Article

Application of electrolyzed water in the food industry

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Abstract

Electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water has been regarded as a new sanitizer in recent years. Production of EO water needs only water and salt (sodium chloride). EO water have the following advantages over other traditional cleaning agents: effective disinfection, easy operation, relatively inexpensive, and environmentally friendly. The main advantage of EO water is its safety. EO water which is also a strong acid, is different to hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid in that it is not corrosive to skin, mucous membrane, or organic material. Electrolyzed water has been tested and used as a disinfectant in the food industry and other applications. Combination of EO water and other measures are also possible. This review includes a brief overview of issues related to the electrolyzed water and its effective cleaning of food surfaces in food processing plants and the cleaning of animal products and fresh produce.

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... Electrolysed water is active against a range of bacterial and fungal species and the efficacies have been reviewed (Hricova et al., 2008, Huang et al., 2008 Candida species, Alternaria sp. and Botrytis cinerea (Buck et al., 2002, Ünal et al., 2014, Gunaydin et al., 2014. Furthermore, other food spoilage species (A. ...
... Applications of EW 1.7.1 Versatile role as a sanitiser and beyond Electrolysed water is used as a sanitiser in medical applications, agriculture, food and livestock industries (Huang et al., 2008, Kim et al., 2000a. For instance, EW can be used to disinfect medical equipment contaminated with viral particles (Sakurai et al., 2003), and for bacterial decontamination of surfaces (Boyce, 2016). ...
... The active components of EW can also react back to the substrates salt and water and the oxidising/sanitising effects of EW can be easily inactivated by mixing with organic matter, e.g., after use (Huang et al., 2008). These reversion processes may allow the re-use of the water. ...
Article
Chemical sanitisers are needed for controlling microbial contamination and growth in various settings, including healthcare, domestic settings and the food industry. One promising sanitiser with proposed applications in the food industry is the oxidising sanitiser electrolysed water (EW). For EW applications to be effective, a more in-depth understanding of EW mode-of-action is needed, together with the identification of limiting factors associated with the chemical matrices in relevant EW applications. This study investigated the reactivity of EW with different organic substances. For this purpose, the common food spoilage fungus Aspergillus niger was treated with EW in the presence or absence of the organic materials. The sanitiser retained partial fungicidal activity at high levels of added soil, commonly associated with freshly harvested produce. By narrowing down the reactivity of EW from complex matrices to specific organic molecules, proteins and amino acids were found to strongly suppress EW fungicidal activity. The potential implications of EW reactivity with proteins and amino acids within cells were investigated in the fungal model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This capitalised on the advanced understanding of the uptake and metabolism of diverse compounds and the availability of convenient genetic tools in this model organism. Pre-culture with methionine but not with other tested amino acids increased yeast resistance to subsequent treatments (in the absence of methionine) with sanitisers (EW, sodium hypochlorite, ozonated water). Further tests suggested a direct role of the methionine molecule itself, as opposed to downstream products of methionine metabolism or methionine misincorporation in proteins, in increasing yeast EW resistance. Intracellular methionine oxidation can disturb FeS cluster proteins and this study found that EW treatment impairs FeS cluster protein activity. Because active species in EW can be inactivated by organic compounds, microorganisms may be exposed to low effective EW doses during EW treatments where organic matter is present. When low, sub-lethal EW doses were applied to A. niger, early germination events and colony growth post-treatment were delayed and there was increased variation in size among resultant colonies. The delay and increased variation were non-heritable and were observed with chlorine-containing sanitisers (EW, sodium hypochlorite) but not the chlorine-free oxidant ozonated water. The collective findings led to a hypothesis that chloramine formation within spores during EW treatment may contribute to the observed phenotypes. This study increases the understanding of limiting chemical factors for EW applications and sheds light onto the cellular mode-of-action of EW and the fungal response mechanisms to sanitiser treatments. Such insights can improve the rational development of EW application processes and contribute to understanding and prediction of antimicrobial efficacy in diverse settings.
... Fresh and excellent qualities of fruits and vegetables, as well as microbiological safety, have been highly demanding among consumers these days. Food chains have been increasingly perplexing in terms of processing, handling, transportation, and storage for ensuring a safe food supply (Huang et al., 2008;Islam, Wang, et al., 2019). As a result, cleaning and disinfecting fresh fruits and veggies are recommended to minimize rotting pathogens, improve shelf life, and disinfect harmful organisms for safe food (McKellar et al., 2004;Qiang et al., 2005). ...
... Disadvantages of EW include: Free chlorine having high ORP and low pH can hurt hands and cause corrosion of equipment (Huang et al., 2008). The presence of organic matter or improper storage might impair antimicrobial action (Ayebah et al., 2006;Bonde et al., 1999;Koseki & Itoh, 2001;Oomori et al., 2000;Shimada, 1997). ...
... HClO could have a powerful sterilizing effect because it produces hydroxyl radicals which penetrate into cell membranes and disrupt important metabolic pathways (Athayde et al., 2017;Cao et al., 2009;Huang et al., 2008). EW's pH controls the relative proportions of chlorine in the solution, and EW can completely inactivate pathogenic organisms at a pH range of 2.6-7.Park et al., 2004). ...
Article
Fruits and vegetables deteriorate mostly due to microbial and enzymatic activity during postharvest storage. The objective of the work was to see if electrolyzed water and ultrasound can be applied combinedly in the industry to extend the shelf life of harvested fruits and vegetables. Ultrasound is a novel postharvest treatment method that has the potential to inactivate enzymes and microbes. Pectinmethylesterase, polygalacturonase, peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase, and lipoxygenase are the enzymes that are most commonly deactivated by ultrasound in fruits and vegetables. On the contrary, electrolyzed water is a potential antibacterial agent for fresh fruits and vegetables. Electrolyzed water treatment has some limitations in terms of microbial load reduction, which can be solved using sonication. This article deeply looked into the principles, advantages, disadvantages, and mechanism of action of both techniques. Novelty impact statement: Individual and synergistic effects on shelf life extension of fruits and vegetables were reviewed. In addition, the inactivation mechanisms of microorganisms and enzymes of fruits and vegetables have been explained.
... Fresh and excellent qualities of fruits and vegetables, as well as microbiological safety, have been highly demanding among consumers these days. Food chains have been increasingly perplexing in terms of processing, handling, transportation, and storage for ensuring a safe food supply (Huang et al., 2008;Islam, Wang, et al., 2019). As a result, cleaning and disinfecting fresh fruits and veggies are recommended to minimize rotting pathogens, improve shelf life, and disinfect harmful organisms for safe food (McKellar et al., 2004;Qiang et al., 2005). ...
... Disadvantages of EW include: Free chlorine having high ORP and low pH can hurt hands and cause corrosion of equipment (Huang et al., 2008). The presence of organic matter or improper storage might impair antimicrobial action (Ayebah et al., 2006;Bonde et al., 1999;Koseki & Itoh, 2001;Oomori et al., 2000;Shimada, 1997). ...
... HClO could have a powerful sterilizing effect because it produces hydroxyl radicals which penetrate into cell membranes and disrupt important metabolic pathways (Athayde et al., 2017;Cao et al., 2009;Huang et al., 2008). EW's pH controls the relative proportions of chlorine in the solution, and EW can completely inactivate pathogenic organisms at a pH range of 2.6-7.Park et al., 2004). ...
Article
Full-text available
Fruits and vegetables deteriorate mostly due to microbial and enzymatic activity during postharvest storage. The objective of the work was to see if electrolyzed water and ultrasound can be applied combinedly in the industry to extend the shelf life of harvested fruits and vegetables. Ultrasound is a novel postharvest treatment method that has the potential to inactivate enzymes and microbes. Pectinmethylesterase, polygalacturonase, peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase, and lipoxygenase are the enzymes that are most commonly deactivated by ultrasound in fruits and vegetables. On the other hand, electrolyzed water is a potential antibacterial agent for fresh fruits and vegetables. Electrolyzed water treatment has some limitations in terms of microbial load reduction, which can be solved using sonication. This article deeply looked into the principles, advantages, disadvantages, and mechanism of action of both techniques.
... Metabolic flux and ATP generation are altered by high oxidation-reduction potential. It prevents the oxidation o glucose, hinders the synthesis of proteins, and prevents oxygen intake and oxidative phos phorylation, which results in the leakage of certain macromolecules [35], and damages ...
... Metabolic flux and ATP generation are altered by high oxidation-reduction potential. It prevents the oxidation of glucose, hinders the synthesis of proteins, and prevents oxygen intake and oxidative phosphorylation, which results in the leakage of certain macromolecules [35], and damages cell membranes [36]. The major components of EW are hypochlorous acid, which generates a hydroxyl radical that affects several pathogens [37]. ...
Article
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Eggs are a rich source of protein, minerals, lipids, and vitamins. Eggs are an essential source of bacterial microflora. Controlling antimicrobial resistance and reducing food loss and waste are essential for a sustainable future. To prevent spoilage and to preserve eggs, a variety of techniques, including thermal and non-thermal, are often used. This paper explores the decontamination methods for egg preservation that have been applied. In previous studies, the initial contamination of the eggs varied from 2 to 9 log CFU per egg. Either thermal or non-thermal techniques resulted in reduced concentrations of Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli, respectively, on the surface of the egg that ranged 0.62–5.9 log, 1.27–4.9 log, and 0.06–6.39 log, respectively, for the former, and being 1.2–7.8 log, 5.0–7.8 log, and 6.5–6.6 log, respectively, for the latter. Thermal approaches were more effective than the non-thermal approaches. Some of these methods had negative consequences on the egg’s functionality, while combination methods, such as thermoultrasonifcation (ozone-UV radiation or heat‐ozone), mitigated these effects. Other decontamination methods require further investigation, particularly the potential for scaling up for commercial usage and the associated costs. In conclusion, decontamination methods are required to extend shelf life of eggs, and to decrease consumer risks associated with foodborne pathogens.
... NEW demonstrates several advantages since it is natural, nontoxic, nonselective, nonirritant, and noncorrosive. First, NEW has been known as an ecologically and environmentally safe disinfectant, which does not contain a toxic contaminant [18]. HOCl is produced by the heme protein myeloperoxidase using hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and chloride in the granulocytic cells of our body [19]. ...
... The utilization of HOCl water for antimicrobial activity was initially introduced in 1987 and its application has been considerably increased, especially in the fields of agriculture, food processing, dentistry, ophthalmology, dermatology, and medicine [3,6,9,18,24,25]. HOCl is endogenously produced and effective against a wide range of microorganisms [6,26]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Infectious diseases of livestock caused by novel pathogenic viruses and bacteria are a major threat to global animal health and welfare and their effective control is crucial for agronomic health and for securing global food supply. It has been widely recognized that the transmission of infectious agents can occur between people and/or animals in indoor spaces. Therefore, infection control practices are critical to reduce the transmission of the airborne pathogens. ViKiller®-high-pressure sprayer and Deger®-disinfectant are newly developed spraying systems that can produce an optimal size of disinfectants to reduce airborne microbes. The system was evaluated to reduce the infection caused by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), an airborne bacterium which survives in indoor spaces. pH-neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) containing 100 ppm of free chlorine, laboratory-scale chambers, a recently developed sprayer, and a conventional sprayer were used in the study. A total of 123 day-of-hatch male layer chicks (Hy-Line W-36) were randomly classified into five groups (negative control (NC): no treatment; treatment 1 (Trt 1): spraying only NEW without APEC; treatment 2 (Trt 2): spraying NEW + APEC using a high-pressure sprayer; treatment 3 (Trt 3): spraying NEW + APEC using a conventional sprayer; positive control (PC): spraying only APEC). Experimental chicks in the chambers were daily exposed to 50 mL of NEW and/or APEC (1.0 × 106 cfu/mL) until the end of the experiment (day 35). APEC strains were sprayed by ViKiller®. At least four chicks in each group were evaluated weekly to monitor APEC infection and determine the lesion. Data showed that our spraying system significantly reduced airborne APEC concentrations, mortality rate, respiratory infection, and APEC lesions in birds in the chamber space (p < 0.05). The results demonstrate that the antibacterial effect of the novel spraying sprayer with NEW on APEC was far superior compared to the conventional sprayer. This study provides a new insight for preventive measures against airborne microorganisms in indoor spaces.
