Measuring the economic impact of climate change on major South African field crops: a Ricardian approach. Glob Planet Chang

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DOI: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2004.10.009
Abstract
This study employed a Ricardian model to measure the impact of climate change on South Africa's field crops and analysed potential future impacts of further changes in the climate. A regression of farm net revenue on climate, soil and other socio-economic variables was conducted to capture farmer-adapted responses to climate variations. The analysis was based on agricultural data for seven field crops (maize, wheat, sorghum, sugarcane, groundnut, sunflower and soybean), climate and edaphic data across 300 districts in South Africa. Results indicate that production of field crops was sensitive to marginal changes in temperature as compared to changes in precipitation. Temperature rise positively affects net revenue whereas the effect of reduction in rainfall is negative. The study also highlights the importance of season and location in dealing with climate change showing that the spatial distribution of climate change impact and consequently needed adaptations will not be uniform across the different agro-ecological regions of South Africa. Results of simulations of climate change scenarios indicate many impacts that would induce (or require) very distinct shifts in farming practices and patterns in different regions. Those include major shifts in crop calendars and growing seasons, switching between crops to the possibility of complete disappearance of some field crops from some region.
Measuring the economic impact of climate change on major South
African field crops: a Ricardian approach
G.A. Gbetibouo
*
, R.M. Hassan
1
Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa (CEEPA), Department of Agricultural Economics,
University of Pretoria, South Africa
Received 1 March 2004; accepted 29 October 2004
Abstract
This study employed a Ricardian model to measure the impact of climate change on South Africa’s field crops and analysed
potential future impacts of further changes in the climate. A regression of farm net revenue on climate, soil and other socio-
economic variables was conducted to capture farmer-adapted responses to climate variations. The analysis was based on
agricultural data for seven field crops (maize, wheat, sorghum, sugarcane, groundnut, sunflower and soybean), climate and
edaphic data across 300 districts in South Africa. Results indicate that production of field crops was sensitive to marginal
changes in temperature as compared to changes in precipitation. Temperature rise positively affects net revenue whereas the
effect of reduction in rainfall is negative. The study also highlights the importance of season and location in dealing with climate
change showing that the spatial distribution of climate change impact and consequently needed adaptations will not be uniform
across the different agro-ecological regions of South Africa. Results of simulations of climate change scenarios indicate many
impacts that would induce (or require) very distinct shifts in farming practices and patterns in different regions. Those include
major shifts in crop calendars and growing seasons, switching between crops to the possibility of complete disappearance of
some field crops from some region.
D 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: agriculture; climate change; sensitivity; net revenue and adaptations
1. Introduction
The growing literature on climate change and
agriculture highlighted some general findings. First,
the agricultural sector is vulnerable to climate
change physically and economically. Due to climate
change, agricultural supply will be affected, espe-
cially relative prices of agricultural commodities
and consequently reallocation of resources within
the agricultural sector, altering the structure of the
economies of numerous countries and the interna-
tional trade pattern (Deke et al., 2001). Secondly,
there are numerous empirical studies on climate
0921-8181/$ - see front matter D 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2004.10.009
* Corresponding author. Fax: +27 12 420 4958.
E-mail addresses: ggbetibouo@postino.up.ac.za
(G.A. Gbetibouo)8 rhassan@postino.up.ac.za (R.M. Hassan).
1
Fax: +27 12 420 4958.
Global and Planetary Change 47 (2005) 143 152
www.elsevier.com/locate/gloplacha
change impacts on agriculture across the world,
most of them have been conducted in the devel-
oped world. The results of those studies suggest
that the effects of climate change will not be
uniform across the globe. Developed countries will
be less affected by climate change whereas in the
developing countries where the effects of climate
change are predi cted to be greater little research
was carried on climate change impacts. Accord-
ingly, the picture of what will be the consequences
of climate change for the agricultural sector in
developing countries remains unclear. Specifically
in South Africa, climate impact’ studies on agri-
culture are limited and focused mainly on the maize
crop. Evidence from Global Models developed so
far suggests that the agricultural sector in the
Southern Africa regio n is highly sensitive to future
climate shifts and increased climate variability.
