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Effects of personality and threat of evaluation on divergent and convergent thinking

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Abstract

This study explores the effects of the Big Five personality traits and threat of evaluation on divergent and convergent thinking in a sample of 82 UK students. Results showed that Openness and Extraversion predicted divergent thinking under both threat of evaluation and no evaluation, whilst Neuroticism correlated significantly with divergent thinking (negatively) only under threat of evaluation. However, mediational analysis showed that the effects of Neuroticism on divergent thinking under threat of evaluation were fully accounted for by Extraversion. Thus neurotics’ divergent thinking was significantly more impaired because they were more introverted. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

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... Few empirical studies link personality traits to cocreation; many more call for further research on this topic (Merz et al., 2018;Wu, 2011;Zhang et al., 2018). Considerable literature identifies the effects of personality traits on other constructs, such as divergent thinking (Chamorro-Premuzic and Reichenbacher, 2008), word-ofmouth (Ferguson et al., 2010) or relationship formation (Bove and Mitzifiris, 2007). The mixed results indicate significant effects of personality traits on behaviours (Chamorro-Premuzic and Reichenbacher, 2008;Ferguson et al., 2010) or not (Bove and Mitzifiris, 2007;Sergeeva and Radosavljevic, 2012). ...
... Considerable literature identifies the effects of personality traits on other constructs, such as divergent thinking (Chamorro-Premuzic and Reichenbacher, 2008), word-ofmouth (Ferguson et al., 2010) or relationship formation (Bove and Mitzifiris, 2007). The mixed results indicate significant effects of personality traits on behaviours (Chamorro-Premuzic and Reichenbacher, 2008;Ferguson et al., 2010) or not (Bove and Mitzifiris, 2007;Sergeeva and Radosavljevic, 2012). Accordingly, the current research explores the influence of the commonly used "Big Five" personality trait taxonomy (John and Srivastava, 1999) on participation and citizenship behaviours. ...
... This point helps explain some of the surprising findings from Study 1. For example, extraversion has a negative effect on users' participation behaviours during co-creation, which seems counterintuitive, in that an extraverted, outgoing personality often has been positively associated with idea creation, divergent thinking and engagementall positive indicators of co-creation (Chamorro-Premuzic and Reichenbacher, 2008;Mondak et al., 2010;Sergeeva and Radosavljevic, 2012). However, as discussed in Study 1, extraverted people can also be dominant and overly talkative (Toegel and Barsoux, 2012), two compound traits listed in Figure 4 of users not likely to co-create. ...
Article
Purpose This paper investigates factors that determine users’ behaviours during services co-creation, as well as those that influence their engagement in such efforts. Design/methodology/approach Study 1 relies on partial least squares structural equation modelling and between-subjects, scenario-based experiments with 633 participants to examine users’ co-creation behaviours. Study 2 uses interactive research workshops with 38 design professionals to analyse the drivers and inhibitors of users’ co-creation engagement and the likelihood of different user types to engage in it. Findings Dispositional and demographic factors can predict users’ behaviours during services co-creation. A proposed framework details drivers and inhibitors of users’ engagement in co-creation, and a typology predicts the likelihood of different users to engage in co-creation, based on their traits and demographics. This likelihood to co-create, according to traits, then can be predicted according to elemental, compound and situational traits. Practical implications Service providers and service designers can use these findings to design better co-creation activities for various users, build a conducive working environment and select suitable participants for co-creation activities. Originality/value The current study addresses the dearth of research pertaining to how to encourage users to co-create services and drive their engagement in such efforts.
... The projects that the students worked on were innovative and creative in nature as students created a product that solves their client's unique problem. What's unique about design, innovation and creativity projects is that they all have convergent thinking and divergent thinking phases (Du Preez & Louw, 2008;Goldschmidt, 2016;Chamorro-Premuzic & Reichenbacher, 2008). Dym et al. (Dym, Agogino, Eris, Frey, & Leifer, 2005) argued that design thinking is characterized as an iterative loop of divergent and convergent thinking (p. ...
... Moreover, the pedagogical approach used in the course is similar to that of problem based learning, a pedagogical approach that provides students with a problem or a project to solve, guides students through an iterative process of divergent and convergent inquiry and decision making (Khalaf et al., 2013). The personality trait of Openness to experience is associated with divergent thinking, and it has no association with convergent thinking (Chamorro-Premuzic & Reichenbacher, 2008). In the course understudy students were required to develop concepts as well as develop prototypes, which means that they had to go through an iterative process of divergent and convergent thinking to make their designs a reality. ...
... In the course understudy students were required to develop concepts as well as develop prototypes, which means that they had to go through an iterative process of divergent and convergent thinking to make their designs a reality. Although Chamorro et al. (Chamorro-Premuzic & Reichenbacher, 2008) findings doesn't quite provide an explanation for the negative relationship between openness to experience and students' intellectual project ownership in the course under study as they didn't find any relationship between openness to experience and convergent thinking, it does provide guidance for future research to investigate the interaction between students' personality traits and the different phases of creative design projects. ...
Conference Paper
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The increasing presence of makerspaces in university campuses is encouraging engineering educators to incorporate making activities and projects to their curriculum. Making activities and projects allow engineering educators to offer students authentic, experiential learning opportunities that foster collaboration, creativity and innovation and can help students develop critical skills such as teamwork, problem solving, research, and entrepreneurial, leadership and management skills. This current study explores the impact of students' grit and project ownership on their learning outcomes over and beyond students' Big-Five personality traits in a cornerstone engineering design course that is based on making projects. The results indicate that grit as a higher-order construct is not associated with students' academic success or level of contribution in their team's projects in a collaborative, authentic learning environment. Also, the results indicate that the personality traits of agreeableness, extraversion along with students' adaptability to changes in life circumstances is associated with their development of intellectual and emotional ownership of their making projects. However, project ownership was not associated with students' academic success or level of contribution to their team's projects.
... Among many of the test takers' characteristics, the two major components of intelligence, crystallized and fluid intelligence in Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model of intelligence seem to have not been investigated for the effects they have on the test format performance; however, general intelligence (g) effects on reading comprehension (having MC items) have been measured and proved in the literature IJALEL 7(1):163-176 (Ekstrand, 1977;Ghabanchi & Rastegar, 2014;Lohnes & Gray, 1972). Messick (1987) highlights that MC questions emphasize memory and convergent thinking which according to Chamorro-Premuzic and Reichenbacher (2008) is required by intelligence. Solving well-defined and rational problems with one correct answer requires convergent thinking (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996). ...
... Throughout research, it has been proved that intelligence predicts learning in general (Chamorro-Premuzic, 2007). As mentioned by Oller (1981), language ability has a deep relationship with intelligence as a result of intelligence tests having a deep language component in them. ...
... Convergent thinking, according to Messick (1987) influences MC items performance. Intelligence needs convergent thinking (Chamorro-Premuzic & Reichenbacher, 2008) and Guilford (1967) consideres divergent thinking as a component of creativity. In CHC theory, intelligence consists of Gf and Gc. ...
Article
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Studies have been done on finding construct-irrelevant factors and cognitive processes involved in test taking. Previous studies have explored correlations between reading comprehension (RC) ability and psychological variables such as creativity and intelligence reporting significant relations. Many researchers trying to figure out the difference between diverse formats performance. The present study takes interest in investigating if each test format performance is affected by cognitive traits of test takers. It investigates the effects of three psychological variables including Fluid intelligence (Gf), Crystallized intelligence (gc), and creativity (C) on reading comprehension (RC) performance where Multiple-Choice (MC) and Constructed-Response (CR) formats are involved for English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Learners. The relations among all five variables are examined applying Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) by hypothesizing a model related to the previous researches. The model goes through modifications twice and the final revision reports the relationships. Path analysis demonstrates direct significant effects in paths for Gc-MC, Gc-CR, Gf-CR and indirect significant effects in Gf-MC, creativity-MC, and creativity-CR. Therefore, CR items are the most affected format by those cognitive variables. The results are further discussed and concluded in more details.
... Although when applying different scales, the impact of Big Five personality on insight problem solving may differ (e.g., Stanciu & Papasteri, 2018), the importance of Big Five personality are worth noting. Results of insight problem solving studies have revealed extraversion and openness are significantly correlated with creative problem solving in insight tasks, whereas neuroticism is negatively correlated with creative problem solving when participants are under evaluation stress (Chamorro-Premuzic & Reichenbacher, 2008). Openness to experience is assumed to be related to the richness of ideas, which facilitates insight problem solving (Batey et al., 2010). ...
