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Fragranced consumer products and undisclosed ingredients

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Abstract

Fragranced consumer products—such as air fresheners, laundry supplies, personal care products, and cleaners—are widely used in homes, businesses, institutions, and public places. While prevalent, these products can contain chemicals that are not disclosed to the public through product labels or material safety data sheets (MSDSs). What are some of these chemicals and what limits their disclosure? This article investigates these questions, and brings new pieces of evidence to the science, health, and policy puzzle. Results from a regulatory analysis, coupled with a chemical analysis of six best-selling products (three air fresheners and three laundry supplies), provide several findings. First, no law in the U.S. requires disclosure of all chemical ingredients in consumer products or in fragrances. Second, in these six products, nearly 100 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified, but none of the VOCs were listed on any product label, and one was listed on one MSDS. Third, of these identified VOCs, ten are regulated as toxic or hazardous under federal laws, with three (acetaldehyde, chloromethane, and 1,4-dioxane) classified as Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs). Results point to a need for improved understanding of product constituents and mechanisms between exposures and effects.

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... Air fresheners are fragrance-containing products commonly used in homes, offices and cars to mask unpleasant odors [1,2]. There are various types, such as incense sticks, scented candles, aerosols, liquids, solids, gels, and electric diffusers [3]. ...
... There are various types, such as incense sticks, scented candles, aerosols, liquids, solids, gels, and electric diffusers [3]. The increasing application of these products in both private and public places is based on the belief that they improve sensory appeal through elimination of odors in the environment [1,2]. ...
... However, studies have shown that these fragrances contain toxic chemicals that may pose health challenges to the regular users, hence are of major public health concern [1, 3,4]. The major chemical constituents found in air fresheners include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as benzene, toluene, ethylene and limonene [5], which are known toadd to environmental pollution [1]. Studies have shown that VOCs cause a wide range of adverse effects such as drowsiness, dizziness, headache, tremor and coma [1,4]. ...
Article
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Background: Air fresheners have become indispensible in many living homes and offices, marketed with the promise of creating a clean, healthy, and sweet-smelling indoor atmosphere. Many of these products contain harmful chemicals, hence are of public health significance. This study evaluated the effects of acute exposure to gel air freshener on male reproductive hormones of wistar albino rats. Aim: This study was designed to examine the effects of exposure to air-freshener on male reproductive hormones of Wistar Albino rats. Study Design: Eighteen (18) Male wistar albino rats were divided into 6 groups (A-F) and three in each group. Rats in groups B-F were exposed to Air Freshener 194g via inhalation in their cages for 28 days. Rats in group A (control) were not exposed to Air Freshener. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed. Blood samples were collected via cardiac puncture, male Original Research Article Odinga et al.; AJRRE, 4(2): 82-87, 2021; Article no.AJRRE.75603 83 reproductive hormones; Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Testosterone (TET) and Prolactin (PRL) were determined using standard methods. Results: The results obtained revealed that exposure to air freshener led to an adverse alteration in the levels of the hormones. The serum concentration of FSH and PRL increased significantly at p<0.05, while LH and TET serum concentration were significantly decreased at p<0.05. Conclusion: This result has revealed that exposure of male wistar albino rats to gel air freshener adversely affected male reproductive hormones, and suggests that it may cause infertility in men. However, the effect is dependent on the duration of exposure, therefore, the reduction in duration of exposure to air freshener is suggested.
... Air-fresheners are consumer products that emit fragrance to introduce an aroma into the air, to mask an odour, or both [1]. They have become a staple in many Nigerian homes and offices, marketed with the promise of creating a clean, healthy, and pleasurable aroma that eliminate or mask bad odours in the space. ...
... Past studies have determined air fresheners to be sources of various volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in indoor environments [5][6][7]. The major chemical constituents found in air fresheners include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as benzene, toluene, ethylene and limonene [8], which are known to add to environmental pollution [1]. Numerous studies have shown that VOCs cause a wide range of adverse effects such as headache, breathing difficulties, asthma attack, mucosal symptoms, drowsiness, dizziness, tremor and coma [1,4]. ...
... The major chemical constituents found in air fresheners include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as benzene, toluene, ethylene and limonene [8], which are known to add to environmental pollution [1]. Numerous studies have shown that VOCs cause a wide range of adverse effects such as headache, breathing difficulties, asthma attack, mucosal symptoms, drowsiness, dizziness, tremor and coma [1,4]. Sunlight air freshener is the most common air freshener popularly used in Nigeria [9]. ...