Nevertheless, climate change and greenhouse related
issues have not yet been given enough attention in
the agricult ural policies of South Africa. It is
therefore necessary to examine t he economic
impacts of climate change on the South African
agricultural sector. The main objective of this study
is to develop and apply empirical methods and
procedures to a ssess the eco nomic impact of
climate change on the South Afr ican field crops’
sector. Field crops occupy, on average, 80% of the
total cultivated land and contribute about 40% of
the gross revenue of the total agricultural sector
(AAS, 2002).
Agronomic–economic and cross-sectional meth-
ods are two major approaches that have been
employed to study the interaction between climate,
water and agriculture (Me nde lso hn and D inar,
2003). The agronomic–economic approach begins
with calibrated agronomic models that can predict
outcomes of economic simulations. The cross-sec-
tional approach compares choices and performance
of existing farms that are facing different climate
and soil co nditions. Although the agronomic–eco -
nomic approach has the adv antage of reliable
results in terms of the relationship between yield
and clim atic variables, the present study will not
adopt this methodology due to the complexity and
high data requirements and its failure to take into
account farmers’ adaptation strategies. Alternatively,
the present study will use the Ricardian model, one
of the models based on the cross-sectional approach
to measure the economic impact of climate change
on the field crops of South Africa. The analytical
framework of the Ricardian approach and the
empirical model specification for South Africa are
presented in the following section. Section 3
presents the data. The empirical results are reported
in Section 4 and Section 5 presents simulation results
of climate change scenarios. The final section distils
conclusions and implications of the study.
2. Approach and methods of the study
The Ricardian method is an empirical approach to
studying sen sitivity of agricultural production to
climate change based on cross-sectional data. The
method was named after Ricardo because of his
original observation that land rents would reflect the
net productivity of farmland at a site under perfect
competition (Ricardo, 1817, 1822). This method has
been developed by Mendelsohn et al. (1994) to
measure the economic impact of climate on land
prices in the USA. The model accounts for the direct
impacts of climate on yields of different crops as
well as the indirect substitution of different inputs,
introduction of different activities and other potential
adaptations to different climates. T he Ricardian
model can be adopted to evalua te country level as
well as regional level impact, and with modification
it can be used to address many questions that arise
such as ones concerning private adoption. However,
in the Ricardian analysis, adaptation costs are not
considered and since the analysis makes forecasts
based on current farming practices, it does not
capture future changes affecting agriculture such as
technical change. Darwin (1999) also pointed out
that this method does not take into account water
supply and availability. The problem of water cannot
be properly addressed without using a sophisticated
hydrological–economic model (Mendelsohn, 2001).
Another criticism of the method is that it treats price
as constant (Cline, 1996). By holding prices con-
stant, the Ricardian model underestimates damages
and overestimates benefits. It is not unreasonable,
however, to assume constant prices because due to
the predicted moderating effects of climate change
on international markets, aggregate world supply is
G.A. Gbetibouo, R.M. Hassan / Global and Planetary Change 47 (2005) 143–152144
not expected to change by much. Finally, the
Ricardian method is criticized for assum ing implic-
itly zero adjustment costs and therefore yields a
lower-bound estimate of the costs of climate change
(Quiggn and Horowitz, 1999).
Given the market price P
i
for good i, and profit
maximising farmers, on a given site under perfect
competition, land market will drive profits to zero. Put
differently, the implication of this is that land rent per
hectare will be equal to the discounted sum of future
net revenue per hectare P
Lt
. Consequently land value
(V) will reflect the present value of future net
productivity:
V ¼
Z
l
0
P
Lt
e
rt
dt
¼
Z
l
0
X
i
P
it
Q
it
K
it
; EðÞC
it
Q
it
; w; EðÞ½=L
it
!
e
rt
dt ð1Þ
where Q
i
is the quantity produced of good i and K
i
is
a vector of all purchased inputs in the production of
good i. E is a vector of exogenous environmental
variables such as climate factors (temperature, pre-
cipitation, etc.), soil types and economic factors
(market access, etc.), which are common to a
production site. P
L
is the annual cost or rent of land
at that site and L
i
is the land under the production of
good i. Note that C
i
is the cost function for all
purchased inputs other than land and w is the vector
of factor inputs’ prices.