... It is formed by electrolysis of sodium chloride by passing it from chamber containing an anode and a cathode [64]. EOW is low-cost, eco-friendly and safe method [65,66]. Its ability to be produced on-site is important for the elimination of exposure risks [67]. ...
... Its ability to be produced on-site is important for the elimination of exposure risks [67]. It is deactivated when contacts and reacts with organic matter and tap water can easily dilute it from the environment [66]. ...
Chapter
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Fruits are among the most important elements of human diet. It is also well known and scientifically confirmed that fruit-based diet helps to protect human health and prevent many human diseases, mainly because of the high contents of vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals. Since the human population on the earth is increasing, the need for fruits is also increasing. However, at the same time, the main factors of fruit production, that is, soil, water, and climate, are being damaged by human activities. Therefore, the production of the fruits and vegetables is becoming difficult. Furthermore, nearly 30% of fruits do not reach the consumers because of the postharvest losses along the fruit value chain. Therefore, prevention of the postharvest losses is highly important for ensuring the sustainability of life through consumption of wholesome fruits. In this chapter, we aim to list and discuss the traditional, innovative, and eco-friendly methods for postharvest storage of fruits. We also aim to provide most current information about these methods and provide practical information for students, scientists, farmers, food packers & sellers, and entrepreneurs engaged in fruit storage.
... In 2002, it was recognized as a food additive by Japan. At present, the use of AEW on fruits and vegetables has been officially approved by China, Japan, and USA (Huang, Hung, Hsu, Huang, & Hwang, 2008;Rahman, Khan, & Oh, 2016;Shiroodi & Ovissipour, 2018). Compare with conventional preservation methods, the advantages of AEW include low cost, high efficiency, and convenient application (Sun et al., 2022). ...
... These were also supported by the reports that the reduced CEL and XET activities, caused by novel chitosan or 1-MCP, led to the retarded process of pulp softening of longans (Lin et al., 2019), persimmons or Huanghua pears (Chen et al., 2017a). Moreover, it is known that AEW could reduce the microbial load and has preservation effect on harvested fruits and vegetables (Huang, et al., 2008;Rahman, et al., 2016;Shiroodi & Ovissipour, 2018;Sun et al., 2022), which may induce less fruit damage and ethylene production. Further investigations are needed to clarify whether these inhibitory effects on activity of CWDEs in harvested longans during storage were related with reduced ethylene production by AEW treatment. ...
Article
Full-text available
Effects of acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) treatment (pH = 2.5, ACC= 80 mg/L, 10 min) on pulp firmness, amounts of CWM and CWP, activities and expression of relevant genes of CWDEs in pulp of Fuyan longan during storage at 25 °C were evaluated. Compared to control samples, during storage, AEW-treated fruit retained a higher pulp firmness, prevented WSP formation, reduced the degradation of CSP, cellulose and hemicellulose, and lowered CWDEs activities and their corresponding gene expression. When stored for 5 d, pulp firmness (113.6 g mm⁻¹), CWM (13.9 g kg⁻¹), and CSP (1.4 g kg⁻¹) in AEW-treated fruit displayed the clearly higher contents than those in control samples. These data suggest that AEW treatment can slow down the pulp softening and retain higher pulp CWP levels in postharvest fresh longans, which was because AEW lowered activities of CWDEs and its gene expression levels, and maintained the cell wall structure's integrity.
... The low pH (< 2.7) of strongly acidic electrolytic water is far below the optimal survival range of bacteria, which severely damages the amphiphiles in the surface structure of bacteria, such as lipopolysaccharides, enhances the permeability of bacterial cell walls and cell membranes, hinders cell metabolism, causes intracellular material to spill out, and thus inactivates cells. The high ORP (> 1,000 mv) of water with strong acidic oxidation potential leads to altered electron flow in bacterial cells, which in turn interferes with the synthesis of microbial RNA (Huang et al. 2008; 2) The chemical bacteriostasis theory suggests that available chlorine concentration (ACC) is the first element in the destruction of bacterial cellular activity (Hricova et al. 2008). Studies have shown that ACC destroys bacteria mainly through multiple targets, including cell walls, cell membranes, intracellular ribosomes, enzymes, RNA, and other components (Liao et al. 2017). ...
Article
Traditional processing methods can no longer meet the demands of consumers for high-quality muscle food. As a green and non-thermal processing technology, ultrasound has the advantage of improving processing efficiency and reducing processing costs. Of these, the positive effect of power ultrasound in the processing of muscle foods is noticeable. Based on the action mechanism of ultrasound, the factors affecting the action of ultrasound are analyzed. On this basis, the effect of ultrasound technology on muscle food quality and its action mechanism and application status in processing operations (freezing-thawing, tenderization, marination, sterilization, drying, and extraction) is discussed. The transient and steady-state effects, mechanical effects, thermal effects, and chemical effects can have an impact on processing operations through complex correlations, such as improving the efficiency of mass and heat transfer. Ultrasound technology has been proven to be valuable in muscle food processing, but inappropriate ultrasound treatment can also have adverse effects on muscle foods. In the future, kinetic models are expected to be an effective tool for investigating the application effects of ultrasound in food processing. Additionally, the combination with other processing technologies can facilitate their intensive application on an industrial level to overcome the disadvantages of using ultrasound technology alone.
... SAEW is used in the vegetable and fruits industry as a unique sanitizer to improve postharvest quality and safety (Sun et al., 2022;Feliziani et al., 2016;Pinto et al., 2015;Yoon and Lee, 2018). The Japanese food industry started using SAEW in 2002, when it was certified for use with food in Japan as an emerging and potentially effective non-thermal food disinfection against a wide range of pathogens (Huang et al., 2008). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has also certified electrolyzed water for use in the food sector (Park et al., 2002). ...
Article
Slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) has recently gained a lot of interest as a chlorine sanitizer which provides higher decontamination effect with minimum available chlorine. Nevertheless, microbial reductions via only SAEW treatment are not sufficient to assure safety. Hence, it is required to enhance the disinfection efficacy by combining with other compatible techniques. In the present study, SAEW with a pH of 5.5-5.6, available chlorine content (AAC) of 20-22 mg/L, oxidation-reduction potential of 900-950 mV was applied on fresh-cut cauliflower to determine the microbicidal activity. SAEW was also applied in combination with ultrasound treatment (US) and moderate heat (45 • C) to enhance the decontamination efficacy of SAEW. The impacts of individual (SAEW) and combined treatments like (SAEW + US), (SAEW + US + mild heat 45 • C) on microbial population, physicochemical, and antioxidant properties of cauliflower were evaluated. The combined treatment of SAEW, US and mild heat showed better effectiveness on microbial decontamination compared to SAEW treatment alone, and SAEW with US (SAEW + US) treatment but significantly reduced the antioxidant and phytochemical properties of fresh cauliflower. However, SAEW with US treatment (SAEW + US) preserved the bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity with significant reduction of microbial load. The present study revealed that combination of SAEW with US treatment can be a promising decontamination technique to improve postharvest quality and safety of fresh produce.
... In addition, water infused with EOs is also used to kill harmful bacteria and viruses on newly harvested crops and vegetables. Freshly cut carrots, bell peppers, spinach, cauliflower, tomatoes, apples, and oranges all have benefited from this method of cleaning (Huang et al., 2008). It was observed that EO water at a pH of 2.5 was extremely good at preventing the spread of E. coli in tomatoes (Issa-Zacharia et al., 2010). ...
Article
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Purpose: Managing postharvest losses to extend shelf life and cut down on waste is of paramount importance nowadays, especially when resources are scarce. Extracts from the leaves of the cannonball tree and electrolyzed oxidizing water were employed to improve postharvest handling procedures. Research method: The experiment consisted of cannonball tree leaf extracts (5 ml/L, 10 ml/L, 15 ml/L, 20 ml/L) and two pH levels of electrolyzed oxidizing water (pH 3, pH 5). Tomato treated with distilled water was considered as a control. The experiment was conducted as a Completely Randomized Design under a factorial arrangement with three replications. Findings: Cannonball tree leaf extracts (10 ml/L) significantly retained acceptable fruit color, firmness, high level of titratable acidity, flavonoid, carotenoid, anthocyanin, vitamin C, IC50 and prolonged shelf life by more than three days over other treatment combinations. Compared to untreated fruit, treated fruit decayed at a slower rate (30.7±0.4%) and lost less weight (35.4±0.7%). Additionally, electrolyzed oxidizing water (pH 5) significantly outperformed alternative postharvest management techniques to lower postharvest losses, IC50 (121.6±2.1 mg/Kg) activity, enhancing titratable acidity and vitamin C content, and other physico-chemical attributes and thereby increasing tomato shelf life by more than two days. Research limitations: No limitations were encountered. Originality/Value: Electrolyzed oxidizing water (pH 5) or cannonball tree leaf extract (10 ml/L) appears to be the most promising sustainable solution for reducing postharvest tomato losses.
... Moreover, electro-activation is also favorable for a generation of different oxidizing agents that are able of reach the cytoplasm of the bacterial cell. 30 3.1.2. Evolution of ORP during the Electro-Activation. ...
Article
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The aim of the present work was to study the feasibility of using electro-activation as a nonthermal treatment to produce stable beetroot juice. Specifically, red beetroot juice was electro-activated under two different reactor configurations by using three electric current intensities (100, 200, and 300 mA) during 120 min. Different parameters of the juice were measured such as the pH, redox potential, juice titratable acidity, Brix degree and total dry matter, color, betalain and polyphenolic contents, and antioxidant capacity of the electro-activated juice. By using the reactor Configuration A in which the targeted juice was electro-activated in the anodic compartment of the used reactor, acidic juice with pH 4 and 5 as well as a redox potential close to +300 mV was obtained. The Brix degree, color, dry matter, and phenolic content were not significantly influenced by this electro-activation. However, the treatment permitted increasing the antioxidant capacity of the juice as measured by the DPPH and ABTS assays. By using the reactor Configuration B in which the targeted beet juice was electro-activated in the cathodic compartment of the used compartment, a juice with an alkaline pH of approximately pH 9 and a reducing redox potential of -697 mV was obtained. With this reactor configuration, the Brix degree and total dry matter were not affected, but the color and total polyphenolic content changed. The betalains and polyphenolic compounds were degraded under the alkaline conditions of this electro-activation treatment, which had a negative consequence on the juice quality by decreasing its antioxidant capacity. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that anodic electro-activation of a beet juice can be technologically feasible since this treatment permitted producing stable juice as well as maintaining the main physico-chemical properties of the juice, enhancing its antioxidant capacity, and keeping the juice color at high level.
... In particular, caution is required during the impression-taking process, because impressions are always covered with saliva or blood that may contain potentially pathogenic microorganisms or the hepatitis B or C or herpes simplex viruses. To eliminate cross-infections, impression materials must be washed in running water and treated with disinfectants [1,[3][4][5]. Commonly, Dental elastomeric impression materials are immersed in or sprayed with disinfectants such as sodium hypochlorite, glutaraldehyde, or povidone-iodine in the dental clinic. However, disinfectants stimulate the skin. ...
