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Why study time does not predict grade point average across college students: Implications of deliberate practice for academic performance

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Abstract

The current work draws upon the theoretical framework of deliberate practice in order to clarify why the amount of study by college students is a poor predictor of academic performance. A model was proposed where performance in college, both cumulatively and for a current semester, was jointly determined by previous knowledge and skills as well as factors indicating quality (e.g., study environment) and quantity of study. The findings support the proposed model and indicate that the amount of study only emerged as a significant predictor of cumulative GPA when the quality of study and previously attained performance were taken into consideration. The findings are discussed in terms of the insights provided by applying the framework of deliberate practice to academic performance in a university setting.

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... Nonis & Hudson, 2010), while others distinguish between in-class activities and self-study (e.g. Dollinger et al., 2008;Plant et al., 2005). Given that the number of hours used on in-class activities and hours used on selfstudy appears to be only weakly related (Dollinger et al., 2008;Doumen et al., 2014), we will here differentiate between the two activities when measuring study time. ...
... However, the context and nature of selfstudying should probably be considered. For example, Plant et al. (2005) found that students who studied in a quiet, solitary environment tended to need less time for self-study than those who studied in more disruptive environments. Other studies indicate that study time associated with strategic study approaches was positively related to achievement (Diseth et al., 2010;Valadas et al., 2017) and that study time impacted performance when students were able to concentrate and schedule ahead (Nonis & Hudson, 2010). ...
... Our results show that explained variance in effort regulation is substantially higher than the explained variance in hours used for self-studying, confirming that study time and effort should not be used as overlapping concepts. Effort regulation is intended to measure students' persistence when facing boring or challenging content, whereas the number of self-reported study hours does not indicate the nature of the study activities Plant et al., 2005). The lack of overlap between the two variables is also illustrated in prior studies showing that effort regulation is more strongly related to achievement than self-reported study hours (Broadbent & Poon, 2015;Cred e et al., 2010;Richardson et al., 2012). ...
Article
On March 12, 2020, Norwegian universities closed campus areas and reorganised teaching to digital environments due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In a sample of 8,907 university students, we investigated how aspects of students’ self-regulation were affected by their motivation, perceived stress, working conditions, and remote teaching offered in the new and challenging situation. Specifically, we assumed that self-regulation in terms of time management, procrastination, effort regulation, and time for independent studies might be affected. Analyses based on structural equation modelling (SEM) showed that motivation significantly positively predicted time management and effort regulation and that procrastination negatively predicted time management and effort regulation. Students’ perceived stress increased both procrastination and independent study time, whereas remote teaching only weakly reduced procrastination. Students’ physical working conditions slightly affected time management. An important finding of the study is the minor impact of students’ attendance of remote classes on self-regulation.
... Often, the amount of time spent on learning is not significantly related to performance (Macnamara et al., 2014;Schuman et al., 1985), or the relationship may even be a negative one (Chinn et al., 2010;Nonis & Hudson, 2006). Only when the quality of learning, as well as the quantity, is accounted for, does practice become a significant predictor (Nandagopal & Ericsson, 2012a;Plant et al., 2005;Richardson et al., 2012). Students who actively participate in their own learning process by setting goals and reflecting on the effectiveness of their learning (metacognition) are more successful than their peers who plan less and are less goal-driven (Zimmerman, 2008). ...
... We consequently used solitary learning without distractions for the DP. This kind of learning indicates advanced planning and has been used as an indicator of deliberate practice and self-regulated learning in previous studies (Nandagopal & Ericsson, 2012a;Plant et al., 2005). All other learning activities were not considered to be DP and were assigned to the NDP variable. ...
... One can assume that the activity, which involves solitary learning without distraction (our definition of DP) is typical of self-regulated learning (Nandagopal & Ericsson, 2012a, b;Plant et al., 2005). We supplemented this measure of DP by the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire -MSLQ (Pintrich, 1991). ...
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It is well established that academic performance (AP) depends on a number of factors, such as intellectual capacities, practice, and previous knowledge. We know little about how these factors interact as they are rarely measured simultaneously. Here we present mediated-Factors of Academic Performance (m-FAP) model, which simultaneously assesses direct and indirect, mediated, effects on AP. In a semester-long study with 118 first-year college students, we show that intelligence and working memory only indirectly influenced AP on a familiar, less challenging college course (Introduction to Psychology). Their influence was mediated through previous knowledge and self-regulated learning activities akin to deliberate practice. In a novel and more challenging course (Statistics in Psychology), intellectual capacities influenced performance both directly and indirectly through previous knowledge. The influence of deliberate practice, however, was considerably weaker in the novel course. The amount of time and effort that the students spent on the more difficult course could not offset the advantage of their more intelligent and more knowledgeable peers. The m–FAP model explains previous contradictory results by providing a framework for understanding the extent and limitations of individual factors in AP, which depend not only on each other, but also on the learning context.
... These studies met Macnamara et al. (2014) criteria for inclusion because they all cited the same paper, where the first author was a co-author. In this paper, Plant et al. (2005) proposed that studying was not deliberate practice but stated in the title that there were "Implications of Deliberate Practice for Academic Performance" (p. 96). ...
... 99). Further evidence that including these papers on education and studying was not appropriate for an evaluation of deliberate practice is apparent by finding that nearly all of these studies only cited the Plant et al. (2005) study and did not even mention the term deliberate practice in the text of their articles. More generally, the practice activities involved in students' study of material in a single course cannot be isolated from their prior learning for over a decade in the school system, and additionally the structure of these activities are not sufficiently well understood to allow us to categorize this type of practice in a meaningful manner (Plant et al., 2005). ...
... Further evidence that including these papers on education and studying was not appropriate for an evaluation of deliberate practice is apparent by finding that nearly all of these studies only cited the Plant et al. (2005) study and did not even mention the term deliberate practice in the text of their articles. More generally, the practice activities involved in students' study of material in a single course cannot be isolated from their prior learning for over a decade in the school system, and additionally the structure of these activities are not sufficiently well understood to allow us to categorize this type of practice in a meaningful manner (Plant et al., 2005). Their results will not be considered further in this paper. ...
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This issue on advanced learning focuses on the educational and developmental needs of advanced learners as they develop towards excellence. We speculated that those needs could be observed in at least three ways. The first is that the advanced learner requires educational interventions that are more closely aligned to the “deliberate practice” approach delineated by Ericsson et al. (1993). Ericsson et al. (1993) identified that the number of hours of deliberate practice differentiated among the performance levels of musicians. Deliberate practice can be described as individualised instruction whereby a teacher or coach identifies the goals and activities that need to be adopted by an individual during practice to improve their performance. A second assumption is that advanced learners do not attain high levels of performance in the absence of environmental factors but the factors that support the talent developmental trajectory of advanced learners will not be the same as those that support them at earlier stages. The expertise reversal effect, for example, suggests that the instructional activities designed for novices may have a detrimental effect on more advanced learners Kalyuga (2007). The third premise is the need for more tailored and well-designed learning resources to support talent development. Such learning resources include highly-specialised learning materials and curricula, expert teachers and coaches, mentors, and so on, which are purposefully designed to meet the individual’s specific needs at a specific point in the talent development process. Again, this echoes the deliberate practice approach described earlier.
... One major unresolved question in the search for factors that promote students' mathematical abilities is whether increases in study time lead to gains in mathematical achievement scores. While decades of research have demonstrated that the accumulated hours spent with deliberate practice determined successful acquisition of knowledge and skills in other domains, such as for professional violinists (Ericsson et al., 1993), chess players (Krampe and Ericsson, 1996), and soccer players (Roca et al., 2012;Ward et al., 2007), results from studies on whether study time leads to increased knowledge and achievement scores in education are inconsistent (Jez and Wassmer, 2015;Macnamara et al., 2014;Pittman et al., 1986;Plant et al., 2005;Schuman et al., 1985). This provided the motivational background for the present investigation of the effects of study time on mathematical achievement scores using a large longitudinal dataset from three different countries. ...
... In the following sections, we overview literature on effects of study time on academic achievement scores. Plant et al. (2005) observed that prior abilities and self-regulation skills, but not study time, influenced grade point average scores of college students. Furthermore, they observed that the quality of study time differed between students (Plant et al., 2005; for similar results see Schuman et al., 1985). ...
... Plant et al. (2005) observed that prior abilities and self-regulation skills, but not study time, influenced grade point average scores of college students. Furthermore, they observed that the quality of study time differed between students (Plant et al., 2005; for similar results see Schuman et al., 1985). Another study reported that effort and not study time predicted academic outcomes best (Flunger et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Decades of research produced inconsistent findings on whether study time can lead to achievement gains in mathematics. Data generated by more than six thousand students from three different countries who solved more than 1.1 million problem sets using a dedicated mathematics software are analyzed regarding the effect of study time on students' achievements in mathematics. Results showed that more study time led to higher performance scores in mathematics. Further analyses revealed that low-performing students in the first school year (2017-2018) who increased their study time in the following year (2018-2019) revealed greatest gains in performance in the same school year (2018-2019) and even in the year after (2019-2020). Finally, results replicated previous observations of robust performance scores within students over the three school years, with performance scores in 2017-2018 predicting those of 2018-2019 which predicted those of 2019-2020. These results support the idea that students, in particular low-performing students, can boost their academic abilities to upper levels when increasing their study time.
