonsuicidal self-injury [58], as well as lower self-report authenticity and higher crosscontext trait variability [59]. Furthermore, Kernis and Goldman have demonstrated that children who perceived antipathy are more likely to suppress their true selves, ignore or conceal their expressions in favor of others in order to seek approval from parents, which may lead to a higher risk of internalizing problems [60]. Therefore, further prevention and intervention for depression should address IPC and attendant maternal care, especially maternal antipathy. ...
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Previous research has identified exposure to interparental conflict (IPC) in childhood as a risk factor for young adults’ depression. However, there is still a lack of understanding of the underlying mediating mechanisms of this association. Driven by the spillover hypothesis, the present study investigated whether maternal antipathy and neglect, and in turn unmet psychological needs, mediated the relation between IPC and early adulthood depression in a sample of 347 undergraduate students (M = 23.27 years; SD = 0.86; 57.05% women) in China. The participants completed self-report measures of IPC, maternal care, satisfaction of basic psychological needs, and depression. Structural equation modeling revealed that: (a) IPC was positively associated with early adulthood depression; (b) this association was sequentially mediated by inadequate maternal care (i.e., antipathy and neglect) and by unsatisfied psychological needs. These findings suggest that efforts to prevent depression should focus on reducing not only IPC, but also inadequate maternal care and unmet psychological needs.
... From the existentialist perspective, authenticity is dynamically constructed rather than static and unchanged (Smith, Vandellen and Ton, 2021). Selfexpression can increase the sense of authenticity as individuals create their identity and define themselves via external means which align with their personal values in order to pursue their true self (Kernis and Goldman, 2006;Sheldon et al., 1997;Wood et al., 2008). In this respect, art is one of the most popular forms of self-expression (Fleshman and Fryrear, 1981). ...
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Underpinned by art infusion theory and functional theories of attitudes, this present research examines the art infusion effect on brand evaluation among consumers whose attitudes might serve a value-expressive or social-adjustive function, and the role of self-inauthenticity feelings in these relationships. We conducted three experimental studies to test our hypotheses. The objective of Studies 1 and 2 was to confirm the moderating effect of value-expressive function on the relationship between art infusion and brand attitudes. Study 3 aimed to test the mediating effect of self-inauthenticity feelings among customers harboring value-expressive attitudes. Participants with high levels of value-expressive attitudes reported more positive brand evaluation when-the advertisement featured an artwork (vs. no artwork). Furthermore, art infusion reduced the feelings of self-inauthenticity, thereby enhancing brand attitudes. The findings highlight the importance of art infusion pertinent to improving brand evaluation and mitigating potential negative psychological consequences of luxury consumption, a relatively unexplored research area.
... Accordingly, alienation from the self as its core component is at the root of distress and psychopathological suffering. The study of authenticity has undoubtedly provoked interest in other fields, such as developmental (Harter, 2002), social (Kernis & Goldman, 2006) and positive psychology (Smallenbroek et al., 2016), however, since the mid-2000s, the empirical interest in this topic in counselling psychology has revived as well. Although conceptual inconsistencies prevail in the literature and often obscure efforts to compare and interpret findings, in the context of counselling psychology, the humanistic model has provided the most comprehensive framework. ...
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Several counselling psychology perspectives have argued that authenticity should be the primary goal of treatment, while defining alienation from the self as the root cause of distress and psychopathological suffering. Recent findings have provided evidence that the tripartite model of dispositional authenticity based on Rogers’ person-centered theory can predict mental well-being. Considering the lack of research in clinical samples, this study examined the unique predictive utility of trait authenticity for distress in outpatients seeking counselling (N = 105, 58% female; age range: 18-65) and demographically matched controls (N = 102, 62% female; age range: 18-52 years). Most of the outpatients were diagnosed with anxiety and/or mood disorders, while the controls were screened for utilization of mental health services. Results revealed higher self-alienation and acceptance of external influence in the clinical sample, as well as higher neuroticism and symptomatic and overall distress relative to controls. Only self-alienation was able to account for unique variance in clinical distress in outpatients, above and beyond neuroticism, reaffirming the assumption that the greater the discrepancy between actual experiences and their symbolization, the greater the risk of psychological dysfunction. The findings further revealed a differentiated role of self-alienation relative to the severity of experienced distress and a need to examine causal links with neuroticism. Implications regarding clinical practice and the measurement of authenticity as treatment outcome are discussed.