The issue of interest to this analyses is measuring
the impact of exogenous changes in environmental
variables (E) on land value as captured by changes
in land values across differing environmental con-
ditions. By regressing farm values on climate, soil
and other control variabl es, the method enables
measuring the marginal contribution of each variable
to land value. Cross-sectional observatio ns, showing
spatial variation i n normal climate and edaphic
factors, can hence be utilized to estimate climate
impacts on production and land value.
Due to imperfect land markets and weak doc-
umentation of agricultural farm values in South
Africa, this study could not use land value as the
dependent variable. Following the approach of
Sanghi et al. (1998) and Kumar and Parikh (1998)
for India, net revenue per hectare (NRHA) rather
than land value was used as the response variable in
this study. This formulation assumes that land prices
reflect expected future net revenues.
The empirical model for South African field
crops assumed a quadratic relationship between
district net revenue hectare and climate factors but
a linear relationship wi th others variables. The
quadratic terms were included to reflect the non-
linearities betwee n crop output and climate varia-
bles that are apparent from various field studies and
also other Ricardian s tudie s appli ed e lsewhe re
(Mendelsohn e t al ., 1994 , 199 6; Dinar e t a l.,
1998; Poonyth et al., 2002; Deressa, 2003; Men-
delsohn and Dinar, 2003). Thus, the South African
field crops’ climate response model is specified
using NRHA as a function of the following
regressors: (1) climate variables: temperature and
precipitation; (2) soil types, and (3) socio-economic
variables, e.g. population, labour, irrigated land and
geographical coordinates.
3. The data
South Africa is suitable for the cultivation of a
large variety of crops. The main crops of South
Africa are maize, wheat, sugarcane, sorghum and
minor crops are groundnuts, sunflower seeds, dry
beans, tobaccos, oats. The Ricardian approach would
be successfully applied to the case of South Africa
due to the fact that the geographical distribution of
the crops under study seem to be highly correlated
with variations in climate patterns across the country.
Indeed physical factors that include topography,
vegetation, tempe rature, rainfa ll and soil have
important implications on decisions of what to
produce in a region. For example, rainfall in South
Africa is distributed unevenly across the country
with sub-tropical conditions in the east and dry
desert conditions in the west. There is an increase in
rainfall from the western to the eastern part of the
country. A 500-mm-rainfall line actually divides the
country into two sections. Accordingly to the rainfall
pattern, one can see that production of the main
crops is concentrated in the eastern part of the
country (Map 1).
G.A. Gbetibouo, R.M. Hassan / Global and Planetary Change 47 (2005) 143–152 145
Map 1. Spatial correlation between rainfall and main cropping zone.
G.A. Gbetibouo, R.M. Hassan / Global and Planetary Change 47 (2005) 143–152146
The study used district level data on crop
revenues and other variables of the model. Data on
seven cr ops from 300 distr icts across the nin e
provinces of the country for the year 1993 were
obtained from various sources. The seven crops
included are maize, wheat, sorghum, suga rcane ,
soybean, groundnut and sunflower. Data on area
planted, production, input costs and output price for
each of the seven field crops were provided by the
Census of Agriculture 1993 carried by the National
Department of Agriculture (SSA, 1998). However,
sugarcane data were obtained from the Sugar Cane
Growers’ Association of South Africa (SCGA). The
data on climate variables were compiled from the
National Weather Bureau of South Africa
(NWBSA). The appropriate climate varia bles for
this study were the normal climate variables based
on 30 years average of temperatures and precip-
itation observed over the period 1970–2000. Data
on population for the year 1993 (year of the
analysis) were deducted from the 1996 Population
Census of Statistics South Africa (StatSA) by
discounting the 1996 population numbers by the
South African annual population growth rate of
1.5% ( SSA, 2002). Data on number of farm
workers per district and percentage of land under
irrigation were extracted from the Census of
Agriculture 1993 (SSA, 1998). The four groups of
soil types have been derived from the Map of
Generalized Soils patterns of South Africa produced
by the Institute for Soil, Climate and Water (ISCW)
of The Agricultural Research Council (ARC).
