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Transformational leadership and attachment

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Abstract

Attachment theory posits that the child's experiences with attachment figures (mostly parents) form the basis for an internal working model of self and others that can be either secure (others and self are perceived positively) or insecure (others or self are perceived negatively). In adulthood, these models are reflected in attachment styles which are manifested in various realms (e.g., romantic relationships). This article expands the conceptualization derived from attachment theory to the area of leadership. The arguments presented are anchored in the similarity found in the literature between characteristics of the secure attachment style and those of transformational leaders. The central hypothesis is that the style of transformational leadership will correlate positively with the secure attachment style. This hypothesis was examined in three studies conducted in officers' courses, using different sources of report in each study. In all three studies, significant correlations were found between secure attachment and transformational leadership. This new direction of research has important implications for the understanding of the personality and development processes of transformational leaders.

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... In all studies the participants were recruited through the internet or by mail and they represented various occupations such as manufacturing, retail, banking, education, health care, and government, police, and the military. Data were collected from across four countries: the USA (Frazier et al., 2015;Harms et al., 2016;Joplin et al., 1999;Maslyn et al., 2017;Richards & Hackett, 2012), Israel (Davidovitz et al., 2007;Popper et al., 2004Popper et al., , 2000, Canada (Grosvenor & Boies, 2006), and the UK (Game, 2008). Measures were translated into Hebrew (Davidovitz et al., 2007;Popper et al., 2004Popper et al., , 2000 and French (Grosvenor & Boies, 2006). ...
... Data were collected from across four countries: the USA (Frazier et al., 2015;Harms et al., 2016;Joplin et al., 1999;Maslyn et al., 2017;Richards & Hackett, 2012), Israel (Davidovitz et al., 2007;Popper et al., 2004Popper et al., , 2000, Canada (Grosvenor & Boies, 2006), and the UK (Game, 2008). Measures were translated into Hebrew (Davidovitz et al., 2007;Popper et al., 2004Popper et al., , 2000 and French (Grosvenor & Boies, 2006). All studies were quantitative and used a cross sectional survey design; however, some studies incorporated hierarchical linear modelling into the analyses (Davidovitz et al., 2007;Game, 2008;Harms et al., 2016;Richards & Hackett, 2012). ...
... In the top rows of Table 2, six studies from 1999 to 2017 are listed that investigated the role of leaders' and followers' secure attachment on LMX quality. A total of 1664 participants were included in this group, and there were seven potential associations generated, which are listed under column one with the heading "Possible Secure Associations for" (Frazier et al., 2015;Grosvenor & Boies, 2006;Joplin et al., 1999;Maslyn et al., 2017;Popper et al., 2004Popper et al., , 2000. This sub-sample with a mean age of 29.88 years (SD = 9.67) was composed of 63.5% females. ...
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Attachment styles can predict the quality of organizational relationships, particularly in reference to leader–member exchange (LMX). However, there is much work to be done in articulating and summarizing these findings and in detecting gaps in the literature. This systematic review fills a critical niche by providing a review of the attachment/LMX relationship. Using the PRISMA framework, this review integrates research on attachment styles and LMX by evaluating associations between secure, anxious, and avoidant attachment styles with LMX for leaders and followers. Across 10 studies, we review the evidence for associations between leader and follower attachment and LMX. We seek to investigate if secure attachment is associated with high-quality LMX and if insecure attachment is associated with lower quality LMX. Our review in general provides mixed support for these propositions, although the association of avoidant attachment for followers with LMX received consistent support. Furthermore, our results highlight the need to consider potential moderating and mediating factors within the attachment/LMX relationship. Based on the patterns of these relationships and the methodological gaps in the literature, we discuss the managerial implications for attachment styles in work and organizational psychology and suggest several directions for future research on the attachment–LMX relationship.
... Most authors agree on the positive impacts that transformational leaders have on their followers, including self-efficacy and the inculcation of attitudes and values (Abdulrahman & Amoush, 2020;Hay, 2006;Popper et al., 2000;Shepherd, 2017); however, others warn of boundaries to its effectiveness (Alatawi, 2017;Eisenberg et al., 2019;Hay, 2006). ...
... Transformational leaders draw on motivating values such as justice and equality to inspire, empower and transform (Foster, 1989, Kark et al., 2003Popper et al., 2000), as opposed to transactional leaders who influence behaviours through "conventional values such as honesty and loyalty" (Popper et al., 2000, p. 269). However, a key criticism of transformational leadership is the potential for power to be abused when motivation lacks moral responsibility (Hay, 2006). ...
... Although Doverspike et al. (1997) conducted initial research on attachment and leadership early on; it was not until recently that this area of research became popularized. Popper, Mayseless, and Castelnovo (2000) conducted initial in-depth work on the relationship between leadership and attachment. The study utilized the transactional-ATTACHMENT ORIENTATION AND LEADERSHIP STYLE 6 transformational leadership structure as a foundation for discovery about the relationship. ...
... Transactional leaders pursue a cost-benefit relationship with followers, while transformational leaders encourage followers through satisfaction of higher needs (for example, personal growth) (Bass & Avolio, 1990). Popper et al. (2000) found secure leaders possessed qualities of transformational leadership, including charisma, individual consideration, and intellectual stimulation, according to ratings by their followers. On the other hand, anxious and avoidant leaders did not possess these indices. ...
... If the result is not sufficiently satisfying-they tend to deploy insecure, secondary strategies, engage in less (effective) exploration and build working models to suit (Drake, 2009c). The attachment preferences children carry into adulthood (see Harms, 2011;Keller & Cacioppe, 2001;Mikulincer & Shaver, 2007;Popper, Mayseless, & Castelnovo, 2000) often reflect these preverbal patterns around how to meet their elemental needs. Integrative Development addresses these patterns in adults through its iBEAM framework: identity, behavior, environment, aspiration, and mindset for systemic change (Drake, 2019). ...
... Attachment theory suggests that the more effective adults are in regulating, communicating and leveraging their inner state to remain connected and agentic in their outer world, the more able they are to be a good leader (Drake, 2009c;Popper et al., 2000). Effective adults have less need to hold on to old patterns in an outdated and disproportionate effort to survive. ...
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The current paper brings together three bodies of work, each of which contributes to a new approach to learning and development, and identifies three elements that can be used with leaders in coaching: security, stories, and scaffolding. In particular, it looks at how Developmental Threshold Zones (Drake, 2018a) can be used to enrich the coaching process and outcomes with leaders. The first section explores attachment theory and its contribution to understanding how leaders secure themselves relationally. The second section explores narrative coaching and its contribution to understanding how leaders develop and move through change. The third section explores Vygotsky's (1934/1987, 1978) work on zones of proximal development and its contribution to our understanding of the scaffolding leaders need into order to grow. Each section contributes to the our understanding of how to use Developmental Threshold Zones (DTZs) and how it can be used in coaching to facilitate transformative experiences for leaders using their own stories.
... While, the four participants are products of a home with both a mother and father, it does not necessarily mean they are healthy and happy, as Bowlby (1998) asserts. However, as Popper, Mayseless, & Castelnovo (2000) found, secure attachment is associated with empathy and emotional investment in one's followers. Since, according to Olesia et al (2014), servant leadership descriptors typically include service and humility, which requires empathy, one might find that secure attachment may be linked to the demonstration of the participants' servant leadership behaviors. ...
... Another study by Popper, Mayseless, and Castelnovo (2000) studied eighty-five males, with a mean age of 20, from three platoons of cadets participating in an officers' course in a border guard unit, and found that certain types of leadership, those which involve empathy and emotional investment in one's followers, are expected to be associated with secure attachment. While the study does not specifically reflect a focus on servant leadership, empathy and emotional investment in one's followers are consistent with the eight servant leadership behaviors assessed in this study. ...
Article
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A long standing debate among leadership scholars is whether leadership can be taught and learned (Tubbs & Schulz, 2005). The research herein explores the influences of childhood experiences on servant leadership behaviors. A narrative research design was used, exploring the childhood experiences of participants through semi-structured interviews, followed by an interview of a family member. Two research questions guided the study. What are participants' perceptions of how specific childhood experiences influenced their servant leadership behaviors? What similarities and differences can be found related to childhood experiences influencing servant leadership behaviors among all of the participants? Five themes were found through data analysis: family life, church involvement, mentors/role models, accountability, and group activities. All five themes point to an individual or individuals who were an influence, whether it was a parent, coach, teacher, sibling, extended family member, or other individual. Exposure to role models may be through the home, school, sports, church, or other activities.
... There is some empirical evidence illustrating that individuals having higher levels of moral reasoning are perceived as more transformational by subordinates (Turner et al., 2002). Similarly, empirical studies by Popper et al. (2000) have shown how an individual's internal working model of self and others can predict transformational leadership. ...
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Leadership for Disaster Resilience has gained prominence in the context of global environmental change, and the growing need for collaboration, integration and synergy between various actors in addressing this complex ongoing crisis. As the contribution of scientific communities towards these operational challenges remains minimal, the book draws on multidisciplinary perspectives to comprehensively conceptualise disaster resilience leadership within the macro context of a risk society. The ethical dilemmas of leaders, when grounded in values and processes of social and environmental justice, are conceptualised to lead to the emergence of systemic and socio-structural transformative change for disaster resilience. The case studies from across India are structured under four thematic sections, focusing on the leaderships of Individuals, Bureaucratic and Political Actors, Civil Society Actors, and Institutions, for disaster resilience. The possibilities emanating from disaster resilience leadership in addressing the key challenges captured in the book are explored through the lens of such theoretical perspectives as integrative public leadership, critical new institutionalism, and comparative realisation focused approaches to social justice. Thus, the book reaches out to a wide range of audiences, comprising individual researchers, public sector and civil society actors, and institutions, tasked with the responsibility of building disaster resilience.
... There is some empirical evidence illustrating that individuals having higher levels of moral reasoning are perceived as more transformational by subordinates (Turner et al., 2002). Similarly, empirical studies by Popper et al. (2000) have shown how an individual's internal working model of self and others can predict transformational leadership. ...