... These results suggest that trainers/supervisors should first strive to be authentic themselves through being genuine and transparent and then promote authenticity by providing a safe place for trainees/supervisees. Given that authenticity has been associated with positive well-being and reduced self-criticism (Cha et al., 2019;Kannan & Levitt, 2017;Kernis & Goldman, 2006), promoting an authenticityaffirming environment in graduate school could not only alleviate distress but also advance students' learning and professional development. Such efforts would be specifically beneficial to counseling psychology doctoral students who juggle multiple roles while taking care of their own and others' mental health (Dearing et al., 2005;Parkman, 2016). ...
Article
Given the importance of authenticity in counseling psychology, we used a collaborative autoethnography approach to explore our experiences of authenticity as counseling psychology doctoral students. Six (3 women, 2 men, 1 gender flexible man; 3 European American, 2 Asian American, 1 Asian; 5 3rd-year students, 1 2nd-year student) students in one counseling psychology doctoral program in the Mid-Atlantic United States reflected on the factors that facilitated and hindered our ability to be authentic by writing four one-to-five page journal entries, reading the journals in four three-hour group meetings, receiving non-judgmental feedback, and editing the journal entries. In the journals, we explored our understanding of authenticity, the development of our authentic selves, our experience of authenticity in graduate school, the role of authenticity in our relationships, the way in which our authenticity has been shaped by external forces, and our process of balancing the costs and benefits when deciding whether or not to be authentic in a given situation. Themes that emerged from the data revealed that we had received mixed messages about authenticity in our graduate program and that our ability to be authentic varied depending on whether we were in the role of therapist, teacher, researcher, or student. Further, family and peer relationships, hierarchical structures, and privileged and marginalized social identities enhanced or inhibited our experiences of authenticity in graduate school. Implications for graduate students and recommendations for future research are discussed.
... Focused on the importance of self-determination, SDT thus considers authenticity a state when individuals make decisions for themselves and preserve consistency among their values, self-concepts, and behaviors (Ryan & Deci, 2000). Many researchers have found that living in an authentic manner is the key to personal and social wellness (Fletcher & Everly, 2021;Jourard, 1971;Lynch et al., 2009;Petrocchi et al., 2020) because authenticity allows others to know the individual's true self and enables reciprocal and open interactions (Kernis & Goldman, 2006;Pachankis, 2007). Conversely, concealing a stigmatized identity has been found to threaten the sense of authenticity (Crabtree & Pillow, 2020;Follmer et al., 2020). ...
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As a common experience for sexual minority individuals, sexual orientation concealment has complex implications. Self-determination theory (SDT) and previous studies suggest a mediation path where hiding sexual orientation is associated with well-being through eroding lesbian, gay, bisexual-specific authenticity and inducing loneliness. However, this relationship has rarely been examined using longitudinal data. This study also built on minority stress theory to determine whether the psychological process of concealment operates differently as a function of perceived acceptance in different contexts. A community sample of 636 sexual minority individuals in Hong Kong (48.3% men, 50.5% women, and 1.3% transgender and nonbinary individuals; mean age = 25.36 years) was recruited through lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) social media, nongovernmental organizations, and social venues to complete a baseline and 1-year follow-up survey. The results showed that loneliness mediated the relationship between concealment and well-being. Moreover, the mediation path from concealment to well-being via loneliness was moderated by the perceived LGBT-friendliness of the family. The negative association between concealment and well-being was only significant when the family was perceived as supportive of sexual and gender minorities. The study findings elucidated the complex mechanisms involved in the adverse outcomes of sexual orientation concealment and highlighted the importance of loneliness and family context when working with sexual minority clients on their concerns over sexual orientation concealment. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... The proposed mid-range theory of mental health communication in law enforcement demonstrates how authentic messages across domains, particularly from the organization, are critical to enhancing officers' willingness to seek support. Authenticity refers to a state in which individuals act in alignment with their true selves (Kernis & Goldman, 2006). A foundational aspect of authenticity is genuineness, or the extent to which the person is honest with others (Johannesen, 1971). ...