... Participants with a lower level of neuroticism performed better in insight problem solving than those with a higher level of neuroticism. These findings are in line with the results concerning Big Five personality traits, divergent thinking, (e.g., Batey et al., 2010;Lin et al., 2012) and insight problem solving (e.g., Chamorro-Premuzic & Reichenbacher, 2008;Sava et al., 2012). More importantly, the findings suggest participants who scored high in conscientiousness and low in neuroticism may have a higher level of mindfulness during insight problem solving and apply appropriate strategies during challenges. ...
... The five-factor model or the big five personality traits of personality is commonly used framework to investigate the role of employees' creativity based on their personality types (Yao & Li, 2020;Puryear et al., 2017). Majority of the results have identified that openness to experience and extraversion are highly correlated with the creativity (Chamorro-Premuzic & Reichenbacher, 2008;King et al., 1996). ...
... Finally, individuals with high Neuroticism (NEU) are defensive, emotional, and tended to be anxious in behavior. Some studies have found negative and/or insignificant relationship between NEU and creativity (Chamorro-Premuzic & Reichenbacher, 2008;King et al., 1996). Because, creativity is normally an outcome of emotional stability, where intuition, logical, and objective thinking are strong motivators of creativity. ...
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Innovation in an organization is the outcome of creative ideas, as accomplishment of new products and services development, implementation of new programs that are highly dependent on new ideas generated by its organizational members. Organizational members show their creativity by not only proposing new ideas on products and services, but also with some manufacturing methods and administrative practices. Stimulation of employee creativity leads to the growing competitiveness of firms in the market. Psychological studies identified various types of personality traits that drive employee creativity in working environment. However, personality-employee creativity relationship must be enriched with an inclusion of other factors. The link between these two is worthy to be studied in working environments, where firm performance is highly determined by employee creativity. This research includes not only openness to experience and extraversion separately, but also the other personality traits. It provides a comprehensive insight into innovation and creativity of its organizational members. Moreover, both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation are included in investigation, in the context of Highperforming organizations in the Middle East. The results show that among the Big Five Traits, openness, conscientiousness, and extraversion are positively related to organizational Innovation and creativity, whereas neuroticism is negatively related to organizational Innovation and creativity.
... Some researchers argue that due to the lack of a general creativity skill, tests of creativity ability are missing validity [3]. Further, creativity tests are timeconsuming (having a completion time of up to 45 minutes), test results can be furthermore error-prone (biased by test anxiety) and also be biased by an evaluator's cognitive abilities (due to the limited information processing and memory capabilities of human beings) [9,27,48]. Throughout several decades of research on creativity, various investigators emphasized the "creative personality" and suggested to focus on the creative person rather than solely on the creative process, as personality traits predictably relate to creative achievement [2,18,22,44]. ...
... In another study from 2008 by Chamorro-Premuzic and Reichenbacher, the researchers assessed whether personality traits affect participants' performance differently under stressful and calm conditions. The researchers found out that neuroticism correlated significantly with divergent thinking (negatively) only under threat of evaluation [9]. Thus, a candidate's test results can be error-prone or influence their creative thinking, depending on the environment a person conducts a test (e.g. in an Assessment Centre). ...
Conference Paper
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Optimal composition of teams is an issue most enterprises face. Research conducted on this topic has identified personality as one of the key factors influencing team performance. The Big Five model, a framework for assessing personality, has standardized five personality traits, of which openness is reported to have a positive relationship with creativity. Creativity is regarded as one of the most relevant qualities for innovation. However, creativity as an ability manifested by performance on creativity tests is associated with difficulties. We therefore present cognitive systems as an alternative way, to not only find creative potential but also as a strategy to enhance team composition. Within our pilot study, we attempted to find a linkage between variables of creativity tests and the Big Five personality traits. Although our findings showed no salient correlations between these variables, we believe that automated personality mining tools would outperform creativity tests in the long run.
... Метааналитичком студијом показано је да неуротицизам, екстраверзија и отвореност ка искуству позитивно корелирају са креативношћу, док су пријатност и савесност негативно повезане са креативним потенцијалом (Feist, 1998). Налази досадашњих истраживања указују на то да флуентност идеја мерена помоћу задатака дивергентне продукције значајно позитивно корелира с екстраверзијом и отвореношћу, док са пријатношћу остварује негативну корелацију (Chamorro-Premuzic & Reichenbacher, 2008;Furnham & Bachtiar, 2008;. ...
... Даље, показало се да нижа пријатност предвиђа веће постигнуће на задатку дивергентног мишљења, а на маргинално значајном нивоу и већу тенденцију ка креативном понашању. Овај налаз такође је у складу са резултатима досадашњих студија Chamorro-Premuzic & Reichenbacher, 2008;Feist, 1998;Furnham & Bachtiar, 2008;. Испоставило се да особе које су склоније индивидуалности, самосвесности и нонконформизму не само што манифестују бољу успешност на задатку дивергентног мишљења, већ имају и израженија креативна интересовања. ...
... The 64 stimulus faces are randomly shuffled and compiled into a visual questionnaire. When conducting the questionnaires, each face is displayed for five seconds, sufficiently enough for a respondent to reach a decision [35,36]. A blank screen, lasting for two seconds, is shown between consecutive faces to remove residual stimuli. ...
... A face is rated as perceived asymmetrically normal (or PAN) if the answer to Q1 is NO and the The 64 stimulus faces are randomly shuffled and compiled into a visual questionnaire. When conducting the questionnaires, each face is displayed for five seconds, sufficiently enough for a respondent to reach a decision [35,36]. A blank screen, lasting for two seconds, is shown between consecutive faces to remove residual stimuli. ...
Article
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In cosmetic surgery, bridging the anticipation gap between the patients and the physicians can be challenging if there lacks objective and transparent information exchange during the decision-making and surgical process. Among all factors, facial symmetry is the most important for assessing facial attractiveness. The aim of this work is to promote communications between the two parties by providing a quadruple of quantitative measurements: overall asymmetry index (oAI), asymmetry vector, classification, and confidence vector, using an artificial neural network classifier to model people’s perception acquired from visual questionnaires concerning facial asymmetry. The questionnaire results exhibit a Cronbach’s Alpha value of 0.94 and categorize the respondents’ perception of each stimulus face into perceived normal (PN), perceived asymmetrically normal (PAN), and perceived abnormal (PA) categories. The trained classifier yields an overall root mean squared error < 0.01, and its result shows that the oAI is, in general, proportional to the degree of perceived asymmetry. However, there exist faces that are difficult to classify as either PN or PAN or either PAN or PA with competing confidence values. In such cases, oAI alone is not sufficient to articulate facial asymmetry. Assisting surgeon–patient conversations with the proposed asymmetry quadruple is advised to avoid or to mitigate potential medical disputes.
... Recent studies have focused on personal traits such as emotional intelligence (Petrides, Furnham, & Martin, 2004), general human performance (Furnham, von Stumm, Makendrayogan, & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2009), attention (Menglekamp & Jager, 2007) and creativity (Putwain et al., 2012). Some of the previous studies have addressed the subject of how related are the personality factors to creativity, and suggested that the personality structures especially such as the extroversion (Batey, Furnham, & Safiullina, 2010;Chamorro-Premuzic & Reichenbacher, 2008;Furnham, Crump, Batey, & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2009), being conscientious (Feist, 1998) and neuroticism (Chamorro-Premuzic & Reichenbacher, 2008; have a positive correlation with creativeness. However, such studies have generally been interested in the classical creativeness domains such as music, arts and literature (Batey & Furnham, 2006;Runco, 2004). ...
... Recent studies have focused on personal traits such as emotional intelligence (Petrides, Furnham, & Martin, 2004), general human performance (Furnham, von Stumm, Makendrayogan, & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2009), attention (Menglekamp & Jager, 2007) and creativity (Putwain et al., 2012). Some of the previous studies have addressed the subject of how related are the personality factors to creativity, and suggested that the personality structures especially such as the extroversion (Batey, Furnham, & Safiullina, 2010;Chamorro-Premuzic & Reichenbacher, 2008;Furnham, Crump, Batey, & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2009), being conscientious (Feist, 1998) and neuroticism (Chamorro-Premuzic & Reichenbacher, 2008; have a positive correlation with creativeness. However, such studies have generally been interested in the classical creativeness domains such as music, arts and literature (Batey & Furnham, 2006;Runco, 2004). ...