Article
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Background and Objectives The antimicrobial efficacy of a nonthermal atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (NAPPJ) on dental impression materials was investigated. Materials and Methods Type 3 polyvinyl siloxane was used as the impression material, and air and nitrogen NAPPJ were applied. The antibacterial effect of the NAPPJ was measured using the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of Streptococcus mutans. Surface chemical characteristics of the impression material were examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurement. Additionally, physical properties were analyzed through surface roughness measurement, detail reproduction, and strain-in-compression test. Results Compared with the control group, the plasma treatment group showed ruptured bacteria membranes, destroyed bacteria structures, a significant reduction in the number of CFUs, and a significantly reduced contact angle. Further, XPS analysis showed that their surface was significantly richer in hydroxyl groups. The surface roughness, detail reproduction, and strain-in-compression results indicated no significant differences between the plasma treatment and control groups. NAPPJ treatment could remove bacteria from polyvinyl siloxane dental impression materials without changing the surface's physical properties. Conclusion Therefore, it is considered a promising method for disinfection.
... The high concentration of potassium (K) is offset by a decrease in sodium concentration (Na) in such a way as to ensure a sustained balance of heart muscle function regularly of mineral elements. Huang et al (2008) have been mentioned that positively charged ions such as hydrogen (H+) and Na+ (Na+) migrate to the cathode to withdraw electrons and become hydrogen gas (H2) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH), indicating cathodic water produced near the cathode, which is rich Positive ions. ...
... EW was also tested as a disinfectant for equipment such as kitchen boards, glass, stainless steel, enameled and unglazed ceramics, and industry vitreous porcelain, showing bacterial reductions between 2 and 6 log/CFU (Huang et al., 2008). Other studies on bacteria inactivation report a reduction, on average, from 1 (Koseki, Yoshida, Isobe, & Itoh, 2004;Ayebah, Hung, & Frank, 2005;Park, Hung, Lin, & Brackett, 2005;Mansur & Oh;Ogunniyi et al., 2021a;Ogunniyi et al., 2021b) to about 6 log CFU (Ovissipour et al., 2018). ...
Article
Controlling food spoilage fungi remains a challenge for food industries, and regulations on the usage of chemical disinfectants are becoming restrictive. Then, this study aimed to evaluate electrolyzed water (EW) as a sustainable alternative for food spoilage fungi inactivation. The experiment was carried out according to the protocol for testing the antifungal effects of chemical sanitizers by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN), using acidic electrolyzed water (AEW-AAC: 85 ppm; pH: 2.65; ORP: 1120 mV) and a basic electrolyzed water (BEW- pH: 11.12; ORP: -209 mV) to inactivate spoilage fungi strains from bread (Hyphopichia burtonii and Penicillium roqueforti) and cheese (P. roqueforti and Penicillium commune), besides the standard fungi for this type of essay (Candida albicans and Aspergillus brasiliensis). AEW presented a higher antifungal effect, inactivating an average of 89% of the exposed population when compared to its respective BEW, which inactivates about 81.5%. In general, the standard strains A. brasiliensis (ATCC 16404) and Candida albicans (ATCC 24433) were more sensitive to both AEW and BEW than the food-spoilage strains. Among those, P. roqueforti strains were the most sensitive, followed by P. commune strains, while H. burtonii strains were the most tolerant. EW can be a sustainable alternative for product surface and facility cleaning with further antifungal action when a sanitization step is not mandatory or needed. Future studies searching for conditions to improve the antifungal action of EW could make their industrial usage more viable.
... Both have microbial activity, acting in the disinfection of foodborne pathogens in fruits and vegetables (Graça et al., 2011;Pinto et al., 2015). Electrolyzed water can also act to inactivate toxins and disinfect equipment in the food industry (Huang et al., 2008). ...
Chapter
The changes in the population lifestyle lead the food industry to manufacture healthy and ready-to-eat products. This kind of product must be practical, present a fresh appearance, and must be durable. Traditional food preservation technologies can affect food quality, including sensory qualities and nutritional value. Therefore, minimal processing methods for food have been relevant because they do not use high temperatures and preserve food characteristics. This chapter presents a comprehensive account of microorganisms and enzymes that act in food spoilage, and how is possible to avoid this degradation process through methods already consolidated. However, it is also explored the emergent minimal processing methods that are being investigated for a future application in the industry. The most recent researches are focused on study hurdle technologies, modified atmosphere packaging, cold plasma, edible coating, nanofluids, nanomaterials, and other technologies. In this way, it is possible to view in general these kinds of processing, to know about recent studies, and to speculate about future perspectives and area challenges.
... The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19 pandemic), caused by SARS-CoV-2, has largely increased public awareness of pathogenic viruses and generated concerns regarding the viral contamination of fresh vegetables and foods thermal sanitizing agent capable of inactivating pathogens. EW has emerged as an interesting non-thermal sanitizing agent because of its low cost, ease of preparation, and safety for use in food products (Huang et al., 2008). However, the mechanisms driving pathogen inactivation by EW remain unclear. ...
Article
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Concerns have been raised about viral contamination, including in crops due to the recent coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Limited evidence is available to support the use of sanitizing agents for human coronavirus-contaminated medicinal plants. Thus, we aimed to investigate the persistence of infectious human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) as a SARS-CoV-2 surrogate in storage conditions and the capability of neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) to inactivate coronavirus, including in fresh plants such as C. asiatica. The levels of infectious HCoV-OC43 and the triterpenoid content of C. asiatica were quantified using a plaque assay and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. The results showed that the persistence of HCoV-OC43 on C. asiatica leaves is identical to that on inert polystyrene. When covered and kept at room temperature with high humidity (>90% RH), HCoV-OC43 can be stable on C. asiatica leaves for at least 24 h. NEW with 197 ppm of available chlorine concentration (ACC) was effective in inactivating both infectious HCoV-OC43 and SARS-CoV-2 in suspension (≥3.68 and ≥4.34 log reduction, respectively), and inactivated dried HCoV-OC43 on the surfaces of C. asiatica leaves (≥2.31 log reduction). Soaking C. asiatica leaves for 5 min in NEW with 205 ppm of ACC or water resulted in significantly higher asiaticoside levels (37.82 ± 0.29 and 35.32 ± 0.74 mg/g dry weight, respectively), compared to the unsoaked group (29.96 ± 0.78 mg/g dry weight). These findings suggest that although coronavirus-contaminated C. asiatica leaves can pose a risk of transmission, NEW could be an option for inactivation.
... However, MAP procedures are expensive due to high package capacity, high-humidity systems, product stability, temperature, different gas compositions for various goods, and pack leaks [7]. EOW has certain adverse effects on human health due to low pH and chlorine content; it also could cause pitting and mild corrosions of the container [8,9]. Likewise, chlorinated water has limitations like corrosion of metals, susceptibility to organic load, and the formation of chlorinated by-products that may be harmful to the environment and human health [10]. ...
Article
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Tomatoes have inadequate salability due to their highly perishable nature and water content, leading to massive post-harvest losses during transportation and storage. However, edible coatings have the potential to maintain quality and prolong shelf life. Due to characteristic permeability to volatiles, poor mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties, accompanied by high costs, existing biomaterials have been limited. This study attempts to evaluate the use of chitosan coatings obtained from dung beetle on the shelf life and overall quality of stored tomatoes. The chitosan from dung beetle can be manipulated to form a chitosan-melanin complex. Physicochemical characterization of chitosan flms from dung beetle and crab were mainly performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and measurements of contact angle. The results showed that chitosan flms from dung beetle presented outstanding biomechanical characteristics such as tensile strength, elongation at break, swelling rate, and high hydrophobicity. Fresh tomatoes coated with 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% chitosan solution from dung beetle, 1.0% chitosan solution from crab, and uncoated fruits were stored at room temperature for 16 days. Chitosan-coated tomatoes were frmer, and showed a decrease in weight loss and decay percentage, along with an increase in ascorbic acid, total sugar, and titratable acid compared to uncoated tomatoes. We concluded that tomatoes coated with 1.0% chitosan solution maintained quality and improved storability better than control samples. Furthermore, chitosan from dung beetle was more suitable as a food preservative than crab chitosan.
... The application of a galvanic current produces a physical phenomenon known as electrolysis which has a recognized power of disinfection against viruses and bacteria 1 . Through different types of electrodes, electrolysis has been used for disinfection of hands and surfaces 2 , medical and dental supplies 3,4 , surgical procedures 5 , food 6,7 and even industrially, in swimming pools and wastewater 8,9 . Traditionally, physiotherapists have also used the application of a galvanic current for other additional therapeutic purposes by using either electrodes or acupuncture needles. ...
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Percutaneous needle electrolysis using tri-beveled needles with a specific protocol (5 mA applied for 25 s) has demonstrated to provoke a clinical reduction of recurrent bacterial infections in mammary fistulas. However, the bactericidal effect of needle electrolysis in this pathology remains theoretical. This in vitro study evaluated the bactericidal effect of this protocol and whether it changed when introducing small variations. Staphylococcus aureus were generated in saline solution (9 Log10 CFU/mL) and treated in three different experiments including the main protocol and introducing variations in needle gauge, intensity, and total dosage, respectively. After 24 h, the viable cell count showed that the protocol had an average reduction of 5 log10 CFU/ml compared to the control group. While variations in needle gauge did not modify this effect, variations in current intensity or dosage did. This study demonstrated that the bacterial effect was greater by increasing either current intensity or total dosage, and it decreased with substantial reductions of these parameters.
... The electrolyzed water, constituting almost 50 mg/L Cl, strongly affects bacterial mortality, which is more effective than 15-30 mg/L Cl. This remedy will not cause the off-colouring of freshly produced commodities [85]. The rinsed freshly produced agricultural products are then re-treated with electrolyzed water (50 mg/L). ...
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Electrolyzed water is a novel disinfectant and cleaner that has been widely utilized in the food sector for several years to ensure that surfaces are sterilized, and that food is safe. It is produced by the electrolysis of a dilute salt solution, and the reaction products include sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and hypochlorous acid. In comparison to conventional cleaning agents, electrolyzed water is economical and eco-friendly, easy to use, and strongly effective. Electrolyzed water is also used in its acidic form, but it is non-corrosive to the human epithelium and other organic matter. The electrolyzed water can be utilized in a diverse range of foods; thus, it is an appropriate choice for synergistic microbial control in the food industry to ensure food safety and quality without damaging the organoleptic parameters of the food. The present review article highlights the latest information on the factors responsible for food spoilage and the antimicrobial potential of electrolyzed water in fresh or processed plant and animal products.
... The processing of many foods requires a clean and uncontaminated atmosphere, for example to protect against the presence of salmonella. To meet the specified regulations, various methods are used here depending on the application (de Alwis and Fryer, 1990;Guzel-Seydim et al., 2004;Oscar, 2005;Huang et al., 2008;Velugoti et al., 2011). ...
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Biofabrication, specifically 3D-Bioprinting, has the potential to disruptively impact a wide range of future technological developments to improve human well-being. Organs-on-Chips could enable animal-free and individualized drug development, printed organs may help to overcome non-treatable diseases as well as deficiencies in donor organs and cultured meat may solve a worldwide environmental threat in factory farming. A high degree of manual labor in the laboratory in combination with little trained personnel leads to high costs and is along with strict regulations currently often a hindrance to the commercialization of technologies that have already been well researched. This paper therefore illustrates current developments in process automation in 3D-Bioprinting and provides a perspective on how the use of proven and new automation solutions can help to overcome regulatory and technological hurdles to achieve an economically scalable production.
... and low oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) (− 800 to − 900 mV) produced from the cathode side. Currently, EW finds its applications in medical (Sakurai et al., 2003), agricultural, and agro-processing industries (Al-haq et al., 2005;Hricova, Stephan, & Zweifel, 2008;Huang et al., 2008). One of the most significant advantages of EW is its on-site production, which reduces its transportation, storage, and handling charges and the hazards associated with these operations (Al-haq et al., 2005). ...