Article
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Aim: The present study was designed to examine the effect of inhaling 'sunlight' air-freshener on renal and hepatic indices of Wistar rats. Methodology: Thirty Wistar rats were divided into three groups of ten each and kept in different rooms. Rats in group 1 were not exposed to any substance; those in groups 2 and 3 were exposed to sunlight air freshener for 8 hours daily for 28 days by inhalation. After 28 days of exposure, animals in group 3 were allowed to recover for 14 days. Throughout the experiment, all animals were fed ad libitum with standard feed and drinking water. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed after an overnight fast under diethyl ether as anesthesia. Blood samples were collected via cardiac puncture. Hepatic and renal indices were determined using standard methods. Results: Air-freshener significantly (p<0.05) increased hepatic and renal indices investigated when compared to those in animals in the control group. The effect on hepatic indices was reversed when Original Research Article Airaodion et al.; AJRN, 3(2): 1-9, 2020; Article no.AJRN.58662 2 animals were allowed to recover for 7 days after 28 days exposure. However, the effect on renal indices was sustained after 7 days recovery period. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that frequent exposure to air-fresheners poses a dangerous risk to the health of the liver and kidney. This is due to the presence of toxic chemicals such as the volatile organic compounds, which are toxic even at very low concentration, thus proper awareness should be conducted to educate consumers on the risk associated with the frequent use of this product.
... Fragrance mixtures and essential oils are used in cleaning product formulations either to provide a pleasant odor, to hide odors from other chemicals used, or to enhance the product's antibacterial performance (Rastogi 2002;Steinemann 2009). Nevertheless, there is a clear difference between essential oils and fragrance mixtures. ...
... Air fresheners and purifiers can contain from 50 to 100% fragrance chemicals, depending on whether the product is diluted in an organic solvent. The concentration of the organic solvent added to the formulation is directly related to the diffusion mode of the product: aerosol, passive diffuser, etc. (Rastogi 2002;Ezendam et al. 2009;Steinemann 2009;Steinemann et al. 2011). Sarwar et al. (2004) quantified TerVOCs in four different household products: (i) a pine-scented solid air freshener, (ii) a lemon-scented general-purpose cleaner, (iii) a lime-scented liquid air freshener, and (iii) a wood floor cleaner. ...
... Nevertheless, depending on the specifications of the considered household product, certain fragrance chemicals can be present. These specifications are (i) the scent of the product (lime oil-scented products contain limonene as the major fragrance compound, while pine oil-scented products contain pinenes as the major compound), (ii) the "purifying performance" of the product (products with purification purposes contain essential oils proven to inhibit microbial activity, such as eucalyptus oil), and (iii) the marketing strategy, which is related to consumer preferences (Rastogi et al. 2001;Ezendam et al. 2009;Magnano et al. 2009;Steinemann 2009Steinemann , 2015Huang et al. 2011;Steinemann et al. 2011). ...
Article
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Essential oils are frequently used as natural fragrances in housecleaning products and air fresheners marketed as green and healthy. However, these substances are volatile and reactive chemical species. This review focuses on the impact of essential oil-based household products on indoor air quality. First, housecleaning products containing essential oils are explored in terms of composition and existing regulations. Specific insight is provided regarding terpenes in fragranced housecleaning products, air fresheners, and pure essential oils. Second, experimental methodologies for terpene monitoring, from sampling to experimental chambers and analytical methods, are addressed, emphasizing the experimental issues in monitoring terpenes in indoor air. Third, the temporal dynamics of terpene emissions reported in the literature are discussed. Despite experimental discrepancies, essential oil-based products are significant sources of terpenes in indoor air, inducing a high exposure of occupants to terpenes. Finally, the fate of terpenes is explored from sorptive and reactive points of view. In addition to terpene deposition on surfaces, indoor oxidants may induce homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions, resulting in secondary pollutants, such as formaldehyde and secondary organic aerosols. Overall, essential oil-based products can negatively impact indoor air quality; therefore, standard protocols and real-scale approaches are needed to explore the indoor physics and chemistry of terpenes, from emissions to reactivity.