... Shulman (1987), S. 15-17, Bromme (1997), S. 196, und Neuweg (2002, S. 24f., sowie (2014) Vgl. Weinert (1996), S. 149, Brunner et al. (2006), S. 526, Lipowsky (2006 Plant et al. (2005), S. 98: "The mere act of regularly engaging in an activity for years and even decades does not appear to lead to improvements in performance, once an acceptable level of performance has been attained.", und Blömeke et al. (2008), S. 136. ...
... Vgl. auch Plant et al. (2005), S. 111f., und zudem Terhart (2000), S. 127. ...
... The analysis did not indicate that there was an association between investment in independent learning and mathematics performance. Although somewhat unintuitive, this result is consistent with prior studies that did not detect a reliable relationship between time spent studying and academic performance in HE (Plant et al., 2005;Richardson et al., 2012;Schuman et al., 1985). It is proposed the quantity of study is only associated with academic performance when the quality of study is considered (Plant et al., 2005). ...
... Although somewhat unintuitive, this result is consistent with prior studies that did not detect a reliable relationship between time spent studying and academic performance in HE (Plant et al., 2005;Richardson et al., 2012;Schuman et al., 1985). It is proposed the quantity of study is only associated with academic performance when the quality of study is considered (Plant et al., 2005). Plant et al. measured the quality of study by assessing students' participation in deliberate practice and self-regulated learning. ...
Article
Taught to non-mathematics undergraduates (business, science, engineering, and other technical programs), service mathematics is commonly associated with poor exam performance and low skill/knowledge attainment. The primary objective of the present study was to examine the range of factors thought to impact mathematics performance in higher education and establish which of the variables (i.e., motivation, mathematical background, growth mindset, preference for understanding, and time invested in independent learning) are of value in explaining the differences in students’ performance in service mathematics modules. A survey of first year business and engineering students who sat service mathematics modules was conducted. A multivariable proportional odds regression model was applied to detect and evaluate the association of each explanatory variable with mathematics performance. Motivation was found to be an important contributor to mathematics performance in first year service modules (p£0.05), second only to mathematical background (p<0.001). The work also investigated trends in motivation for studying mathematics across different student cohorts, where a significant difference in motivation was found between business and engineering students (p<0.001). The findings are discussed in terms of implications for learners and educators and should be of interest to fellow academics, those tasked with improving retention rates and policy makers.
... Along with standardised admission tests such as the SAT (previously known as the Scholastic Achievement Test or the Scholastic Aptitude Test) and the American College Testing (ACT), the grade-point average (GPA) is the most common quantitative measure of cognitive skills and abilities acquisition that educational researchers have used as a proxy for a student's academic performance (Richardson et al., 2012;Plant, 2005;Chemers, 2001). The GPA is the weighted mean of the final mark that a student obtained from each course in the basket of courses that s/he completed towards the completion of a formal academic qualification (Richardson et al.,2012). ...
... Prior academic performance and aptitude tests results have also caught the attention of researchers seeking to identify what may help predict academic success. In that respect, a number of studies identified some of the traditional measures of cognitive capacity (SAT and ACT) and high school results as reliable predictors of university academic performance (Ellias, 2007;Plant, 2005;Robbins, 2004), although some found that of the two, high school GPA appears to be a stronger predictor than standardised tests such as SAT and ACT (Richardson, 2012). ...
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Thanks, in part, to the rapid development and widespread adoption of the Internet and other online technologies, academic institutions are increasingly using analytics to enhance learning and teaching. Through the use of data mining techniques, this study examines some of the determinants at a course level that affect the academic performance of adult learners (which we will refer to as students in this paper) in the Singapore University of Social Sciences (SUSS). Formerly known as SIM University, SUSS is an institution that caters mainly to the learning needs of working adults although it offers a number of full-time undergraduate degree programmes to fresh school leavers. The data analysis found that students taking introductory blended courses performed better than those who took face-to-face courses of the same level. Furthermore, students of similar age taking level-2 courses outperformed students taking similar courses where the age difference was more significant. The findings indicate that no single optimal course design will lead to improved academic performance across all courses. Instead, educators should be ready to consider the nature, level, discipline and coursework component of each course to cater to the various students’ needs.
... Numerous studies confirm that high school Grade Point Average (GPA) and Standardized Aptitude Test (SAT) scores predict students' academic performance in university (Wolfe and Johnson 1995;Betts and Morrell 1999;Cohn et al. 2004;Plant et al. 2005). Some studies also examine the relationship between standardized American College Test (ACT) scores and university performance (Noble and Sawyer 2004;Bettinger et al. 2013). ...
... On the other hand, Nonis and Hudson (2010) reveal that, although the quantity of time spent studying impacts performance, this impact is moderated by students' study habits. Further, according to Plant et al. (2005), the amount of studying undertaken by students is a significant predictor of cumulative GPA when study quality and previous academic performance are considered. ...
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This study analyses the determinants of academic achievement among Japanese university students. Based on a survey conducted by a Japanese educational think tank, this study confirms that female students record significantly higher academic achievement levels compared to their male counterparts, which is in line with the findings of most previous studies. This result is partly explained by the gender differences in students’ study skills at the university level. Further, the analysis reveals that the study skills attained by students at high school are maintained and affect their academic achievement at the university level. Although enrolment in one’s preferred university increases a student’s academic achievement, selecting a university based on the recommendations of others or according to the type of entrance examination lowers achievement. Further, receiving comparatively large monetary allowances from parents or earning significant amounts of money from part-time employment can potentially lower students’ academic achievement. Subgroup estimations—such as those for national universities, private universities, and different faculties—confirm the robustness of the current study’s results. According to the quantile regression model, although the effects of gender on academic achievement decrease with increasing quantiles, they remain significant at all quantiles.
... Theoretically, two routes can be discerned (see Fig. 1). The first is the quantity (frequency and intensity) of academic behaviors aimed at achievement (such as effort, persistence, etc.) (Cury et al., 2008;Dettmers et al., 2009;Doumen et al., 2014;Marsh et al., 2016;Pinxten et al., 2014;Plant et al., 2005;Trautwein et al., 2009). As a second route, higher levels of motivation could also be associated with higher quality of academic behaviors; for example, by adopting effective learning strategies, adaptive meta-cognitive strategies, spaced practice, elaboration, retrieval practice, interleaving, dual coding, and so on. ...
... When effort is measured as quality of learning (e.g., selecting adaptive goals, adopting higher-quality learning strategies, etc.), there is some evidence for a positive link between academic achievement and effort (Trigwell et al., 2013). However, when effort is measured as a quantity of learning (such as study time, practice time, time-on-task, persistence, etc.), this relationship seems either weak or only significant after controlling for quality of learning (Cury et al., 2008;Dettmers et al., 2009;Doumen et al., 2014;Plant et al., 2005) or even negative (the labour-in-vain effect, Koriat et al., 2006;Nelson & Leonesio, 1988;Undorf & Ackerman, 2017). This provides suggestions for future attempts to parse the mediating factors in the motivation → achievement link in reciprocal relations between these two constructs. ...
Article
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The question of how learners’ motivation influences their academic achievement and vice versa has been the subject of intensive research due to its theoretical relevance and important implications for the field of education. Here, we present our understanding of how influential theories of academic motivation have conceptualized reciprocal interactions between motivation and achievement and the kinds of evidence that support this reciprocity. While the reciprocal nature of the relationship between motivation and academic achievement has been established in the literature, further insights into several features of this relationship are still lacking. We therefore present a research agenda where we identify theoretical and methodological challenges that could inspire further understanding of the reciprocal relationship between motivation and achievement as well as inform future interventions. Specifically, the research agenda includes the recommendation that future research considers (1) multiple motivation constructs, (2) behavioral mediators, (3) a network approach, (4) alignment of intervals of measurement and the short vs. long time scales of motivation constructs, (5) designs that meet the criteria for making causal, reciprocal inferences, (6) appropriate statistical models, (7) alternatives to self-reports, (8) different ways of measuring achievement, and (9) generalizability of the reciprocal relations to various developmental, ethnic, and sociocultural groups.
... Also, total amount of time that students report studying has often been examined as a potential predictor of success in school. It can be said that the more time students spend studying, the better grades they receive (Plant, Ericsson, Hill and Asberg, 2005). Chang and Romero (2008), ...
... al. 2003). The total amount of time that students use for study has often been examined as a potential predictor of success in school and was concluded that the more time the students spend studying, the better grades they should receive (Plant, Ericsson, Hill and Asberg, 2005). ...