Article
Throughout the United States, police officers experience cumulative stress and their mental health-related concerns often remain unaddressed. Recently, police departments have begun to offer more mental health support resources in an attempt to mitigate this issue. However, the underutilization of such support is a serious problem. The overall goal of this dissertation is to develop a grounded theory of mental health communication in law enforcement. Employing a constructivist grounded theory approach, data were collected in two sequential phases. Phase one involved 48 in-depth semi-structured interviews with active and retired police officers to examine how the messages police officers receive from society, police departments, and interpersonal relationships shape their perceptions of mental health. Guided by the findings in phase one, a one-time anonymous online survey was completed by 58 additional active police officers to further explore their preferences for mental health-related communication in receiving support and information about available resources in phase two. The theory explains and illustrates how two potential routes, involving multiple layers of influence, can shape police officers' views of mental health and support seeking. Theoretically, this dissertation extends our current understanding of disclosure decisions and the role of communication in officers' willingness to seek mental health support. The grounded theory presented in this dissertation also yields several practical implications for policymakers, department leadership, and families of vi police officers. Moreover, the grounded theory provides a foundation for building a more comprehensive explanation of mental health communication in first responder professions.
... The first category of values associated with authenticity pivots toward the concepts of consistency and congruence, which concerns the capacity of a political leader to be coherent on what s/he communicates and what s/he is, i.e., his/her real self (Kernis and Goldman 2006;Ryan and Ryan 2019). A political leader who is not consistent, congruent and coherent is not an authentic political actor just because s/he appears as someone who has chosen to prefer the blind pursuit of personal approval ratings and electoral support, even at the expense of disowning her/his true and deep self. ...
... values]), affective and cognitive responses (e.g., FoMO and social anxiety), and executive functions may interact to lead to various addictive behaviors (e.g., GD, gambling disorder, internet addiction, etc.). According to self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2002), authenticity reflects an individual's true self when they exhibit autonomous and self-determining activities (Kernis & Goldman, 2006). Moreover, the person-centered model of authenticity (Wood et al., 2008) stresses that self-alienation Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4075646 ...
... An influencer who is perceived as authentic, therefore, can be described as a real and truthful person (Beverland and Farrelly, 2010) who behaves according to his or her true self (Moulard, Garrity, and Rice, 2015). Social media influencers with greater authenticity are perceived as genuinely and intrinsically motivated by their activity (Kernis and Goldman, 2006;Kowalczyk and Pounders, 2016;Moulard et al., 2015). Despite the importance of authenticity, the concept still lacks academic understanding in a context of social media influence (Taylor, 2020). ...
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Purpose In response to calls for more research on gender(s) in digital contexts, this paper aims to ask, how do individuals engage in self-presentation of their gender identities on social media? Design/methodology/approach Using a multi-method qualitative approach, this research explores the narratives of 17 Millennials as they negotiate their online gender expressions with a particular focus on the image-based social platforms, Facebook and Instagram. Specifically, in-depth interviews, a collage technique and visual data from informants’ social media pages were analyzed to identify emergent themes. Findings Drawing on the theoretical work of Goffman’s (1971) self-presentation and Butler’s (1999) gender performance, this research highlights a pervading discourse of authenticity or the desire for Millennial social media users to craft and perform a perceived “authentic self” online. This often entails both expressions of gender fluidly and gender policing. Further, four strategies emerge in the data which reveal how individuals negotiate and navigate their gendered self-presentation online, either in an agentic manner or as a protective measure. Originality/value While much research exists on online self-presentation, gender(s) has been under-researched in a digital context. Existing studies examine the content of social media pages (e.g. Facebook profiles or women’s Instagram pages) as it relates to gender, but largely do not explore the lived experiences and narratives of individuals as they negotiate their gendered expressions. In addition, the use of visual data through the collage technique adds valuable insight into how gender is experienced and performed. Findings reveal that while Millennials are often touted as a gender-fluid generation, tensions still exist in online gendered expressions.