4. Results of the Ricardian analyses
The semi-log function gave the best statistical fit
for the data in the regression analysis and the
estimated model performed well according to its F
and R
2
statistics explaining 63% of the variation in
net revenue hectare. Also, the parameters have the
expected signs except for the latitude variable (proxy
for solar radiation). The results show that there is a
quadratic relationship between climate variables and
net reven ue hectare. Furthermore, winter climate
variables have a hill-shaped relationship with net
revenue whereas summer climate variables have a U-
shaped relationship (Table 1).
For further insights of the interaction between field
crops net revenue hectare and climate variables, firstly,
estimated model parameters were used for sensitivity
analysis to derive elasticities as well as implied optimal
climate points’ identification. The calculated elasticity
evaluated at mean values indi cated that at current
levels of rainfall, increasing temperatures in both
summer and winter seasons reduce net revenue. On
the other hand, at current levels of temperature,
increasing precipitation in winter is beneficial whereas
increasing summer rainfall would negatively affect net
revenue (Table 2).
The implied optimal temperature points (i.e. at
which net revenue hectare is maximised) are 14.78
and 22 8C for winter and summer, respectively. With
a hill-shaped relationship between net revenue and
winter temperature, increasing winter temperature
was found to increase net revenue hectare up to
14.78 8C after which net revenue declines with higher
winter temperatures. On the other hand, the U-shaped
relationship between summer temperature and net
revenue hectare indicates that net revenue decreases
Table 1
Parameter estimates of the Ricardian field crops model
Response variable: log(NRHA) in R/ha
Variable Coefficient
Intercept 10.60 (2.89)**
tempSummer 1.28 (3.71)**
tempSummer2 0.03 (4.06)**
tempWinter 0.72 (3.58)**
tempWinter2 0.03 (3.79)**
rainSummer 0.002 (1.43)
rainSummer2 0.0001 (3.36)**
rainWinter 0.015 (1.25)
rainWinter2 0.0004 (2.70)**
Temp
Rain Summer 0.001 (2.33)*
Temp
Rain Winter 0.003 (1.56)
Popd 5.77E05 (2.47)*
Soildum1 0.22 (1.91)*
Soildum3 0.08 (1.84)*
Labour 0.0004 (2.18)*
Irrigation 0.338 (4.23)**
Latitude 0.12 (3.95)**
Altitude 0.0004 (2.21)*
R
2
0.66
F statistic 40.11
Adjusted R
2
0.63
Number of observations=300.
* Level of significance at 5%.
** Level of significance at 1%.
G.A. Gbetibouo, R.M. Hassan / Global and Planetary Change 47 (2005) 143–152 147
with warmer summer climates up to 22 8C, after
which net revenue improves. The 22 8C may be
considered the minimum optimal temperature for
plantgrowthinsummer.Theimpliedoptimal
precipitation points are 390 and 570 mm for winter
and summer seasons, respectively. An increase in
winter rainfall beneficial until the critical point of 390
mm is reached. Further rise in winter rainfall above
390 mm decreases yield. On the other hand, there is a
positive response to summer rainfall above the
critical point of 570 mm. Current average temper-
ature levels are 15 8C in winter and 23 8C in summer,
which are very close to implied critical temperature
levels. On the other hand, current average rainfall
levels are 130 and 462 mm in winter and summer,
respectively, which are far from estimated critical
points. This implies that field crops in So uth Africa
will be very sensitive to marginal changes in
temperature as the remaining range of tolerance to
increased temperature is narrow compared to changes
in precipitation.