Article
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Biology is an important school subject to students who aspire to be scientists. Trends of students’ performance in external examinations indicated that less than 50% of candidates usually pass the subject at a minimum of credit level. Empirical studies on the causes have focused largely on teachers’ ineffectiveness and inadequate learning and teaching facilities. The extent to which home, school participation and students’ engagement in child labour activities contribute to underachievement in senior secondary school biology have not been well investigated especially in a structural equation modeling context. Therefore, an 18-variable structural equation model comprising variables of home (parents’ location, cultural value, educational background, employment status, occupation, income, family type and size), child labour (timing and frequency of labour, parents’ attention to students’ need and provision of learning materials), school participation (punctuality, attendance, home and class assignment) and students’ achievement in biology was developed. This was with a view to establishing causal relationship among the variables and to determine the direct and indirect effects of each of the variables on students’ achievement in biology. Ex-Post facto design was adopted for the study. Three states- Ogun, Osun and Oyo- were randomly selected from among states that have state capitals with distinct urban and rural areas. The selected capitals were stratified along location (urban/rural), while 21.0% of the secondary schools from each location were selected randomly. Twenty five senior students who engaged in academically detrimental labour activities were randomly selected from each sampled schools. Six validated instruments, namely Cultural Value (r=0.73) and Parental Involvement in Students’ Academic (r=0.71) questionnaires; Socio-Economic Status (r=0.68), School Participation (r=0.78) and Labour Participation Screening (r=0.85) scales and Biology Achievement Test (r=0.81) were developed. Data were analysed using Pearson product moment correlation and Path analytical procedure of Structural equation modeling at 0.05 level of significance. Among home variables, educational background (r=0.67), cultural values r=0.28), parental location (r=0.16), occupation (r=0.08), income (r=0.05) and family size (r=-0.02) had significant relationship with students’ achievement in biology. From the child labour variables, students’ frequency (r=-0.35) and timing (r=-0.16) of participation in detrimental labour activities had significant relationship with students’ achievement in biology. Attendance (r=0.45), punctuality (r=-0.34) and class assignment (r=0.31) were school participation variables that significantly influenced achievement in biology. The model fit of Chi Square (χ2 (df=97)=113.72 which is an indication of good fit, with Goodness of fit index of 0.94, Normed fit index of 0.95 and Comparative fit index of 0.99 was established. Moreover, 77% of the causal effects in the model were direct effect, while 23% were indirect. Educational background, cultural values, parental location, and timing and frequency of participation in detrimental child labour activities inhibited students’ achievement in biology in the south – west, Nigeria. Therefore, parents should be enlightened on the negative impact of child labour on students’ academic achievement and other school activities.
... Research about time spent was summarized as the more time students participate in study habits, the better their students will get [14]. Nevertheless, a study from [15] reported that the quality of the study was essential when we discuss time spent on studying. Other components that are significantly related to time spent on studying are gender [14], academic interest, parent pressure, school anxiety [15] and motivation [16]. ...
... Nevertheless, a study from [15] reported that the quality of the study was essential when we discuss time spent on studying. Other components that are significantly related to time spent on studying are gender [14], academic interest, parent pressure, school anxiety [15] and motivation [16]. ...
... Grade point average (GPA) is a best scale of indicators to the progress of academic performance (Moore & Shulock, 2009). Performance in university will be not entirely settled by to begin with acquired information, abilities to learn, limits, and those bright factors which are connected with time and cash safes dedicated to learning and going to classes (Plant, Ericsson, Hill, & Asberg, 2005). As per (Carini, Kuh, & Klein, 2006) Student's learning interest, abilities to learn digital skills and performance in university represent the positive connection between them. ...
Article
The primary objective of this research was to examine the perception of e-learning among university students, in relation to their skills, learning behaviors, and their levels of academic self-efficacy and motivation under an e-learning environment, and its impact on their academic performance. A sample of 200 undergraduate students from a university of education participated in the study. Utilizing a regression model, it was found that students are more at ease and inclined to learn in an e-learning environment, which improves their comprehension of e-learning, self-efficacy, and motivation for academic performance. The results are significant as they demonstrate the impact of students' academic motivations, self-efficacy and their understanding of e-learning towards academic performance. The study suggests that for students to perform academically in an e-learning environment, they must possess strong and sharp minds and be able to acquire digital skills. The outcomes of this research can be used to guide the counseling of students, instructors, and directors to enhance the effective implementation of e-learning.
... (Ericsson & Harwell, 2019, p. 16). Ericsson noted that the majority of training activities that individuals engage in within the two most common learning environments, work and school, would not qualify as deliberate or even purposeful practice (Ericsson & Pool, 2016;Plant et al., 2005), but this is not to say that meaningful changes are impossible. In particular, Ericsson argued for the development of "new skills-based training programs that will supplement or completely replace the knowledge-based approaches that are the norm now in many places...training should focus on doing rather than on knowing-and, in particular, on bringing everyone's skills closer to the level of the best performers" (Ericsson & Pool, 2016, p. 137-138). ...
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It has been three decades since K. Anders Ericsson (Ericsson & Smith, 1991) proposed the expert performance approach as a general theoretical and methodological framework for studying the development of expert-level performance. Drawing on Ericsson's most recent writing, this review corrects four misconceptions about the expert performance approach that have persisted in both the popular and scientific literatures on expertise: (1) anyone can become an expert by putting in 10,000 hours of any kind of practice, (2) the expert performance approach is exclusively concerned with deliberate practice, (3) expert performers can be identified based on reputation or experience, and (4) Ericsson's claims require that a majority of the variance in performance is explained by deliberate practice. We conclude by making the case for integrating aspects of the expert performance approach into broader learning contexts, including educational and occupational environments. Such in situ experiments will mark the transition of expertise research from the basic science of describing exceptional performance to the applied science of maximizing human potential.
... GPA is not only used to indicate students' academic achievement, but this measure is also used as criteria for postgraduate admission, and graduate employment, and it is predictive of occupational status (Richardson, Abraham, & Bond, 2012;Strenze, 2007). Therefore, GPA is an index of performance directly relevant to training and employment opportunities (Plant, Ericsson, Hill, & Asberg, 2005;Richardson, Abraham, & Bond, 2012) and is meaningful to students, universities, and employers alike. GPA is also an objective measure with good internal reliability and temporal stability (Bacon & Bean, 2006;Kobrin, Patterson, Shaw, Mattern, & Barbuti, 2008;Stadler, Becker, Greiff, & Spinath, 2015). ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in international graduate students’ academic achievement by gender at a Historically Black College and University (HBCU) in the southern region of the United States. Academic performance was measured by the international graduate students’ Grade Point Average (GPA). Academic achievement indicates the extent to which a student has accomplished specific goals focused on activities in an instructional environment such as in schools, colleges, and universities. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the differences in means in the GPAs. The results obtained suggest that gender is not a predictor of academic achievement among international graduate students from non-English speaking backgrounds
... Prior knowledge has had an indirect effect on academic accomplishment. It influences the amount and type of current learning system where students must obtain a high degree of mastery [65]. According to the student's opinion, modular distance learning is an alternative solution for providing adequate education for all learners and at all levels in the current scenario under the new education policy [66]. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic brought extraordinary challenges to K-12 students in using modular distance learning. According to Transactional Distance Theory (TDT), which is defined as understanding the effects of distance learning in the cognitive domain, the current study constructs a theoretical framework to measure student satisfaction and Bloom's Taxonomy Theory (BTT) to measure students' academic achievements. This study aims to evaluate and identify the possible cognitive capacity influencing K-12 students' academic achievements and satisfaction with modular distance learning during this new phenomenon. A survey questionnaire was completed through an online form by 252 K-12 students from the different institutions of Occidental Mindoro. Using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), the researcher analyses the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. The model used in this research illustrates cogni-tive factors associated with adopting modular distance learning based on students' academic achievements and satisfaction. The study revealed that students' background, experience, behavior , and instructor interaction positively affected their satisfaction. While the effects of the students' performance, understanding, and perceived effectiveness were wholly aligned with their academic achievements. The findings of the model with solid support of the integrative association between TDT and BTT theories could guide decision-makers in institutions to implement, evaluate, and utilize modular distance learning in their education systems.
... This could mean finding systems that work for you (examples to look into include: the Cornell note-taking system, the Pomodoro method, flashcards, agenda keeping, or study groups) and using those systems to make your work time more efficient. As you proceed in your undergraduate program, it will be important to consistently evaluate your strategies and be cognizant of what works well for you [27,28]. ...
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Undergraduate students from underrepresented backgrounds (e.g., Black, Indigenous, and people of color [BIPOC], members of the Deaf community, people with disabilities, members of the 2SLGBTQIA+ community, from low-income backgrounds, or underrepresented genders) continue to face exclusion and marginalization in higher education. In this piece, authored and edited by a diverse group of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) scholars, we present 10 simple rules for succeeding as an underrepresented STEM undergraduate student, illuminating the "hidden curriculum" of STEM specifically as it relates to the underrepresented undergraduate experience. Our rules begin by encouraging students to embrace their own distinct identities and scientific voices and explain how students can overcome challenges unique to underrepresented students throughout their undergraduate degrees. These rules are derived from a combination of our own experiences navigating our undergraduate STEM degrees and the growing body of literature on improving success for underrepresented students.
... With the chatbot, the set of effective self-regulatory processes for academic performance in higher education (De Bruijn-Smolders et al., 2016), based on the framework of self-regulatory processes as proposed by Sitzmann and Ely (2011) will be addressed with complementing evidence-based interventions. For example, with regard to planning, monitoring, and time management, students can be offered guidelines such as to study each day, to study the most difficult part first, and to use a to-do list when studying, and to make three kinds of planning, that is, for the day, the week, and for the long-term (for example until the test week; Gettinger & Seibert, 2002;Hattie 2009;Plant et al., 2005). With respect to mental health, in line with the literature, we expect anxiety and depression to be most prevalent among 89 the students . ...