Chapter
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This book comprehensively conceptualises disaster resilience leadership within the macro context of a risk society. Leadership for disaster resilience has gained prominence in the face of global environmental change, and the need for collaboration, integration, and synergy in addressing this crisis is starker than ever. Drawing on case studies from across India, the volume focuses on leaderships of individuals, bureaucratic and political actors, civil society actors, and institutions. It looks at the ways in which disaster resilience leadership can address key challenges through the application of such theoretical perspectives as integrative public leadership, critical new institutionalism, and comparative realisation focused approaches to social justice. It highlights current leadership practices and envisages sustainable solutions to the environmental crisis by emphasising the need for disaster resilience leadership that could bring about systemic and socio-structural change. Presenting fresh perspectives on leadership research, the book will be an essential read for scholars and researchers of disaster management, social work, management studies, development studies, environmental studies, and public policy. It will also be useful for NGOs and professionals working in the public sector and with civil society bodies.
... There is some empirical evidence illustrating that individuals having higher levels of moral reasoning are perceived as more transformational by subordinates (Turner et al., 2002). Similarly, empirical studies by Popper et al. (2000) have shown how an individual's internal working model of self and others can predict transformational leadership. ...
... The main challenge that mentors who aspire to play a significant role in the life of a child are facing is to find ways to demonstrate empathy, acceptance, compassion, attention, and love, and to assist the children in revealing their own powers. Mentors must view children as complete human beings who desire to grow and develop into happy adults, connected with themselves and the environment (Daloz, 1987;Judge & Bono, 2000;Norcoss, 2002;Popper et al., 2000;Zilka, 2014Zilka, , 2015Zilka, , 2018. ...
Article
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These days, children are exposed to a variety of information sources and channels, which create more complex interactions than ever before. It is important, therefore, to develop and reinforce children’s self-leadership. The present work is a narrative qualitative study focusing on the story of Lile, a 14-year-old Israeli girl who was assessed as a passive, quiet child, preferring not to stand out or express herself face-to-face or through the numerous media channels where other children in her class are active. The purpose of the study was to document the process of transformation experienced by Lile, from a child who avoided interaction as much as possible into a child seeking interaction. Lile stopped treating herself as stupid and censuring herself for things she did not say or did not do. She understood her difficulty, learned to accept it, learned to process and contain her feelings, not to try to hide them from herself, and learned to express feelings and apprehensions aloud, without fear of herself and of others.
... As adults, people with a history of secure attachment are more likely to make better life partners (Kunce and Shaver 1994), to volunteer in the communities and to look after their own elderly parents themselves (Gillath et al. 2005a), to be less susceptible to 'compassion fatigue' (Tosone et al. 2010) and to be more inclined to find the selflessness of childrearing enjoyable (Volling et al. 1998). If they are leaders, they are also more likely to be thought of as fair and trustworthy (Popper et al. 2000). In Gilbert's language (2010), secure individuals have a developed soothing/contentment system which allows them to feel safe enough to step outside their own perspective. ...
... 3). According to extant literature, the characteristics discussed above largely reflect four key dimensions of transformational leadership -idealized influence, inspirational motivation, individualized consideration, and intellectual stimulation (Bass, 1985;Popper et al. 2000) -as described in the following paragraphs. ...
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This study presents a critical review of the existing studies on the relationship between leadership styles and innovation culture in the healthcare sector with a focus on transactional, transformational and collaborative leadership. At a macro level, effective leadership has been positively linked to innovativeness of healthcare organizations as a whole. However, an environment that allows people to use their talents and skills is likely to empower each employee to embrace a culture of innovation and creativity to solve emerging problems. However, there is limited research on the impact of healthcare leadership styles on innovativeness at the micro level in terms of encouraging individual employees to openness of thinking and sharing and implementing new ideas that improve patient outcomes. To address this research gap, a conceptual framework is developed and tested through a quantitative study capitalizing on a unique dyadic data set comprising managers and their employees across multiple hospitals. While controlling for several manager-, employee- and organization-related characteristics, the results reveal that the collaborative leadership style among managers has the highest impact on employee innovativeness.
... Moreover, transformational leaders demonstrate individualized consideration and are willing to listen to followers' concerns, spend time coaching and developing their followers' skills, and flexibly match the needs of specific individuals (Arnold, 2017). As transformational leaders can perform individualized consideration when needed, they can be regarded as secure attachment figures supporting accountable individuals in questioning the current work conditions (Popper et al., 2000). Transformational leaders not only empower employees to challenge the status quo but also cultivate confidence and intrinsic value in the abilities of employees (Hoch et al., 2018;Wang et al., 2011). ...
Article
Purpose Studies have reported negative effects of felt accountability on employees' extra-role behavior. Deviating from that focus, this study proposes that leadership plays a role in shaping the implications of felt accountability for employees' extra-role behavior. We propose that under high transformational leadership, felt accountability can motivate employees to engage in task-relevant information elaboration and facilitate innovative work behavior, a form of extra-role behavior that seeks to improve the work environment. Design/methodology/approach We conducted a pilot study to validate measurements of felt accountability and task-relevant information elaboration in a sample of 202 employees. We then conducted the main study using a time-lagged, multisource survey design with a sample of 120 supervisor–employee pairs. Findings The results from the main study reveal that the association between felt accountability and task-related information elaboration is positive and stronger when transformational leadership is higher. Furthermore, task-relevant information elaboration positively predicts innovative work behavior. Finally, when transformational leadership is higher, the mediation effect of task-relevant information elaboration on the association between felt accountability and innovative work behavior is stronger. Originality/value Our study indicates that felt accountability can have positive implications for employees' extra-role behavior contingent on leadership styles. In contrast to previous studies that emphasize the negative implications of felt accountability on employees' behavior, our study depicts when and why felt accountability can have positive implications on employees' behavior.
... The concept of transformational leadership that compares the role of leaders with a positive parental figure from the point of view of attachment theory provides some inspiration for future research. Transformational leaders increase the followers' autonomy, self-confidence, achievement orientation, self-worth, and creativity (Popper et al., 2000), which in turn has a positive effect on individuals, the teams, and whole organizations. ...
Article
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The aims of this study are to examine the correlation between the commitment to supervisors and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) by using two different commitment conceptions and to determine whether this relationship is moderated by personal internal attachment dimensions. The theoretical framework was provided by the concept of Affective Commitment (AC), derived from Meyer and Allen's Three-Component Model (TCM), the target-free approach of Klein et al. (2014), and attachment personality theory. The study used the Affective Commitment to Supervisors (ACS) scale and Klein's Unidimen-sional and Target-free (KUT) scale. The predictive value of supervisory commitment was confirmed by both methods. However, depending on the scale, the results revealed different links between commitment , OCB, and attachment personal dimensions as moderating factors. The ACS scale interacted with the dimension of attachment anxiety: In the case of a low or moderate supervisory commitment, anxiety decreased engagement in OCB. By contrast, the moderating model indicated that there was no such interaction when using the KUT scale.
... The early applications of attachment theory to the study of leadership emphasized the parallels and distinctions between parent-child relationships and that of leader and follower (Kahn and Kram, 1994;Kahn, 1995;Keller and Cacioppe, 2001;Keller, 2003;Popper and Mayseless, 2003). As this research gained traction, leadership scholars extended their focus to explore how attachment theory could be integrated with leadership theories such as authentic leadership theory (Hinojosa et al., 2014), charismatic leadership theory (Shalit et al., 2010), leader member exchange theory (Fein et al., 2020) and transformational leadership theory (Popper et al., 2000). ...
Article
Open Access through 2021 at: https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/MD-08-2020-1142/full/html Purpose We discuss how attachment theory can help leaders maintain security in their relationships with followers during crisis, using the COVID-19 worldwide pandemic as an example. We describe how the COVID-19 pandemic has undermined the typical ways leaders may have fostered secure relationships with their followers. Guided by Lewin's action research paradigm, we integrate research on attachment theory with recent research on the COVID-19 pandemic to present leader interventions to maintain attachment security in spite of the disruption caused by COVID-19. We then discuss how these propositions can guide leader interventions in other types of crisis. Design/methodology/approach Attachment theory has received considerable attention in recent years from management and leadership scholars. We extend this line of inquiry by drawing parallels between the strange situation, a now classic paradigm for researching infant–caregiver attachment systems, to understand attachment security in leader–follower relationships during times of crisis. Findings We find that the crises such as COVID-19 present a challenge to attachment security in leader–follower relationships. We also find that research on adult attachment in response to crises and traumatic events is relevant to understanding how leaders can foster positive relations with followers during times of crisis when physical proximity is not possible. Originality/value We apply attachment theory and leadership research to present a framework for leadership during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, many of our theoretical assertions and related interventions could be applied to other unprecedented crises that disrupt leader–follower relationships. Hence, our paper offers a unique lens that is centered on the attachment security within the leader–follower relationship during crisis.
... With a growing literature investigating attachment styles as it relates to job satisfaction (Hazan & Shaver, 1990), career development (Blustein, Prezioso, & Schultheiss, 1995), transformational leadership (Popper, Mayseless, & Castelnovo, 2000), and work versus family concerns (Summer & Knight, 2001), there seems to be a clear need in the field of HRD to explore the link between attachment styles and mentoring relationships. This study adds to the HRD literature base that has extended attachment theory to adults in the workplace. ...
Article
Some researchers would argue that attachment styles are immutable traits whereas other researchers would be proponents of the suggestion that mentoring may actually buffer the negative impact of attachment insecurity. Although logical arguments support these assertions, empirical studies have hardly examined the possible role of attachment styles in the giving and receiving of the two broad mentoring functions-career support and psychosocial support, and its relation to job satisfaction The present study used data from a survey of 125 faculty protégés to link faculty job satisfaction with attachment styles and mentoring. While securely attached faculty protégés were found to have higher job satisfaction, high degree mentoring also was found to be positively related to increased job satisfaction. Finally, secure attachment and mentoring predicted unique variance in job satisfaction. The field of faculty mentoring research as well as practitioners in higher education developing faculty mentoring programs can use this information.