Article
The present study investigated the correlation between the personality traits of the university students who wereengaged in sports and the ones who were not engaged in sports, and their domains of creativity. A total number of593 students studying in the faculty of sports sciences and in other departments were included the study. As the datacollection tools, “Revised/Shortened Form Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-RS)” and “Kaufman Domainsof Creativity Scale” (K-DOCS) were used in the present study. When the creativity and personality traits of thefemale and male students were compared, it was found out that the neuroticism points of female students were foundto be higher comparing to the male students. While the male students had higher points in in the domains of scholarlycreativity, mechanical/scientific creativity, artistic and psychoticism, the female students were found to have scoredhigher points in the other domains. When the creativity and personality traits of the students who were engaged insports and those of the students who were not engaged in sports were compared, the extroverted characteristics werefound higher and psychoticism characteristics were lower of the individuals engaged in sports, while no differencewas found in other domains. Consequently, it could be said that female students were more neurotic, that theindividuals engaged in sports were more extroverted compared to the ones not engaged in sports, and that malestudents have higher points compared to the female students in the domains of scholarly, mechanical/scientific,artistic and psychoticism.
... Past research on openness and creativity is highly dependent on measures of divergent thinking (e.g., Batey, Chamorro-Premuzic, & Furnham, 2009, 2010aBender, Nibbelink, Towner-Thyrum, & Vredenburg, 2013;Chamorro-Premuzic & Reichenbacher, 2008;Furnham, Batey, Anand, & Manfield, 2008;Furnham, Crump, & Swami, 2008Scratchley & Hakstian, 2000Walker & Jackson, 2014). These studies use divergent thinking as a proxy for creativity suggesting that openness is a significant predictor of creativity with correlations 9 typically ranging from 0.16 -0.66. ...
... Indeed, previous studies on the MIP-G model and on creativity are often conducted in laboratory settings, with student samples and hypothetical tasks (e.g. Bechtoldt, De Dreu, Nijstad, & Choi, 2010;Brophy, 2006;Chamorro-Premuzic & Reichenbacher, 2008;Dugosh, Paulus, Roland, & Yang, 2000;Garfield, Taylor, Dennis, & Satsinger, 2001;Litchfield, 2009;McGlynn, McGurk, Effland, Johll, & Harding, 2004;Rietzschel et al., 2006). This is understandable from a practical point of view. ...
... The researchers confirmed the relationships between creativity and selected dimensions of personality from the Big Five model. Divergent thinking proved to be connected with Openness to Experience and Extraversion (positive correlations) and Agreeableness (negative correlations) ( Batey et al. 2009, Chamorro-Premuzic & Reichenbacher 2008, Furnham & Bachtiar 2008. In the research using inventories of creative achievements, the relationship between creativity, Extraversion and Openness to Experience has also been shown ( Batey et al. 2010, Furnham & Bachtiar 2008. ...
Article
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The aim of the current study is showing the personality predictors for the literary creativity in early adulthood. The material from 357 participants was analyzed. About 50% of them undertook the literary creativity, they write poems, stories, novels. Two personality questionnaires (ACL, KANH-III) were used to assess personality traits potentially associated with creative personality. Logistic regression was used to find the personality predictors. The dependent variable was binary coded: literary activity vs lack of literary activity; the independent variables were Potency, Assertiveness, Sociability, Individuality (ACL) and Conformity-Non-conformity (KANH). Results showed that the significant predictors for the literary creativity in women are Non-conformity and Individuality, low level of Potency, low level of Assertiveness. The significant predictors for the literary creativity in men are high level of Conformity and high level of Assertiveness.
... The researchers confirmed the relationships between creativity and selected dimensions of personality from the Big Five model. Divergent thinking proved to be connected with Openness to Experience and Extraversion (positive correlations) and Agreeableness (negative correlations) ( Batey et al. 2009, Chamorro-Premuzic & Reichenbacher 2008, Furnham & Bachtiar 2008. In the research using inventories of creative achievements, the relationship between creativity, Extraversion and Openness to Experience has also been shown ( Batey et al. 2010, Furnham & Bachtiar 2008. ...
Article
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p align="center">Celem niniejszej pracy jest odnalezienie osobowościowych predyktorów podejmowania twórczości literackiej w okresie wczesnej dorosłości. Do analizy włączono wyniki łącznie 357 osób. Około połowa z nich podejmuje aktywność literacką, czyli pisze wiersze, opowiadania, powieści. Do pomiaru cech osobowości potencjalnie związanych z osobowością twórczą wykorzystano dwa kwestionariusze osobowości (ACL, KANH-III). Aby odnaleźć osobowościowe predyktory podejmowania twórczości literackiej przeprowadzono regresję logistyczną. Zmienna zależna miała charakter binarny: aktywność literacka vs brak aktywności literackiej; zmiennymi niezależnymi były: Siła , Asertywność , Towarzyskość , Indywidualizm (ACL) oraz konformizm - nonkonformizm (KANH). Wyniki pokazały, że istotnymi predyktorami podejmowania twórczości literackiej przez kobiety jest wysoki poziom Nonkonformizmu oraz Indywidualizmu a także niski poziom Siły i A sertywności . Istotnymi predyktorami podejmowania twórczości literackiej przez mężczyzn jest wysoki poziom Konformizmu oraz wysoki poziom Asertywności .</p
... -1069King, Walker ve Broyles 1996: 189-203;Sen ve Hagtvet, 1993: 497-498;Wuthrich ve Bates, 2001: 783798). Özellikle ıraksak düşünmenin en büyük belirleyicilerinden birisi deneyime açıklıktır (Chamorro-Premuzic ve Reichenbahcer 2008: 1095-1101 (Ford vd. 2017: 169-191 Bu yüzden de uzman değerlendiricilerin görüşlerinin çeşitli katılımcı grupları tarafından da desteklenmesi gerekmektedir. ...
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The relationship between humor and creativity is assumed to be an indirect relationship in the literature. The effect of direct exposure to humor on creativity has been the subject of very few studies. Previous studies have generally remained on the theoretical basis and focused on the impact of creativity in humor production. In addition, many studies have reported that humor and creativity vary depending on individual differences. In the present study, the two experiments were conducted to investigate the direct effect of humor on creativity and the role of personality traits in this effect. In the first experiment of the study, the images of various humor styles (self-defeating humor vs. self-enhancing humor) were presented to the participants. The participants in different conditions examining these visuals were then asked to generate ideas about how many different ways they could use a cup of water in their creativity task. As a result of the experiment, it was found that exposure to cartoons increased creativity compared to the control group. In addition, the moderator roles of openness to experience and extraversion on the effect of humor styles on creativity were evident. It was found that the humor styles which not correlated with particular personality traits enhanced the effect of these personality traits on creativity. In the second experiment, the extraversion trait and humor styles were manipulated. In this experiment, in which similar methods in the first experiment were applied, the findings of the first experiment were repeated. Furthermore, for the introverted individuals, the extraversion-related cartoons were found to increase creativity, whereas, these cartoons were found to reduce creativity for extraverted individuals. The results of the study shed light on the gap between humor and creativity in the literature. Besides, it is one of the unique studies concerning the manipulation of humor styles. It also has some practical implications for subsequent studies.
... Convergent thinking is characterised by having one correct solution to a clearly defined problem (Guilford, 1957). Most cognitive ability tests, as well as many exams in primary education, measure convergent thinking skills (Chamorro-Premuzic & Reichenbacher, 2008;Cropley, 1967). In contrast, divergent thinking tests have dominated the field of creativity assessment for decades (Runco & Acar, 2012). ...
... The creative personality is characterized by emotional instability, internal motivation, the need for originality, friendliness, flexibility or ambition (Martinsen, 2011). Increased creativity is also associated with a higher degree of openness to experience (Chamorro-Premuzic, Reichenbacher, 2008). In this research, we focused on creative personality that can be perceived as a person that possesses not only openness to experience but three other aspects, namely personality traits associated with creativity ( self-confidence, unconventionality, inventiveness), situational factors of various environments (acceptance of challenge, freedom, spontaneity, risk, engagement), and problem solving (intelligence, divergent thinking, insight, complexity of thinking, independence in thinking). ...