5. Climate change impacts simulations
By analysing the climate sensitivity of the field
crops using elasticity and implied optimal climate
points only, the cumulative impact of increasing/
decreasing temperature/rainfall marginally across all
seasons cou ld not be captured. Furthermore,
changes in climate that will occur in the next 50
years are not marginal changes; therefore elasticity
measures could not give a full picture of the climate
change impacts. Accordingly, sensitivity analysis
was carried to assess the likely impacts of climate
change on the South African field crop sector, by
projecting net revenue per hectare using a range of
climate outcomes that are predicted to occur over a
period of 30–100 years under a conventional CO
2
doubling scenario (IPPC, 2001). The scenarios used
in this study forecasted rise in temperature and
reduction in rainfall from the current levels. The
impacts of climate change (changes in the depend-
ent variable net revenue per hectare) were simulated
using the estimated model for each of the 300
districts for the 1993 year. Additionally, in the study
we explored if moving from rain-fed to irrigated
agriculture could be an effective adaptation option
to reduce the harmful effects of climate change for
the field crops.
Simulation results revealed large seasonal varia-
tions in the response of net revenue to climate change.
The results showed that warmer summer temperatures
have positive effects on net revenue hectare, whereas
decrease in rainfall reduces net revenue. For winter,
both rise in temperature and reduction in rainfall
damage field crops. The results also confirmed that
irrigation provided an effective adaptation option to
reduce the harm ful effects of climate change. It was
found that when changes in climate variables create
negative impacts, with irrigation as an adaptation
option, the situation could be reversed, i.e. net gains in
revenue (Table 3).
Furthermore, the study examined the total effect
of simultaneously changing both temperature and
precipitation in all seasons on the net revenue.
Since climate scenarios are uncertain, we firstly
analyse how sensitive is production of field crops
to diverse climate scenarios from a mild scenario
of 2 8C increase in temperature and 5% decrease in
rainfall to a severe scenario of 3 8C temperature
Table 3
Impacts of changing only temperature or rainfall on field crops’ net revenue in percentage (%)
Climate variable Climate scenarios Winter season Summer season Both seasons
No adaptation With adaptation No adaptation With adaptation No adaptation With adaptation
Temperature +2 8C 11 26 26 63 12 47
Rainfall 5% 426 134 227
Table 2
Estimates of elasticity to climate factors
Temperature Rainfall
Winter season 0.08 0.89
Summer season 0.115 0.406
G.A. Gbetibouo, R.M. Hassan / Global and Planetary Change 47 (2005) 143–152148
and 20% decrease in rainfall. The results show that
differences among climate scenarios are important
and can generate wide ranges of impacts. With
minimal reduction in rainfall, benefi ts effects from
rising temperature exceed the negative impacts
from lowering rainfall. With further reduction in
rainfall, the benefits effects from rising in temper-
atures are more than offset by the negative effects
of rainfall reduction giving negative net effects
(Table 4).
The expected effects of climate change on the
agricultural sector will not be uniform across
continents, within continents and even withi n coun-
tries (Mendelshon and Williams, 2002). To assess
how different provinces will fare as climate change
in South Africa, the study applied a mild scenario of
an increase of 2 8C in temperature and 5% decrease
in rainfall. Individual districts changes in the net
revenue per hectare were averaged over to yield an
average impact at provin cial level. The s patial
distribution of climate change effects in South Africa
are displayed in Fig. 1.
Although the temperature rise and the rainfall
reduction are uniform across the different districts,
the spatial distribution of impacts is not. Some
provinces experienced gains while others experi-
enced severe damages. The winners were the Free
State, Northern Cape, North West, Western Cape
and Limpopo Provinces. The losers were Eastern
Cape, Gauteng, Kwazul u Natal and Mpumalanga.
With the exception of Limpopo, the winners were
all from the western part of the country (cooler
and dryer regions) and the losers from the eastern
part (warmer and wetter zones) of the country
(Appendix A).
The benefits that occur due to rise in temperature
and lower rainfall are somehow controversial. One
would have expected that the Northern Cape
Province characterized by the desert agro-ecologi cal
zone with lower rainfall region to experience
damages instead of benefits. However, these results
may be due to the fact that farmers in a arid
situations have already adapted to harsher climatic
conditions and have developed other alternatives
such as irrigation to manage their unfriendly environ-
ment, and hence they are less sensitive to climate
adversities. Indeed, irrigation schemes in the country
are been developed in these regions and 50% of the
land under annual crops in Northern Cape Province
is irrigated.