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This research demonstrates how a media performer's self-disclosure in a parasocial interaction increases viewers' likelihood to agree with the performer's message. Two randomized experiments supported a serial multiple mediator model where a performer's self-disclosure positively affected viewers' message acceptance via increased perceptions of performer authenticity and feelings of interpersonal liking. In Study 1 (n = 415), participants were randomly assigned to watch a short video where the performer, a male college student, either engaged in self-disclosure or did not while presenting a prosocial, mental health-related message. Throughout both versions of the video (self-disclosure, no-disclosure), the performer gazed and spoke directly into the camera and addressed the viewer's presence, thereby engaging in parasocial interaction. Study 2 (n = 520) was a close conceptual replication of Study 1 and provided additional support for the serial multiple mediator model.
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Self-determination theory has shaped our understanding of what optimizes worker motivation by providing insights into how work context influences basic psychological needs for competence, autonomy and relatedness. As technological innovations change the nature of work, self-determination theory can provide insight into how the resulting uncertainty and interdependence might influence worker motivation, performance and well-being. In this Review, we summarize what self-determination theory has brought to the domain of work and how it is helping researchers and practitioners to shape the future of work. We consider how the experiences of job candidates are influenced by the new technologies used to assess and select them, and how self-determination theory can help to improve candidate attitudes and performance during selection assessments. We also discuss how technology transforms the design of work and its impact on worker motivation. We then describe three cases where technology is affecting work design and examine how this might influence needs satisfaction and motivation: remote work, virtual teamwork and algorithmic management. An understanding of how future work is likely to influence the satisfaction of the psychological needs of workers and how future work can be designed to satisfy such needs is of the utmost importance to worker performance and well-being. Technology is changing the nature of work by enabling new forms of automation and communication. In this Review, Gagné et al. describe how self-determination theory can help researchers and practitioners to shape the future of work to ensure that it meets the psychological needs of workers.
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Chapter
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Chapter
This chapter proposes to discuss the application of authentic leadership as the ‘vehicle' forward for tourism. Specifically, how authentic leaders in the tourism industry can help achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and why they are important to the Tasmanian tourism industry. As such, the authors propose the research question: How can authentic leadership enable the sustainable development of tourism in Tasmania? This chapter commences by exploring tourism in Tasmania and the related leadership gap found in the industry, followed by a brief explanation of our critical review method. The literature review then examines how tourism, a diverse industry, has the potential to contribute to the United Nation's SDGs. The authors aim to demonstrate how sound authentic leadership behaviours among tourist vendors facilitate ethical employment practices and economic growth in Tasmania. Finally, the chapter explores the possible implications of a synthesis of authentic leadership and sustainable development in the context of Tasmania.
Chapter
A relatively recent emphasis on increased authenticity in the workplace has opened conversations that have previously been considered out-of-bounds within organizational dialogue. With this emphasis has come an invitation for employees to bring their “whole self” to work. An individual's religious beliefs and spiritual inclinations are often at the heart of their so-called true self. Thus, as organizations have encouraged greater authenticity, discussions regarding religiosity and spirituality have followed. While there are some inherent dangers in incorporating religiosity and spirituality into the workplace, the primary purpose of this chapter is to show three natural ways in which these important parts of an individual's identity can be—or already are being—situated into existing and accepted areas of research. Thus, this theoretical piece provides a brief examination of the literature in the fields of positive organizational behavior, meaningful work, and employee engagement and will, in the process, analyze areas of crossover between these and religiosity and spirituality.
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The aim of the research was to investigate the effect of cyberostracism on state authenticity. For this purpose, I conducted two experimental studies using the Cyberball paradigm. The research revealed that ostracism activated using the Cyberball procedure decreased both in-game and post-game authenticity, though in the latter case the effect was clearly weaker and associated mainly with the affective aspects of authenticity. Moreover, Study 1 (N = 87, 65.5% women, Mage = 21.37 years, SDage = 1.55) showed that basic need satisfaction mediated the effect of cyberostracism on state authenticity, while Study 2 (N = 184, 66.8% women, Mage = 21.53 years, SDage = 1.54) revealed that rejection anxiety moderated the effects of cyberostracism on most measures of post-game authenticity. These findings are consistent both with the results of previous studies showing the detrimental impact of social rejection on different aspects of the self and with the recent conceptualizations of authenticity highlighting its interpersonal sources.