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Academic thriving stands for a combination of academic outcomes as well as success in other relevant domains, such as well-being or finding the right job. What causes students to thrive academically? The studies in this dissertation contributed to this question with the use of experimental, interdisciplinary and longitudinal studies, and a critical theoretical examination of the arguments against evidence-based education. A large-scale field experiment showed that first-year students who reflected on their desired future, prioritized goals, and wrote detailed plans on how to reach these goals, performed significantly better (in study credits and retention) than students who made a control assignment. This low-cost and scalable goal-setting assignment was made at the start of college and only took the students two hours to complete. Personalized follow-up feedback delivered by an AI-enhanced chatbot could further improve benefits to study outcomes as well as well-being. The final study in this dissertation tracked the effects of different types of work on the study progress of teacher education students over a four-year span. This longitudinal study showed that student who had a paid job in education gained more study credits than students with other types of work or without a job. Additionally it showed that working 8 hours per week relates with the most study progress in the first and third semester of college.
... By combining, defined, focused, and repetitive practice, feedback on correctness, explanation of errors, and availability of repeated formative assessment, successful learning outcomes have been measured in many previous studies involving music, medicine, sports, and higher education ( Guskey 2007;West, Herman, and Zilles 2015;Ericsson, Krampe, and Tesch-Römer 1993;McGaghie et al. 2011;Plant et al. 2005). These tenets of deliberate practice will be leveraged throughout the results section. ...
... Therefore, the training protocol could be further optimized to avoid the learning plateau. Moreover, besides the NF training, the similar overtraining phenomenon affecting the effectiveness of learning can also be found in other self-regulatory process, such as studies and sport training [91]- [93]. These evidences support that a careful time management is essential for creating a focused approach in the self-regulatory process. ...
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Neurofeedback (NF) training is a type of online biofeedback in which neural activity is measured and provided to the participant in real time to facilitate the top-down control of specific activation patterns. To improve the training efficiency, an investigation on the learning of EEG regulation and effect on neural activity during NF is critical. This paper attempts to analyze the learning curve and the dynamics of the phase locking value (PLV)-based brain network for a short time EEG-based NF, in which 28 participants carried out alpha down-regulating NF training in 2 consecutive days. The results reveal that participants could successfully construct the related learning network to achieve the training goals in the first day training and the beginning of the second day training. Moreover, the learning plateaus were discovered from the results of the relative amplitude and the functional brain network in the middle of the second day training. These findings could be helpful for better understanding of the learning process in NF from the functional connectivity viewpoint and would contribute to building a more efficient learning protocol for NF training.
... As described by Plant et al. (2005), learning performance can be measured through the grade point average. For their part, Clark (2001), argued that academic achievement can also be self-assessed by students through their learning process and job search results. ...
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This study aims at investigating the relationship between learning styles and academic achievement in Physics of high school students in Thai Nguyen city, Vietnam. In this study, we selected a simple random sample consisting of students attending high schools located in Thai Nguyen city (Luong Ngoc Quyen High School, Iron Steel High School, Thai Nguyen High School; Duong Tu Minh High School; Ngo Quyen High School; Luong the Vinh High School; Dao Duy Tu High School) from 2019-2020; 2020-2021. This study used the formula for sample size calculation developed by Watson (2001), our population size is 307 students. This study used an online questionnaire survey method using Google form and Zalo form. Survey was conducted from April 2019 to May 2021. The result implied that different learning styles accompanied with learning setting can contribute greatly to students’ academic achievement.
... However, because perceived cognitive functioning does not always strongly predict neurocognitive performance in young adults (Dhillon et al., 2020;Lin et al., 2019), additional research is needed to assess whether the hypothesized model describes the relationship between trait mindfulness, stress, and both subjective and objective measures of cognitive functioning. Similarly, given the myriad determinants of academic achievement that ultimately impact GPA, including study habits (Plant et al., 2005), self-efficacy (Brown et al., 2008), high school achievement (Hannon, 2014), general intelligence (Pluck et al., 2016), and burnout (May et al., 2015), it perhaps was not surprising that most facets of trait mindfulness, except Decentering, did not significantly explain variance in GPA. Although one unpublished dissertation study (Napora, 2013) documented small associations between certain facets of trait mindfulness (Acting with Awareness and Non-Reactivity) and GPA, we were unable to replicate that finding, perhaps due to demographic differences in study samples or reliance on self-reported GPA. ...
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Higher trait mindfulness may be associated with better cognitive functioning and academic achievement in college students. Although mediating mechanisms are unclear, lower stress levels could explain this relationship. Participants: Cross-sectional online survey (n = 534; 33% non-white; Apr 2018 – Sep 2019). Path analysis tested Perceived Stress as a mediator between specific facets of trait mindfulness and three measures of self-reported cognitive functioning and academic achievement: Cognitive Abilities, Cognitive Concerns, and GPA. Perceived Stress fully or partially mediated the relationship between all facets of trait mindfulness and perceived cognitive functioning. Only Decentering, however, was associated with higher GPA as a function of lower stress. Lower stress can explain the link between higher trait mindfulness and better cognitive functioning, but not necessarily academic achievement. Future research is needed to address causality, examine objective measures of cognitive functioning, and extend this explanatory model to mindfulness training.
... Even though study time has proven to be an unreliable predictor of academic performance, in our study students who passed their assessments first time did spend more time on e-learning modules than students who did not pass their assessments first time. [19][20][21] Surprisingly this was true for both the knowledge-based assessment (+5 h) and the skill-based assessment (+3.3 h). ...
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Aim: Junior doctors write most hospital prescriptions, yet are more than twice as likely to make an error in their prescriptions compared to senior doctors. A possibility to enhance pharmacotherapy education is through the use of e-learning modules. The aim was to determine whether P-scribe, as the chosen e-learning resource, helps students in passing their pharmacotherapy assessments. Methods: This retrospective study was undertaken in the Erasmus Medical Center, the Netherlands. All 270 medical students who started their master curriculum in the academic session of 2017-2018 were included. Data were analyzed to identify the frequency of student's use per e-learning module, total time students spent on e-learning modules and timing of the use of e-learning modules in relation to their assessments. The results on assessments were analyzed to identify possible correlations between the time students spent using P-scribe, their timing of use and their assessment results. Results: Students who passed their knowledge-based assessment at once had a mean practice time of five more hours than students who did not pass at once (P<0.05, 95% CI: 3.4-6.6). These students practiced on average six e-learning modules more (P<0.05, 95% CI: 4.1-7.0) than students who failed their first attempt. Students who passed their skill-based prescription test at once, practiced on average five more e-learning modules (P = 0.006, 95% CI: 1.4-8.3) than students who failed their first attempt. Conclusion: Students who passed their pharmacotherapy assessments at once spent more time, and practiced more frequently, with e-learning modules.
... lower levels of intrinsic motivation, more frequently bored in class, good rather than excellent attendance, less time devoted to self-study and more likely to leave a class when the opportunity arises), emphasising the importance of better understanding the adaptive learning behaviours of different student groups (e.g. Kember et al. 1996;Plant et al. 2005;Ruthig et al. 2008;Kelly 2011;Pekrun et al. 2014;Oldfield et al. 2018;Respondek et al. 2017;Skues, Williams, and Wise 2017;Hailikari, Tuononen, and Parpala 2018;Sharp et al. 2019). Those in Cluster 4 were also more likely to experience and respond to or cope with academic boredom differently, while indicating a greater lack of purpose associated with being at university or college at all. ...
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In this article, we present details of a new Academic Boredom Survey Instrument (ABSI) incorporating different measures of academic boredom's trait, state and other characteristic attributes for the exploratory study of student engagement in Higher Education (HE). Developed from a review of international research literature and our own empirical work in the field, validation of the ABSI proceeded in detail from a sample of 408 undergraduates enrolled on 16 arts, humanities and science degree programmes at two universities and two further education colleges in the UK. In terms of the ABSI's embedded trait and state questionnaires alone, Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis resulted in the establishment of three scales, with associated subscales, for general use (boredom proneness and class-and study-related boredom). Together with other characteristic attributes (e.g. sites and triggers, boredom frequency, feelings , coping strategies and revision and assignment boredom), additional data obtained from a modified version of the Shortened Experiences of Teaching and Learning Questionnaire (SETLQ) and course grades from student records, correlation and cluster analysis contributed further in terms of determining the robustness and value of the ABSI as an exploratory tool, as well as highlighting the predictive and diagnostic potential afforded when using complementary research instruments in combination. Offering availability for interdisciplinary use and critical comment across the UK HE sector as a whole, the ABSI has particular relevance in terms of designing and delivering courses, the professional development of staff, student profiling and the provision of student support.
... Rather, expert performance is the result of deliberate (or effortful) practice (Ericsson, 2015). In relation to medical student applicants, the theory would support that expert performance in academics and medicine is not rooted simply in measures of intelligence, but instead, is the result of engagement of deliberate practice within study habits (Moulaert et al., 2004;Plant et al., 2005;Duvivier et al., 2011). Thus, deliberate practice suggests that exceptional performance in medical school depends on more than uGPAs and MCAT scores and can provide a lens through which to interpret our research. ...
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Introduction: Medical school admissions committees are tasked with selecting the best students for their institution and historically rely on grade point averages and Medical College Admission Test scores as measures for academic success. Yet research and expertise theory suggest that personal characteristics play a critical role in exceptional performance. Understanding the characteristics of exceptional performing medical students upon application to medical school could contribute to the holistic review process and selection decisions of medical universities. Methods: The purpose of this study was to identify themes in the American Medical College Application Service (AMCAS) application that reflect the characteristics of exceptional performing medical students when they applied to medical school. The authors completed an inductive thematic analysis of the primary AMCAS application of exceptional performing medical students. Selection to both Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society and the Gold Humanism Honor Society defined exceptional performance. Results/Analysis: 22 (4.5%) of 485 medical school graduates between 2017 and 2019 met criteria for exceptional performance. The authors identified seven themes from the AMCAS applications: success in a practiced activity, altruism, entrepreneurship, passion, perseverance, teamwork, and wisdom. Discussion: The seven identified themes were consistent with the personal characteristics associated with both expertise theory and the AAMC’s core personal competencies for medical student success. By constructing an understanding of the personal characteristics exceptional student performers display in their applications to medical school, these themes offer an additional lens for medical school admission committees to assess a student’s potential to be successful in medical school.