Conference Paper
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The aim of the research was to examine the interrelationships between creativity, resilience and dispositional gratitude in university students (N=286, age m=21.18, SD = 2.16) that were internal students at Pan-European University. In order to measure creative personality, we used the Creative Personality Scale and Openness to experience from NEO-FFI. Resilience was measured by the Resilience Scale and gratitude by the Gratitude Questionnaire. We empirically supported the hypothesis about the positive relationship between resilience and gratitude. Moreover, we found a weak relationship between gratitude and creative personality. We also suggested shared characteristics of creative and resilient personality. Cluster analyses showed three types from which we concluded that lower levels of resilience and gratitude are very important aspects.
... As for the remaining factors, (i.e., Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Agreeableness) the results have been more ambiguous and complex Reiter-Palmon, Illies, & Kobe, 2009;Silvia & Kimbrel, 2010).It has been found that Neuroticism is a positive predictor of artistic creativity but a negative predictor of scientific and daily creativity (Batey & Furnham, 2006) as well as divergent thinking (Chamorro-Premuzic & Reichenbacher, 2008). Finally, Batey, Chamorro-Premuzic, and Furnham (2010) specifically found that the facet vulnerability of Neuroticism was a negative predictor of ideational behavior. ...
Article
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This work aimed at studying the relationship between personality –from the Big Five Personality model– and creativity through different techniques (i.e., a paper and pencil task, and scales) and informants (i.e., the child and parents). We evaluated a sample of 359 Spanish-speaking school children of both genders, aged 9 to 13 years. Personality was assessed with the Argentine Questionnaire of children’s Personality (CAPI). Creativity was evaluated using the following instruments: The Torrance Test of Creative Thinking-Figural Form B; and the Creative Personality Scale (EPC). Pearson correlations and multiple linear regressions consistently showed that Neuroticism negatively relates to creativity while the competence facet does it positively. The results suggest that most creative children would present less vulnerability, irritability and psychological distress, eventually being more independent, competent and emotionally self-regulated to cope with environmental demands.
... As for the remaining factors, (i.e., Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Agreeableness) the results have been more ambiguous and complex Reiter-Palmon, Illies, & Kobe, 2009;Silvia & Kimbrel, 2010).It has been found that Neuroticism is a positive predictor of artistic creativity but a negative predictor of scientific and daily creativity (Batey & Furnham, 2006) as well as divergent thinking (Chamorro-Premuzic & Reichenbacher, 2008). Finally, Batey, Chamorro-Premuzic, and Furnham (2010) specifically found that the facet vulnerability of Neuroticism was a negative predictor of ideational behavior. ...
Article
This work aimed at studying the relationship between personality-from the Big Five Personality model-and creativity through different techniques (i.e., a paper and pencil task, scales and questionnaire) and different informants (i.e., the child himself/herself, parents and peers). We evaluated a sample of 359 Spanish-speaking school children of both genders, aged 9 to 13 years. Personality was assessed with the Argentine
... Creative people have a high tolerance for uncertainty, prefer complex structures and appreciate intellectual challenges (Barron, 1993;Csikszentmihalyi, 1996;Eysenck, 1993), and tend to prefer disturbing, conflicting figural representations (Giannini & Bonaiuto, 1999). Results of most studies show that creativity is positively correlated with Openness to experience (Chamorro-Premuzic & Reichenbacher, 2008;Dollinger, Urban, & James, 2004;Furnham, Crump, Batey, & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2009;McCrae, 1987). Following these findings we defined our second hypothesis: more creative persons will prefer nontraditional, (semi)abstract artworks. ...
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It is often neglected that the experience of artwork is a creative act, and one which requires the audience to be creative. This exploratory study aimed to examine whether creative activity and measures of pe rson`s creativity are correlated with the aesthetic experience of paintings. Eighty-two participants rated 21 paintings, including 7 figural traditional paintings, 7 semi-abstract works, and 7 abstract works. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups. One group first created collages and then rated the paintings on five aesthetic preference scales, while the other group first rated the paintings and then created collages. Multilevel regression analysis with two crossed random effects (participants and paintings) was used. Results showed that performing a creative activity prior to rating artwork positively influenced ratings of artwork creativity. In addition, collage creativity was positively correlated with ratings of (semi)abstract paintings as beautiful. It is hypothesized that people become more open to new, unusual experiences, are more flexible and act more freely in their decisions when performing a creative activity, which reflects positively on stronger preferences of paintings.
... An adequate team composition with regard to personality types can lead to better decision-making processes, higher creative performance and subsequently to a significantly improvement of the overall team performance (Bradley and Hebert 1997;Chamorro-Premuzic and Reichenbacher 2008;Shen et al. 2007;Stumpf and Dunbar 1991;Volkema et al. 1998). Recent research suggests that the analysis of the team members' written texts can give valuable insights on those differences, in order to form the most heterogeneous group possible (Lamprecht et al. 2016). ...
Article
To reach their goals, companies are on a never-ending search to find new methods for innovation. In order to tackle the complex problems, which cannot be solved by a single person, the implementation of teamwork is assumed to be applicable. With this paper, we propose a framework for Collaboration Support Systems, which aims to enhance team performance. We outline the differences between teams and groups and examine collective processes that on the one hand benefit from additional knowledge and mutual stimulation, but on the other hand are negatively influenced by various cognitive and social factors. With basic principles of collaboration, we seek to tackle the negative effects of team performance and try to further enhance the benefits of collective work. In this context, we analyzed group support systems and unified research and practice of various disciplines (like collaborative problem-solving, collaborative decision making, collaborative creativity and collaborative learning), in order to develop a framework for Collaboration Support Systems. Our paper addresses on-going topics (like anonymity in collaboration systems) and presents design principles for software engineers. Based on a comprehensive literature analysis, we introduce several principles and aspects for collaboration systems that can help to better understand collaboration in teams. However, to thoroughly understand the phenomenon of digital collaboration, further research is needed.
... Research has found evidence that individuals with high neuroticism values exhibit, for example, poor behavioral inhibition, maladaptive coping strategies, or little agreeable, dominant behavior (Clark, Watson, & Mineka, 1994;Côté & Moskowitz, 1998;Gunthert, Cohen, & Armeli, 1999). Other studies reported an impact of neuroticism on thinking, for instance a negative correlation of neuroticism with divergent thinking (Chamorro-Premuzic & Reichenbacher, 2008). ...
Article
Studies in child sex offenders (CSO) often report deviant personality characteristics. In our study, we investigated neuroticism in CSO and tested the hypothesis that CSO with high neuroticism show more serious abuse behavior and are more likely to exhibit sexual dysfunction and cognitive distortions, as compared to CSO with low neuroticism. A sample of 40 CSO (both child sexual abusers and child sexual material users) was split into two subsamples based on their neuroticism scores, obtained by the NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) questionnaire. Subsequently, we compared their scores in the Multiphasic Sex Inventory (MSI) questionnaire and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Our results show that CSO exhibited higher levels of neuroticism than controls, but were still in the normal range. In CSO, neuroticism was associated with sexual dysfunction and cognitive distortions, rather than with more severe abuse behavior. Moreover, neuroticism in this group was linked to a broad range of psychological problems and psychopathological symptoms, such as somatization or anxiety. Our findings suggest that neuroticism even below the level of personality disorder is associated with a broader range of psychological problems in CSO, which should be addressed in therapy.
... The crucial aspect of convergent thinking is that the most appropriate answer must be derived without ambiguity, with all answers dichotomized as being either correct or incorrect (Cropley, 2006). Convergent thinking tasks include critical thinking (Watson & Glaser, 1994), reasoning (Cheng, Holyoak, Nisbett, & Oliver, 1986), grammatical transformation of a logical proposition (Chamorro-Premuzic & Reichenbacher, 2008), and creating anagrams (Walker, Liston, Hobson, & Stickgold, 2002). In the present study, we used the "unusual uses for newspapers" test (Hsu, Chen, & Chiu, 2012) to measure divergent thinking as well as a critical thinking test (Chen, Chen, Chen, Chen, & Chen, 2006) to measure convergent thinking. ...