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Can people accurately perceive who is authentic? Laypeople believe they can tell who is authentic, and they report that authenticity is an important attribute in others (Studies 1a and 1b; N = 369). However, when we directly tested the accuracy of perceived authenticity, we found no significant correlation between self- and other-rated authenticity in two cohorts of adult students in randomly assigned teams (Studies 2 and 3; 4,040 self-other observations). In addition, we found that perceived authenticity was biased in two ways: (a) Other-rated authenticity showed a positivity bias compared with self-ratings, and (b) other-rated authenticity was biased by the rater's own authenticity. In Study 3, we also investigated authenticity meta-perceptions; although people expect their authenticity to be accurately perceived by others, their meta-perceptions did not correlate with other-rated authenticity. That is, beliefs about the visibility of one's authenticity are similarly not accurate. Overall, we found no evidence that people can accurately identify who is authentic.
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Being oneself in interpersonal relationships has many benefits, but research has yet to distinguish between (intrapersonal) feelings of authenticity and (interpersonal) authentic behaviors. Four studies developed and tested a scale designed to measure two types of self-expression: authentic and inauthentic. Findings consistently validated a two-factor structure: there were two distinct forms of expressing oneself, authentic and inauthentic. Findings consistently demonstrated that authentic expression was associated with positive need satisfaction and well-being outcomes, while inauthentic expression was associated with less autonomy satisfaction and greater negative affect. While authentic expression had consistent positive effects, inauthentic expression was more nuanced, suggesting it may not be wholly negative.
Preprint
BACKGROUND Loneliness, or perceived social isolation, is prevalent in both the general population and clinical practice. Although loneliness has repeatedly been associated with mental and physical health, research on interventions that reduce loneliness effectively is still rather scarce. OBJECTIVE This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of a guided and an unguided version of the same internet-based cognitive behavioral self-help program for loneliness (SOLUS-D) for adults. METHODS A total of 250 participants will be randomly assigned to either of two intervention groups (SOLUS-D with guidance or SOLUS-D without guidance) or a waitlist control group (2:2:1 allocation ratio). Adult participants suffering from high levels of loneliness will be recruited from the general population. Individuals with current severe depression or ongoing severe substance use disorder, previous or current bipolar or psychotic disorder, or acute suicidality will be excluded from the trial. Assessments take place at baseline, 5 (mid-treatment) and 10 weeks (post-treatment). The primary outcome is loneliness assessed with the 9-item UCLA Loneliness Scale at post-treatment. Secondary outcomes include depressive symptoms, symptoms of social anxiety, satisfaction with life, social network size, and variables assessing cognitive bias and social behavior. The maintenance of potentially achieved gains will be assessed and compared at 6 and 12 months after randomization in the two active conditions. Potential moderators and mediators will be tested exploratorily. Data will be analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis. RESULTS Recruitment and data collection started in May 2021 and is expected to be completed by 2022, with the 12-month follow-ups to be completed by 2023. As of the submission of the manuscript, 134 participants are randomized. CONCLUSIONS This three-arm randomized controlled trial will add to existing research on the efficacy of loneliness interventions. Furthermore, it will shed light on the role of human guidance in internet-based treatments for lonely individuals and possible mechanisms of change. If SOLUS-D proves effective, it could provide a low-threshold, cost-efficient way to help and support lonely individuals. CLINICALTRIAL The trial was registered on December 7, 2020, at ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04655196; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04655196. In case of important protocol modifications, trial registration will be updated.