Fig. 1. Distributional effects of 2 8C increase in temperature and 5% reduction in rainfall across South African provinces.
Table 4
Sensitivity of the impacts of climate change on net revenue to
climate scenarios in percentage (%)
Climate change scenarios Impacts on net revenue
hectare (%)
+2 8C and 5%
reduction in rainfall
9
+2 8C and 20%
reduction in rainfall
4.4
+3 8C and 5%
reduction in rainfall
17.3
+3 8C and 20%
reduction in rainfall
11.3
G.A. Gbetibouo, R.M. Hassan / Global and Planetary Change 47 (2005) 143–152 149
The subtropical winter region (Western Cape
Province) has also experienced around 5% increase
in net revenue hectare. The region was expected to
experience reduct ion in wheat yield or not be able
to produce wheat anymore as winter becomes
warmer. However, the Western Cape may have
become suitable for crops like soybean or sun-
flower making farmers shift to those crops off-
setting losses from wheat production through gains
from the production of soybean and sunflower.
Also, the benefits occurring in the interior regions
of steppe arid zone (Free State, Limpopo and
North West) may be due to the fact that the
damages due to lowering of rainfall may be
overcome by the benefits from warmer winter.
Indeed with warmer winter, these areas may be
able to produce summer cereals (maize, sorghum)
during the winter season .
The magnitude of the losses in net revenue for a 2
8C increase in temperature and 5% decrease in
rainfall, vary from 2% to 16% for Eastern Cape,
Gauteng, Mpumalanga and Kwazulu Natal. Indeed,
the relatively warmer regions of Kwazulu Natal and
Mpumalanga are the most affected by the temperat ure
rise and reduction in rainfall. These regions are the
principal production areas of sugar cane in the
country. For an optimal growth, sugar cane requires
a long warm summer growing season with adequate
rainfall. Therefore, it is likely that lower rainfall and
further increases in temperature in regions already hot
can cause heat injury and water deficit for sugar cane
production. As a resul t, Kwazulu natal and Mpuma-
langa sugar cane productivity may be significantly
lowered to the extent that farmers may be forced to
switch to other crops of lower value like sorghum that
are heat tolerant.
Overall, the results of the simulation imply that
field crops sector would experience differen t
changes in cropping patterns. Cropping zones of
major crops may shift from one region to another.
At lesser extent, farmers in a given region may be
obliged to shift the ir crop ping calendar. For
example, the sugar cane region may disappear.
Western Cape may become suitable for crops like
soybean or sunflower. The sowing period of most
crops (maize, soybean, sunfl ower) could shift from
October (sum mer season) to early March or April
(winter season).
6. Conclusions and implications
The empirical results presented in this study provide
sufficient evidence that climate change would affect the
South African field crops’ sector in many subtle ways.
The current patterns of climate, and when, where and
how climate change will unfold will determine the
nature and extent of its impacts on net revenue. This
study found that production of field crops in South
Africa will be very sensitive to marginal changes in
temperature as the remaining range of tolerance to
increased temperature is narrow compared to changes
in precipitation. This result has important implications
for appropriate adapta tion measures and strategies. For
instance, these results suggest that research on breeding
for heat tolerance rather than draught tolerance should
shape future agricultural research in the country. On the
other hand, irrigation has proved to be an effective
adaptation measure to limit the harmful effects of
climate change. However, the country is water-
stressed, which indicates the need for research in
production technologies and methods that are more
water-efficient.
Given the sensitivity of the South African field
crops to climate change, there is a need to identify
effective risk-pooling mechanisms. Adaptation can be
addressed in a variety of ways. First and foremost is the
greatest challenge of educating farmers about the
happenings of climate change and its impacts. Hence
more effective extensi on pr ogr ams are needed to
increase farmers’ awareness of climate change. Cer-
tainly, prevention of losses can occur through more
effective farm planning. Crop insurance, diversified
economic bases of regions dependent on farming, and
improved monitoring/forecasts of weather will also
increase resilience to cope with future changes. These
strategies, however, must take note of the fact that the
study showed large seasonal variability in the respon se
of field crops to climate change. Rising temperature is
found beneficial in summer whereas it negatively
affects net revenue in winter. Moreover, the study
highlights the importance of location in dealing with
climate change issues because climate impacts will
differ within and between agro-ecological regions of
the same countr y. The study also indicates that knowl-
edge about the economic impact of climate change on
agriculture in South Africa is limited and requires much
wider researc h and deeper analyses.