Article
This study investigated how the interaction between exercising self-control and PhoPhiKat disposition influences divergent and convergent thinking. In Study 1, 77 university students completed the PhoPHiKat-45 before being randomly assigned to the exercising self-control or neutral group. After experimental manipulation, participants were asked to complete the divergent thinking test. The results indicate that the students with high gelotopilia in the exercising self-control group were more fluent and flexible in generating ideas compared with those in the neutral group. Regarding originality, compared with the students with low katagelasticism, the students with high katagelasticism in the self-control group demonstrated a higher degree of originality than those in the neutral group. In Study 2, 66 students were randomly assigned to the exercising self-control or neutral group, and the dependent variable was the convergent thinking test (i.e., the critical thinking test). The results show that those with high gelotophobia in the self-control group demonstrated a higher degree of convergent thinking than did those in the neutral group. However, those with low gelotophobia in the neutral group exhibited a higher degree of convergent thinking compared with those in the self-control group. Thus, PhoPhiKat dispositions influenced the effect of exercising self-control on divergent and convergent thinking.
... Apart from that, some perspectives argue that it is also important to consider differences like personality, attitudes and values Jehn et al., 1999;Harrison et al., 1998). An adequate team composition with regard to personality types can lead to better decision-making processes, higher creative performance and subsequently to a significantly improvement of the overall team performance (Bradley and Hebert, 1997;Chamorro-Premuzic and Reichenbacher, 2008;Shen et al., 2007;Stumpf and Dunbar, 1991;Volkema and Gorman, 1998). Recent research suggests that the analysis of the team members' written texts can give valuable insights on those differences, in order to form the most heterogeneous group possible (Lamprecht et al., 2016). ...
Thesis
Companies and organizations must constantly evolve in order to stay competitive in the marketplace. An important role is played by innovations that ensure this continuous corporate success. Producing innovations depends strongly on creativity, which is why active support makes sense and is worthwhile. Creativity can be supported by information technology and is most effective in teams and groups. Collaboration and the consideration of different collaboration mechanisms play an equally important role in this context as the active support by information technology. This dissertation deals with the question of how information systems can be designed in order to use information technology to actively support creativity and that collaborative creativity processes are promoted. With the help of a systematic literature review, current creativity support systems were examined and the necessity of research was explained. A design-oriented approach was then used to develop and evaluate various approaches that address the research question. A total of 25 scientific articles were produced, five of which are included in this dissertation. Various conducted studies show the additional value of active support through information technology and provide design guidelines for better support of collaborative creativity.
... As mentioned in the previous section, the verbal and figural creative products correlated with each other, which suggests that this might be indicative of an artistic dimension of creativity. Although in contrast to other studies, which have found associations between a creative production task and the personality trait, Openness to Experience, (Chamorro- Premuzic & Reichenbacher, 2008;McCrae, 1987;Silvia et al., 2008Silvia et al., , 2009, this study did not find any such associations between these creative products and the FFM_CPQ. ...
Thesis
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The study of metaphor is an interdisciplinary endeavor crossing such fields as cognitive linguistics, psychology, and creativity studies. Two important conclusions on the nature of metaphor have been drawn to date: (1) the ability to use metaphor is a normal human cognitive ability and widespread in language; (2) metaphor is not a unitary construct and varies greatly from the highly familiar and conventional to the creative. Viewing metaphor as lying along a continuum, this thesis narrows the concept of metaphoric competence to creative metaphoric competence, which looks at this ability from a creativity perspective. In this thesis, it is hypothesized that creative metaphoric competence is an underlying competency, which is related to a more general creative competence, and therefore is projected onto both the L1 (Japanese) and L2 (English). In order to test this hypothesis, data from creative metaphor production tasks were collected in both languages. In addition, a number of creativity measurements were also developed with the aim of measuring the multifaceted nature of creativity. Relationships between these variables were investigated. Findings suggest that creative metaphoric competence is an individual difference variable, which could be described as a disposition towards novelty and is related to other measurements of creativity.
... Majority of the studies have shown negative association between the two (e.g., Dollinger, Urban, & James, 2004;Martindale & Dailey, 1996). It has also been found that neuroticism positively predict artistic creativity but negatively predict divergent thinking (Chamorro-Premuzic & Reichenbacher, 2008) and scientific and daily creativity (Batey & Furnham, 2006). There are also studies which found no relationship between neuroticism and creative thinking or innovation (King et al., 1996). ...
Article
Creativity has gained increased significance by organizations in current time. Both individual and organizational factors contribute to it. This study explored the relationship between the Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality and employee creativity. Emotional intelligence (EI) is presented as a moderator in the relationship between the FFM and employee creativity. Using random sampling approach, the study was conducted on 232 regular employees from three service sector organizations. Respondents consisted of both genders working at different levels. Regression analyses showed that three dimensions of the model (FFM), namely, conscientiousness, extraversion and openness to experience influenced employee creativity positively and significantly. In addition, moderated regression analysis revealed that EI significantly strengthened the relationships between the three dimensions of the FFM and creativity of employees. The insinuations of the study are explained.
... Feist (1998) conducted the first meta-analytic review exploring the associations between creativity and personality and found that creative people are more open to new experiences, less conscientious, more self-accepting, hostile, and impulsive (large effect sizes over 0.8 on creativity) (Feist, 1998). In subsequent studies, Openness and Extraversion were consistently positively associated with creativity (Batey, Furnham, & Safiullina, 2010;Chamorro-Premuzic & Reichenbacher, 2008;Feist, 1998;Feist & Barron, 2003;Furnham, Crump, Batey, & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2009;King, Walker, & Broyles, 1996;Silvia et al., 2008) along with low Conscientiousness and high Neuroticism (Batey & Furnham, 2006; J. C. Kaufman et al., 2009;Silvia, Kaufman, Reiter-Palmon, & Wigert, 2011). It has been hypothesized that individuals with high extraversion, openness and low conscientiousness would provide more fluent, varied and unique responses to divergent thinking tests Batey & Furnham, 2006;Hughes, Furnham, & Batey, 2013) and rate themselves higher on self-rated creativity tests. ...
Preprint
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The present study aimed to explore the association between creativity, intelligence, and personality. Sixty dextral healthy volunteers in the age range of 20-40 years were recruited for the study and administered tests for fluid intelligence (Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices), personality (Big Five NEO-FFI), and divergent thinking (Wallach & Kogan Creativity Test). Findings revealed that intelligence and openness to experience were significantly and positively correlated with fluency, flexibility, and originality dimensions of creativity. The multiple regression analysis suggested openness and fluid intelligence as significant predictors for creativity which entails that individuals who are more open to new experiences continue integrating new and diverse information to their subsisting repertoire of experiences, when intelligently assimilated with contextual and emotional stimuli could provide more varied and novel responses to divergent thinking tasks.
... This pattern corresponds to moderate levels of extraversion, high levels of openness to experience and high levels of conscientiousness (Buchanan 1998). Chamorro-Premuzic and Reichenbacher (2008) conducted the same type of measurement, but with separate assessments for divergent and convergent thinking. They observe that openness to experience and extraversion are positively correlated with divergent thinking performance. ...
... This pattern corresponds to moderate levels of extraversion, high levels of openness to experience and high levels of conscientiousness (Buchanan 1998). Chamorro-Premuzic and Reichenbacher (2008) conducted the same type of measurement, but with separate assessments for divergent and convergent thinking. They observe that openness to experience and extraversion are positively correlated with divergent thinking performance. ...
... Extraversion also predicts young children's judgment of others as reliable sources of information (Canfield et al., 2015), perhaps because extraverted individuals are more attracted to social stimuli than introverted individuals (Feiler & Kleinbaum, 2015) while children lower in negative affect may experience positive emotions when imitation others (Yu & Kushnir, 2020). In contrast, openness to experience is consistently linked with innovation and creativity in adults (Chamorro-Premuzic & Reichenbacher, 2008), particularly in business settings (Baer, 2012;Rawlings et al., 2017), ostensibly because openness to experience encompasses being creative, curious and inventive; characteristics that lend themselves to innovation. ...
Article
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Innovation and social learning are the pillars of cultural evolution, allowing cultural behaviours to cumulatively advance over generations. Yet, little is known about individual differences in the use of social and asocial information. We examined whether personality influenced 7-11-year-old children's (N = 282) propensity to elect to observe others first or independently generate solutions to novel problems. Conscientiousness was associated with electing for no demonstrations, while agreeableness was associated with opting for demonstrations. For children receiving demonstrations, openness to experience consistently predicted deviation from observed methods. Children who opted for no demonstrations were also more likely than those opting for demonstrations to exhibit tool manufacture on an innovation challenge and displayed higher creativity , as measured by an alternate uses task. These results highlight how new cultural traditions emerge, establish and advance by identifying which individuals generate new cultural variants in populations and which are influential in the diffusion of these variants , and help reduce the apparent tension within the 'ratchet' of cumulative culture.