... Air fresheners are products with fragrances commonly used in homes, offices and cars to mask unpleasant odors (1)(2). Various types of air fresheners widely used worldwide include incense sticks, scented candles, aerosols, liquids, solids, gels, and electric diffusers (3). ...
... Various types of air fresheners widely used worldwide include incense sticks, scented candles, aerosols, liquids, solids, gels, and electric diffusers (3). The increasing application of these products in both private and public places is based on the belief that they improve sensory appeal through elimination of odors in the environment (1)(2). They eliminate offensive odors by releasing chemical substances into the air, strong enough to mask unpleasant or offensive odors (4). ...
... The major chemical constituents found in air fresheners include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as benzene, toluene, ethylene and limonene (5), which are known to add to environmental pollution (1). Studies have shown that VOCs cause a wide range of adverse effects such as drowsiness, dizziness, Iran J Toxicol, IJT 2019;13 (3) headache, tremor and coma (1,4). ...
Article
Background: Air fresheners are products with fragrances used to mask unpleasant odor in the environment. However, air fresheners contain diverse chemical substances that pose health challenges to the users; hence are of public health significance. Although previous studies have shown that air fresheners affect the lungs, liver and reproductive organs, the neurobehavioral effects of these agents are yet to be evaluated in details. This study evaluated the neurobehavioral effects and biochemical changes in mice exposed to a solid commercially available air freshener (SAF). Methods: Male Swiss mice were divided into 6 groups (n = 7). Mice in groups 2-6 were exposed to powdered SAF (10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 g) via inhalation in their cages for 28 days. Mice in group 1 (control) were not exposed to SAF. The neurobehavioral changes: spontaneous motor activity (SMA), memory, anxiety and depression were evaluated on day 28. The mice brains were then proccessed for determination of malondialdehyde, nitrite, glutathione contents, and the activities of catalase and acetyl-cholinesterase. Results: SAF (25-200g) significantly (p<0.05) impaired SMA compared with control. Mice exposed to SAF exhibited increased anxiety and depression-like symptoms relative to control (p<0.05). It also impaired memory and increased acetylcholinesterase activity (p<0.05). Moreover, SAF increased the levels of nitrite and malondialdehyde accompanied by decreased antioxidant molecules (glutathione and catalase) in mouse brain. Conclusion: These findings suggest that SAF produced neurobehavioral deficits, increased oxidative stress and altered cholinergic system, posing potential health hazards to the regular consumers.
... Air fresheners are products with fragrances commonly used in homes, offices and cars to mask unpleasant odors (1)(2). Various types of air fresheners widely used worldwide include incense sticks, scented candles, aerosols, liquids, solids, gels, and electric diffusers (3). ...
... Various types of air fresheners widely used worldwide include incense sticks, scented candles, aerosols, liquids, solids, gels, and electric diffusers (3). The increasing application of these products in both private and public places is based on the belief that they improve sensory appeal through elimination of odors in the environment (1)(2). They eliminate offensive odors by releasing chemical substances into the air, strong enough to mask unpleasant or offensive odors (4). ...
... The major chemical constituents found in air fresheners include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as benzene, toluene, ethylene and limonene (5), which are known to add to environmental pollution (1). Studies have shown that VOCs cause a wide range of adverse effects such as drowsiness, dizziness, Iran J Toxicol, IJT 2019;13 (3) headache, tremor and coma (1,4). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Air fresheners are products with fragrances used to mask unpleasant odor in the environment. However, air fresheners contain diverse chemical substances that pose health challenges to the users; hence are of public health significance. Although previous studies have shown that air fresheners affect the lungs, liver and reproductive organs, the neurobehavioral effects of these agents are yet to be evaluated in details. This study evaluated the neurobehavioral effects and biochemical changes in mice exposed to a solid commercially available air freshener (SAF). Methods: Male Swiss mice were divided into 6 groups (n = 7). Mice in groups 2-6 were exposed to powdered SAF (10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 g) via inhalation in their cages for 28 days. Mice in group 1 (control) were not exposed to SAF. The neurobehavioral changes: spontaneous motor activity (SMA), memory, anxiety and depression were evaluated on day 28. The mice brains were then proccessed for determination of malondialdehyde, nitrite, glutathione contents, and the activities of catalase and acetyl-cholinesterase. Results: SAF (25-200g) significantly (p<0.05) impaired SMA compared with control. Mice exposed to SAF exhibited increased anxiety and depression-like symptoms relative to control (p<0.05). It also impaired memory and increased acetylcholinesterase activity (p<0.05). Moreover, SAF increased the levels of nitrite and malondialdehyde accompanied by decreased antioxidant molecules (glutathione and catalase) in mouse brain. Conclusion: These findings suggest that SAF produced neurobehavioral deficits, increased oxidative stress and altered cholinergic system, posing potential health hazards to the regular consumers.