... A growing literature on attachment theory and leadership further indicates that early life relationships with parents are important touchstones for leading and relating to leaders in adulthood. For instance, attachment style has been shown to predict leadership motives (Davidovitz, Mikulincer, Shaver, Izsak, & Popper, 2007), leadership perception (Berson, Dan, & 8 TYRANNICAL ILT BEGINS IN THE FAMILY Yammarino, 2006;Hansbrough, 2012), leadership preferences (Boatwright, Lopez, Sauer, VanDerWege, & Huber, 2010, and transformational leadership (Popper, Mayseless, & Castelnovo, 2000). Beyond the context of attachment theory, other research similarly indicates a positive link between behaviors role modeled by parents and adult leadership phenomena. ...
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This research takes an exploratory approach to shed light on the paradox that negative leader characteristics, such as pushy, obnoxious, and manipulative, appeal to some individuals. We employ social learning theory to argue how parents can model conflict for their adolescents, which may shape implicit leadership theories later in life. Spanning 21 years, this longitudinal study examines adolescent family environment and parents’ gender attitudes as antecedents of adult tyrannical implicit leadership theories using a sample of 102 individuals and their parents. Findings from multiple regression analyses suggest that high family conflict during formative years may predispose individuals to endorse the implicit leadership theory dimension known as tyranny. Further, fathers’ egalitarian gender attitudes, as well as mothers’ masculine sex-types, may amplify this effect. Results inform the literature on leadership perceptions by surfacing the early life antecedents of paradoxical leadership preferences.
... A growing literature on attachment theory and leadership further indicates that early life relationships with parents are important touchstones for leading and relating to leaders in adulthood. For instance, attachment style has been shown to predict leadership motives (Davidovitz et al., 2007), leadership perception (Berson et al., 2006;Hansbrough, 2012), leadership preferences (Boatwright et al., 2010), and transformational leadership (Popper et al., 2000). Beyond the context of attachment theory, other research similarly indicates a positive link between behaviors role modeled by parents and adult leadership phenomena. ...
... A growing literature on attachment theory and leadership further indicates that early life relationships with parents are important touchstones for leading and relating to leaders in adulthood. For instance, attachment style has been shown to predict leadership motives (Davidovitz et al., 2007), leadership perception (Berson et al., 2006;Hansbrough, 2012), leadership preferences (Boatwright et al., 2010), and transformational leadership (Popper et al., 2000). Beyond the context of attachment theory, other research similarly indicates a positive link between behaviors role modeled by parents and adult leadership phenomena. ...
Article
This research takes an exploratory approach to shed light on the paradox that negative leader characteristics, such as pushy, obnoxious, and manipulative, appeal to some individuals. We employ social learning theory to argue how parents can model conflict for their adolescents, which may shape implicit leadership theories later in life. Spanning 21 years, this longitudinal study examines adolescent family environment and parents’ gender attitudes as antecedents of adult tyrannical implicit leadership theories using a sample of 102 individuals and their parents. Findings from multiple regression analyses suggest that high family conflict during formative years may predispose individuals to endorse the implicit leadership theory dimension known as tyranny. Furthermore, fathers’ egalitarian gender attitudes, as well as mothers’ masculine sex-types, may amplify this effect. Results inform the literature on leadership perceptions by surfacing the early life antecedents of paradoxical leadership preferences.
... LMG has additional explanatory power over supervisory decisions concerning promotion and bonus allocation after controlling for performance (Law et al. 2000). High-quality LMG provides subordinates with a sense of protection and job security that facilitates their effective functioning (Han and Altman 2009;Zhang et al. 2015) and subsequently determines subordinate behavior (Popper et al. 2000;Zhang et al. 2015). For subordinates who are protected by high-quality LMG, the reciprocal feature of guanxi (Yang 1994) prompts positive behavior through mediating variables like personal care and protection, minimized status differences, and intensified mutual obligation . ...
Article
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The success of construction projects is largely influenced by the significant costs incurred by workplace deviant behavior (WDB). It is useful to better understand how WDB occurs among workers for its preventive management. By invoking social exchange theory, this paper clarifies how WDB among construction workers can be predicted by leader-member exchange (LMX) and leader-member guanxi (LMG). Data were gathered from 153 workers and 17 supervisors in 17 construction projects. The results show that LMX and LMG are negatively related to WDB. LMG moderates the relationship between LMX and WDB: The negative relationship between LMX and WDB is stronger when LMG has higher quality. The findings contribute to research on WDB, especially from the aspect of leader-member relationship in the construction industry, and shed light on the theory of social exchange by capturing the role of its nonwork part, LMG, in predicting WDB. Managers of construction projects can benefit from the novel explanation offered here of the occurrence of WDB among workers and suggestions on controlling it in advance.
... In addition, anxious leaders seem to have low confidence in their ability to form and maintain successful relations which in turn is associated with abusive supervision (Robertson, Dionisi, and Barling 2018). In contrast, attachment security in leaders has been found to be predictive of charismatic and transformational leadership Castelnovo 2000, Mayseless andPopper 2019) and high levels of well-being for followers (Davidovitz et al. 2007, Mayseless andPopper 2019). ...
Article
While the interpersonal nature of the supervisory relationship in research degree supervision has been recognised and different models of supervisory styles have been developed, the research supervision literature has yet to acknowledge the relational individual differences and the relational dynamics that are at play within the supervisor-supervisee relationship. This paper draws on literature from the higher education, clinical supervision, and leadership fields and utilises attachment theory as a conceptual framework in an attempt to shed some light on the attachment processes and dynamics of the research supervisory relationship. The review of the evidence presented here clearly indicates the usefulness and applicability of attachment theory in the research supervision practice. This paper makes a contribution to the higher education and research supervision literature by offering new directions for research and by providing practical guidelines for the training of postgraduate research supervisors. ARTICLE HISTORY
... One's secure attachment in adulthood is closely related to his or her implicit leadership theories (Keller, 2003), leader emergence in team tasks (Berson, Dan, & Z. Liu, et al. The Leadership Quarterly xxx (xxxx) xxxx Yammarino, 2006;Popper & Amit, 2009b), prosocial motives to lead (Davidovitz, Mikulincer, Shaver, Izsak, & Popper, 2007), transformational leadership behaviors (Eldad & Benatov, 2018;Popper, 2002;Popper, Mayseless, & Castelnovo, 2000), as well as leadership effectiveness in terms of leader-follower relationship and followers' performance (Davidovitz et al., 2007;Popper & Mayseless, 2003;Ryff & Singer, 1998). In sum, research has indicated how attachment relationships in early childhood impact future leadership outcomes, but more controlled experimental and field studies are needed. ...
Article
Previous research has established leader development as an ongoing process across the entire lifespan. Experience, especially on-the-job experience, has been increasingly acknowledged as a needed condition for leader development. From a life span developmental perspective, however, individuals are exposed to a variety of critical experiences across their life course—from preschool, childhood, through adolescence, emerging adulthood, adulthood and well into late adulthood. These time periods, characterized by specific developmental experiences, serve as potential windows of opportunity for one's leader development. However, the extant research primarily focuses on the development of leadership through on-the-job experiences in adulthood; there is little integration of leader developmental experiences that occur before and after adulthood, as well as those that occur beyond the workplace. Additionally, the influencing mechanism of experiences during the leader development process has been understudied. Using an interdisciplinary perspective, we present a framework that explores the critical developmental experiences at each stage in the lifespan. These experiences influence one's expertise in leadership through the mediating role and dynamic interaction of the leader experience processing system and the leader self-view system that are introduced in the model of this framework. This theoretical study systematically explores experiential opportunities across the course of life and within multiple contexts, as well as the underlying mechanisms that foster leader development. There are important implications for enhancing process-oriented leadership research and leadership pedagogical practices.
... Popper und Amit (2009) argumentierten zudem, dass Führungskräfte für ihre Mitarbeiter in der Organisation als Fürsorgepersonen fungieren, die Ratschläge und Orientierung geben, sowie instrumentelle und emotionale Unterstützung bieten -also Funktionen erfüllen, die vergleichbar mit der Elternrolle im privaten Kontext sind. In der Tat weisen erste Untersuchungen darauf hin, dass Führungskräfte mit einem sicheren Bindungsstil mehr emotional und sozial unterstützendes Führungsverhalten zeigen als unsicher gebundene Führungskräfte (Popper, Mayseless & Castelnovo, 2000 rungsstil resultiert in schlechteren sozio-emotionalen und instrumentellen Verhaltensweisen der Geführten (Davidovitz, Mikulincer, Shaver, Izsak & Popper, 2007). Trotz dieser bereits sehr aussagekräftigen Forschungsbemühungen müssen die Befunde zu Bindungsstilen und Führung weiter ausgebaut werden. ...
... Experimental research on social dilemmas shows that leaders enhance group cooperation, thereby producing outcomes that everyone in the group can enjoy (Van Vugt, 2006). By encouraging participation, authorization and goal-sharing, transformational leadership can unleash followers' potential (Miller, 2007). ...
Article
Purpose Followership is the free will recognition of leadership in the commitment toward realization of the collectively adopted organization vision and culture. The purpose of this paper is to identify the relationship between project managers’ leadership and their followership. Most project managers are both leaders and followers at the same time, but research typically investigates only their leadership. This ignores followership as an important aspect in understanding and predicting behavior, and further in the selection of project managers. Design/methodology/approach The method used for this paper is the explanatory in nature and a deductive approach, within which the above research hypothesis is tested through quantitative techniques. Data are collected through a nation-wide survey in China. Data analysis was done through factor analysis, canonical correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis. Findings The results show that transformational leadership is positively correlated with transformational followership and transactional followership, and that transactional leadership is negatively correlated with transactional followership. Research limitations/implications The paper supports a deeper investigation into leadership and followership theories. A model for both leadership and followership is developed. The findings from this paper will guide organizations to choose the project managers. Originality/value The originality lies in the new way to examine the relationship between leadership and followership. It is the first study on the relationship of project managers. Its value is new insights, which introduced a new perspective to understand leadership and followership.