... In this study, creative potential was not assessed with a traditional divergent-thinking measure, in which case the results may be different, especially because the Big Five were found to be more related to divergent than convergent thinking (Chamorro-Premuzic & Reichenbacher, 2008). The choice of the TCT-DP for assessing creative potential in refugees was primarily based on its functionality and ease of administration, which are essential criteria for data collection in a refugee population. ...
Chapter
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The current political situation requires us to address the smooth integration of refugees into host countries. We are presently witnessing the highest immigration wave since the Second World War, accounting for 3.5% of the world population. In modern-day multicultural societies, it is increasingly important to investigate the determining personal and societal characteristics that ensure the maintenance of subjective well-being within the migration process. This study aims to confirm that migration inhibits the healthy expression of creative tendencies and associated personal well-being. Therefore, the creative refugees’ personality profile is thought to differ in some respects from a typical everyday creative profile. It is assumed to be defined by Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Emotional stability (H1). Furthermore, we expect to find a negative correlation between creative potential and life satisfaction in refugees (H2). This study was conducted in Luxembourg refugee centers. The sample included 19 refugees (10 men, 9 women, MAge = 36.11 years; SD = 7.18, age range: 20–45 years). Results show that refugees possess a quite uncommon creative personality profile, which cannot be clearly associated with either of Batey and Furnham’s (2006) typical profiles for creators within the domains of the arts, sciences, and everyday life. Creative refugees were found to have high agreeableness and low life satisfaction. Furthermore, they did not display the usual openness to new experiences, which is the personality trait most frequently associated with creativity in various domains. The implications of these findings are discussed. By pointing out the benefits of regular creative expression in terms of refugees’ mental and physical well-being, this study encourages the offering of creative workshops throughout European countries.
... Creativity has been found related to working memory (e.g., De Dreu et al., 2012), cognitive inhibition (e.g., Zabelina et al., 2012), cognitive flexibility (e.g., Pan & Yu, 2018), Gf (e.g., Nusbaum & Silvia, 2011), and planning (e.g., Osburn & Mumford, 2006), which is the focus of the current research.. The ability to plan has been conceptualised as: a hierarchical process that controls the order in which a sequence of operations or actions should be performed by an online comparison of the individual's present state and desired state (Miller, Galanter, & Pribram, 1960); a mental activity involving the identification and organization of subtasks that people need in problem-solving activities (Chaiklin, 1984), which affects the likelihood of success of the action planned (Brichcín & Rachardẑo, 1995); a goal-directed process playing a pivotal role not only in selecting and organising actions (e.g., Read, Mitchell, & Akresh, 1987) but also in simulating methods to achieve a goal (e.g., Simons & Galotti, 1992). The main attribute that characterised and joined all these perspectives concerns the involvement of mental simulations of purposeful and future actions within the planning process (Mumford et al., 2001). ...
Article
Creativity can be conceptualised as the result of a blend of individual interacting resources. The present study investigated in a sample of 83 young Italian adults the interplay amongst planning, personality, and real-world creativity, assuming the Big Five personality dimensions as moderator variables. The ability to plan was assessed by means of the Tower of London, whereas creativity was evaluated using the Visual Creative Synthesis Task, in which participants were asked to generate real-world creative objects (e.g., weapon). Three independent judges evaluated the inventions in terms of creativity, which includes both originality and appropriateness dimensions. Results showed that planning was positively related to real-world creative production, whereas agreeableness, at low-middle levels, represented the only personality dimension moderating the planning-creativity link. Our results suggested that the individual tendency to be less agreeable, which implies a reduced disposition to be compliant and less caring about others’ opinions, ideas, and judgments, brings people to use their own ability to plan in order to promote creativity. Future research directions are also discussed.
... Eisenberger and Aselage (2009) found that task-contingent rewards (rewards conditional on completion of a task) were detrimental to creativity, whereas performance-contingent rewards (rewards conditional on achieving a certain level of quality in a task) actually enhanced creativity. The detrimental effects of expected evaluation and competition may also be moderated by individual differences, such as personality characteristics or gender (Baer, 1997;Chamorro-Premuzic & Reichenbacher, 2008;Malik, Butt, & Choi, 2014). For instance, Malik et al. found that rewards enhanced creativity for individuals with a high (as opposed to low) degree of creative self-efficacy (i.e., believing oneself capable of creativity). ...
Article
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Most studies investigating the effects of motivation on creativity have employed a social-psychological approach and used a dichotomous conceptualization of motivation (i.e., intrinsic and extrinsic). However, trait motivation may exist on a continuum and, although individual differences in motivation have also been found to predict creativity, no scales exist to directly assess creative trait motivation. The current report describes two studies examining the factor structure and psychometric properties of the creative trait motivation (CTM) scales. In the first study, participants (N = 580) completed three domain-specific scales (art, everyday, and science) and a well-established measure of creative self-perception. All three CTM scales demonstrated a similar factor structure, strong internal consistency for each of the factors, and evidence for construct validity. In the second study, the factor structures of the three scales were replicated employing a different sample (N = 597). The scales continued to demonstrate strong internal consistency and additional evidence for construct validity was provided, using well-established scales of both creativity and trait motivation. Together, the studies demonstrate that the domain-specific CTM scales are valuable tools for assessing creative trait motivation.
... Convergent thinking is characterised by having one correct solution to a clearly defined problem (Guilford, 1957). Most cognitive ability tests, as well as many exams in primary education, measure convergent thinking skills (Chamorro-Premuzic & Reichenbacher, 2008;Cropley, 1967). In contrast, divergent thinking tests have dominated the field of creativity assessment for decades (Runco & Acar, 2012). ...
Conference Paper
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Creativity is only partly recognised in education. A recent meta-analysis estimated a correlation of r = 0.22 between creativity and educational achievement across many international student samples of all educational levels. In the meta-analysis, creativity was measured with a variety of measures, including divergent thinking and remote association tasks. The differences in the measures influenced the strength of the relationship between creativity and educational achievement. More research is needed to establish reliable measures of creativity, especially in primary school children, whose creativity remains poorly evaluated. The present study measured creativity in written stories in children at age 9 using the Consensual Assessment Technique (CAT). The study employed a longitudinal design, using CAT creativity scores as a predictor of educational achievement at age 16. Each of the stories from 59 children were coded by 6 different judges for 10 dimensions, including creativity. The inter-rater reliabilities between the judges for the 10 dimensions were high (α = .76 - .95). Among the dimensions, a factor analysis revealed two factors: Creative Expressiveness and Logic. The Creative Expressiveness factor explained an additional 7 % of variance in English grades, but not in Maths, beyond intelligence, previous achievement and personality traits associated with creativity. Overall, the study showed that CAT is a robust and reliable measure to detect verbal creativity in childhood. The results also suggest that early creativity predicts later academic achievement, calling for more attention to early creativity assessment and development.
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Background: Personality is a complex construct which may affect some psychological capabilities. Creativity could be among the one of them. Objective: This study aims to find out any relationship between personality traits and creativity in high school girls students. Method: To this end, 125 girl students of one of the pre-university schools of Tehran were selected by random cluster sampling. The students were then asked to fill out NEO questionnaire and creativity questionnaire of Abedi. Results: Pearson correlation coefficient and Multivariate regression showed that conscientiousness, openness to experience and agreeableness has significant and positive correlation with creativity, and neuroticism had a significant but negative correlation with creativity. Conclusion: Based on these findings, we need to consider students' creativity along with their personality characters.
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Innovation is important to organizations’ long-lasting success, yet many organizations fail to successfully promote innovation. One factor likely to bear an important influence on whether an organization successfully innovates, but that has received relatively little research attention, is the personality of the CEO. The present research examines the link between the personality of the CEO and product and service innovation in the firm using a unique sample of Fortune 1000 CEO's. Results show that conscientiousness in the CEO negatively predicts the level of innovation in the firm. Moreover, this relationship is evident among CEO's who have filled the CEO role for at least 3 years, but not among CEO's who have filled the CEO role for less than 3 years.