... Students also need time to attend class and study. Earlier studies have shown mixed results for the relationship between the amount of weekly reported study time and GPA for college students (see review in Ashby Plant et al., 2005;McFadden & Dart, 1992;Pascarella & Terenzini, 1991;Schuman et al., 1985). However, recent studies support that the quantity and quality of time dedicated to academic work is directly related to college success (e.g., Astin, 1993;Barbarick & Ippolito, 2003;Michaels & Miethe, 1989;Svanum & Bigatti, 2006;Wladis et al., 2018). ...
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Student parents are among the least likely student groups to complete college. Regression models were run using 2003–2019 American Time Use Survey data to explore time poverty among college students. Results indicate that students with children under 13 years had significantly less discretionary time and free time, spent significantly less time on their education, enrolled part-time at significantly higher rates, and spent significantly more time studying while simultaneously caring for children, compared with students without children under 13 years. The strength of these relationships was strongest when children were younger. Parents with children under 6 years, and mothers of children of all age-groups, had significantly higher time poverty than other groups, yet spent significantly more time on education after controlling for discretionary time, at the cost of significantly less free time for themselves. Results suggest that improving college outcomes for student parents may require consideration of time poverty.
... Among various methods of improving academic achievements, extending learning time is regarded as one of the efficient and direct facilitators. However, the relationship between learning time and academic achievement might not be a simple linear one (Plant, Ericsson, Hill, & Asberg, 2005), yet the different composition of learning time, such as engaged time, provided learning time, realized learning time, and so on, might lead to divergent conclusions (Dolton, Gutiérrez, & Navarro, 2003;OECD, 2017). The present study aims to explore the relationship between engaged science learning time and science achievement by using a large-scale international database (the Program for International Student Assessment, PISA, OECD, 2017). ...
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To better describe the previous findings of inconsistency in the relationship between learning time and academic achievement, we tested new models with different shape and pattern to find what might be the optimal describing pattern between the two concepts. Selected from a large-scale international database – the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2015, science learning time and its corresponding achievement was chosen as an empirical illustration. We further tested if culture could moderate this relationship. Using a multilevel model, it was found that (i) there was a quadratic relationship between learning time and science achievement: science achievement rose with an increase in learning time before an optimal point, and fell when the learning time extended beyond that point; (ii) there was a difference between eastern and western leaners on the quadratic relationship, as eastern learners' performance increased and decreased more sharply with the change of time than that of the western counterparts.
... Also, total amount of time that students report studying has often been examined as a potential predictor of success in school. It can be said that the more time students spend studying, the better grades they receive [14]. Also, reported [15] is ,that attendance, which is critical throughout a student's period of schooling, can have significant impact when chronic absences occur in the early years during the period when basic academic skills are being developed. ...
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Trends of students' performance in Biology in external examinations indicated that less than 50% of candidates usually pass the subject at minimum of credit level. Empirical studies that investigated causes, focused on teachers' ineffectiveness and inadequate learning and teaching facilities. The extent to which school process variables such as students' quality school participation variables affect students' academic performance especially in Biology is yet to be established. This study examined the predictive influence of quality school participation variables on students' achievement. Adopting the Ex-post facto design, a total of 1,725 students were randomly selected among the secondary school students in the state capitals in SouthWest Nigeria. Quality School Participation Scale (QSPS) r=0.78 and Biology Achievement Test (BAT) r=0.80 were used for data collection. Significant relationship exist between students'' attendance in school and achievement in Biology (r=0.126). Also punctuality to school (r=0.113), Class assignment (r=0.87,); home assignment (r=0.88,), availability of learning materials for study (r=0.080) correlate positively with achievement in Biology. The result reveal that QSP variables allowed reliable prediction of students' achievement in Biology (F (5, 1798) =25778.852, aside home assignment, the other variables namely: availability of learning materials ß = .578, t = 171.484, class assignment ß = .542, t = 160.539, p<0.05 and' punctuality ß = .007, t = 2.472, p<0.05 were significant. Recommendations include requesting parents to ensure they procure all necessary basic learning materials for their wards, as well as ensure their participation in school activities.
... Usually, the same indicator is used as a criterion for acceptance in graduate programs. It is also used by employers as an indication of the students' competence and academic achievements in college (Plant et al., 2005;Strenze, 2007). The GPA for students is sometimes affected by grade inflation and differences 2 / 7 in grading systems between different universities (Johnson, 2006). ...
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Students use different modes of transport to go to college. While many transportation programs exist at different universities and many experts find these programs to have a positive impact, no studies have investigated the impact of such programs on the absenteeism and academic performance of college students. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of a college provided transportation program on the absenteeism and performance of engineering students. Different types of data were collected from a sample of engineering students, including attendance records, grade point average (GPA), course grades, majors, and bus ridership information for two years. The findings suggest that there is a positive impact of providing a college transportation service to engineering students in the form of better attendance and higher GPA. The outcomes of this study can be used to evaluate similar programs in the future and can be used by public agencies and policymakers to make decisions on expanding investments in such programs.
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Practice is one of the most important predictors of skill. To become an expert, performers must engage in practice for a prolonged time to develop the psychological characteristics necessary for outstanding performance. Deliberate practice (DP), that is focused repetitive activities with corrective feedback, is particularly beneficial for skill development. The amount of accumulated DP differentiates experts and novices. However, the predictive strength of DP weakens considerably when it comes to differentiating between differently skilled experts, leaving a way clear for other non-practice related factors to exercise their influence. In this paper, we demonstrate using a large sample (388) of elite youth soccer players that one such factor, the personality trait of grit, predicts expertise level both directly and indirectly. Grittier players accumulated more time in coach-led team practice, the activity, which is arguably closest to DP in team sports, which in turn predicted the skill level. Other practice activities, such as self-led training or playing with peers, were not predictive of skill level, neither were they influenced by grit. Grit, however, continued to exert a direct positive influence on the skill level of players even after accounting for the hours of DP accumulated. Overall, a standard deviation of change in the grit score resulted in at least a third of standard deviation improvement in skill. Our findings highlight the need for the inclusion of additional factors in theoretical frameworks in situations where the predictive power of traditional expertise factors, such as practice, is limited.
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The main objective of this research was to identify and characterize the differences in study habits based on personal and academic variables in students of two bachelor's degree (Law and Education Sciences) of Faculty of Administrative and Social Sciences (FCAYS), Autonomous University of Baja California (UABC), Mexico. The sample of this study was 347 students from both programs. The main source of data was the instrument Study Habits Inventory (SHI) which has the following dimensions: environmental conditions, study planning, use of materials, and content assimilation. Descriptive, comparative (ANOVA) and correlation analyses were performed to analyze the data. In the correlation analysis between the variables associated with students' study habits and the grade point average, results show that there are statistically significant connections the dimension of materials. Results show that characterizing and comparing study habits of university students in both programs provides empirical evidence about best study practices and their connection with academic performance, both aspects related to the improvement of the quality of education. It is recommended to carry out more studies considering students from other fields of knowledge
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In this multidisciplinary study, in which the researcher relied on the theory and research of both social psychology and cognitive psychology, the researcher first sought to find out how, through social influence and the exercise of power (organizational politics) in different organizations, the aim of various actors is to influence the decision maker who acts as a manager. Second, the researcher sought to elucidate what leads the decision makers, as supervisors, to conform to this influence and act in accordance with the will to influence. In his earlier doctoral dissertation, the researcher examined how the necessity of individual subjectivity of decision makers influences their decisions; now the researcher looked at the other side of the coin to find out how the sociocultural environment tends to influence the decision maker, and the decisions he/she makes. To build a framework for this re-search task, the researcher in his meta-analysis analyzed five major studies in social psychology, and sought to find attributes in them that increase the susceptibility of decision makers to adapt to social pressure, drawing on the theory and research of cognitive psychology. This meta-analysis allowed the discovery of new factors that could have an impact on the emergence of favorable conditions for conformity. These factors were put to the test by the researcher using the empirical data he collected. The researcher collected empirical data from organizations and agencies in both the business world and public administration to substantiate his research permit applications. However, not everything went as the researcher expected. The size of the collected data was smaller than expected due to the corona pandemic (Covid19). The phenomenon under study itself also had the effect of keeping the size of the data small. Based on the data collected, 88% of the informants thought that influencing, from the perspective of exercising power and organizational politics, was a taboo that they did not want to discuss in the organizations they represented. However, due to the consistency and stability of the empirical data, the researcher was able to produce conclusions that question some everyday perceptions of both the causes of conformity and its consequences. Based on the findings of both the theoretical framework and the analysis of the empirical data, the researcher concludes that there is no individual or decision maker who would not conform to social influence or under social pressure if conditions favorable to him or her would arise. Thus, compliance with social influence can be either implicit or explicit. When adaptation is implicit, its implementation relies on the egodefensive mechanisms and when adaptation is explicit, its implementation rests on personal strategic goals. Keywords: Social Influence, organisational politics, implicit conformity, explicit conformity, egodefensive mechanisms, old boys networks and Homo Egoisticus.