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The application of pesticides enhances food production vastly, and it cannot be prevented; longer fresh produce is contaminated with health-threatening pesticides even though traditional processing methods can remove these pesticides from food surfaces to a certain extent; novel emerging technologies such as cold plasma, ultrasound, electrolyzed water, and pulsed electric field could more effectively dissipate the pesticide content in food without the release of toxic residual on the food surface. The present review focuses on applying emerging technologies to degrade pesticide residues in great utility in the food processing industries. This review also discusses the pesticide removal efficacy and its mechanism involved in these technologies. The oxidation principle in cold plasma is recently gaining more importance for the degradation of pesticide residue in the food processing industries. Analysis of the emerging physical processing methods indicated greater efficacy in eradicating pesticide residues during agriculture processing. Even though the technologies such as EO (99% reduction in dimethoate), ultrasound (98.96% for chlorpyrifos), and irradiation (99.8% for pesticide in aqueous solution) can achieve promising results in pesticide degradation levels, the rate and inactivation of highly depend on the type of equipment and processing parameters involved in different techniques, surface characteristics of produce, treatment conditions, and nature of the pesticide. Therefore, to effectively remove these health-threatening pesticides from food surfaces, it is necessary to know the process parameters and efficacy of the applied technology on various pesticides.
... EW is not toxic and is safer for human use. Therefore, the use of such water can help clean food products and remove bacteria from the food preparation areas ( Hricova et al., 2008 ;Huang et al., 2008 ;Martin-Rios et al., 2018 ). Another innovative technique is hydro-soluble or water-soluble food packaging. ...
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Food waste is one of the challenging issues humans are facing. A third of the food produced in the world is wasted at various points along the food supply chain. Food waste can be reduced by developing technology that can be utilized in different parts of the food value chain and through education programs that focus on consumers' behavior on healthy lifestyles and sustainable consumption. This article examines the problem of food waste and provides insights into the approaches to food waste management. Different techniques, such as education-based or structure-based, are used to encourage food waste prevention and management. Therefore, highlighting the current development in food waste management becomes important. The paper uses a systematic review that supports screening of the literature to answer the research questions and find the research gaps. According to the findings, food is either thrown out during the supply chain or even at the last stages of preparation and consumption. The review shows that the current food waste management treatment methods may be effective, but they do not provide an environmentally sustainable solution for food waste management. Therefore, the proposed article deeply investigated food waste prevention and social innovations to reduce food waste. This review complements the previous reviews by adding social and economic innovation focus on food waste management. The article recommends a course of action for future food waste management research.
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Green and clean diets are on focus for consumers with healthy and safety concerns. Good sources of safe and clean vegetables and fruits are vital. Vegetables and fruits are often found on market shelves below the standard of good agricultural practices. Pesticides and other chemical residues are found in those fruits and vegetables which may connect to many late complication issues in health. Various methods are utilized as common wisdom to fight the problem. Some methods are more practical and handier. This contribution has studied the properties of tap water after activation by a commercial fruit and vegetable purifier. Chlorine, which is present in tap water, is bound with hydroxyl radical from electrohydrolysis by an apparatus to form hypochlorous acid. The activated water peaks at 291 nm in its absorbance with a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Properties of water were studied under various experimental settings such as comparing with activation of de-ionized water, as a function of (i) operating time, (ii) storing time of input tap water, (iii) storage time of activated water, and (iv) water volume. The concentration of hypochlorous acid is calibrated against commercial ready-to-use acid.
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The research and development of high-efficiency low-temperature disinfection technology in all aspects of cold-chain food has begun to receive attention. This paper aims to develop low temperature acidic electrolyzed water (LT-AEW) disinfectant. The anti-freezing temperature, disinfection efficiency and practical application effect were evaluated in detail. The results had shown that the freezing point of AEW can be reduced to −18 °C by adding 25% CaCl2, 20% NaCl, 30% ethylene glycol (EG) and 35% propylene glycol (PG). At the low temperature (−1, −10 and −18 °C), the bactericidal efficiencies of all EG-acidic electrolyzed waters (EG-AEWs) with different EG contents were close. The reason is that although the low temperature environment will reduce the sterilization efficiency of EG-AEW, the addition of EG can promote the increase of HClO content in EG-AEW, thus increasing the sterilization efficiency. As long as the HClO content reached 35.2, 50.8 and 64.3 mg L⁻¹, the killing logarithm (KL) value had achieved 4.50, 4.49 and 5.07 log10(CFU mL⁻¹). Finally, the KL values of EG-AEW against Escherichia coli on the corrugated board and stainless-steel board both exceeded 3 log10(CFU mL⁻¹) at the low temperature, which indicates that EG-AEW can be applied in food cold chain.
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This study aimed to explore the impacts of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) treatment on the physiology, quality, and storage properties of postharvest carambola. The carambolas were immersed in SAEW with a pH value of 6.0, ORP of 1340 mV and ACC of 80 mg/L. Results demonstrated that SAEW could significantly reduce the respiration rate, inhibit the increase in cell membrane permeability, and delay apparent color change. Relatively higher contents of bioactive compounds and nutritional components, such as flavonoids, polyphenols, reducing sugars, sucrose, vitamin C, total soluble sugar, and total soluble solid, as well as higher titratable acidity were maintained in SAEW-treated carambola. In addition, SAEW-treated carambola exhibited a higher commercial acceptability rate and a higher firmness, but lower weight loss and peel browning index than control fruits. Our results indicated that SAEW treatment achieved high fruit quality and nutritional values, potentially contributing to improve storage properties of harvested carambola.
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Bu çalışmada çeşitli gıda üretim alanlarında dezenfeksiyon amaçlı kullanımı yaygınlaşmakta olan elektrolize sular ele alınmıştır. Günümüzde gıdaların ilk andaki besin özelliklerinin korunarak tüketiciye ulaştırılması için daha az ya da hiç kimyasal kullanılmadan daha uzun süreli olarak saklanmasını amaçlayan yeşil üretime yönelik araştırmalar yoğunlaşmıştır. Bu kapsamda gıdaların kalite kayıpları olmaksızın ve sağlık endişeleri yaratmadan uzun süreli saklanmasına yönelik var olan yöntem ve uygulamaların iyileştirilmesi ve yeni teknolojilerin geliştirilmesine gereksinim olduğu da yadsınamaz bir gerçektir. Bu amaçla geliştirilen yöntemlerden birisi de gıda dezenfeksiyonunda elektrolize suların kullanımıdır. Gıda işleme endüstrisinin çeşitli aşamalarında elektrolize suların kullanımı görece yeni bir uygulama alanı oluştururken, son zamanlarda yapılan çalışmalarda özellikle antimikrobiyal ve antioksidan ajan olarak da üzerinde durulmaktadır. Buna karşın bu yöntemin su ürünlerinde kullanımına yönelik çalışmalar oldukça sınırlı olup, geliştirilmesine gereksinim bulunmaktadır. Önceki çalışmalar ağırlıklı olarak elektrolize suların antimikrobiyal özellikleri ile ilgilidir ve su ürünlerinin saklama sürelerine (raf ömrü) etkisi ile ilgili olarak sınırlı sayıda çalışma bulunmaktadır. Bununla birlikte yapılan çalışmalar ışığında elektrolize suyun su ürünleri işleme endüstrisinde potansiyel kullanımları olduğu görülmektedir.
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Electrolytic active water was prepared by electrolytic treatment of sodium chloride aqueous solution using a self-made device. In order to investigate the properties of electrolytic active water , the pH value, available chlorine contents and decolorization ability on methylene blue solution were tested and compared with that of sodium hypochlorite aqueous solution. Experimental results showed that the electrolytic active water has higher oxidation capacity and decolorization efficiency for methylene blue compared with sodium hypochlorite solution, implying maybe other reactive oxygen species components besides hypochlorite existed in the electrolytic active water. The electrolytic active water was stable under long-term storage, and mechanical force with oxidation activity did not decrease. In addition, the decolorization kinetics of methylene blue in the electrolytic active water was explored, and it was found that, in general, the decolorization reaction of methylene blue in electrolytic active water was consistent with the first-order reaction kinetics model, but when the pH value of electrolytic active water solution was weakly alkaline or neutral, the decolorization reaction of methylene blue was closer to the second-order reaction kinetics model.
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Acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) demonstrates virucidal activity against multiple viruses. Since AEW exhibits low toxicity, is inexpensive, and is environmentally friendly, it can be a useful disinfectant against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).
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Apples are rich sources of bioactive compounds (e.g., anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols, and antioxidant activity), and micronutrients (e.g., vitamins, zinc, and iron) that are essential for normal human body functions. These compounds in apples help to regulate immune responses and protect against chronic diseases by neutralizing and eliminating cellular free radicals. Apple fruit production is ranked second globally, which has economic implication. The conventional industry practice of using chlorine-based chemical disinfectants has been discouraged based on public health concerns, and by strict policies limiting chemical residues on fresh or minimally processed ready to eat fruit. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide a critical assessment on the status of emerging non-thermal technologies such as cold plasma, pulsed electric fields, ozone, electrolyzed water, and edible coatings for the whole and minimally processed apple fruit industry. The influence of these non-thermal technologies on microbial decontamination, preservation of bioactive compounds, and overall quality of apples during storage is discussed. In addition, based on extensive report on various studies about non-thermal technologies for apples. This review concluded that future investigations should focus on balancing the decontamination performance of these non-thermal technologies with the preservation of essential nutritional quality attributes, providing guidance for the apple fruit industry.
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Background As a star vegetable, sprouts have many advantages, such as high nutritional value, crisp and juicy taste, short growth cycle and simple cultivation conditions, which have been widely welcomed around the world. As consumers’ demand for healthier foods grows, new technologies need to be developed urgently to improve the quality of sprouts. Among them, electrolyzed water (EW) and plasma-activated water (PAW), which have merits of green, sustainable and low-cost, have wide potential for application in hydroponic sprout cultivation. Scope and approach This work reviews the effects of EW and PAW on growth, chemical compositions, microbiological safety and postharvest quality of sprouts and compares the effects of EW and PAW comprehensively. In addition, some regulations and challenges in practical application were also discussed. Key findings and conclusions EW and PAW show outstanding effects during sprout production, including: 1) promoting seed germination and sprout growth during cultivation; 2) accelerating hydrolysis of macromolecules compounds and accumulation of bioactive compounds in sprouts during cultivation; 3) inhibiting growth of microorganisms on sprouts during cultivation; 4) improving postharvest quality of sprouts during postharvest washing. In addition, EW and PAW each seem to have more obvious advantages in improving certain qualities of sprouts, thus producers need to use them wisely to maximize their strengths. On these grounds, EW and PAW are promising technologies to develop considerable application value in sprout industry.
Chapter
Aflatoxins are a group of naturally occurring carcinogenic mycotoxins produced by certain Aspergillus species in nuts, grains, oilseeds and vegetables. Ingestion of aflatoxin contaminated food and feed has extremely negative health implications in humans and livestocks. Additionally, exporting countries face the trade barrier due to strict regulations in international market to maintain food quality. This led to huge economic losses to global exporters. Therefore, there is an urgent need for development of effective methods for detoxification of aflatoxins from food and feed to ensure food security. Till date, numerous methods for detoxification of aflatoxins from foods have been employed. Physical, chemical and biological treatment are the novel promising approaches for partial/complete detoxification of aflatoxins from the foodstuffs. In this chapter, we will address the efficacy and shortcomings of each methods in with respect to economic importance, human health and food security.