G.A. Gbetibouo, R.M. Hassan / Global and Planetary Change 47 (2005) 143–152150
Map of South Africa provinces delimitation
Source: FAO/GIEWS (2001)
Table of Current level of provincial rainfall and temperature
* Provinces in bold are winners/ ** Previously Northern Province
Source : South African Weather Bureau
Rainfall pattern (mm)
Average temperature (ºC)
Agro-ecological
zones
Provinces*
SummerSummer WinterWinter
Desert
Northern Cape 200 23 14
Free State 400 20 12
North West 500 22 14
Limpopo** 600
100
150
100
150
600
600
25 18
Gauteng 150 20 13
Eastern Cape 400 200 19 13
Steppe (arid)
Mpumalanga 150 21 15
Sub-tropical
wet
Kwazulu Natal 800 200 23 16
Sub-tropical
winter
Western Cape 150 400 19 14
Northern Province
Guateng
North West
Mpumalanga
Free State
Northern Cape
Eastern Cape
Kwazulu/Natal
Western Cape
Map scale: 1 cm = 120 km
Source: SADC Regional Remote Sensing Project
©FAO/GIEWS
2000
N
Appendix A. Geogr aphical representation of South Africa and Current climate patterns
G.A. Gbetibouo, R.M. Hassan / Global and Planetary Change 47 (2005) 143–152 151
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G.A. Gbetibouo, R.M. Hassan / Global and Planetary Change 47 (2005) 143–152152
    • "There is much literature on the implications of prevailing climate change for food production globally [8][9][10][11][12]. Similarly, in Africa, studies have considered the economic impacts of climate change on the rural economy, particularly on agriculture [12][13][14][15][16][17]. Although some studies have been carried out in Ghana, most of these do not explicitly estimate the economic implications of climate change on cereal production [7,[18][19][20][21]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper investigates the economic impacts of climate change on cereal crop production in Northern Ghana using 240 households comprising maize and sorghum farmers. The Ricardian regression approach was used to examine the economic impacts of climate change based on data generated from a survey conducted in the 2013/2014 farming seasons. Forty-year time-series data of rainfall and temperature from 1974 to 2013, together with cross-sectional data, were used for the empirical analysis. The Ricardian regression estimates for both maize and sorghum showed varying degrees of climate change impacts on net revenues. The results indicated that early season precipitation was beneficial for sorghum, but harmful for maize. However, mid-season precipitation tended to promote maize production. Temperature levels for all seasons impacted negatively on net revenue for both crops, except during the mid-season, when temperature exerted a positive effect on net revenue for sorghum. Our findings suggest that appropriate adaptation strategies should be promoted to reduce the negative impacts of prevailing climate change on cereal crop production.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2016
    • "Deductions from global models developed so far suggest that the agricultural sector in the southern African region is highly sensitive to future climate shifts and increased climate variability. Interestingly, climate change and greenhouse-related issues have not yet been given sufficient attention in the agricultural policies of South Africa (Gbetibouo & Hassan, 2005). Manifestations of climate change have been predicted to be greatest in the northern regions of South Africa. "
    Full-text · Article · May 2016
    • "Therefore, it is essential need to appraise the possible influences of climate change on rice productivity to assure food security and economic growth. The influences of climate change on agriculture have been studied on developing countries earlier (Lansigan et al., 2000;Chang, 2002;Gbetibouo and Hassan, 2005;Kurukulasuriya and Ajwad, 2007;Kabubo-Mariara and Karanja, 2007;Haim et al., 2008;Sanghi and Mendelsohn, 2008;Deressa and Hassan, 2009;Moula, 2009;and Wang et al., 2009). From those studies, it is revealed that the crop yield is more prone to climate change in developing countries. "
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016
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