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The present study aims to investigate the dark side of dancers’ personality. In recent literature, dark personality traits were conceptualized as the Dark Tetrad which includes Machiavellianism, narcissism, psychopathy and sadism. The participants in this study were 98 dancers, aged between 18 and 57 (M = 34.71, SD = 11.21; 86.7% women), who practiced different dance types (classical ballet, modern dance, flamenco, oriental dance, hip-hop, salsa, tango, merengue, bachata and Latin dances-samba, rumba) both professionally and non-professionally. They answered 13 questions from the pilot version of the list of Indicators of the meaning of dance for dancers, the Short Dark Triad (SD3) and the Assessment of Sadistic Personality (ASP). The results have shown that dancers had higher scores narcissism and lower scores on Machiavellianism and sadism compared to participants from the reference community sample from previous study (Dinić et al., 2018, 2020). Professional dancers had higher scores on narcissism, compared to those who practice dance as recreation meaning that they tend to seek prestige or status and have a need for admiration and attention from other people more than recreationists. Furthermore, a series of regression analyses showed that psychopathy is negatively related to dancers’ evaluation of the dance as an enjoyable and pleasant activity. It is concluded that dark personality traits are a component of dancers’ personality and one of the factors that affect dancers’ evaluation of the meaning of dance. Moreover, practical implications of the obtained results related to the pedagogical dance practice are discussed, as well as the dark traits of creative personality.
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Zusammenfassung Persönlichkeitstests haben schon länger Einzug gefunden in Bewerbungsgespräche größerer Unternehmen. Diese Tests liefern Persönlichkeitsprofile, die Eigenschaften des Bewerbers anhand mehrerer unscharfer (fuzzy) Dimensionen beschreiben und Aufschluss geben sollen, über die Eignung des Bewerbers – ist dieser besonders teamfähig und kreativ, bereit zu Höchstleistungen oder steht er sich womöglich oft selbst im Weg. Neben der Leistung des Einzelnen spielt aber vor allem auch die Leistung in und von Arbeitsgruppen eine wesentliche Rolle im Berufsalltag. Dabei stößt man durch den Trend zur Globalisierung auch vermehrt auf virtuelle Teams, mit Teammitgliedern aus räumlich verteilten Standorten. Oftmals entstehen hierbei Konstellationen, die das verfügbare Potenzial nicht vollständig ausschöpfen. Um den Arbeitsprozess in diesen virtuellen Teams effektiver, kreativer und reibungsloser zu gestalten, beschreiben wir einen Ansatz, bei dem automatisch erfasste Persönlichkeitsprofile aus User Generated Content genutzt werden, um Teams möglichst optimal zusammenzustellen. Jeder Nutzer nimmt dabei im Team eine Rolle ein, die seiner Persönlichkeit am besten entspricht und er sich somit optimal in die Gruppenarbeit einbringen kann.
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This study investigate how five factor model (FFM) personality traits predict employee creativity in probation and formal employment periods. An examination of two subsamples of employees working in research and development department shows that: 1) Openness to experience and conscientiousness correlate with creativity in both job stages; 2) agreeableness correlates with creativity in probation periods; (3) extraversion correlates with creativity in formal employment periods. The findings add new knowledge about how personality predicts creativity at different job stages.
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Purpose This study aims to test the mediating role of psychological contract (PC) in a relationship between personality dimensions and turnover intention. Design/methodology/approach The current study is analytical in nature. The data for the purpose of the analysis is collected from 300 software engineers working in Lahore, Punjab. Purposive sampling technique is used for the collection of this data. The response rate was 87.33 per cent. Different data analysis techniques such as correlation, regression analysis, are used to test the 10 hypotheses of the study. Moreover, the study adopted a cross-sectional survey design. Findings According to regression analysis, extroversion, conscientiousness and agreeableness personality dimensions brought positive but insignificant increments in turnover intention. However, emotionally stable personality dimensions brought positive and significant increments in turnover intention. Open to experience personality dimension brought negative but insignificant decrement in turnover intention. Results showed extroversion personality dimension brought a very less but insignificant increment in variations of PC, which have higher contributions in variations of turnover intention. Emotional stable, conscientiousness and agreeableness personality dimensions brought also very less but a significant increment in PC. Open to experience personality dimension have negative but insignificant decrement in PC. Results showed the mediation impact of PC among emotional stability, conscientiousness and agreeableness personality dimensions and turnover intention. However, PC does not mediate among extroversion, open to experience personality dimensions and turnover intention. The paper concludes with recommendations for further research. Originality/value This study will help the organization in reducing the turnover rate and can enhance the motivation level of their employees.
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This study is to investigate the creativity of teaching Arabic in Malaysia. It involves three key components in the creative aspek motivation, environment and creative thinking. Respondents in this study consisted of 530 Arabic teachers out of 7, 309 involving Peninsular Malaysia including Sabah and Sarawak. Quantitative research methods used and random sampling carried out for the collection of data. The data are analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20. The findings on creativity in teaching of Arabic teachers show that the motivation element (mean = 4.16, SD = 0.41) and the surrounding (mean = 4.08, SD = 0.46) are at high level and the style of thinking element (mean = 3.96, SD = 0.46) is at medium-high level. Overall, creativity of teaching (mean = 4.08, SD = 0.38) is at high level. In conclusion, based on the finding clearly indicate that the Arabic language teachers in Malaysia have a excellent knowledge in creativity of teaching.
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Background: Personality is a complex construct which may affect some psychological capabilities. Creativity could be among the one of them. Objective: This study aims to find out any relationship between personality traits and creativity in high school girls students. Method: To this end, 125 girl students of one of the pre-university schools of Tehran were selected by random cluster sampling. The students were then asked to fill out NEO questionnaire and creativity questionnaire of Abedi. Results: Pearson correlation coefficient and Multivariate regression showed that conscientiousness, openness to experience and agreeableness has significant and positive correlation with creativity, and neuroticism had a significant but negative correlation with creativity. Conclusion: Based on these findings, we need to consider students' creativity along with their personality characters.
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators.
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Divergent thinking tests are probably the most commonly used measure of children's potential for creative thinking. Divergent thinking is not synonymous with creative thinking, but the research presented in this volume suggests that divergent thinking is an important component of the creative process. This research also suggests that divergent thinking tests are not perfect measures (just as IQ tests are not perfect measures of intelligence), but they are useful estimates of the potential for creative thought. There are a number of unanswered questions about children's divergent thinking and creativity. Several of these are addressed throughout this book, and may be identified as themes in the research. One of the themes in this book is that the capacity for divergent thinking may not be normally distributed across all levels of ability. There are several concerns one must recognize when conducting or evaluating the empirical research on the distribution of creativity. My research addresses the distribution issue in its demonstrating that ideational originality and flexibility are more reliable and valid in gifted children than nongifted children. A second theme in this book was introduced in Wallach and Kogan's "Modes of Thinking in Young Children." Wallach and Kogan suggested that divergent thinking is influenced by the conditions under which it is assessed. A third theme of this book is methodological. A final theme is that divergent thinking is important for both "basic" and "applied" research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The present research examined when self-evaluation influences creativity. Based on objective self-awareness theory, the authors predicted that feeling able to improve would buffer against the detrimental effects of self-evaluation on creativity. Two experiments manipulated self-evaluation (varying self-awareness, Study 1; providing objective performance standards, Study 2) and perceived ability to improve potential failure on the creativity task. Self-evaluation reduced creativity (generating remote associates, finding unusual uses for a knife) in both experiments, but only when people did not expect to improve. When people felt able to improve, self-evaluation did not affect creativity. Connections between self-motives, creativity, and defensiveness are discussed.
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This study adopted an interactional approach to understanding how 2 of the Five-Factor traits, openness to experience and conscientiousness, are related to creative behavior in the workplace. Openness to experience is theorized to result in high levels of creative behavior and conscientiousness is theorized to result in low levels of creative behavior when the situation allows for the manifestation of the trait influences. More specifically, the authors hypothesized that openness to experience would result in high levels of creative behavior if feedback valence were positive and job holders were presented with a heuristic task that allowed them to be creative. The authors also hypothesized that conscientiousness would result in low levels of creative behavior if supervisors engaged in close monitoring and coworkers were unsupportive. The authors tested their hypotheses in a sample of office workers, and 5 out of the 6 hypotheses were supported.