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This study evaluated the synergistic effects of ultrasound (US) and slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) treatment on the myofibril protein structure of vacuum‐packed sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicas) during refrigerated storage. Fresh sea bass fillets were treated with US, SAEW, US combined with SAEW treatment (US + SAEW), and sterile water (Control) for 10 min, respectively. Different indexes, such as hardness, myofibril fragmentation index (MFI), water activity (aw), and surface hydrophobicity, which also combined with protein characteristic (intrinsic fluorescence intensity) were analyzed. The results showed that the US treatment increased the MFI and surface hydrophobicity of sea bass. Compared with the control group, the bactericidal effect of US + SAEW treatment made the sample better water holding capacity, water activity, and higher fluorescence intensity. Differential scanning calorimetry spectrum results showed that samples treated by US had loose myofibrillary structure, which was convenient for SAEW to act more effectively. US + SAEW treatment retarded the degradation of protein. These results provided evidence that US + SAEW treatment could maintain the quality of fish. This study evaluated the synergistic effects of ultrasound and slightly acidic electrolyzed water treatment on the myofibril protein structure of vacuum‐packed sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicas) during refrigerated storage. US+SAEW treatment changed the structure and properties of myofibrillar protein and the thermal stability in sea bass during refrigerated storage.
Article
The aim of the present work was to investigate the antibacterial effects of four different decontaminants [slightly acidic electrolysed water (SAEW), chlorine dioxide, calcium oxide, and nisin (N)] and two different application methods (spraying, S; and immersion, I) on Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes strains on chicken meats. The decontamination effect of each solution was applied by spraying and immersion on days 0 (2 h after application), 1, 3, and 6. It was determined that SAEWI's antibacterial activity against S. Typhimurium continued from day 0 (0.85 log reduction) during the cold storage. It was observed that NS and NI applications decreased the number of L. monocytogenes by 2.82 - 2.76 log/g, respectively, on day 0 as compared to the control group; and had the strongest antibacterial effect in terms of sustaining the effect during cold storage. It was found that SAEWS had a weak antibacterial effect against L. monocytogenes, but had a stronger antibacterial activity against S. Typhimurium, the most important pathogen of poultry slaughterhouses and poultry meats. In conclusion, SAEWS is a decontaminant that could be included in Salmonella control programs in slaughterhouses, due to its antibacterial effect against Salmonella species.
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Response of culturable microbes on the surface of apples treated with slightly alkaline electrolyzed water (SAIEW) is largely unexplored. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize culturable microbes on the surface of SAIEW treated ‘Granny Smith’ apples using conventional and molecular approach. Results showed that SAIEW treatments and storage duration influenced culturable microbes isolated from the surface of ‘Granny Smith’ apples stored at 5 °C for 21 days. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC-PCR) analysis distinctively identified 27 groups of bacteria from 56 plate isolates. Using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) typing and RAPD1283 primers, 10 distinct band patterns were identified from 30 fungal isolates. Sequencing of 16S rRNA and intergenic spacer (ITS1 and ITS4) region, identified eight bacteria and four fungi, respectively, to species level. Study showed that SAIEW treatment inhibited growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. capitis, Ochrobactrum soli, and Aspergillus inuii on the surface apples during storage.
Article
In this study, the sanitization efficacy of decontamination techniques was evaluated on lemon balm (Melissa officinalis). Dried aromatic herbs are minor food components with widespread use and, despite their low water activity, they are often contaminated with microorganisms, including toxigenic and pathogenic ones. Gaseous ozone (GO) and electrolyzed water (EW) treatments were applied on lemon balm after and before drying (traditional at 40 °C and cold at 20 °C), respectively. Microbiological and entomological decontamination aspects were assessed as well as the sensory quality and compositional properties of the product in terms of essential oil, total polyphenol and ascorbic acid contents, and antioxidant capacity. The most interesting results concerned EW treatment (400 ppm × 1 min dipping) reducing aerobic mesophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, moulds and yeasts of about 4.0, 2.5, 2.0 and 1.0 Log cfu/g, respectively, thus below law limits. Moreover, 200 ppm EW x 1 min dipping was enough for limiting Bacillus cereus growth. However, sanitization against the beetle species Tribolium castaneum and Lasioderma serricorne was less efficient with EW (less than 40% mortality) compared with GO (200,000 ppm × min) (more than 95% mortality). Noteworthy, sensory analysis highlighted that lemon balm exposed to EW treatment did not lose organoleptic quality, in particular the color even seemed to improve in brightness when the herbs were subsequently cold dried. Furthermore, the loss in essential oils was not significant in terms of the overall content as well as total polyphenol, ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity in EW treated lemon balm then submitted to cold drying. Differently, the combination of EW treatment and traditional drying led to a significant detriment of compositional properties. The results obtained in this study are encouraging and deserve to be discussed with producers.
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The food hygiene problems caused by bacterial biofilms in food processing equipment are directly related to human life safety and health. Therefore, it is of great strategic significance to study new food sterilization technology. An acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) disinfectant is an electrochemical sterilization technology which has the characteristics of wide adaptability, high efficiency, and environmental friendliness. However, since the sterilization efficiency of AEW for biofilms is not ideal, it is necessary to increase the available chlorine content (ACC) in AEW. A feasible method to increase the ACC is by increasing the chlorine evolution reaction (CER) selectivity of the electrode for AEW preparation. In this paper, the RuO2@TiO2 electrode was prepared by thermal decomposition combined with high-vacuum magnetron sputtering. Compared with the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) activity of an ordinary RuO2 electrode, the OER activity of the RuO2@TiO2 electrode is significantly reduced. However, the CER activity of the RuO2@TiO2 electrode is close to the OER activity of RuO2. The CER mechanism of the RuO2@TiO2 electrode is the second electron transfer, and the OER mechanism is the formation and transformation of OHads. The potential difference between the CER and OER of the RuO2@TiO2 electrode is 174 mV, which is 65 mV higher than that of the RuO2 electrode, so the selectivity of the CER of the RuO2@TiO2 electrode is remarkably improved. During the preparation of AEW, the ACC obtained with the RuO2@TiO2 electrode is 1.7 times that obtained with the RuO2 electrode. In the sterilization experiments on Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis biofilms, the logarithmic killing values of AEW prepared the by RuO2@TiO2 electrode are higher than those of AEW prepared by the RuO2 electrode.
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Disease development of ‘Lingwu Long’ jujube fruit treated with acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) at 4 ± 1℃ for storing 30 d was evaluated by the reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism, phenylpropanoid metabolism, and cell wall metabolism. Compared to the control, jujube fruit treated with AEW had a lower disease index. At the end of storage, AEW treatment maintained lower malondialdehyde (2.1 μmol kg⁻¹) and superoxide anion generation rate (41.5 nmol g⁻¹ min⁻¹) compared to the control, while enhancing catalase (127.2 U g⁻¹) and superoxide dismutase activities (244.2 U g⁻¹). AEW treatment increased 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging ability and hydrogen peroxide. The higher contents of ascorbic acid and glutathione were related to higher activities of ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, and dehydroascorbate reductase in AEW-treated jujube fruit. Moreover, the highest activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (21.1 U g⁻¹), cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (304.2 U g⁻¹), and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (6.4 U g⁻¹) and contents of total phenolics (5.3 g GAE kg⁻¹) and total flavonoids (0.3 mg RE g⁻¹) were observed in AEW-treated fruit compared to the control. Higher firmness, Na2CO3-soluble pectin, cellulose, and hemicellulose and lower water-soluble pectin in AEW-treated fruit were due to lower activities of polygalacturonase, pectinate lyases, β-galactosidase, and cellulase. As a result, AEW could be used for decreasing decay occurrence and maintaining storage quality of jujube fruit.
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Fruits and vegetables (F&V) provide people with a variety of essential vitamins, antioxidants and dietary fiber, thus constituting integral components of human diet. With the surge of interest in F&V, their consumption ratio has kept increasing in recent years. Unfortunately, microorganisms and pesticide residues on the surfaces of F&V may be hazardous to humans. As an emerging technology, electrolyzed water (EW) shows great application potential in reducing these hazards. EW treatment not only effectively removes microorganisms from F&V, but also degrades pesticide residues on their surfaces. In addition, EW treatment affects the physiological metabolism of harvested F&V, which is conducive to maintain their sensory quality and nutritional value. This article reviews the principles of EW preparation, advantages and disadvantages, and the application of EW in F&V in the last decade, including disinfection of irrigation water, removal of pesticide residues, disinfection after harvest, and its effects on physicochemical parameters and enzyme activity of F&V etc. Moreover, the combination of EW and other technology, including ozone, short‐time heat treatment, ultraviolet irradiation, and ultrasound, to further improve the quality control effects of F&V is discussed.
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During the processing of poultry, disinfectants are commonly added to cooling water tanks called “chillers” to reduce microorganism populations that can affect food quality. The present study, evaluated the effectiveness of neutral electrolyzed water in a pilot-project-sized chiller for the elimination of pathogenic microorganisms in gizzards and necks chicken. The microbiological analysis of the samples was processed and analyzed in three different food microbiological analysis laboratories. The results demonstrated a maximum microbial load reduction of 1.97686 log CFU/g for Escherichia coli and 1.76313 log CFU/g for Staphylococcus aureus in all samples processed with neutral electrolyzed water. Sodium hypochlorite, a disinfectant in common industrial use, did not achieve significant reductions in microbial loads below those of untreated necks and gizzards for either of the microorganisms in question. Based on these results, this study thus proposes the use electrolyzed water as an alternative disinfectant to sodium hypochlorite for use in chillers; being a sustainable solution that differs from conventional disinfectants in its lack of human or environmental side effects.
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The use of harmful alcohol-based disinfectants and sanitizers was a major concern throughout the CoVID-19 era. Frequent use of alcohol-based sanitizer can dry up the skin, and the effect is worsening for individuals with sensitive skin. Alcohol-based disinfectants are flammable and can ignite if used near a flame, spark, or other source of ignition. Using the electrolysis of sodium chloride (NaCl) aqueous solution method, this study aims to make Hypochlorous Acid (HOCl), a safe disinfectant and sanitizer. Two critical parameters were tested on the electrolysis effect of producing HOCl. The first is the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl) present, while the second is the type of electrode used, which are carbon, graphite, and titanium. The results showed that 10 grams of NaCl produces 50-200 ppm of HOCl, which is good for sanitizing purposes, and 30 grams of NaCl produces 500-800 ppm of HOCl, which is good for disinfecting purposes. The graphite electrode was also demonstrated to be capable of producing a clean HOCl solution. Using a UV-vis spectrophotometer, the effectiveness of the HOCl produced was determined, and it was discovered that HOCl is capable of killing bacteria. As a result, HOCl can be applied as a safe disinfectant and sanitizer in the fight against COVID-19.
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The acidic niche of dental plaque can lead to caries expression over time. In this study, we attempted to design an eco-sustainable oral care formulation, and to determine its effect on caries-related pathogens in the presence and absence of lactic acid. We investigated the inhibitory effect of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) combined with sodium benzoate (NaB) on the growth of caries-related microorganisms (both bacteria and fungi). SAEW’s antimicrobial activity was significantly increased in the presence of lactic acid (4.0 log CFU/mL for Streptococcus mutans, and 5.31 log CFU/mL for Candida albicans). In the presence of lactic acid, 0.1% of NaB completely inhibited the growth of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans, while there was no significant inhibitory effect in the absence of lactic acid. The results showed that SAEW combined with NaB had high antimicrobial activity in the acidic environment but low efficacy in the normal niche. Thus, this combination may have fewer negative effects on oral microbiota diversity. This is the first study to investigate the possibility of SAEW as alternatives to alcohol-based oral hygiene products.
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Sanitation is a compulsory procedure in the food industry. As it involves production downtime, it imposes overhead costs. One way to obtain higher profit margins is to cut the overhead costs of sanitation. Eco-innovative cleaners and sanitisers such as electrolysed water have a high potential to reduce sanitation costs. The only ingredients of electrolysed water are salt and distilled water. Some major food industries invest in expensive commercial electrolysed water generators to produce different types of electrolysed water (acidic, alkaline, and neutral). Smaller food industries can install an electrolysed water generator independently, but they need to determine the optimum and most economical electrolysing parameters. Different electrolysed water generators employ different electrolysing parameters to produce electrolysed water with the same physical and chemical properties. Thus, in this work, electrolysing parameter screening methods are demonstrated. A laboratory-scale electrolysed water generator was used to investigate the effects of different electrolysing parameters (voltages (1–20 V), electrolysis times (1–15 minutes), and sodium chloride concentrations (0.05–3%)) on the physical and chemical properties (pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), and available chlorine concentration (ACC)) of electrolysed water (both acidic and alkaline). These screening methods were essential to determining the range of electrolysing parameters to use for the optimisation experiments and ascertaining the generator's limit. The subsequent optimisation experiments aimed to ensure the generator could be used for a long period and that economical usage conditions were achieved. The screening experiments helped to reduce the parameter variations in these experiments and provide reliable data on electrolysed water properties.