... 리더가 구성 원들 개인의 특성을 고려하여 충분한 관심과 배려를 기울임으로써, 구성원들이 자신에게 맞는 역할을 수행할 수 있게 된다 (Podsakoff, Todor & Schuler, 1983 (Diener, Emmons, Larsen & Griffin, 1985) 둘째 (Fredrickson, 2004). 게다가 감사는 기존의 관계를 보다 건 강하게 유지하고 강화하도록 만들며 (Algoe, Haidt, & Gable, 2008), 신뢰를 형성한다 (Gino & Schweitzer, 2008 (Froh, Sefick, & Emmons, 2008), 이는 전반적 삶의 만족을 높인다 (Lyubomirsky, 2008;Lyubomirsky, Tkach, & DiMatteo, 2006 (Jung, Chow, & Wu, 2003;Jung, Wu, & Chow, 2008;Kark et al., 2003;Kovjanic et al., 2012;Popper et al., 2000;Walumbwa et al., 2008), 감사는 삶의 만족으로 (Emmons, 2004;Emmons & McCullough, 2003;Watkins et al., 2003;Wood et al., 2008) (Estrada, Isen, & Young, 1997;Isen, Daubman, & Nowicki, 1987 (Podsakoff & Organ, 1988 윤정구, 1999;Howell & Higgins, 1990), 감사-삶의 만족 (Emmons & McCullough, 2003;McCullough, Emmons & Tsang, 2002;McCullough, Tsang & Emmons, 2003), 삶의 만족 -혁신 행동 (Fredrickson, 1998(Fredrickson, , 2001 ...
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The current study was aimed to test the mediational effects of gratitude and life satisfaction on the link between transformational leadership and innovative behavior. In order to examine the hypothesis, 374 employees were sampled. In structural equation modeling, the hypothetical model explaining the structural paths and the fit of the model were evaluated. The results showed that gratitude and life satisfaction mediated the relations between transformational leadership and innovative behavior. Additionally, the associations between transformational leadership and gratitude was moderated by organizationally-prescribed perfectionism. The implications and limitations of the study, and suggestions for future studies are discussed.
... 、 风格 (Popper, Mayseless, & Castelnovo, 2000)、以及对领导-员工关系 (Thompson et al., 2016 (Bowlby, 1969(Bowlby, , 1973(Bowlby, , 1980 ...
... Moreover, individuals in leadership positions cannot underestimate the visibility of their own behaviour in the eyes of the employee. Transformational leaders (Bass, 1990) are believed to promote employee personal growth and development by exhibiting security enhancing behaviour (Mayseless, 2010;Popper, Mayseless, & Castelnovo, 2000). This activates a "broaden and build" (Fredrickson, 2004) cycle of attachment security and exploratory courage (Popper & Mayseless, 2003) which is believed to enhance individuals' emotional stability, self-esteem and confidence, and reduce dependency on defensive strategies (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2007bb). ...
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The capacity and willingness of employees to deploy their creativity in the pursuit of organisational goals is a cornerstone of many organisations’ competitive advantage. Drawing on the actor-context interactionist perspective on creativity, we propose that insecure attachment styles act as distal antecedents that reduce employee creativity through the mediating role of social exchange relationships (i.e., leader-member exchange [LMX] and team-member exchange [TMX]). To test the proposed model, data were gathered from 192 employees and their respective supervisors in 12 engineering organisations. Hierarchical multiple regression and Monte Carlo mediation using the lme4 and mediation packages in R was performed to test the proposed hypotheses. Results revealed that while high quality LMX and TMX relationships are positively associated with creativity, insecure attachment styles have significant negative effects on employees’ perception of the quality of their LMX and TMX relationships, which, in turn, lead to lower creative output. Taken together, our results reveal the important influence of insecure attachment styles on creativity and in particular highlight the central role of leader-follower and team member relations as underlying mechanisms in this regard. We discuss the implications of our findings for research and practice.
... As adults, people with a history of secure attachment are more likely to make better life partners (Kunce and Shaver 1994), to volunteer in the communities and to look after their own elderly parents themselves (Gillath et al. 2005a), to be less susceptible to 'compassion fatigue' (Tosone et al. 2010) and to be more inclined to find the selflessness of childrearing enjoyable (Volling et al. 1998). If they are leaders, they are also more likely to be thought of as fair and trustworthy (Popper et al. 2000). In Gilbert's language (2010), secure individuals have a developed soothing/contentment system which allows them to feel safe enough to step outside their own perspective. ...
... Transformational leadership includes emotional, social competence, and a developmental orientation toward followers. Transformational leaders tend to be self-confident and more nurturing than other types of leaders and less dominant, aggressive, and critical (Popper et al., 2000). ...
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The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between effective leadership practices, leadership dispositions and child upbringing in six Mexican successful elementary school principals who improved the achievement, work climate, and resources in their schools. In this study, culture; order; discipline; resources; curriculum, instruction, and assessment were the most salient leadership responsibilities. The present study confirmed that trust is one of main leadership dispositions that may be related to child upbringing. The most frequent behavior displayed in the families of these principals was generating a sense of trust. Likewise the findings shed some light on the importance of secure attachment, setting limitations, and establishing rules to foster dispositions for good
... In many of these leadership functions employees can be generally represented as "concerned recipients" of the leader and thus would display positive or negative attitudes and affective reactions toward the leaders' actions and traits such as trust, loyalty or satisfaction (Bass & Avolio, 1997;Dirks & Ferrin, 2002). Given the interpersonal nature of these responses and the fact that they ultimately capture a positive attitude of the employee toward the leader (see Popper, Mayseless, & Castelnovo, 2000), we refer to this set of leadership outcomes as positive attitudes. Note that we use the term attitude because it comprises all affective, cognitive, and behavioral components of potential responses of employees to leaders (Hulin & Judge, 2003;Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996). ...
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We address complexities on gender role theory and trait analyses of leadership to explain how sex and gender interrelate to produce asymmetric effects on different leadership outcomes (i.e., positive attitudes vs. evaluations). In three studies across different set-ups, gender traits demonstrated incremental validity over sex on employees' positive attitudes (e.g., satisfaction, loyalty). For evaluations (e.g., perceived effectiveness), gender traits had generally weaker effects and in some cases predicted effectiveness more for stereotypical leaders, in line with role-congruency predictions. Penalties for counter-stereotypical behavior were weaker for female than male actual leaders, pointing to mitigated effects of role congruity prescriptions on female leaders´ evaluations. Remarkably, agency did not correlate more strongly than communion with any leadership effect. These findings underscore the relevance of (female and male) leaders' communion to improve followers' positive attitudes -but not evaluations- and call for an updated perspective about the complex influences of gender on leadership beyond the oversimplified female advantage approach.
... A relationship between two people is a two-way path, it moves in both direction and the quality of this relationship determines how much the members feel connected or identify with each other. The same rule applies in the dyadic setting of a leader and follower (Hollander, 1992;Miller, 2007), the stronger the relationship quality, the more leaders and followers identify with each other. The individuals who share a good relationship, feel more connected and are able to identify strongly with each other, this sense of affiliation determines how much of an influence the individuals have on another (Ehrhardt and Ragins, 2019). ...
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Purpose Based on the theory of crossover, the purpose of this paper is to explore the limited but growing body of research on positive crossover, wherein the authors investigated the direct and indirect crossover of work passion between the dyadic setting of leader and followers. The authors hypothesized that the leader’s (follower’s) work passion influence follower’s (leader’s) work passion through direct crossover phenomena (i.e. crossover via empathy). In the study, the authors also examined the underlying indirect crossover mechanism of leader’s (follower’s) work passion via personal identification – the process by which individuals (supervisors and subordinates) realize cognitive overlap between the self and other over time in a relationship. In an attempt to fully understand the crossover of leader’s (follower’s) work passion, the authors scrutinized the pattern of leader–follower relationship quality, which has the capacity to moderate the direct and indirect crossover of work passion from leader to follower and vice versa. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted two independent studies and collected a time-lagged data from the dyadic settings of a large trade multinational company (n=77 supervisor and 373 subordinates) and a large manufacturing multinational company (n=89 supervisor and 411 subordinates) situated in Anhui province of China to test the authors’ moderated mediation model of work passion. Findings As expected the authors found support for all the authors’ hypothesized relationships. Specifically, the results provide support for the notion of direct and indirect crossover of work passion within leader–follower dyads. Moreover, the authors’ findings also support the moderated mediation model of direct and indirect crossover of work passion. Originality/value Overall, this study provides a potential way to stimulate work passion in employees (leader and followers) from the perspective of their relationship quality with each other. Moreover, implications for theory, research and practice with prospective future research topics are discussed.
Article
The purpose of this study is to examine the boundary conditions of transformational leadership, follower psychological capital, and their effects on follower mental health outcomes. Specifically, we utilize archival, multi-wave data from a military sample to examine whether the negative relationship between transformational leadership and adverse follower stress outcomes increases as the context shifts from a relatively safe environment to one in which follower lives are at risk. Additionally, psychological capital, a constellation of personal psychological resources, is also assessed to account for individual buffers against extreme stressors. Findings from the current study suggest that the negative relationship between transformational leadership and follower stress increases significantly when the context shifts to a high-risk, mortality-salient environment.
Article
Love (in the agape form) forms the foundation of most leadership concepts and has been ignored in research. We respond to the debate on universal applicability of leadership forms by bringing followers into the spotlight through our examination of the interactive influence of loving (agape-based) and non-loving (non-agape-based) leadership styles and followers’ attachment dimensions (self-model and other-model) on follower outcomes. Two hundred and eighty-two business management students worked in teams on a task under the direction of leaders who demonstrated agape-based behaviours and leaders who demonstrated non-agape-based behaviours in a laboratory experiment. Agape-based leadership was positively related with follower satisfaction with the leader, team commitment and perception of leaders’ effectiveness. Further, followers’ attachment dimensions (self- and other-model) moderated the relationship between agape-based leadership and follower work attitudes, such that the relationship was positive for followers with a negative self-model and for followers with a positive other-model, and the relationship was negative for followers with a negative other-model. We provide a practical set of tools for demonstrating agape leadership behaviours which are useful for educators and organizations. We suggest that leaders must alter their leadership style depending on their followers’ attachment dimensions.