Article
This study explored the associations among relational uncertainty, relational turbulence, dyadic synchrony, and cohabitation status among newlyweds. Marriage is a highly desired institution across racial groups, gender identities, sexual orientations, and socioeconomic status. However, divorce rates remain high and marital problems early in the relationship are more predictive of dissolution. We developed a preliminary instrument to test dyadic synchrony, an outcome variable within relational turbulence theory (RTT). EFA results suggested a two‐factor measure of dyadic synchrony: conversational comfort and ease and communication coordination and authenticity. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to investigate direct and indirect theoretical associations among relational uncertainty, relational turbulence, and dyadic synchrony. An online survey was administered to a sample of newlyweds (N = 234) through Amazon's MTurk. Results indicated that relational uncertainty and turbulence, predicted dyadic synchrony; turbulence also mediated these associations. Finally, results indicated no differences between premarital and marital cohabiters' experiences of relational uncertainty, turbulence, and dyadic synchrony. The study results offer theoretical and methodological insights as well as translational implications for newlyweds, family systems, and clinicians. If couples and their support systems view relational uncertainty and turbulence as a likelihood, this could help normalize their experiences and remove feelings of worry, shame, and guilt. Moreover, clinicians working with partners in premarital counseling or couples therapy could incorporate these findings into treatment such that partners could better adjust expectations, build awareness, and develop conflict resolution and strong communication skills.
Chapter
This chapter proposes to discuss the application of authentic leadership as the ‘vehicle' forward for tourism. Specifically, how authentic leaders in the tourism industry can help achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and why they are important to the Tasmanian tourism industry. As such, the authors propose the research question: How can authentic leadership enable the sustainable development of tourism in Tasmania? This chapter commences by exploring tourism in Tasmania and the related leadership gap found in the industry, followed by a brief explanation of our critical review method. The literature review then examines how tourism, a diverse industry, has the potential to contribute to the United Nation's SDGs. The authors aim to demonstrate how sound authentic leadership behaviours among tourist vendors facilitate ethical employment practices and economic growth in Tasmania. Finally, the chapter explores the possible implications of a synthesis of authentic leadership and sustainable development in the context of Tasmania.
Article
Objective: People differ in how they regulate their emotions, and how they do so is guided by their beliefs about emotion. We propose that social power - one's perceived influence over others - relates to one's beliefs about emotion and to emotion regulation. More powerful people are characterized as authentic and uninhibited, which should translate to the belief that one should not have to control one's emotions and, in turn, less suppression and more acceptance. More powerful people are also characterized as self-efficacious and confident, which should translate to the belief that one can control one's emotions and, in turn, more reappraisal and acceptance. Method: Two preregistered studies using four samples (Ntotal =1,286) tested these hypotheses using cross-sectional and longitudinal surveys as well as diaries. Results: In Study 1, power related to beliefs about emotion and emotion regulation in hypothesized ways. Study 2 also largely supported the hypotheses: The belief that one should not have to control one's emotions accounted for the links between power and suppression and acceptance, whereas the belief that one can control one's emotions accounted for the link between power and reappraisal. Conclusion: Power and emotion regulation are interconnected, in part because of their links with beliefs about emotions.
Article
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Research suggests that trait introverts feel more authentic when acting extraverted. We explored boundaries of this idea by assessing trait and identities as introvert or extravert and asking participants to debate extraversion’s value. Students (Study 1: N = 310, Study 2 direct replication: N = 407) were randomly assigned to pro or con sides in the debate and then reported their state authenticity and affect. Results suggested interactions between individual differences (trait, identity) and debate condition on authenticity. Counter-dispositional and counter-identity debating decreased authenticity, though with variation in strength across studies. Affect did not follow this pattern. These findings provide preliminary evidence for the importance of trait-related identities and suggest limits to the benefits of embracing counter-dispositional extraversion.
Article
This study uses the full-range leadership model to argue that on days when leaders engage in transformational leadership behaviors, they identify follower strengths and stimulate followers to show personal initiative. We propose that transformational leadership is related to follower work engagement and performance through follower strengths use and personal initiative. Moreover, we hypothesize that followers' personal initiative is most effective when followers use their strengths. A total of 57 Norwegian naval cadets filled out a diary booklet for 30 days (response = 72.6%; n = 1242). Multilevel modeling analyses largely supported our hypotheses. On the days when leaders used transformational leadership behaviors such as intellectual stimulation and individual consideration, followers were more likely to use their strengths and take initiative. These behaviors, in turn, predicted next-day work engagement and next-day job performance. Moreover, followers’ personal initiative was particularly related to work engagement when strengths use was high rather than low. We discuss how these findings contribute to the leadership literature by showing how leaders inspire their followers to lead themselves. In addition, we elaborate on the practical implications for leadership training.