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This study evaluated the effect of cold electrolyzed functional water (CEFW) treatment on the quality of cold‐stored Hupingzao jujube fruit. In the study, the fruit firmness, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acid (TA), TSS/TA ratio, color development, weight loss, respiration rate, vitamin C content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content were evaluated. In addition to this, the polyphenoloxidase (PPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase (POD) activities were assessed. The results indicated that CEFW treatment inhibited the decline in firmness, weight loss, vitamin C content, and fruit brightness. On the 100th day, CEFW treatment reduced the fruit TSS/TA to 119.74, respiration rate to 32.91 CO2 mg kg−1 h−1, peel color reddening index a*/b* to 0.53, and PPO activity to 3.97 U min‐1 g‐1. The MDA content of CEFW‐treated fruit was 1.31 umol g‐1, which was significantly lower than the control group; the activity of SOD and POD in CEFW‐treated fruit was 35.49 U g‐1 and 2.31 U min‐1 g‐1, respectively, which were significantly higher than the control group. In conclusion, cold water and CEFW treatments could delay the senescence of postharvest jujube fruit and maintain the fruit quality during cold storage, and CEFW treatment had better effect.
Chapter
Food safety is a burning issue in the present world. Safe sanitizers are obligatory for maintaining quality of food and increasing the shelf life of fresh produce and other agricultural products. Food industries have been using electrolyzed water (EW) as a unique sanitizer for the past two decades which has excellent results to reduce the microbial count. Hurdle technology, e.g., combination of EW with ultrasonication, short-term heat treatment, organic acids, and salts, found to have more effective results in reducing microorganisms which overcame the little shortcomings with EW like corrosiveness and maintained organoleptic qualities. In this chapter, we are going to discuss the production of EW and its combination with ultrasonication, short-term heat treatment, organic acids, and salts to produce a novel sanitizer.
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Fresh fruits and vegetables carry a heavy load of microorganisms which may cause the risks of food‐borne illness to the consumer. Even after washing with water, there is a need for sanitization and disinfection to drop down a load of harmful microbes under the safe limit. Sanitizers and disinfectants are not only cost‐effective but also non‐hazardous and eco‐friendly. Moreover, they should not hamper the organoleptic and nutritional properties of fresh produce. With rising demand for safe, nutritious, and fresh fruits and vegetables, many new disinfectants and treatments are commercially available. During this COVID‐19 outbreak, knowledge of sanitizers and disinfectants for fresh fruits and vegetables is very important. This review focuses on working principles, applications, and related legislation of physical and chemical disinfection technologies (chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone, organic acids, electrolyzed water, irradiation, ultrasound etc.) and their effectiveness for shelf‐life extension of fresh produce.
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The disinfectant effect of acidic electrolyzed water (AcEW), ozonated water, and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution on lettuce was examined. AcEW (pH 2.6; oxidation reduction potential, 1140 mV; 30 ppm of available chlorine) and NaOCl solution (150 ppm of available chlorine) reduced viable aerobes in lettuce by 2 log CFU/g within 10 min. For lettuce washed in alkaline electrolyzed water (AlEW) for 1 min and then disinfected in AcEW for 1 min, viable aerobes were reduced by 2 log CFU/g. On the other hand, ozonated water containing 5 ppm of ozone reduced viable aerobes in lettuce 1.5 log CFU/g within 10 min. It was discovered that AcEW showed a higher disinfectant effect than did ozonated water significantly at P < 0.05. It was confirmed by swabbing test that AcEW, ozonated water, and NaOCl solution removed aerobic bacteria, coliform bacteria, molds, and yeasts on the surface of lettuce. Therefore, residual microorganisms after the decontamination of lettuce were either in the inside of the cellular tissue, such as the stomata, or making biofilm on the surface of lettuce. Biofilms were observed by a scanning electron microscope on the surface of the lettuce treated with AcEW. Moreover, it was shown that the spores of bacteria on the surface were not removed by any treatment in this study. However, it was also observed that the surface structure of lettuce was nor damaged by any treatment in this study. Thus, the use of AcEW for decontamination of fresh lettuce was suggested to be an effective means of controlling microorganisms.
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Surface-adherent microcolonies of Listeria monocytogenes were obtained by growing cells on glass slides immersed in a low nutrient medium containing excess glucose. The susceptibility of the adherent populations to benzalkonium chloride (100, 400, and 800 ppm solutions), anionic acid sanitizer (200 and 400 ppm solutions), and heat (55 and 70°C) was determined. Adherent microcolony cells decreased by 2 to 3 log cycles immediately after exposure to the sanitizers. The remaining population of microcolony cells survived 20 min of exposure demonstrating resistance to both sanitizers at all concentrations. Adherent single cells exhibited an initial 3 to 5 log decline in numbers and reached undetectable levels after 12 to 16 min of exposure to the sanitizers. Planktonic cells were reduced to undetectable levels after 30 sec exposure to the lowest concentration of each sanitizer. Removing adherent cells from the surface increased their sanitizer susceptibility to near that of planktonic cells. Heating adherent microcolonies at 70°C for 5 min resulted in a less than 5-log decrease in population with a surviving population of over 10 cfu/sq cm. These results demonstrate the ability of L. monocytogenes to develop resistance to inactivating agents when exposed to specific growth environments.
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The major unexplained phenomenon in fibrotic conditions is an increase in replicating fibroblasts. In this report we present evidence that oxygen free radicals can both stimulate and inhibit proliferation of cultured human fibroblasts, and that fibroblasts themselves release superoxide (O2.-) free radicals. Fibroblasts released O2.- in concentrations which stimulated proliferation, a finding confirmed by a dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation by free radical scavengers. Oxygen free radicals released by a host of agents may thus provide a very fast, specific and sensitive trigger for fibroblast proliferation. Prolonged stimulation may result in fibrosis, and agents which inhibit free radical release may have a role in the prevention of fibrosis.
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Inactivation by hypochlorite of Listeria monocytogenes cells adherent to stainless steel was determined. Adherent cell populations were prepared by incubating stainless steel slides with a 24 h culture of L. monocytogenes for 4 h at 21°C. Adherent microcolonies were prepared by growing L. monocytogenes on stainless steel slides submerged in a 1:15 dilution of tryptic soy broth at 21°C. The slides were then rinsed and transferred to fresh sterile broth every 2 d with a total incubation time of 8 d. Although the 4 h and 8 d adherent populations were at similar levels, 8 d adherent cells were over 100 times more resistant than the 4 h adherent cell population when exposed to 200 ppm hypochlorite for 30 s. When stainless steel slides containing adherent cells were heated at 72°C both adherent cell populations were inactivated after 1 min. Detectable numbers of L. monocytogenes remained on stainless steel slides after treatment at 65°C for 3 min when adherent 8 d cells were tested but not when adherent 4 h cells were used. Copyright © International Association of Milk, Food and Environmental Sanitarians.
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In an egg pasteurizing plant, in-line filters removing solids from raw blended whole egg were sampled on a daily basis for 5 months for the presence of Listeria species. Two selective enrichment procedures (the Food and Drug Administration and U.S. Department of Agriculture [USDA] protocols) were assessed along with three selective plating media, Oxford Listeria selective agar, modified Vogel Johnson agar, and lithium chloride phenylethanol moxalactam agar. Overall, 173 samples were studied, with 125 (72%) being Listeria positive and the USDA method with Oxford agar proving most efficient. The only species isolated were Listeria innocua (62.2%) and Listeria monocytogenes (37.8%). To estimate the numbers of listeriae present in the blended raw egg, samples were taken from a sampling point immediately prior to the pasteurizer and subjected to selective enrichment in USDA broth. A most probable number counting experiment was employed to study egg samples in quintiplicate, and Listeria spp. were detected using Tecra Listeria ELISA kits, which had been previously evaluated for their sensitivity and ease of use. Samples from 9 successive days' production showed a mean level of Listeria spp. of 1 organism per ml. Hence, Listeria spp. were frequently present at low levels in raw egg before pasteurization. A total of 500 daily samples of pasteurized product were also studied, and all proved to be negative for Listeria, confirming the safety of the pasteurization process with regard to listeriae.
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Data collected by the CDC through collaborative surveillance program for collection and periodic reporting of data concerning the occurrence and causes of foodborne disease outbreaks (FBDOs) are reviewed for the period from January 1988 through December 1992. An FBDO is defined as the occurrence of two or more cases of similar illness resulting from the ingestion of a common food. Before 1992 only one case of intoxication by chemical or other nonbacterial toxin, marine toxin, or Clostridium botulinum toxin as a result of the ingestion of food was required to constitute an FBDO. Since 1992 two or more cases have been required. State and local public health departments have primary responsibility for identifying and investigating FBDOs. State and territorial health departments report these outbreaks to CDC on a standard form. During the 1988-1992 period a total of 2,423 outbreaks of foodborne disease were reported (451 in 1988, 505 in 1989, 532 in 1990, 528 in 1991, and 407 in 1992). These outbreaks caused a reported 77,373 persons to become ill. Among outbreaks for which the etiology was determined, bacterial pathogens caused the largest percentage of outbreaks (79%) and the largest percentage of cases (90%). Salmonella serotype enteritidis accounted for the largest number of outbreaks, cases, and deaths; most of these outbreaks were attributed to eating undercooked, infected eggs. Chemical and other nonbacterial agents caused 14% of outbreaks and 2% of cases; parasites, 2% of outbreaks and 1% of cases; and viruses, 4% of outbreaks and 6% of cases. The number of FBDOs reported per year did not change substantially during the first four years but declined in 1992 as a result of the revised definition of an outbreak. During this reporting period S. Enteritidis continued to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In addition, multistate outbreaks caused by contaminated produce and outbreaks caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7 became more prominent.
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Definitive identification of free teliospores of Tilletia indica, causal agent of Karnal bunt of wheat, requires polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic tests. Since direct PCR amplification from teliospores has not been reliable, teliospores first must be germinated in order to obtain adequate DNA. We have routinely surface-sterilized teliospores for 2 min with 0.4% (vol/vol) sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) to stimulate germination and produce axenic cultures. However, we observed that some spores were killed even with a 2-min NaOCl treatment, the shortest feasible duration. Decreasing the NaOCl concentration in our study from 0.4% to 0.3 and 0.2%, respectively, increased teliospore germination, but treatment times longer than 2 min still progressively reduced the germination percentages. In testing alternative methods, we found "acidic electrolyzed water" (AEW),generated by electrolysis of a weak solution of sodium chloride, also surface-sterilized and increased the rate of T. indica teliospore germination. In a representative experiment comparing the two methods, NaOCl (0.4%) for 2 min and AEW for 30 min increased germination from 19% (control) to 41 and 54%, respectively, by 7 days after treatment. Because teliospores can be treated with AEW for up to 2 h with little, if any, loss of viability, compared with 1 to 2 min for NaOCl, treatment with AEW has certain advantages over NaOCl for surface sterilizing and increasing germination of teliospores of suspect T. indica.