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Abstract Background: It is unclear how cognitive control accounts for academic performance in math-intensive higher education and how it links to male over-representation in math-intensive education in gender-inequitable countries. Purpose: To examine the link between cognitive control and math-intensive education with a focus on male overrepresentation by using cognitive performance (task and construct level) to account for academic grades, and examining sex-specificity in cognitive performance (task and construct level), and using sex-differences in cognitive performance to account for academic grades. Results: Four hierarchical regressions were used (two using task scores and two summed scores) with predictors entered in 3 blocks (working memory, flexibility, inhibition) to explain academic performance (bootstrapped sampling at 2000 samples; N = 39; males =69%). Task-level analysis (Corsi span & mental rotation) and construct-level analysis indicate working memory as a significant predictor of grades, model-fit improved for all-male sample. Results of analysis of variance using the performance of 183 students on four cognitive tasks (N = 183; males = 81%) showed high scores of working memory task and decision-making task among male participants; female scores were higher in a task assessing planning/cognitive flexibility and in the inhibition task. Differences in the two hierarchical regressions indicated that planning/cognitive flexibility accounts for the academic performance of the male-female mixed sample; however, working memory, most importantly decision-making related to risk and uncertainty, accounts for the academic performance of the all-male sample. Conclusion:Similar to developing countries, working memory and decision making might contribute to academic performance, potentially explaining male over-representation in math-intensive higher education. Academic grades might disproportionately rely on working memory and risky decision-making; equal emphasis and inclusive development of all components of cognitive control via academic curriculum and assessment might improve diversity in math-intensive higher education.
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This study presents an artificial neural network (ANN) that is designed for predicting student academic performance. ANNs emulate human brain physiological function, have the ability to process information, and are used in research for making prediction models because of their ability to identify nonlinear relationships between variables. The results show that the ANN developed here adequately classifies 73% of the sample and performs better in metrics (accuracy, recall, precision, and F1-Score) than other supervised learning techniques. The early prediction of academic performance allows formulating didactic and pedagogical strategies that improve the efficiency of teaching and learning processes.
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We examined students’ naturalistic decisions about spacing their study in an undergraduate course (N = 185) and whether self-selected spacing predicted course performance. Usage of two study tools – an online textbook and quiz tool – was recorded daily. We operationalized spacing as how often the tools were used and the timing of their use relative to exams. We found that students increased their study near deadlines and exams, used the textbook more often than the quiz tool, and used the tools infrequently when they were optional (vs. required). Importantly, spaced retrieval practice (via quiz tool) predicted course performance and GPA, whereas spaced reading (via textbook) was a weaker predictor. That is, when students opted for more frequent and early quizzing, they earned higher grades, even controlling for time spent quizzing. Thus, self-selected spaced study – especially spaced retrieval practice – supports student achievement.
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These days, screen reading has been widely adopted and discussed by school teachers and researchers. However, few studies have been conducted to formally evaluate the effectiveness of screen reading in improving EFL students' English reading comprehension, not to mention investigating the factors affecting their reading comprehension outcomes. In this study, a personalized electronic reading approach was proposed for an EFL reading comprehension course; moreover, a learning analytics approach was used to analyze factors affecting the students' personalized reading comprehension outcomes. A 14-week research design was implemented with the online personalized reading approach using Microsoft Teams as the platform for facilitating and recording peer-to-peer interactions during the screen reading process. In addition, the Students' perceptions were surveyed at the end of the 14 weeks. The results show that the experimental group was more engaged and motivated with the use of a personalized e-book reading program and that the group with personalized feedback showed more interaction according to learning analytics data which was collected through the LMS.
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This study presents a systematic review of the literature regarding the use of technology to develop critical thinking (CT). This review analyzed 57 publications from 2010 to 2020. With an inductive content analysis, the study reached the themes related to the educational processes followed to develop technology-supported CT, the characteristics of the technological tools used, the findings obtained in terms of CT, and the difficulties experienced in the implementations. The findings indicate that studies to develop CT mostly use writing-based practices through Web 2.00 tools. The study observed that technological tools are properly integrated into the Web-based Learning approach. The practices in the studies include a number of dimensions, such as the roles the teacher's undertake according to their learning and teaching understanding, educational environment, implementation periods, and types of education, depending on how the educational process works. Themes such as accessibility, technique, insufficient experience in regards to prior learning, social anxiety, student resistance, and mental fatigue emerged as the difficulties reported resulting from technological applications. This review evaluated the development of CT with skill, disposition dimensions, and CT indicators through the studies examined. The results of this study are valuable in terms of providing a perspective on what is necessary to develop CT by revealing the characteristics of studies that integrate technology into the learning environment. However, the number of studies examining students' CT development in the first and early childhood periods is relatively low compared to other educational levels. Therefore, there is a need for more research related to the technological applications of early CT development in future studies.
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In this review paper, we reflect on the work of K. Anders Ericsson and how his Deliberate Practice Framework (DPF: Ericsson et al., 1993) has particularly impacted the field of sport expertise and athlete development. We review the major tenets of the framework, including areas where there is indisputable evidence for the value of deliberate practice. We address the state of findings attesting to the mechanisms underpinning the expert advantage and their relevance to the DPF, and consider the growth in research addressing the motivational, effort and resource constraints of the framework. We document the evolving facets of, and incongruencies in, research, as well as lively debates around the operationalization of deliberate practice, whether deliberate practice is sufficient to account for sport expertise, and the role of individual differences and heritable qualities. Altogether, we acknowledge the importance and provocative nature of the DPF, recognizing it as a meta-framework that can continue to inform dialogue in the fields of skill acquisition, talent development and coaching, and notably, mark the considerable contributions made to our field by K. Anders Ericsson.
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The relation between college grades and self-reported amount of effort was examined in four major and several minor investigations of undergraduates in a large state university. Grades were operationalized mainly by using grade point average (GPA), though in one investigation grades in a particular course were the focus. Effort was measured in several different ways, ranging from student estimates of typical study over the term to reports of study on specific days. Despite evidence that these self-reports provide meaningful estimates of actual studying, there is at best only a very small relation between amount of studying and grades, as compared to the considerably stronger and more monotonic relations between grades and both aptitude measures and self-reported class attendance. The plausible assumption that college grades reflect student effort to an important extent does not receive much support from these investigations. This raises a larger question about the extent to which rewards are linked to effort in other areas of life—a connection often assumed but seldom investigated.
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Theories arguing that specific skills are acquired through extended practice cannot easily account for some musicians’ ability to perform unfamiliar music without preparation at first sight (sight-reading). This study identified the source of individual differences in this ability among expert pianists by relating component abilities of sight-reading and biographical indicators of skill acquisition to actual sight-reading performance. Sixteen advanced pianists of comparable skill played music without rehearsal (sight-reading) and after brief rehearsal (accompanying). Performances were paced by a recorded melody line. Pianists then performed experimental tasks designed to capture isolated subskills of sight-reading such as improvisation, recall, and kinesthetic ability. Sight-reading and accompanying performance correlated significantly with performance on the component tasks and with interview data on subjects’ training background, including the accumulated amount of time spent with accompanying-related activities and the size of accompanying repertoire. After controlling for the effects of subskills, age, professional specialization, and an indicator of general pianistic skill, accumulated accompanying experience and size of accompanying repertoire still accounted for significant unique variance in sight-reading and accompanying performance. Individual differences in unrehearsed performance among expert pianists reflect the consequences of domain-relevant activities (accompanying) and deliberate skill-building efforts (increase in size of relevant repertoire).
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Although the topic of academic studying has been neglected historically, researchers interested in academic self-regulation have undertaken a program of research with important implications for understanding how academic studying can be optimized. In this article, I present a conceptualization of this topic in terms of 6 underlying dimensions that students can self-regulate using specific processes. Extensive anecdotal evidence is described indicating that similar self-regulatory processes are used by experts in such diverse disciplines as music, sports, and professional writing. These descriptions reveal that self-regulatory processes are not only important during initial development of a skill but also during subsequent performance of it in naturalistic settings. Finally, research on the beneficial effects of self-regulated studying is recounted on academic motivation as well as achievement, and a cyclical self-regulatory model for study skill instruction in regular classrooms is presented.