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This study examines the impact transformational leadership has among nursing staff. The link between transformational leadership and innovative work behaviour and the mediating impact it has on psychological empowerment and the moderating role of attachment anxiety were also examined. Data were gathered from 367 registered nurses and 69 nurse managers based in 69 work groups from 7 hospitals. It was found that transformational leadership positively impacted innovative work behaviour among nurses, and that psychological empowerment mediated this link. Nurses' attachment anxiety positively moderated the relationship between transformational leadership and innovative work behaviour; as a result, the relationship was stronger when attachment anxiety was high rather than low. Nurses' attachment avoidance negatively moderated the relationship between transformational leadership and innovative work behaviour and consequently the relationship was weaker when attachment avoidance was high rather than low.
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İş gören ve organizasyonların karşılıklı yükümlülüklerini belirleyen resmi sözleşmelerin yanında, bireysel algıya dayalı bir özellik taşıyan psikolojik sözleşmeler, çalışanların örgütsel bağlılığını da etkileyebilmektedir. Bu bağlılığın psikolojik mekanizmaları açıklamakta yararlı olabileceği öngörülen yetişkin bağlanma biçimlerinin de işle ilgili sonuçları etkileyebileceği düşünülmektedir. Bu çalışmada yetişkin bağlanma biçimleriyle, çalışanların psikolojik sözleşme (hem işlemsel hem de ilişkisel) algıları ve örgütsel bağlılıkları arasındaki ilişki araştırılmıştır. Çukurova Bölgesinde taşımacılık sektöründe faaliyet gösteren bir organizasyonda 132 iş görenle gerçekleştirilen araştırmada, kolayda örnekleme yöntemi kullanılmış; 4 bölüm ve 35 maddeden oluşan 3 ölçekli bir anket uygulanmıştır. Analizler sonucunda, hem psikolojik sözleşme ile duygusal örgütsel bağlılık arasında hem de saplantılı ve korkulu bağlanma biçimleri ile işlemsel sözleşme arasında pozitif yönlü çok düşük düzeyde ilişki bulunmuştur. Ayrıca, psikolojik sözleşmenin sadece korkulu bağlanma biçimi ile örgütsel bağlılık arasında kısmi aracı rolü üstlendiği gözlenmiştir. Bununla birlikte, regresyon sonuçlarına göre saplantılı ve korkulu bağlanma biçimlerinin, psikolojik sözleşmenin işlemsel alt boyutuna düşük düzeyde pozitif etki ettiği saptanmıştır.
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The present paper reports three studies that were based on the general proposition that the effectiveness of transformational leadership (TL) depends on whether the displayed TL behaviors match the followers’ motives. Specifically, inspirational motivation should be effective with followers high on the power motive, intellectual stimulation should be effective with followers high on the achievement motive, and individual consideration should be effective with followers high on the affiliation motive. In study 1, in order to confirm the hypothesized conceptual relationships between TL and motives, we systematically analyzed the TL literature ( N = 139 papers) for motive content and found, as predicted, that descriptions of inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individual consideration were associated with power, achievement, and affiliation motive content, respectively. Study 2, a vignette study, confirmed that participants’ ( N = 113) motives determined their preferences for the respective TL behaviors. In study 3 ( N = 116), we manipulated TL behaviors with video clips and confirmed the predictions that followers’ affiliation [power] motive moderated the effects of individual consideration [inspirational motivation] on leaders’ influence and followers’ task performance. Mixed results were obtained regarding the expected moderating function of followers’ achievement motive on the effects of intellectual stimulation. Findings are discussed with respect to their importance in establishing TL as a motivation theory.
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In the course of the Covid-19 crisis, teachers and students experienced a prolonged separation from vital social needs, such as social interaction, and therefore many of them felt a sense of loneliness. However, while some teachers may perceive school as a place that provides comfort and support, others may be suspicious of it and feel neglected. The paper suggests a theoretical systematic perspective on the teachers’ sense of loneliness during the Covid-19 crisis and argues that understanding the nature of the teacher-school attachment can help us to identify support that is specifically tailored to the teacher.
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Purpose Transformational leaders have long been known to use emotions to motivate their followers and guide their energy toward the vision set forth by the leader. Much of the past research and theory on this topic has exhibited a bias toward positively valenced emotions. Negative emotions have received limited attention relative to positive emotions, and this imbalance has led to a skewed understanding of the relationship between emotions and transformational leadership (TL). Design/methodology/approach The study reviews the organizational literature regarding negative emotion expression in TL. Findings The study integrates research regarding negative emotions and TL with the existing body of research regarding positive emotions and TL. The authors argue that the range of emotions considered needs to be broadened and rebalanced. Practical and theoretical implications are also discussed. Originality/value The study integrates the benefits of negative emotions and TL the more well-known and explored the benefits of positive emotions and TL. The study uses the four components of TL theory, i.e. inspirational motivation (IM), idealized influence (II), individualized consideration (IC) and intellectual stimulation (IC), to explore how transformational leaders can effectively display negative emotions. The study ultimately presents a more balanced overview of emotions and TL.
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The emergence of millennials in strategic positions of academic organizations paved the way for a peculiar execution of leadership practices due to their work ethic and generational stereotypes. Scholars argue that one of the neo-charismatic modalities that they embrace is transformational leadership. By and large, the said leadership paradigm becomes a multifaceted phenomenon if viewed from the specific generational and professional lenses. There is a paucity of studies that discovers its translation on developing countries that imbue a communitarian schema of values. Through a Glaserian grounded theory, the qualitative inquiry purported to provide a model which would uncover the process of sensemaking of communitarian values to enrich the transformational leadership attributes of the millennial academic supervisors. Twenty (20) information-rich cases from various comprehensive universities in the Philippines participated in the inquiry. Interestingly, the study revealed four (4) distinct yet interwoven stages of Build up, Engage in, Lean on, and Live through. The ‘BELL Model of Culturally Sensitive Transformational Leadership Attribute Enrichment among Millennial Academic Supervisors’ can serve as a pragmatic framework that could assist the teacher-leaders hailing from communitarian societies with a scaffolding that resonates with their modern-day sensibilities and celebrates their indigeneity.
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Leaders can be found at any hierarchical level of the organization, representing a determinant factor in the global performance and their subordinates’ level of job satisfaction. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between the leader’s attachment type and his leadership style, but also try to understand how this relationship can be impacted by the presence of accentuated personality traits. In this regard, data was collected using a set of self-report instruments (N = 110) from a sample consisting of 72 women (65.5%) and 38 men (34.5%) which take part in NGOs, between the ages of 19 and 43 years old. Results showed that the anxious attachment type significantly and negatively predicts efficient leadership styles, as opposed to the avoidant type that doesn’t seem to share such effects. Moreover, neither of the two insecure attachment types could significantly predict the leader’s inefficacy. Regarding to the effect that accentuated personality traits may exhibit, results indicated that Machiavellianism is the only dark trait which has a moderating effect on the relationship between attachment type and leadership style, but only at a lower level of the trait and in a way that reduces the efficacy of the avoidant leader. These results are characterized by a considerable practical importance, mainly in the fields of psychologists and social workers’ activity, in organizational selection and training.
Article
Leaders can be found at any hierarchical level of the organization, representing a determinant factor in the global performance and their subordinates’ level of job satisfaction. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between the leader’s attachment type and his leadership style, but also try to understand how this relationship can be impacted by the presence of accentuated personality traits. In this regard, data was collected using a set of self-report instruments (N = 110) from a sample consisting of 72 women (65.5%) and 38 men (34.5%) which take part in NGOs, between the ages of 19 and 43 years old. Results showed that the anxious attachment type significantly and negatively predicts efficient leadership styles, as opposed to the avoidant type that doesn’t seem to share such effects. Moreover, neither of the two insecure attachment types could significantly predict the leader’s inefficacy. Regarding to the effect that accentuated personality traits may exhibit, results indicated that Machiavellianism is the only dark trait which has a moderating effect on the relationship between attachment type and leadership style, but only at a lower level of the trait and in a way that reduces the efficacy of the avoidant leader. These results are characterized by a considerable practical importance, mainly in the fields of psychologists and social workers’ activity, in organizational selection and training.
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The aims of this study were to investigate the description of the transformational leadership behaviour of school principals of private vocational senior high schools in Palembang, and how the school principals implemented the transformational leadership in the school and how the transformational leadership impacted to the teacher performance. The subjects of this study was four school principals of four private vocational senior high schools in Palembang. The data collection was taken from the questionnaire and interview. The data from the questionnaire were analyzed by simple statistical analysis and the interview was analyzed by using thematic analysis. The findings showed that the description of transformational leadership demonstrated the four dimension of transformational leadership, such as idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation and individual consideration. Later in this study it was found that school principals implement transformational leadership by using some ways such as building the trust, motivation, facilitation and communication. It is also found that the transformational leadership behavior of school principal of private vocational high school in Palembang has an impact to the teacher performance in teaching learning process.
Conference Paper
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Son dönemde liderlik çalışmalarında odak, liderin özelliklerinden çok, takipçilerin özelliklerine yoğunlaşmıştır. Takipçilerin işe yönelik tutumları, yetkinlikleri, çevresel/kurumsal özellikler ile etkileşimlerini inceleyen araştırmalar artarken, psikolojik faktörler ile ilgili çalışmalar son derece sınırlıdır. Bu araştırmada, lidere yönelik tutumları açıklarken, temel bir çerçeve kuram olan “Yetişkin Bağlanma Stilleri” kuramı ele alınmıştır. Kişilerin, yaşamları boyunca kendilerini ne şekilde tanımladığı ve çevresi ile kurduğu ilişkiler birbirlerinden farklılık gösterir. Kişilik kuramları, bu farkları genel öğrenme kuramları ile açıklamaktadır. Bu kuramlardan en önde gelenlerden birisi de “Yetişkin Bağlanma Stilleri” kuramıdır. YBS kuramı, çocuklukta anne ve yakın çevre ile kurulan ilişkilerin, gelecekteki ilişkilerde belirleyici olduğunu öne sürer. Sevgi, güven, şefkat, paylaşım gibi duyguları koşulsuz anneden gören çocuk, bu duyguları sosyal ihtiyaçlar olarak tanımlayıp, ilerde çevresi ile sağlıklı ilişkiler kurup, özerk bir yetişkin olarak kendini tanımlarken, bu duyguları edinemeyen veya koşullu edinen çocukların, ileriki yaşlarda çevresi ile kurduğu ilişkilerde aşırı uçta kaçınmacı veya bağımlı olabildikleri gözlemlenmiştir. Araştırmamızda, Türkiye’de de en çok tercih edilen liderlik tarzı (Aycan, 2006; Pellegrini&Scandura, 2008;2010) olan babacan liderliğe yönelik tutumlarda, bireylerin yetişkin bağlanma stillerinin etkisi deneysel bir model ile test edilmektedir. Bireylerin, güvenli, kayıtsız, saplantılı ve korkulu bağlanma stillerine göre, babacan liderlik tercihlerinde ve genel tutumlarında farklar olacağı bu araştırmanın temel varsayımıdır. Elde ettiğimiz sonuçlar, varsayılan farkları ortaya koymaktadır.