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Acidic electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water, generated by electrolysis of a dilute salt solution, recently gained attention in the food industry as a nonthermal method for microbial inactivation. Our objective was to determine if EO water has potential to control foliar diseases in greenhouses. Test fungi suspended in distilled water were combined with EO water (1:9 water:EO water) for various time periods, the EO water was neutralized, and germination was assessed after 24 h. Germination of all 22 fungal species tested was significantly reduced or prevented by EO water. All relatively thin-walled species (e.g., Botrytis, Monilinia) were killed by incubation times of 30 s or less. Thicker-walled, pigmented fungi (e.g., Curvularia, Helminthosporium) required 2 min or longer for germination to be reduced significantly. Dilution of EO water with tap water at ratios of 1:4 and 1:9 (EO:tap water) decreased efficacy against Botrytis cinerea. The presence of Triton X-100 (all concentrations) and Tween 20 (1 and 10%) eliminated the activity of EO water against B. cinerea. EO water did not damage geranium leaf tissue and inhibited lesion development by B. cinerea when applied up to 24 h postinoculation. EO water has a wide fungicidal activity which could facilitate its use as a contact fungicide on aerial plant surfaces and for general sanitation in the greenhouse.
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The presence of numerous genera of spoilage bacteria, yeasts and molds, and an occasional pathogen on fresh produce has been recognized for many years. Several outbreaks of human gastroenteritis have been linked to the consumption of contaminated fresh vegetables and, to a lesser extent, fruits. Salads containing raw vegetables have been identified as vehicles of traveler's diarrhea, an illness sometimes experienced by visitors to developing countries. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli is the most common cause of this illness. Enterohemorrhagic E. coli, specifically serotype O157:H7, has been implicated as the causative agent in an outbreak of gastroenteritis resulting from the consumption of cantaloupes. Outbreaks of salmonellosis in humans have been attributed to consumption of contaminated tomatoes, mustard cress, bean sprouts, cantaloupe, and watermelon. An onion-associated outbreak of Shigella flexneri gastroenteritis has recently been reported in the United States. Outbreaks of human listeriosis have been epidemiologically linked to the consumption of fresh cabbage and lettuce. Gastrointestinal illness caused by the consumption of raw vegetable seed sprouts contaminated by Bacillus cereus has been documented. The ability of Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas sobria to produce several virulence factors has been documented and their fairly common occurrence in water raises concern over public health risks that may be associated with the consumption of salad vegetables, although their role as agents in foodborne illness has not been fully confirmed. Viruses are not likely to grow on contaminated vegetables and fruits but can survive long enough to cause life-threatening illness in humans. An increased per capita consumption of fresh and lightly processed produce in the United States and other countries, coupled with an increase in importation of produce to these countries from regions where standards for growing and handling produce may be compromised, has resulted in heightened interest in outbreaks of human gastroenteritis that may be attributed to contaminated fresh produce, particularly salad vegetables. Likewise methods of handling, processing, packaging, and distribution of fresh produce on a regional or local scale within countries are receiving attention in terms of identifying and controlling microbiological hazards. Hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) programs are being developed in an effort to minimize the risk of illness associated with consumption of fresh produce. Examples of pathogenic microorganisms associated with fresh produce as well as procedures that can be used to reduce their incidence at the point of consumption are discussed.
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The fungicidal effectiveness of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water on peach [ Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] fruit was studied. Fruit were inoculated with a spore suspension of 5 × 10 ⁵ conidia/mL of Monilinia fructicola [(G. Wint.) Honey] applied as a drop on wounded and nonwounded fruits, or by a uniform spray-mist on nonwounded fruits. Fruit were immersed in tap water at 26 °C for 5 or 10 minutes (control), or treated with EO water varying in oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), pH, and free available chlorine (FAC). Following treatment, fruit were held at 20 °C and 95% relative humidity for 10 days to simulate retail conditions. Disease incidence was determined as the percentage of fruits showing symptoms of the disease, while severity was expressed as lesion diameter. EO water did not control brown rot in wound-inoculated fruits, but reduced disease incidence and severity in nonwound-inoculated peach. Symptoms of brown rot were further delayed in fruit inoculated by a uniform-spray mist compared with the nonwounded-drop-inoculated peaches. Fruit treated with EO water held for 8 days at 2 °C, 50% RH, did not develop brown rot, until they were transferred to 20 °C, 95% RH. The lowest disease incidence and severity occurred in fruit immersed in EO water for up to 5 minutes. EO water having pH 4.0, ORP 1,100 mV, FAC 290 mg·L ⁻¹ delayed the onset of brown rot to 7 days, i.e., about the period peach stays in the market from a packing house to consumer. No chlorine-induced phytotoxicity was observed on the treated fruit. This study revealed that EO water is an effective surface sanitizer, but only delayed disease development.
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Antioxidant enzyme expression was determined in rat pancreatic islets and RINm5F insulin-producing cells on the level of mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity in comparison with 11 other rat tissues. Although superoxide dismutase expression was in the range of 30% of the liver values, the expression of the hydrogen peroxide-inactivating enzymes catalase and glutathione per-oxidase was extremely low, in the range of 5% of the liver. Pancreatic islets but not RINm5F cells expressed an additional phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase that exerted protective effects against lipid peroxidation of the plasma membrane. Regression analysis for mRNA and protein expression and enzyme activities from 12 rat tissues revealed that the mRNA levels determine the enzyme activities of the tissues. The induction of cellular stress by high glucose, high oxygen, and heat shock treatment did not affect antioxidant enzyme expression in rat pancreatic islets or in RINm5F cells. Thus insulin-producing cells cannot adapt the low antioxidant enzyme activity levels to typical situations of cellular stress by an upregulation of gene expression. Through stable transfection, however, we were able to increase catalase and glutathione peroxidase gene expression in RINm5F cells, resulting in enzyme activities more than 100-fold higher than in nontransfected controls. Catalase-transfected RINm5F cells showed a 10-fold greater resistance toward hydrogen peroxide toxicity, whereas glutathione peroxidase overexpression was much less effective. Thus inactiva-tion of hydrogen peroxide through catalase seems to be a step of critical importance for the removal of reactive oxygen species in insulin-producing cells. Overexpression of catalase may therefore be an effective means of preventing the toxic action of reactive oxygen species.
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In 1997, the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods (NACMCF/the Committee) was asked to review the current literature on sprout-associated outbreaks; identify the organisms and production practices of greatest public health concern; prioritize research needs; and provide recommendations on intervention and prevention strategies. In response to this charge, the Fresh Produce Work Group (FPWG) documented the relevant epidemiology and microbial ecology of sprout-associated outbreaks and reviewed current industry practices and initiatives related to the growing of seed and the production of sprouts. Sprouts have been identified as a special problem because of the potential for pathogen growth during the sprouting process. If pathogens are present on or in the seed, sprouting conditions may favor their proliferation. There is no inherent step in the production of raw sprouts to reduce or eliminate pathogens. Contaminated seed is the likely source for most reported sprout-associated outbreaks. Research has been initiated on methods to reduce or eliminate pathogenic bacteria on seeds and sprouts and some treatments show promise. However, to date, no single treatment has been shown to completely eliminate pathogens under experimental conditions used. Finally, the Committee found that, at the time of the charge, there was a lack of fundamental food safety knowledge along the continuum from seed production through sprout consumption. More recently, many have become aware of the potential for this food to be a vehicle for foodborne illness and the need for appropriate controls; however, such awareness is not universal. Although seed appears to be the most likely source of contamination in sprout associated outbreaks, practices and conditions at the sprouting facility may also impact on the safety of the finished product. In recent sprout-associated outbreak investigations, facilities associated with outbreaks did not consistently apply seed disinfection treatments prior to sprouting. Conversely, facilities that used seed from the same lot as an implicated facility, but had not been associated with reported illnesses, appear to have been consistently using seed disinfection treatments, such as 20 000 ppm calcium hypochlorite, to disinfect seed prior to sprouting.
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The measurement of oxidation/reduction potential (ORP) is useful but often underutilized. A discussion of how ORP works in the disinfection process is presented.
Conference Paper
Using the bacterial metalloproteinase (MEP), derived from Streptomyces griseus, a suspension culture of MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney) cells was maintained for several months. The established cell line, designated as 6M-4, has unique characteristics, which allowed it to be cultured adherently on a polystylene matrix, and anchorage-independently on a polystylene matrix with MEP or on a non-adhesive substrate coated with poly 2-methacryl-oxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC). The higher yield of influenza virus produced in a suspension culture of 6M-4 cells is practically beneficial in large-scale culture. Some phenotypic characteristics of the 6M-4 cells were compared with the parental MDCK cells. 6M-4 cells consist of at least two types of cells, which have different growth characteristics in soft agar. One type of cells that are incapable of growing in soft agar was favorable for the suspension culture because they do not grow in large aggregates.
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The toxicity of chlorine solutions to cells of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora and conidia of Geotrichum candidum suspended in water at pH 6.0, 7.0, or 8.0 was correlated with the free chlorine concentration and oxidation-reduction potential of the solutions. The oxidation-reduction potential was directly correlated with the Log 10 of the chlorine concentration at each pH. Cells of E. c. carotovora were 50 times more sensitive to chlorine than were conidia of G, candidum, with populations of 1 × 10 7 cfu/ml and 1 × 10 7 conidia per milliliter, respectively, Populations of E. c, carotovora were reduced below detectable levels (< 10 2 cfu/ml) by approximately 0,5, 0,5, or 0,75 mg of free chlorine per liter at pH 6.0, 7.0, or 8.0, respectively. In contrast, with conidia of G. candidum, 25, 25, and greater than 30 mg/L, respectively, were required to produce a similar level of efficacy. With both organisms, population reductions were associated with higher initial oxidation-reduction potentials at pH 6.0 than at pH 8.0
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• This study investigates the effects of sodium hypochlorite, or Dakin's solution (DS), on the function and viability of cells of the wound module (neutrophils, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells). For functional studies, the influence of DS on the in vitro migration of neutrophils was evaluated. Our data indicate that DS (2.5×102% to 2.5×104%) results in greater than 90% inhibition of the migration of both stimulated and nonstimulated neutrophils. Electron microscopy and trypan blue evaluation of neutrophils exposed to DS at these concentrations revealed normal structural features, which indicates that the observed reduction in neutrophil migration is not a result of cell death. In contrast to neutrophils, cultured fibroblasts and endothelial cells exposed to DS (2.5×102% or 2.5×103%) for 30 minutes show marked cell injury characterized by convoluted nuclei, cytoplasmic vacuolization, dilated endoplasmic reticulum, and swollen mitochondria on electron microscopy. These data suggest that DS, even at very dilute concentrations, is toxic to cells of the wound module. We therefore recommend abandonment of the use of DS in open wounds. (Arch Surg 1988;123:420-423)
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The fungicidal effectiveness of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water on peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] fruit was studied. Fruit were inoculated with a spore suspension of 5 x 105 conidia/mL of Monilinia fructicola [(G. Wint.) Honey] applied as a drop on wounded and nonwounded fruits, or by a uniform spray-mist on nonwounded fruits. Fruit were immersed in tap water at 26°C for 5 or 10 minutes (control), or treated with EO water varying in oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), pH, and free available chlorine (FAC). Following treatment, fruit were held at 20°C and 95% relative humidity for ≥10 days to simulate retail conditions. Disease incidence was determined as the percentage of fruits showing symptoms of the disease, while severity was expressed as lesion diameter. EO water did not control brown rot in wound-inoculated fruits, but reduced disease incidence and severity in nonwound-inoculated peach. Symptoms of brown rot were further delayed in fruit inoculated by a uniform-spray mist compared with the nonwounded-drop-inoculated peaches. Fruit treated with EO water held for 8 days at 2°C, 50% RH, did not develop brown rot, until they were transferred to 20°C, 95% RH. The lowest disease incidence and severity occurred in fruit immersed in EO water for up to 5 minutes. EO water having pH 4.0, ORP 1,100 mV, FAC 290 mg·L-1 delayed the onset of brown rot to 7 days, i.e., about the period peach stays in the market from a packing house to consumer. No chlorine-induced phytotoxicity was observed on the treated fruit. This study revealed that EO water is an effective surface sanitizer, but only delayed disease development.