Preprint
Research suggests that trait introverts feel more authentic when acting extraverted. We explored boundaries of this idea by assessing trait and identities as introvert or extravert and asking participants to debate extraversion’s value. Students (Study 1: N = 310, Study 2 direct replication: N = 407) were randomly assigned to pro or con sides in the debate and then reported their state authenticity and affect. Results suggested interactions between individual differences (trait, identity) and debate condition on authenticity. Counter-dispositional and counter-identity debating decreased authenticity, though with variation in strength across studies. Affect did not follow this pattern. These findings provide preliminary evidence for the importance of trait-related identities and suggest limits to the benefits of embracing counter-dispositional extraversion.
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Erikson’s (1959, 1968) theory of personality provides the context for most recent work on identity formation. The extent to which identity research actually is based on Erikson’s theoretical views is at least questionable, as Looft (1973) noted: Erikson’s concepts are being operationalized and tested by increasing numbers of researchers…. Most typically, however, any mention of Erikson’s theory in research reports is to be found in the “Discussion” section; it is used as a sort of after-the-fact framework in which to discuss data already obtained. (pp. 40–41) Looft was referring specifically to the utilization of Marcia’s (1966) identity-status approach. The status paradigm continues to be the most prevalent means of operationalizing identity formation (Berzonsky, 1981; Bourne, 1978; Marcia, 1980; Waterman, 1982) and it continues to be criticized. For example, Blasi (1987) argues that status classifications distort and trivialize Eriksonian identity processes. Blasi (1987) is correct, of course. But similar criticisms could be leveled at most attempts to operationalize psychological processes and constructs; at the very least, some degree of conceptual richness gets lost in the translation. Yet, operationalize we must, if empirical research is going to be the basis for investigating identity (see Berzonsky, 1986a, 1986b). When Marcia’s paradigm is considered as a heuristic for generating research, its track record is quite good, even impressive.
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Theoretical work (Deci & Ryan, 1987) has implicated causality orientations as potential moderators of defensive attributions. The present study examined whether autonomy and control orientations moderate the attributional tendency to take more responsibility for success than failure. We examined both additive and synergistic models of the effect of causality orientations on self-serving attributions. We found that this self-serving bias disappeared for those with the unique combination of a high autonomy orientation and a low control orientation, thereby supporting a synergistic model. It was also shown that self-serving attribution was stronger for performance on a skill task than on a chance task.
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The aim of this study was to investigate interrelationships among the identity negotiation styles that people use, the cognitive and behavioural strategies they deploy, and their sense of subjective well-being. To examine this, 198 American and 109 Finnish college students completed the Identity Style Inventory, the Strategy and Attribution Questionnaire, Rosenberg’s Self-esteem Scale, and the revised Beck’s Depression Inventory. Results showed that people with an information-oriented identity style reported the highest level of self-esteem, those with a normative style had the most stable self-conceptions, and those with a diffuse/avoidant style displayed the highest level of depressive symptomatology. Moreover, dysfunctional cognitive and attributional strategies, such as expecting to fail and engaging in task-irrelevant behaviour, were associated with low self-esteem, unstable self-conceptions, and depressive symptomatology. Finally, the associations between identity processing styles and well-being were found to be mediated by the cognitive strategies that people deploy.
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For theoretical and empirical reasons, researchers may combine item-level re - sponses into aggregate item parcels to use as indicators in a structural equation modeling context. Yet the effects of specific parceling strategies on parameter esti - mation and model fit are not known. In Study 1, different parceling combinations meaningfully affected parameter estimates and fit indicators in two organiza- tional data sets. Based on the concept of external consistency, the authors pro- posed that combining items that shared an unmodeled secondary influence into the same parcel (shared uniqueness strategy) would enhance the accuracy of pa- rameter estimates. This proposal was supported in Study 2, using simulated data generated from a known model. When the unmodeled secondary influence was re- lated to indicators of only one latent construct, the shared uniqueness parceling strategy resulted in more accurate parameter estimates. When indicators of both target latent constructs were contaminated, bias was present but appropriately signaled by worsened fit statistics.