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A prospective study tested the hypothesis that college grade point average (GPA) would be predicted by time-management practices. 90 college students completed a time-management questionnaire in 1983; their high school Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores were obtained from college records. Principal-components analysis of the 35-item time-management instrument revealed 3 components. In 1987 (4 yrs later) each student's cumulative GPA was obtained from college records. Regression analyses showed that 2 time-management components were significant predictors of cumulative GPA ( R–2 = .21) and accounted for more variance than did SAT scores (increment in R–2 = .05). It is concluded that time-management practices may influence college achievement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Two studies tested the theory of deliberate practice (K. A. Ericsson et al, 1993) and contrasted results with the sport commitment model (T. K. Scanlan et al, 1993a, 1993b). In Part I, international (mean age 25.6 yrs), national (mean age 24.0 yrs), and provincial (mean age 25.4 yrs) soccer and field hockey players recalled the amount of time they spent in individual and team practice, sport-related activities, and everyday activities at the start of their career and every 3 years since. In Part II, these activities were rated in terms of their relevance for improving performance, effort and concentration required, and enjoyment. A monotonic relationship between accumulated individual plus team practice and skill level was found. In contrast with Ericsson et al's findings for musicians, relevant activities were also enjoyable, while concentration became a separate dimension from effort. The viability of a generalized theory of expertise is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Conducted 10 experiments to evaluate the notion of "depth of processing" in human memory. Undergraduate Ss were asked questions concerning the physical, phonemic, or semantic characteristics of a long series of words; this initial question phase was followed by an unexpected retention test for the words. It was hypothesized that "deeper" (semantic) questions would take longer to answer and be associated with higher retention of the target words. These ideas were confirmed by the 1st 4 experiments. Exps V-X showed (a) it is the qualitative nature of a word's encoding which determines retention, not processing time as such; and (b) retention of words given positive and negative decisions was equalized when the encoding questions were equally salient or congruous for both types of decision. While "depth" (the qualitative nature of the encoding) serves a useful descriptive purpose, results are better described in terms of the degree of elaboration of the encoded trace. Finally, results have implications for an analysis of learning in terms of its constituent encoding operations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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We recorded attendance for 57 students in an introductory psychology class by having them sign in at each class meeting, For the remaining 57 students, we counted the number of students attending, but kept no record of individual attendance. Students who signed in attended classes more often (absenteeism decreased by one third), and their grades on weekly multiple-choice quizzes were higher, even on questions based on material covered in the text but not in lectures. Thus, simply recording attendance (without awarding course credit for attendance) increased both attendance and overall academic performance.
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The theoretical framework presented in this article explains expert performance as the end result of individuals' prolonged efforts to improve performance while negotiating motivational and external constraints. In most domains of expertise, individuals begin in their childhood a regimen of effortful activities (deliberate practice) designed to optimize improvement. Individual differences, even among elite performers, are closely related to assessed amounts of deliberate practice. Many characteristics once believed to reflect innate talent are actually the result of intense practice extended for a minimum of 10 yrs. Analysis of expert performance provides unique evidence on the potential and limits of extreme environmental adaptation and learning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Self-regulation supposedly plays a central role in memory and learning, especially for adults. Research using simple materials has found that adults are skilled self-regulators. Research using difficult materials has found the opposite. Using difficult materials, the authors attempted to improve college students' self-regulation by allowing extended study time before taking a test. The authors also examined whether background knowledge and note-taking strategies would be positively related to self-regulation. Results indicated that college students were not good at self-regulation, background knowledge and note taking were not related to self-regulation, and note taking and background knowledge were generally better predictors of test performance than self-regulation. Results imply that test performance is more related to note taking and background knowledge than to self-regulation.
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A new interview procedure is proposed for collecting valid information on the acquisition of high-level performance in sport. The procedure elicits verifiable information on the development of athletes' achievements in their primary sport, as well as factors that might influence performance, including involvement in other sporting activities, injuries, physical growth and quality of training resources. Interviewed athletes also describe their engagement in specific training and other relevant activities during each year of their development as well as how they experienced each type of activity. The collected information is then examined to identify those aspects of the athletes' recall of their development that meet criteria of reliability and validity. Recommendations to coaches and scientists are discussed for how retrospective interviews can uncover aspects of development that distinguish elite from less accomplished athletes.
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Expert and exceptional performance are shown to be mediated by cognitive and perceptual-motor skills and by domain-specific physiological and anatomical adaptations. The highest levels of human performance in different domains can only be attained after around ten years of extended, daily amounts of deliberate practice activities. Laboratory analyses of expert performance in many domains such as chess, medicine, auditing, computer programming, bridge, physics, sports, typing, juggling, dance, and music reveal maximal adaptations of experts to domain-specific constraints. For example, acquired anticipatory skills circumvent general limits on reaction time, and distinctive memory skills allow a domain-specific expansion of working memory capacity to support planning, reasoning, and evaluation. Many of the mechanisms of superior expert performance serve the dual purpose of mediating experts' current performance and of allowing continued improvement of this performance in response to informative feedback during practice activities.
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The theoretical framework presented in this article explains expert performance as the end result of individuals' prolonged efforts to improve performance while negotiating motivational and external constraints. In most domains of expertise, individuals begin in their childhood a regimen of effortful activities (deliberate practice) designed to optimize improvement. Individual differences, even among elite performers, are closely related to assessed amounts of deliberate practice. Many characteristics once believed to reflect innate talent are actually the result of intense practice extended for a minimum of 10 years. Analysis of expert performance provides unique evidence on the potential and limits of extreme environmental adaptation and learning.
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Extracts available on Google Books (see link below). For integral text, go to publisher's website : http://www.elsevierdirect.com/product.jsp?isbn=9780121098902
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Questionnaire data regarding study time, work time, and study habits, as well as transcript data, were gathered for 190 lower division science and engineering majors. A multiple regression analysis showed that the best predictor of grade point average was a question asking the extent to which students completed assigned work prior to examinations. Variables which added significantly to the prediction equation were ACT entrance exam scores, the estimated number of hours students spent studying per week, and high school GPAs. The data also indicated that students who hold part-time jobs spend about the same amount of time studying as those who do not.
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In an assessment of the relations between test anxiety, study behavior, and academic performance Allen, Lerner, and Hinrichsen (1972) found that self-reported study behaviors added significantly to personality measures and high school rank as predictors of grade point average (GPA). Ss in this investigation recorded study-relevant behaviors (e.g., number of uninterrupted minutes spent studying per week) for one semester, and it was noted that such data are susceptible to distortion for various reasons. Thus, a crossvalidation study using Ss' estimates of study-relevant behaviors was done which constituted a partial replication of the Allen, et al. (1972) work. This was done in order to determine whether Ss' estimates of these variables predict GPA as well as supposed records of the same events. During the eighth week of the semester 81 female and 63 male undergraduates enrolled in an introductory psychology course recorded their estimates of the following five variables: average amount of time spent studying per day, average number of interruptions during a study session, average number of days per week on which study occurred, average amount of time spent studying each time S sat down to study, and average length of each interruption. Ss also completed three measures of test anxiety: the Anxiety Differential (Husek & Alexander, 1963), Achievement Anxiety Test (Alpert & Haber, 1960), and the Test Anxiety Scale (Sarason, 1957). The Alpert scale is a composite one designed to measure the facilitating (AAT+) and debilitating (AAT-) effects of test anxiety. A stepwise multiple regression indicated the best predictor of GPA was Verbal SAT scores (R = 215). Variables which significantly increased R (McNemar, 1969, p. 321) were Effective Study Time Per Week (R = .65; F = 7.18, df = 2/135, p < .001) and AAT+ (R = .73; F = 2.61, df = 3/135, fi < .05). These results indicate that estimated self-reported study behaviors may be as useful predictors of GPA as supposedly ongoing records of same. The results further suggest the validity of using study-relevant variables and measures of test anxiety as predictors of academic performance.
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Ces deux articles traitent des travaux de recherche concernant les efforts et le temps de travail consacres aux etudes par les etudiants dans l'en- seignement superieur et les resultats obtenus aux examens. Les auteurs debattent de la finalite de l'etude mais egalement des points de methodologie employes dans leurs recherches respectives
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This study examines the possibility that specification errors contribute to the Schuman et al (1985) findings of a weak relationship between study time and college grades. Our analyses investigate both main and interactive effects, measures of quantity and quality of study, and various context-specific models of college grades. In contrast to previous findings, we observe significant main and interactive effects of academic effort on college grades.
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In a single-subject design one white male in his late twenties who was a nontraditional student and attending college for the first time recorded the amount of time he spent in each class and outside of class on preparation. The grades were taken from his transcript for approximately six years. 52 grades were collected (45 As, 7 Bs). Chi squared indicated that as the number of class hours increased, grades tended to drop to Bs. Pearson correlations indicated, when class hours increased, grades decreased. Also, when class hours increased or decreased, home hours increased and decreased. There was no significant correlation between home times and grades, but a significant negative correlation obtained between number of graduate hours and GPA, showing GPA decreased when graduate hours increased.
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This study was concerned with the degree of re lationship between academic achievement, as as sessed by college grade-point average, and infor mation-processing habits relevant to learning, as as sessed by the scales of the Inventory of Learning Processes (ILP). The ILP scales of Synthesis-Analy sis, Fact Retention, and Elaborative Processing were significantly related to GPA and scores on the American College Testing (ACT) Program Assess ment. Thus, the successful student seems to process information in depth and encode it elaboratively, while simultaneously retaining the details of the original information. Unexpectedly, the Study Methods scale demonstrated a small but significant negative relationship with ACT scores. A path analysis suggested that the effects which Fact Re tention and Elaborative Processing have upon GPA are mainly direct, while the effect of Synthesis- Analysis is mostly interpreted by ACT.
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Current research on goal orientation and self-regulated learning suggests a general framework for examining learning and motivation in academic contexts. Moreover, there are some important generalizations that are emerging from this research. It seems clear that an approach-mastery goal orientation is generally adaptive for cognition, motivation, learning, and performance. The roles of the other goal orientations need to be explored more carefully in empirical research, but the general framework of mastery and performance goals seems to provide a useful way to conceptualize the academic achievement goals that students may adopt in classroom settings and their role in facilitating or constraining self-regulated learning. There is much theoretical and empirical work to be done, but the current models and frameworks are productive and should lead to research on classroom learning that is both theoretically grounded and pedagogically useful.