Chapter
Positive leadership has evolved from the study of positive psychology and brain research (Carleton et al, Can J Behav Sci 50:185–194. https://doi.org/10.1037/cbs000010, 2018; Hannah et al, J Organ Behav 30:269–290. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.586, 2009; Luthans, J Organ Behav 23:695–706. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.165, 2002; Saladis, Positive leadership in project management. Paper presented at PMI Global Congress 2015—EMEA. Project Management Institute, London/Newtown Square, 2015; van Dierendonck, J Manag 37:1228–1261. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206310380462, 2010) and seeks to better understand the role that leaders have on their followers through invoking positive and purposeful modeling, leading to enhancing positive emotions and outcomes. The work of Kim Cameron (Positive leadership. Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc., San Francisco, 2008) provides a solid launching pad for the study positive leadership, which includes vital traits and skills such as positive affect, mindfulness, virtuousness, moral integrity, emotional stability, and hope. Cameron’s three connotations of positive leadership are as follows: (1) it facilitates positively deviant performance; (2) it features an affirmative bias, meaning that it is oriented toward positive instead of negative strengths; and (3) it fosters the good in people. This chapter builds on Cameron’s notion that positive leadership “fosters the good in people” and creates a formula that Virtuous Ethics + Inclusivity = Positive Leadership. This new organic leadership (and followership) framework uses virtuous ethics and inclusiveness as a roadmap to the state of organizational and personal flow. If positive leaders increase the flow of positive emotions for people to optimize their inherent strengths, then this intentional leadership style will bring out the best in people. There will be “net” positive interactions (more positive than negative); the culture will be inclusive, transparent, supportive; and there will be underlying virtue ethics at the core.
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The study aims at throwing light on the satisfaction levels of patients visiting these healthcare centres in N.C.R. The study considers four major players in the market providing healthcare facilities in the National Capital Region (N.C.R.) and used primary data to fulfil the objectives. Few hypotheses have been formed and tested by using tests like ‘z’ test and ‘t’ test. The study revealed that there is no significant difference in the satisfaction levels of patients falling in different age-groups and of different occupations and gender, whereas the difference in satisfaction levels of the patients was noted when tests were conducted on the basis of hospitals i.e. public and private hospitals. The findings of the study will not only help the hospitals to improve their services but will also help the future patients to understand what important services to be expected from a hospital and help them in selecting the appropriate hospitals.
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We describe the first stage of a longitudinal research program concerned with the prediction, understanding, and durability of early displays of leadership behavior. The predictability of teachers' ratings of leadership behavior for 242 high school students was explored with respect to predictors from the following construct domains: personality, interests, motivation, behavior, self-rated skills, and academic ability. Results revealed that variables from each construct domain significantly and consistently predicted leadership ratings for as long as 12 months after the collection of the predictor data. In addition, the linear combination of predictors from different domains yielded strong prediction of leadership, with R2s in the .40 range. Evidence also showed that both academic ability and the other measured constructs contributed unique variance to the prediction of leadership behaviors as reported by the teachers. These exploratory findings are discussed in light of a continuing research program designed to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the origin, development, and emergence of adult leadership behavior.
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The transactional and transformational theories of leadership developed by Burns (1978) and Bass (1985) are clarified and extended by using a constructive/developmental theory to explain how critical personality differences in leaders lead to either transactional or transformational leadership styles. The distinction between two levels of transactional leadership is expanded, and a three-stage developmental model of leadership is proposed.
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A single factor, seven-level, repeated measures, unbalanced experiment was conducted with 191 college undergraduates to test Boal and Bryson's (1988) assertions that: (1) there are at least two forms of charismatic leadership under crisis conditions—visionary and crisis-responsive; and (2) once the crisis condition has abated, the effects of crisis-responsive leadership deteriorate comparatively faster than other forms of charismatic leadership. The experiment consisted of four crisis condition leadership treatments (crisis-responsive, visionary under crisis, exchange under crisis, and low expressiveness under crisis) and three no-crisis condition leadership treatments (visionary no crisis, exchange no crisis, and low expressiveness no crisis) at time one followed by low expressiveness no crisis at time two. Two graduate student “leaders” who memorized carefully prepared scripts delivered the leadership treatments. Analysis consisted of 28 a priori comparisons of cell means and repeated measures ANOVA to determine significant main effects as well as interactions. We found support for our hypothesis that there are two forms of charisma (visionary and crisis-responsive) and that, in the absence of crisis, the effects of crisis responsive charisma decay faster than do the effects of visionary charisma.
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The empirical literature on charismatic or transformational leadership demonstrates that such leadership has profound effects on followers. However, while several versions of charismatic leadership theory predict such effects, none of them explains the process by which these effects are achieved. In this paper we seek to advance leadership theory by addressing this fundamental problem. We offer a self-concept based motivational theory to explain the process by which charismatic leader behaviors cause profound transformational effects on followers. The theory presents the argument that charismatic leadership has its effects by strongly engaging followers' self-concepts in the interest of the mission articulated by the leader. We derive from this theory testable propositions about (a) the behavior of charismatic leaders and their effects on followers, (b) the role of followers' values and orientations in the charismatic relationship, and (c) some of the organizational conditions that favor the emergence and effectiveness of charismatic leaders.
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The current study assesses the impact of attachment style on the ways young adults react to the stress of 4-month combat training. Ninety-two Israeli recruits completed an attachment scale at the beginning of the training. Their appraisal of the training their ways of coping with it, and peer evaluations of their leadership ability were assessed 4 months later. Compared with secure persons, ambivalent persons reported more emotion-focused coping, appraised the training in more threatening terms, appraised themselves as less capable of coping with the training, and were evaluated by their peers as less fitting for military leadership. Avoidant persons reported more distancing coping and less support seeking and appraised the training in more threatening terms. They did not differ from secure persons in the appraisal of their ability to cope with the training or in the nominations they received for leadership positions. Results are discussed in the framework of attachment theory.
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In 3 studies, 352 undergraduate Israeli students were classified into secure, avoidant, and ambivalent attachment groups, and their differences in traitlike measures of self-disclosure willingness and flexibility and in disclosure reciprocity and liking of hypothetical or real partners were assessed. Findings indicated that both secure and ambivalent people disclosed more information to, felt better interacting with, and were more attracted to a high discloser partner than a low discloser partner. In contrast, avoidant people's self-disclosure and liking were not affected by the partner's disclosure. Secure people showed more disclosure flexibility and topical reciprocity than ambivalent and avoidant people. Findings are discussed in terms of the interaction goals of attachment groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This chapter has several major aims. The first is to provide an overview of attachment theory as presented by John Bowlby in the three volumes of Attachmenat nd Loss( 1969/1982b, 1973, 1980), giving special emphasis to two major ideas: (1) attachment as grounded in a motivational-behavioral control system that is preferentially responsive to a small number of familiar caregiving figures and (2) the construction of complementary internal working models of attachment figures and of the self through which the history of specific attachment relationships is integrated into the personality structure. These two concepts, but especially the notion of internal working models, will be used in the second section of the chapter to interpret refinements and elaborations of the theory that have been primarily the result of the work and influence of Mary Ainsworth. Topics discussed are maternal and infant contributions to the quality of attachment relationships, stability and change in the quality of attachment relationships, carryover effects from earlier to later relationships, and intergenerational transmission of attachment patterns as an intracultural and cross-cultural phenomenon. An attempt is made to clarify a variety of theoretical points and to discuss others that remain to be clarified. Finally, I consider how recent insights into the development of socioemotional understanding and the development of event representation can be integrated into attachment theory to shed new light on the origins of individual differences in personality development. In doing so, I have also attempted to provide a framework for the studies presented in this volume.