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This book provides a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of personality and intelligence, as well as covering other variables underlying academic and occupational performance. Personality and Intellectual Competence is a unique attempt to develop a comprehensive model to understand individual difference by relating major personality dimensions to cognitive ability measures, academic and job performance, and self-assessed abilities, as well as other traditional constructs such as leadership and creativity. It will be essential reading for anyone interested in personality, intelligence, and the prediction of future achievement in general. Personality and Intellectual Competence is an outstanding account of the relationship between major individual differences constructs. With its informative summary of the last century of research in the field, this book provides a robust and systematic theoretical background for understanding the psychological determinants of future achievement. The authors have sought to combine technical expertise with applied interests, making this a groundbreaking theoretical tool for anyone concerned with the scientific prediction of human performance. © 2005 by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Test scores of divergent thinking obtained between 1959 and 1972 were correlated with a variety of personality measures administered since 1980. In this sample of 268 men, divergent thinking was consistently associated with self-reports and ratings of openness to experience, but not with neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, or conscientiousness. Both divergent thinking and openness were also modestly correlated with Gough's (1979)empirically derived Creative Personality Scale. Several other personality variables mentioned in the literature were also examined; those that were associated with divergent thinking were also generally correlated with openness. These data suggest that creativity is particularly related to the personality domain of openness to experience.
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This study examined the relations among the five-factor model of personality, creative ability, and creative accomplishments. Seventy-five subjects completed measures of verbal creative ability and openness to experience and listed their creative accomplishments. Openness to experience and extraversion were positively correlated with creative ability, controlling for measures of academic ability. Agreeableness was negatively correlated with creative accomplishments. Both verbal creativity and openness had significant positive correlations with creative accomplishments. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that these relations were qualified by significant creative ability by openness and creative ability by conscientiousness interactions. At high levels of openness, creative ability shared a positive linear relation with accomplishments. Individuals high in creative ability but low on openness to experience reported relatively few creative accomplishments. In contrast, conscientiousness was related to heightened accomplishments by individuals low in creative talent. Results are interpreted as illustrating the interplay of abilities and traits in promoting creative behavior.
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Existing research on extraversion and creativity test performance raises several problems. Reported linear associations between extraversion and creativity are inconsistent with each other. Interactive effects of extraversion and stressors on creativity are inconsistent with data obtained using other tasks. Given these anomalous interactions, it is possible that arousal theory assumptions are invalid for creativity tests. The research reported here aimed to provide further data on the relationship between personality and creativity, and to test assumptions made by arousal theory in explaining interactive effects of extraversion and arousal on performance. Two experiments on the effects of 16PF extraversion and trait anxiety, noise and arousal (measured by questionnaire) on a creativity index are reported. In general, extraversion and anxiety interacted as predicted by arousal theory. However in both experiments extraversion was independent of arousal, and data from the second experiment suggested that there was no marked linear or curvilinear relationship between creativity test performance and arousal.
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Eysenck (1992) argues that high trait-anxious subjects are more likely to show a general susceptibility to distraction in anxious mood states, especially if the distracting material resembles the task stimuli. Unfortunately there is little direct evidence that supports this view. The present experiment therefore attempted to test Eysenck's proposition by modifying a test of distractibility for letters on a letter-transformation task, as originally devised by Eysenck and Graydon (1989), to incorporate a mood manipulation. Although high trait-anxious subjects were found to be generally more impaired than controls by the mood manipulation, they did not display greater susceptibility to distraction from task-similar material. These results are discussed in relation to current theoretical models of anxiety and cognitive processing.
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In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
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Test scores of divergent thinking obtained between 1959 and 1972 were correlated with a variety of personality measures administered since 1980. In this sample of 268 men, divergent thinking was consistently associated with self-reports and ratings of openness to experience, but not with neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, or conscientiousness. Both divergent thinking and openness were also modestly correlated with Gough's (1979) empirically derived Creative Personality Scale. Several other personality variables mentioned in the literature were also examined; those that were associated with divergent thinking were also generally correlated with openness. These data suggest that creativity is particularly related to the personality domain of openness to experience. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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[argues] there have been many attempts to measure creativity along psychometric lines [but] these have not been linked theoretically or experimentally with the large body of the psychological literature, and thus they have remained resolutely isolated / [attempts] to support a theory of creativity [to] bridge this gap / [demonstrates] links with experimental constructs (e.g., latent inhibition and negative priming) that may give a solid foundation to observations of "differential associative hierarchies" / [attempts] to construct a nomological network in order to provide proper construct validity for the measurement of creativity the nature and definition of creativity / creativity and personality / creativity/genius and psychoticism (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Chapter
Our chapter provides an overview of individual differences in research in the area of personality by examining five broad topics. First, we describe the analysis of relationships among one or more measures of the same or related constructs. Second, we examine continuity and change in personality constructs over time. Third, we describe the relationships among different constructs. We indicate how exploratory and confirmatory methods may be used to construct taxonomies and to infer causal relationships among personality constructs. Fourth, we examine cases in which constructs are structurally invariant and structurally variant for different groups. Fifth, we consider cross-domain relationships between individual difference constructs and constructs derived from biological, genetic, and cognitive experimental psychology. At several places we indicate the way in which theoretical assumptions structure methodological approaches.
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between trait Neuroticism, state anxiety and intelligence. A total of 213 participants (divided into high-anxiety and low-anxiety groups) completed the Raven’s Progressive Matrices and the Traits Personality Questionnaire 5 (the shortened version of a Greek Big Five measure-TPQue). Correlational analysis showed that trait Neurotics were more likely to be affected by test anxiety and by induced anxiety, and that the high-anxiety group scored lower on the intelligence test than the low-anxiety group. Neuroticism was significantly correlated with intelligence for the high-anxiety group but not for the low-anxiety group, although these correlations were not significantly different. Furthermore, when test anxiety was partialled out, Neuroticism did not significantly correlate with intelligence. These results support the majority of the hypotheses, indicating that the relationship between intelligence and trait Neuroticism is mediated by test anxiety.
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DESCRIBES A SIMPLE REASONING TEST INVOLVING THE UNDERSTANDING OF SENTENCES OF VARIOUS LEVELS OF SYNTACTIC COMPLEXITY. IT IS SHORT, EASILY ADMINISTERED, AND RELIABLE. PERFORMANCE CORRELATES WITH INTELLIGENCE (.59) AND HAS PROVED TO BE SENSITIVE TO A NUMBER OF STRESSES. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2003 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented.
Article
This study adopted an interactional approach to understanding how 2 of the Five-Factor traits, openness to experience and conscientiousness, are related to creative behavior in the workplace. Openness to experience is theorized to result in high levels of creative behavior and conscientiousness is theorized to result in low levels of creative behavior when the situation allows for the manifestation of the trait influences. More specifically, the authors hypothesized that openness to experience would result in high levels of creative behavior if feedback valence were positive and job holders were presented with a heuristic task that allowed them to be creative. The authors also hypothesized that conscientiousness would result in low levels of creative behavior if supervisors engaged in close monitoring and coworkers were unsupportive. The authors tested their hypotheses in a sample of office workers, and 5 out of the 6 hypotheses were supported.
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Productive thinking is an aspect of intelligence which has been generally overlooked in most theoretical conceptualizations of human intelligence. A listing of approximately 40 intellectual factors culled from the research literature are presented. Of these numerous factors, the vast majority have to do with thinking and the remainder are memory factors. These factors are categorized according to a scheme suggested by the author. The "implications of the factors and their system were pointed out for factor theory and practice, for general psychological theory, and for the concept of intelligence and practices of intelligence testing." 31 references.
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Personality, as it is usually treated in psychological text-books, is a very uncertain and fuzzy topic. Textbook writers tend to treat it either with benevolent eclecticism, simply presenting eponymous chapters detailing the various virtues of models presented by writers, or by ferocious idiosyncrasy, the writer disregarding all models but his own. What is missing is a paradigm, universally accepted and giving rise to a kind of research which Kuhn characterised as “ordinary science.”
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Cortical activity in the human electroencephalogram alpha band was measured (by means of an event-related approach) in a pre- and a post-test (with intermediate training) while participants (n = 30) were confronted with divergent thinking tasks. Half of the participants received a divergent thinking training (over a time period of 2 weeks) which was composed of exercises structurally similar to those used in the pre- and post-test. Analyses revealed that the training group displayed higher task-related synchronization of frontal alpha activity (i.e. increases in alpha power from the pre-stimulus reference to the activation interval) than the control group. These findings are in line with the view of frontal alpha synchronization as a selective top-down inhibition process that prevents internal or top-down information processing being disturbed by incoming external input.
Intelligence and creativity Handbook of intelligence
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, R., & O'Hara, L. A. (2000). Intelligence and creativity. In R. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of intelligence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Affect and creativity
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Russ, S. W. (1993). Affect and creativity. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.