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Questions connected with the regulation of one's own cognitive processes attract increasing numbers of researchers in psychology, as evidenced by the several different models of self-regulation that have been developed over the past two decades. The aim of this article was to present and compare the latest models of self-regulated learning (SRL), including those by Boekaerts, Borkowski, Pintrich, Winne and Zimmerman. The models were compared on four criteria (i.e. background theories, definitions of SRL, components included in the models and empirical work). The results show that theoretical background is an important differentiating feature. The two models that resembled each other more than any other two models (i.e. Pintrich and Zimmerman) were inspired by the same background theory (i.e. social cognitive theory). On the other hand, the models that differed most from the other models (i.e. Borkowski and Winne) were also theoretically the farthest removed ones.
Article
summarize the [author's] argument [on development of musical performance expertise]: / 1. music seems to be biologically constitutive of early human functioning / 2. music education in Western cultures produces a dismal field of achievement / 3. heritability estimates, where available, are low / 4. technical expertise within the conservatoire culture requires practice levels far in excess of cultural norms because of its unique properties with respect to particular instruments and the specific requirements of that culture to master a technically demanding canon / 5. such practice is sustained by external motivators in the early years, but by increasing development of internal sources through development 6. expressive expertise has rationality and develops through practice / 7. significant individual differences in expression are noticed by teachers at early stages in instrumental learning / 8. unlike technique, expression has characteristics that are similar to extramusical activities (bodily and emotional gestures) / 9. this creates opportunities for learning by analogy / 10. a whole range of plausible factors can influence the ease of uptake of this analogy / 11. the articulation and investigation of these factors constitutes a progressive agenda for the scientific study of musical skill what can we know about inheritance of musical ability / technical vs expressive aspects of music performance / deconstructing the talent account of expression (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
the major problem confronting the scientific investigation of extraordinary achievements and their creative nature is their uniqueness / by focusing instead on the highly replicable skills of exceptional performers (e.g., professional musicians) one can identify high (expert) levels of performance . . . that correspond to phenomena that are more tractable to analysis with scientific methods / the principal question addressed here is how expert performers attain a successful adaptation to the demands of the critical activities in the corresponding domain in some domains of expertise such as individual sport events (e.g., running the 100-meter dash), the performance is measured by absolute units of time / in other domains, performance is evaluated in relative terms through comparison with other contemporary performers (e.g., gymnastics) / propose methods for measuring and describing even these types of expert performance by absolute standards that are independent of the social and historical context of the studied expert performance / discuss the following characteristics of expert performance: (a) its reliability, (b) its reproducibility in the laboratory, and (c) its measurement in absolute terms expert performance as an empirical phenomenon / deliberate practice: a broader view (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
look at the practice activities of skilled wrestlers and figure skaters from the deliberate practice framework developed by K. A. Ericsson, R. T. Krampe, and C. Tesch-Römer (1993) / looks at practice in wrestlers of different skill levels to determine whether the framework of deliberate practice applies to an activity very different from the domain of music in which it was first investigated / considers what expert coaches consider to be the most important factors in producing world-class skaters, and how they structure practices / compares wrestlers and skaters to the violinists and pianists studied by Ericsson et al (1993) / [describe] a golfer who, we argue, shows the limits to what can be accomplished purely through deliberate practice (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The influences of modeling and social feedback on the acquisition of writing revision were studied with 72 college students. Students watching a coping female model gradually improving her writing technique on a sentence-combining task were hypothesized to surpass students observing a mastery model perform the technique flawlessly on a writing-skill measure and an array of self-regulatory measures, such as self-satisfaction reactions, self-efficacy perceptions, and intrinsic interest in the task. Students observing a mastery model were expected, in turn, to surpass those learning without the benefit of modeling on these same measures. Support for both hypotheses was found. Social feedback during enactive performance assisted learners from all modeling groups in acquiring writing and self-regulatory skills. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Two studies examined achievement goals as predictors of self-reported cognitive/metacognitive and motivational study strategies and tested these study strategies as mediators of the relationship between achievement goals and exam performance in the normatively graded college classroom. The results support hypotheses generated from the trichotomous achievement goal framework. Mastery goals are positive predictors of deep processing, persistence, and effort; performance-approach goals are positive predictors of surface processing, persistence, effort, and exam performance; and performance-avoidance goals are positive predictors of surface processing and disorganization and negative predictors of deep processing and exam performance. Persistence and effort mediate the relationship between performance-approach goals and exam performance, whereas disorganization mediates the relationship between performance-avoidance goals and exam performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Reports some unexpected byproducts of experiments with chess-playing tasks and computer simulation of skilled performance and problem solving. First, the theory of the processes used by expert chess players in discovering checkmating combinations and the MATER computer simulation of these processes are reviewed. Next phenomena involving the perceptual bases of mastery in chess and eye movements at the chess board are described. Perceptual processes were evaluated by way of the MATER program, and a new program, PERCEIVER, was used to explain the eye movement phenomenon. To further refine the above findings, other more sophisticated simulation programs were introduced. Findings indicate that acquisition of chess skills depends, in large part, on building up recognition memory for many familiar chess patterns. (26 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined factors associated with academic time use and academic performance of college students (mean age 21 yrs). In the study 65% of the students were male out of 79 students (majority of students were White juniors and seniors). There were 2 instruments used in the study: a time diary which provides accurate information and the Time Management Behavior Scale (TMB) which assessed behaviors critical to the construct of time management. Results revealed that time management skills and study time were positively associated with quarter GPA for college students. GPA increased only 0.025 points per additional study hour per week, suggesting that study time must increase substantially for GPA to improve noticeably. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The highest levels of performance and achievement in sports, games, arts, and sciences have always been an object of fascination, but only within the last couple of decades have scientists been studying these empirical phenomena within a general theoretical framework. [This book] brings together [research] on specific domains of expertise and related theoretical issues, such as the importance of individual differences in ability and innate talent for attaining expert levels of performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Chapter
(from the chapter) summarize some of the findings on expertise in chess / the theme being stressed is the opportunity for trading off knowledge and search to reach a single goal: skilled play / first, the extensive search capabilities of nonhuman chess players, computer chess programs, will be examined / psychological investigations of human chess skill will then be reviewed to contrast the ways in which the two "species" achieve expertise the knowledge base that humans have developed about chess will be assessed, using encyclopedic sources concerning the three phases of chess: the opening, the middle game, and the end game / look at whether knowledge accumulation and training in chess have meant better play, both over time and across chess federations / the extent to which an understanding of chess skill can be of assistance in understanding other types of human skill will be briefly discussed (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Multivariate regression analysis of academic aptitude, test anxiety, and self-report study data from 122 undergraduates indicated high school rank to be the best predictor of grade point average. The number of days Ss reported studying and one test anxiety scale also added significantly to the prediction. Analysis of the study-relevant variables across the semester indicated differential patterns of study existed for students with good, average, and poor grades. The relative independence of test anxiety and study behaviors suggested that the latter class of variables might profitably be used to increase prediction of academic performance.
Article
Two studies investigated the role of deliberate practice in the maintenance of cognitive-motor skills in expert and accomplished amateur pianists. Older expert and amateur pianists showed the normal pattern of large age-related reductions in standard measures of general processing speed. Performance on music-related tasks showed similar age-graded decline for amateur pianists but not for expert pianists, whose average performance level was only slightly below that of young expert pianists. The degree of maintenance of relevant pianistic skills for older expert pianists was predicted by the amount of deliberate practice during later adulthood. The role of deliberate practice in the active maintenance of superior domain-specific performance in spite of general age-related decline is discussed.
Article
The personal attributes of self-regulated learning are often described in terms of knowledge base, adaptive motivational beliefs, and appropriate use of cognitive and metacognitive strategies for learning. These attributes are usually assumed to apply across all disciplines and contexts, but there has been little research that has examined the disciplinary differences in these personal attributes of self-regulated learning. The present study examined college students' knowledge, motivation, and self-regulatory learning strategies in humanities, social science, and natural science college courses. The sample included 380 college students from three different institutions. Students were given a measure of their course knowledge and a self-report measure of their motivational beliefs and use of self-regulatory strategies at the beginning and end of the semester. Three levels of achievement were created from final course grade and ANOVA's were used to examine the differences in knowledge, motivation, and self-regulation by achievement level and discipline. The results suggest that the components of knowledge, motivation, and self-regulation do distinguish high from low achievers in social and natural science courses, but not in the humanities courses. Results are discussed in terms of the generalizability of our models of self-regulated learning across disciplines and implications for measuring self-regulated learning in different disciplines.
The road to excellence: The acquisition of expert performance in the arts and sciences, sports, and games
  • J L Starkes
  • J Deakin
  • F Allard
  • N J Hodges
  • A Hayes
Starkes, J. L., Deakin, J., Allard, F., Hodges, N. J., & Hayes, A. (1996). Deliberate practice in sports: What is it anyway?. In K. A. Ericsson (Ed.), The road to excellence: The acquisition of expert performance in the arts and sciences, sports, and games (pp. 81-106). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Tracing the development of athletes using retrospective interview methods: A proposed interview and validation procedure for reported information
  • J Cô Té
  • K A Ericsson
  • M Beamer
Cô té, J., Ericsson, K. A., & Beamer, M. (2004). Tracing the development of athletes using retrospective interview methods: A proposed interview and validation procedure for reported information. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 16(4).
Students’ effort and reward in college settings
  • Schuman