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AIthough intraclass correlation coefficients (lCCs) are commonIy used in behavioral measurement, pychometrics, and behavioral genetics, procodures available for forming inferences about ICC are not widely known. Following a review of the distinction between various forms of the ICC, this article presents procedures available for calculating confidence intervals and conducting tests on ICCs developed using data from one-way and two-way random and mixed-efFect analysis of variance models. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Six studies examined the association between attachment style and several aspects of the mental representation of the self in adolescents. Studies 1 and 2 focused on the hedonic tone of the self-structure, Studies 3 and 4 focused on its complexity, and Studies 5 and 6 focused on discrepancies between domains and standpoints of the self. Results indicated that secure and avoidant persons had a more positive view of themselves than anxious-ambivalent persons. In addition, secure persons were found to have a more balanced, complex, and coherent self-structure than insecure persons, either avoidant or anxious-ambivalent. The discussion emphasizes the connection between the internalization of attachment experiences and the construction of the self. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Questionnaire measures of attachment style, attachment history, beliefs about relationships, self-esteem, limerence, loving, love addiction, and love styles were administered to 374 undergraduates. Attachment style was related in theoretically expected ways to attachment history and to beliefs about relationships. Securely attached Ss reported relatively positive perceptions of their early family relationships. Avoidant Ss were most likely to report childhood separation from their mother and to express mistrust of others. Anxious-ambivalent subjects were less likely than avoidant Ss to see their father as supportive, and they reported a lack of independence and a desire for deep commitment in relationships. The self-esteem measure and each of the scales measuring forms of love were factor analyzed separately. Analyses based on scale scores derived from the resulting factors indicated that attachment style was also strongly related to self-esteem and to the various forms of love discussed in other theoretical frameworks. The results suggest that attachment theory offers a useful perspective on adult love relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The relation between attachment styles and fear of personal death was assessed. We classified a sample of Israeli undergraduate students into secure, ambivalent, and avoidant attachment groups and assessed the extent of, and the meaning attached to, overt fear of personal death as well as the extent of fear at a low level of awareness. Ambivalent subjects exhibited stronger overt fear of death than did secure and avoidant subjects, and both ambivalent and avoidant subjects showed stronger fear of death at a low level of awareness than secure subjects. Ambivalent subjects were also more likely to fear the loss of their social identity in death, and avoidant subjects were more likely to fear the unknown nature of their death. Results are discussed in terms of the effects of attachment styles on affect regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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review Kelman's (1958) theory on social influence processes and deduce from it hypotheses concerning a differential use of social influence processes by socialized and personalized leaders [review] the work of McClelland and his colleagues on the power motive and deriving hypotheses concerning the two types of charismatic leadership based on a differential exercise of power describe the behaviors of the two charismatic types the effects of socialized and personalized leaders on followers and on the perpetuation of the mission are outlined, citing examples from the literature to illustrate the varying effects discuss the implications for theory on organizational and individual effectiveness (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This article explores the possibility that romantic love is an attachment process--a biosocial process by which affectional bonds are formed between adult lovers, just as affectional bonds are formed earlier in life between human infants and their parents. Key components of attachment theory, developed by Bowlby, Ainsworth, and others to explain the development of affectional bonds in infancy, were translated into terms appropriate to adult romantic love. The translation centered on the three major styles of attachment in infancy--secure, avoidant, and anxious/ambivalent--and on the notion that continuity of relationship style is due in part to mental models (Bowlby's "inner working models") of self and social life. These models, and hence a person's attachment style, are seen as determined in part by childhood relationships with parents. Two questionnaire studies indicated that relative prevalence of the three attachment styles is roughly the same in adulthood as in infancy, the three kinds of adults differ predictably in the way they experience romantic love, and attachment style is related in theoretically meaningful ways to mental models of self and social relationships and to relationship experiences with parents. Implications for theories of romantic love are discussed, as are measurement problems and other issues related to future tests of the attachment perspective.
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We describe the first stage of a longitudinal research program concerned with the prediction, understanding, and durability of early displays of leadership behavior. The predictability of teachers' ratings of leadership behavior for 242 high school students was explored with respect to predictors from the following construct domains: personality, interests, motivation, behavior, self-rated skills, and academic ability. Results revealed that variables from each construct domain significantly and consistently predicted leadership ratings for as long as 12 months after the collection of the predictor data. In addition, the linear combination of predictors from different domains yielded strong prediction of leadership, with R2s in the .40 range. Evidence also showed that both academic ability and the other measured constructs contributed unique variance to the prediction of leadership behaviors as reported by the teachers. These exploratory findings are discussed in light of a continuing research program designed to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the origin, development, and emergence of adult leadership behavior.
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Managers and leaders are two very different types of people. Managers' goals arise out of necessities rather than desires; they excel at defusing conflicts between individuals or departments, placating all sides while ensuring that an organization's day-to-day business gets done. Leaders, on the other hand, adopt personal, active attitudes toward goals. They look for the opportunities and rewards that lie around the corner, inspiring subordinates and firing up the creative process with their own energy. Their relationships with employees and coworkers are intense, and their working environment is often chaotic. In this article, first published in 1977, the author argues that businesses need both managers and leaders to survive and succeed. But in the larger U.S. organizations of that time, a "managerial mystique" seemed to perpetuate the development of managerial personalities-people who rely on, and strive to maintain, orderly work patterns. The managerial power ethic favors collective leadership and seeks to avoid risk. That same managerial mystique can stifle leaders' development - How can an entrepreneurial spirit develop when it is submerged in a conservative environment and denied personal attention? Mentor relationships are crucial to the development of leadership personalities, but in large, bureaucratic organizations, such relationships are not encouraged. Businesses must find ways to train good managers and develop leaders at the same time. Without a solid organizational framework, even leaders with the most brilliant ideas may spin their wheels, frustrating coworkers and accomplishing little. But without the entrepreneurial culture that develops when a leader is at the helm of an organization, a business will stagnate and rapidly lose competitive power.
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Charismatic business leaders are often heralded as corporate heroes by orchestrating turnarounds, launching new enterprises, engaging in organizational renewal or change, and obtaining extraordinary performance from individuals. The effectiveness of these leaders may be interpreted by executives as an unqualified recommendation for such leadership in their organizations. However the risks involved in charismatic leadership are at least as large as the promises. What is missing from current discussions about charisma is consideration of its darker side. In this article we focus on a paradox that emerges whenever one discusses leaders such as Robert Campeau, Max DePree, Lee lacocca, Ross Johnson, Ralph Larsen, and Michael Milken: why are some charismatic leaders destructive, while others are beneficial to followers, organizations, and even entire societies? Drawing on the results from an interview study as well as the popular management literature, we describe the qualities and values that differentiate ethical and unethical charismatic leaders. We also examine the impact ethical and unethical charismatic leaders have on followers and how organizations can develop ethical charismatic leaders.
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Relationships between military academy leaders' personal attributes (e.g., traits, thinking styles) and others' ratings of transformational and transactional leadership were assessed in this study. Regression analyses indicated that personal attributes significantly predicted leadership ratings. Consistent with implicit leadership theories, however, the relevant predictors differed as a function of the positions of the individuals who rated leadership (i.e., superiors vs. subordinates of focal leaders). For example, leader intelligence and athletic experience were related to subordinate ratings of leadership while the leader's degree of conformity was associated with superiors' ratings of leadership. Implications for organizations and for understanding the leadership rating process are discussed.
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Transformational leadership was clarified conceptually in this study by focusing on leader-follower interactions in terms of multiple levels of analysis: individuals, dyads within groups, and groups. The focal leaders were 186 United States Navy Officers who were graduates of the United States Naval Academy and on active duty assigned to the surface warfare fleet. Data about the officers were collected from 793 senior subordinates of the officers via a mail survey. Results from within and between analysis (WABA) suggest that the network of relationships was based primarily on individual differences in subordinates' perceptions of leadership and outcomes. Transformational leadership as compared to transactional or laissez-faire leadership was related more strongly to subordinates' extra effort and satisfaction with the focal officers and the officers' effectiveness.
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The accuracy of leadership questionnaires has been the subject of considerable debate in recent years. Although research has demonstrated that such measures can often be systematically biased indices of leader behavior, the issues surrounding the appropriate use of questionnaires are far from resolved. To help clarify some of these concerns, the present article attempts to (a) present a meaningful definition of accuracy in the measurement of leadership, (b) summarize the conclusions from existing research concerning leadership questionnaires, (c) assess the consequences of this research, and (d) offer several practical recommendations for the future of leadership questionnaires.
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A survey of 90 student leaders at the US Naval Academy indicated that the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) can be used to understand transformational and transactional leadership behaviors and the leader's self-perception accuracy. Ss were classified as high-low categories of leadership (i.e., leaders and followers). Leaders who were evaluated as sensing and feeling types by the MBTI were the most transformational and used the most positive reinforcement with followers. Leaders who were introverts and sensing types had the most accurate self-perceptions. Transformational leader behaviors were related to reported extra effort on the part of followers. The most common type of leadership observed, active intervening with criticism when work was below standard, was unrelated to followers' extra effort. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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The possibility that love and work in adulthood are functionally similar to attachment and exploration in infancy and early childhood was investigated. Key components of attachment theory—developed by Bowlby, Ainsworth, and others to explain the role of attachment in exploratory behavior—were translated into terms appropriate to adult love and work. The translation centered on the 3 major types of infant attachment and exploration identified by Ainsworth: secure, anxious/ambivalent, and avoidant. Two questionnaire studies indicated that relations between adult attachment type and work orientation are similar to attachment/exploration dynamics in infancy and early childhood, suggesting that the dynamics may be similar across the life span. Implications for research on the link between love and work are discussed, as are measurement problems and other issues related to future tests of an attachment-theoretical approach to the study of adults.
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This investigation examined the impact of secure, anxious, and avoidant attachment styles on romantic relationships in a longitudinal study involving 144 dating couples. For both men and women, the secure attachment style was associated with greater relationship interdependence, commitment, trust, and satisfaction than were the anxious or avoidant attachment styles. The anxious and avoidant styles were associated with less frequent positive emotions and more frequent negative emotions in the relationship, whereas the reverse was true of the secure style. Six-month follow-up interviews revealed that, among those individuals who disbanded, avoidant men experienced significantly less post-dissolution emotional distress than did other people.
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A basic principle of attachment theory is that early attachment relationships with caregivers provide the prototype for later social relations. Working within an attachment framework, a new 4-group model of characteristic attachment styles in adulthood is proposed. In particular, two forms of adult avoidance of intimacy are differentiated: a fearful style that is characterized by a conscious desire for social contact which is inhibited by fears of its consequences, and a dismissing style that is characterized by a defensive denial of the need or desire for greater social contact. This distinction corresponds to two differing models of the self: people who fearfully avoid intimacy view themselves as undeserving of the love and support of others, and people who dismiss intimacy possess a positive model of the self that minimizes the subjective awareness of distress or social needs. The emotional and interpersonal ramifications of the two proposed styles of adult avoidance are discussed.
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Ethological attachment theory is a landmark of 20th century social and behavioral sciences theory and research. This new paradigm for understanding primary relationships across the lifespan evolved from John Bowlby's critique of psychoanalytic drive theory and his own clinical observations, supplemented by his knowledge of fields as diverse as primate ethology, control systems theory, and cognitive psychology. By the time he had written the first volume of his classic Attachment and Loss trilogy, Mary D. Salter Ainsworth's naturalistic observations in Uganda and Baltimore, and her theoretical and descriptive insights about maternal care and the secure base phenomenon had become integral to attachment theory. Patterns of Attachment reports the methods and key results of Ainsworth's landmark Baltimore Longitudinal Study. Following upon her naturalistic home observations in Uganda, the Baltimore project yielded a wealth of enduring, benchmark results on the nature of the child's tie to its primary caregiver and the importance of early experience. It also addressed a wide range of conceptual and methodological issues common to many developmental and longitudinal projects, especially issues of age appropriate assessment, quantifying behavior, and comprehending individual differences. In addition, Ainsworth and her students broke new ground, clarifying and defining new concepts, demonstrating the value of the ethological methods and insights about behavior. Today, as we enter the fourth generation of attachment study, we have a rich and growing catalogue of behavioral and narrative approaches to measuring attachment from infancy to adulthood. Each of them has roots in the Strange Situation and the secure base concept presented in Patterns of Attachment. It inclusion in the Psychology Press Classic Editions series reflects Patterns of Attachment's continuing significance and insures its availability to new generations of students, researchers, and clinicians.