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The in vitro and in vivo resistant-starch (measured in growing rats) levels were low in five raw rice cultivars differing in apparent amylose content, and the values were correlated positively with amylose content. Cooked and cooked parboiled rices generally had higher resistant-starch contents than raw rices, particularly those with intermediate gelatinization temperature starches, but waxy rice had very low values. Values for undigestible energy, which is mainly in the form of unfermented energy and undigestible protein, were similar in raw rices, but increased with processing, particularly in the higher-amylose rices. In vivo resistant starch was not correlated significantly with undigestible energy and undigestible protein, but undigestible energy and protein were correlated with each other. Parboiling was calculated to increase the resistant-starch content of cooked rice by not more than 1%. Thus, cultivar differences in cooked-starch digestibility were reflected less in levels of resistant starch than in the rate of starch digestion as indicated by glycaemic and insulin response.
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In 28 of 61 naturally rotten apples examined, patulin, a toxic fungal metabolite, was detected in quantities of 0.02 to 17.7 mg per apple. Penicillium expansum (Link) Thom was isolated from 42 of the 61 apples. When grown in apples, 40 isolates produced patulin within 10 days of incubation at 25°C. All 42 isolates produced patulin in Raulin-Thom solution. Traces of citrinin were detected in some naturally rotten and inoculated apples. Larger amounts of citrinin were found in 7-day old cultures of 41 of the 42 isolates grown in Raulin-Thom solution. Where sorting of apples before processing is inadequate, patulin may be introduced into the final product.RésuméLa patuline, une substance toxique produite par des moisissures, fut découverte à différents niveaux (0.02-17.7 mg) dans 28 sur 61 pommes pourries naturellement. Penicillium expansum (Link) Thom fut isolé de 42 des 61 pommes. Cultivées sur des pommes, 40 de ces 42 souches produisirent la patuline en 10 jours d'incubation à 25°C. Toutes les souches produisirent la patuline en milieu de culture “Raulin-Thom”. On trouva des traces de citrinine dans quelques pommes pourries naturellement ainsi que dans des pommes inoculées avec P. expansum. De plus grandes quantités de citrinine furent trouvées dans 41 des 42 cultures de souches cultivées en milieu de culture “Raulin-Thom”. Si on ne sépare pas les bonnes pommes de celles qui sont pourries avant le traitement, il est possible d'introduire la patuline dans le produit final.
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A study was carried out in order to reduce the hygienic bacteria from sea urchin Strongylocentrotus nudus viscera. The effect of pre-culturing before shipment using electrolyzed seawater on reduction of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and viable bacteria inhabiting the sea urchin viscera, vas examined. When 3% salt water suspended with V parahaemolyticus was electrolyzed, the viable number of V. parahaemolyticus was reduced by more than 99.99% after treatment with 0.23 mg/L chlorine for one minute. In the case of sea urchin reared with electrolyzed seawater containing 0.76 mg/L chlorine for 2 days, a lot of dejecture was discharged, and the bacteria in the sea urchin viscera were reduced by more than 90%.
Article
Electrolyzed oxidizing waters (EOWs) were generated at different water flow rates, salt concentrations and water temperatures. The EOWs were stored in closed dark-brown glass bottles at room temperature for 21 days. Another duplicated set of the EOWs were stored for 12 days with four periodical openings of the screw caps. The effects of these treatments on pH, oxidation–reduction potential (ORP), electrical conductivity, total residual chlorine, dissolved oxygen (DO), sodium ion and chloride ion concentrations of the EOWs were investigated. Results indicated that pH, ORP, conductivity and chloride ion concentration did not change much under the storage conditions. Sodium ion concentration decreased 10–13% during storage. Total residual chlorine and DO decreased 24% and 21%, respectively, in the 21-day closed storage and decreased 81% and 47%, respectively, in the 12-day semi-open storage. This indicated that exposure to the atmosphere reduced more of these compounds than prolongation of the storage time.
Article
For reducing bacterial contamination, electrolyzed oxidizing water (EO water) has been used to reduce microbial population on seafood and platform of fish retailer. The specimens of tilapia were inoculated with Escherichia coli and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and then soaked into EO water for up to 10min. EO water achieved additional 0.7logCFU/cm2 reduction than tap water on E. coli after 1min treatment and additional treatment time did not achieved additional reduction. EO water treatment also reduced V. parahaemolyticus, by 1.5logCFU/cm2 after 5min treatment and achieved 2.6logCFU/cm2 reduction after 10min. The pathogenic bacteria were not detected in EO water after soaking treatment. In addition, EO water could effectively disinfect the platform of fish retailer in traditional markets and fish markets.
Article
Chlorination presents one of the few chemical options available to help manage postharvest decay. Electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water, containing free chlorine, is the product of a new concept developed by scientists in Japan. The effectiveness of pear (Pyrus communis L.) immersion in EO water on the control of Bot. rot on European pear, cv. La-France, was investigated. Four independent experiments were carried out. A wound was found necessary for infection. Wounded fruit were inoculated with 20 μl spore suspension of 5×105 conidia/ml of Botryosphaeria berengeriana, incubated for 4 h, immersed in EO water, and held at 20 °C, ⩾90% relative humidity (simulated retail conditions) for ripening and disease development. No chlorine-induced phytotoxicity was observed on the treated fruit. EO water suppressed the incidence and disease severity. The minimum incidence and severity were recorded for a 10-min immersion period. This study revealed that EO water is an effective surface sanitizer.
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We evaluated the properties and real existence of an electrolyzed-reduced water, which we prepared, and three commercially purchased water goods, that are advertised to have antioxidant activities by the action of "active hydrogen," on the basis of the results of examinations for inhibitory effects on the oxidative reactions of biomolecules, quantitative analyses of the minerals, and the ESR spectral data in measurement of the scavenging ability for reactive oxygen species. The results suggested that all of the examined aqueous solution systems undoubtedly have antioxidant activities in vitro and that such effects are derived from ordinary molecular hydrogen (hydrogen gas) and/or (a) reductive vanadium ion(s). "Active hydrogen" seems to be absent as an effective component of the antioxidant activities of these aqueous solution systems.
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Background: Glutaraldehyde (GA) is currently considered to be the best disinfectant for endoscope disinfection. However, GA poses high risks for medical staff involved in the process and also to the environment. Strongly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) has been recently re-evaluated for its potent bactericidal effect and environmental safety. Methods: Through the aspiration channel of the scopes, upper GI endoscopes and colonoscopes were experimentally contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium avium and hepatitis B surface antigen positive blood. Four disinfection methods were tested: manual washing only, soaking in 3% GA for 5 and 10 min, and a 10-s soak in SAEW with 50 or 100 mL of aspiration. Results: Direct plating culture was positive for Pseudomononas contamination after manual washing only (1/5) and after a 5-min soak in 3% GA. Complete disinfection, confirmed by enrichment culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of Pseudomonas and hepatitis B surface antigen positive blood on the contaminated upper GI endoscope was obtained after a 10-min soak in GA and after using SAEW (0/5). Mycobacterum avium are rather resistant against SAEW as determined by broth culture and PCR (1/5). Conclusion: Strongly acidic electrolyzed water is a valuable disinfectant for endoscopes.
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Acidic electrolyzed water (acidic EW), which is prepared by the electrolysis of an aqueous NaCl solution, has recently become of great importance for disinfection in a variety of fields, including medicine, the food industry and agriculture. In a previous paper we showed that: 1) acidic EW is a mixture of hypocholorite ion, hypochlorous acid and chlorine, depending upon the pH; 2) hypochlorous acid is primarily responsible for disinfection in the case of Escherichia coli K12 and Bacillus subtilis PCI219, both in clean culture media. In practice, however, the use of acidic EW is in many cases severely hampered due to the presence of a variety of non-selective reducing agents. In view of the salient nature of acidic EW, it is therefore strongly urged to establish an optimum way to use acidic EW in a variety of systems. The present paper is the first report on our attempt along this line in order to characterize the nature of the chemical changes that the bactericidal activity of the acidic EW deteriorates in the presence of organic materials, which include amino acids and proteins.
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Cut lettuce dip-inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella was treated with alkaline electrolyzed water (AlEW) at 20°C for 5min, and subsequently washed with acidic electrolyzed water (AcEW) at 20°C for 5min. Pre-treatment with AlEW resulted in an approximate 1.8log10cfu/g reduction of microbial populations, which was significantly (p⩽0.05) greater than microbial reductions resulting from other pre-treatment solutions, including distilled water and AcEW. Repeated AcEW treatment did not show a significant bacterial reduction. Mildly heated (50°C) sanitizers were compared with normal (20°C) or chilled (4°C) sanitizers for their bactericidal effect. Mildly heated AcEW and chlorinated water (200ppm free available chlorine) with a treatment period of 1 or 5min produced equal reductions of pathogenic bacteria of 3log10 and 4log10cfu/g, respectively. The procedure of treating with mildly heated AlEW for 5min, and subsequent washing with chilled (4°C) AcEW for period of 1 or 5min resulted in 3–4log10cfu/g reductions of both the pathogenic bacterial counts on lettuce. Extending the mild heat pre-treatment time increased the bactericidal effect more than that observed from the subsequent washing time with chilled AcEW. The appearance of the mildly heated lettuce was not deteriorated after the treatment. In this study, we have illustrated the efficacious application of AlEW as a pre-wash agent, and the effective combined use of AlEW and AcEW.
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A three-factor central composite design was adopted to investigate the effects of water flow rate, water temperature and salt concentration on electrolysis efficiency and separation efficiency of an electrolyzed oxidizing water generator. Results indicated that electric potential (7.9–15.7 V) and power consumption (16–120 W) of the electrolysis cell were not affected by water flow rate, water temperature or salt concentration in the feed solution. Electric current of the cells changed in between two levels (7.41±0.1 and 7.68±0.1 A) depending on water temperature and water flow rate. Electrolysis efficiency of the electrolysis cell, represented by the reduction ratio of chloride ions, varied in the range of 23–51%. Separation efficiency of the cation ion-exchange membrane, represented by the reduction ratio of sodium ions, varied in the range of 2–40%. Both efficiency rates were significantly reduced by increases in water flow rate and/or salt concentration in the feed solution.
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The in vivo effects of drinking a water product, which had been confirmed to have antioxidant activi- ties in vitro, were preliminarily studied by monitoring the blood concentrations of oxidative stress marker substances in the two group subjects who ingested the same quantity of the water product and a tap water solution during the same time. The results indicated that hydrogen gas and reductive vanadium ions as the components responsible for the antioxidant activities in vitro cannot enhance the scavenging ability for re- active oxygen species in vivo after being drunk and absorbed into the human body, although it was sug- gested that an ingestion of a greater quantity of water than usual gives a slight reduction, overall, in the oxi- dative stress.
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The photolysis of H202 in aqueous solution has been used to study and characterize electron spin resonance (e.s.r.) spectra of the .OH and HO2. radical spin adducts with the spin traps 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-1-oxide (D MPO) and phenyl-t-butyl nitrone (PBN). At high concentrations of spin trap and low concentrations of H202 an e.s.r. spectrum is obtained which we assign to the .OH radical adduct (for DMPO, aN = 15.3 G, a(beta)H = 15.3 G, a(gamma1)H= 0.61 G, a(gamma2)H = 0.25 G, and g = 2.0060; for PBN, aN = 15.3 G, a(beta)H = 2.75 G, and g = 2.0057). At low concentrations of spin trap and high concentrations of H2O2 a second spin adduct spectrum is obtained mhich we assign to the spin adduct of the H02- radical (for DMPO, aN = 14.3 G, a(beta)H = 11.7 G, a(gamma)H = 1.25 G, g = 2.0061; for PBN, aN = 14.8 G, a(beta)H = 2.75 G, and g = 2.0057).