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This study investigated the personality characteristics, leadership behaviors, and influence tactics of champions of technological innovations. Analyses of questionnaires and interview transcripts of twenty-five matched pairs of champions and nonchampions revealed that champions reported using transformational leader behaviors to a significantly greater extent than did nonchampions. Champions exhibited higher risk taking and innovativeness, initiated more influence attempts, and used a greater variety of influence tactics than nonchampions. Regression analysis of a model of champion emergence, relating personality characteristics, transformational leader behaviors, and influence tactics, showed that champions were significantly higher than nonchampions on all paths in the model.
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Reports 3 errors in the original article by K. O. McGraw and S. P. Wong (Psychological Methods, 1996, 1[1], 30–46). On page 39, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and r values given in Table 6 should be changed to r = .714 for each data set, ICC(C,1) = .714 for each data set, and ICC(A,1) = .720, .620, and .485 for the data in Columns 1, 2, and 3 of the table, respectively. In Table 7 (p. 41), which is used to determine confidence intervals on population values of the ICC, the procedures for obtaining the confidence intervals on ICC(A,k) need to be amended slightly. Corrected formulas are given. On pages 44–46, references to Equations A3, A,4, and so forth in the Appendix should be to Sections A3, A4, and so forth. (The following abstract of this article originally appeared in record 1996-03170-003.). Although intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) are commonly used in behavioral measurement, psychometrics, and behavioral genetics, procedures available for forming inferences about ICC are not widely known. Following a review of the distinction between various forms of the ICC, this article presents procedures available for calculating confidence intervals and conducting tests on ICCs developed using data from one-way and two-way random and mixed-effect analysis of variance models. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This two-volume set is a result of more than 30 years of pioneering work by the late Lawrence Kohlberg, professor of human development at the Graduate School of Education, Harvard University. With collaborator Anne Colby, director of the Henry A. Murray Research Center at Radcliffe College, Kohlberg presents the "Standard Issue Moral Judgment Interview and Scoring System," its theoretical assumptions, and supporting empirical data.This scoring system is an attempt to use clear and concrete criteria to assess an individual's state of moral development objectively and reliably. Essentially, a subject is presented with a set of hypothetical moral dilemmas (eg, "Should Heinz steal a drug to save his dying wife when the only druggist with the drug asks a price that Heinz cannot pay?"); then the subject explains what course of action should be taken and why. Through the use of intensive probing, the examiner attempts to elicit the most
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This long-awaited two-volume set constitutes the definitive presentation of the system of classifying moral judgment built up by Lawrence Kohlberg and his associates over a period of twenty years. Volume 1 reviews Kohlberg's stage theory, and the by-now large body of research on the significance and utility of his moral stages. Issues of reliability and validity are addressed. The volume ends with detailed instructions for using the reference sections, which are presented in Volume 2. Volume 2, in an especially designed "user-friendly" format, includes the scoring systems for three alternate, functionally equivalent forms of Kohlberg's moral judgment interview. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
[define and discuss] the 3 dominant approaches to conceptualizing and measuring individual differences in adult attachment: dimensional, typological, and prototype / outline a particular theory of adult attachment, K. Bartholomew's 4-category model, that incorporates all 3 approaches / describe the associated measurement instruments / define and illustrate a number of conceptual questions that arise within and between the measurement approaches / how can the 'correct' attachment dimensions be identified / are these dimensions reducible to general personality factors / are prototype measures of attachment more powerful than categorical measures / what implications do the different approaches hold for the assessment of reliability and stability / emphasize the interconnection of theoretical analysis and measurement procedure (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Discusses the need to demonstrate agreement among individuals' perceptions of climate prior to averaging climate scores from the perspective of aggregation. It is shown that estimates of agreement based on group mean scores have been incorrectly interpreted as perceptual agreement among individuals. Of initial importance is a study by J. A. Drexler (see record 1977-22375-001), who concluded that a considerable proportion of the variance in climate perceptions was accounted for by organizational membership. This conclusion has been employed recently by other authors to support the assumption that individuals in the same environment tend to agree with climate perceptions (e.g., J. R. Hackman and E. E. Lawler, Hackman and G. R. Oldham, and Oldham et al—see PA, Vols 46:9858, 54:2031, and 57:2102, respectively). It is demonstrated that Drexler's analysis provided inflated estimates of agreement among individuals, and the logic of the approach is extended to other studies in which inflated estimates of agreement appeared likely. (54 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined the impact of secure, anxious, and avoidant attachment styles on romantic relationships in a longitudinal study involving 144 dating couples. For both men and women, the secure attachment style was associated with greater relationship interdependence, commitment, trust, and satisfaction than were the anxious or avoidant attachment styles. The anxious and avoidant styles were associated with less frequent positive emotions and more frequent negative emotions in the relationship, whereas the reverse was true of the secure style. 6-mo follow-up interviews revealed that, among those individuals who disbanded, avoidant men experienced significantly less post-dissolution emotional distress than did other people. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
begin our discussion by examining the construct of leadership with respect to developmental theory a discussion of transformational leadership follows, with an emphasis on explaining how development occurs findings from preliminary work on the developmental antecedents of charismatic/transformational leadership are also included, as well as recommendations for future research and training primary objective is to explain how charismatic leaders develop themselves and their followers (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Reviews cross-cultural studies of differences in attachment organization, drawing attention to new methods of assessment. The conditional behavioral strategy suggests that individuals may be enabled through natural selection to reach the same biological ends in differing ways. A heuristic separation between primary (PBSs) and secondary behavioral strategies (SBSs) is proposed. While the attachment behavioral system is presumed active and context sensitive, circumstances may require manipulating the level of output through SBSs that minimize or maximize that output in response to a caregiver stressing either offspring independence or dependence. If propensities for exhibiting the PBS are retained under conditions that call for behaviorally substituting an SBS, manipulations of cognitive processes may be involved in maintaining a given attachment organization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Weber's concept of charisma and its legacy distinguishing characteristics of charismatic leadership / self-confidence / expressive behavior / requisite abilities, interests, and personal traits of the charismatic leader / self-determination / insight / freedom from internal conflict / eloquence / activity and energy level / follower's desire and need to identify with the charismatic leader antecedents and aftermath of charisma utility of charismatic leadership in complex organizations research on charismatic leadership (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The derivation of the name Moses from the Egyptian vocabulary and the divergence of the Moses legend from all others support the hypothesis that Moses was an Egyptian. If Moses was an Egyptian, he may well have been a monotheistic worshiper of Aton, a man of status who lost power with the overthrow of the 18th dynasty and of Ikhnaton, and who chose the Hebrews in Egypt as his people in order to promote his religion and found a new nation. Freud suggests such a hypothetical historical account as likely from the psychoanalytic implications of the legend of Moses and of the belief of the Jews that they are the chosen people. Freud also considers the possibility that Moses was murdered during the course of the Exodus, and he reasons that the Levite priests kept alive the legend, compromised with the followers of Jahve but kept the practice of circumcision and gradually made Jahve over into the God of Moses. Thus Moses created the Jewish character by giving the Jews a religion which heightened their self-confidence, kept them segregated, and opened the way to intellectual attainments by requiring further instinctual renunciations. These effects were produced only after a very long period and in a fashion analogous to the return of the repressed in the life of a neurotic. Freud considers the hatred toward the Jews to be a hatred toward Christianity displaced to the people who historically gave Christianity to the world. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
B. M. Bass (1985) proposed that the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire consists of 5 factors: 2 facets of transactional leadership (Contingent Reward and Management-by-Exception) and 3 facets of transformational leadership (Charismatic Leadership, Individualized Consideration, and Intellectual Stimulation). A confirmatory factor analysis involving hospital nurses revealed some support for this 5-factor representation, but a 2-factor Active-Passive model was also tenable, because the transformational components and Contingent Reward were all highly correlated. Alternatively, differential relationships to a series of outcomes, including intent to leave and J. P. Meyer and N. J. Allen's (1991) facets of organizational commitment, were observed as a function of the leader behaviors involved. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
the purpose of the research program described here is to explore and describe systematically, from the perspective of attachment theory, the role of individual differences in the caregiving system as it functions in the context of adult romantic relationships / emphasizes the provision of care—noticing and responding to another's needs and distress—as opposed to the seeking of assistance and support / argue that attachment theory, with its history of emphasis on the continuity of careseeking and caregiving behaviors across the life span, . . . provides a useful framework for the study of caregiving between adult partners (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Three studies were conducted to examine the correlates of adult attachment. In Study 1, an 18-item scale to measure adult attachment style dimensions was developed based on Hazan and Shaver's (1987) categorical measure. Factor analyses revealed three dimensions underlying this measure: the extent to which an individual is comfortable with closeness, feels he or she can depend on others, and is anxious or fearful about such things as being abandoned or unloved. Study 2 explored the relation between these attachment dimensions and working models of self and others. Attachment dimensions were found to be related to self-esteem, expressiveness, instrumentality, trust in others, beliefs about human nature, and styles of loving. Study 3 explored the role of attachment style dimensions in three aspects of ongoing dating relationships: partner matching on attachment dimensions; similarity between the attachment of one's partner and caregiving style of one's parents; and relationship quality, including communication, trust, and satisfaction. Evidence was obtained for partner matching and for similarity between one's partner and one's parents, particularly for one's opposite-sex parent. Dimensions of attachment style were strongly related to how each partner perceived the relationship, although the dimension of attachment that best predicted quality differed for men and women. For women, the extent to which their partner was comfortable with closeness was the best predictor of relationship quality, whereas the best predictor for men was the extent to which their partner was anxious about being abandoned or unloved.