... No law in any country requires that any consumer product disclose all ingredients in its fragrance. Instead, a product may list the general term "fragrance" (or another legally approved term, such as "perfume" or "parfum") instead of all individual ingredients [19,20]. However, a "fragrance" in a product typically consists of tens to hundreds of compounds [21], among nearly 4,000 documented fragrance ingredients [1]. ...
... Further, no law requires that all consumer products (other than foods, drugs, and cosmetics) disclose all ingredients (not even the general term "fragrance") on the label, safety data sheet, or elsewhere [19,20]. The result is that many fragranced consumer products, such as cleaning supplies, may not disclose that they contain a fragrance. ...
... Across the four countries, 9.0% of the general population have lost workdays or lost a job, in the past year, due to illness from fragranced product exposure in the workplace [2,[4][5][6][7]. This loss represents more than 33 million people in four countries [20,[28][29][30][31] ( Table 2). ...
Article
Full-text available
Indoor air quality is an international concern, linked with adverse effects on health and productivity. A common source of indoor air pollutants is fragranced consumer products, such as air fresheners, cleaning supplies, and personal care products. Exposure to fragranced products has been associated with health problems, such as breathing difficulties and migraine headaches, as well as lost workdays and loss of access in society. In response, fragrance-free policies have been implemented in workplaces, schools, health care facilities, public buildings, and other indoor environments around the world. In addition, national surveys indicate that more people prefer fragrance-free rather than fragranced environments, and would support fragrance-free policies. Though lacking a standard approach, these policies generally restrict the use of fragranced products indoors. And though prevalent, little systematic study has investigated these policies. Yet building managers, occupants, employers, and employees often seek guidance and scientific information. This paper presents and answers ten questions to explore fragrance-free policies within indoor built environments. Using a set of 60 fragrance-free policies, it analyzes who, what, where, when, why, and how policies are implemented. It then examines potential benefits of fragrance-free policies, such as avoided costs from illness and lost workdays, as well as challenges. The paper concludes with guidance and research directions for the future.
... Fragrance ingredients in consumer products are exempted from disclosure in the US, in any product. Depending on the product, the word "fragrance" may or may not need to be listed, and this section looks at the two main cases [Steinemann, 2009]. Ingredients can also be exempt from disclosure through "trade secrets" protection. ...
... Fragrance ingredients in consumer products are exempted from disclosure in the U.S., in any product. Depending on the product, the word "fragrance" may or may not need to be listed, and this section looks at the two main cases (Steinemann, 2009). Ingredients can also be exempt from disclosure through "trade secrets" protection. ...
... Linalool, Ethanol, Benzyl acetate, cis-rose oxide, Carene isomer, 2,4-dimethyl-3cyclohexene-1-carboxaldehyde (Triplal 1), d-limonene, 3methyl-2-buten-1-ol acetate, 2,7-dimethyl-2,7-octanediol, α-pinene, trans-rose oxide, Eucalyptol, α-phenylethyl acetate, β-pinene, 2,4-dimethyl-3-cyclohexene-1carboxaldehyde (Triplal extra) Steinemann (2009) Laundry supply (Scented liquid fabric softener) ...
Technical Report
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INTRODUCTION Each human activity is related to emissions of chemicals into the air. In an industrialized society, the majority of the population spends more than 90% of the time indoors. Indoor air pollution may be becoming worse due to certain recent initiatives to conserve energy. One common method is to make buildings more energy-efficient to "weatherize" them by sealing them off, as tightly as possible. Preliminary research suggests that concentrations of at least some indoor air pollutants vary proportionately with the ventilation rate; thus, decreasing the ventilation rate by a factor of five may increase concentrations of indoor air pollutants by the same factor. Given these increased concentrations, the current trend towards sealing off homes in order to conserve energy, may have serious health consequences. Even this estimate is subject to significant variations based on the chosen lifestyle of the population groups, climatologically determined constrictions, and, most importantly, the age and health status of the individuals. Elderly with poor health and very young children spend virtually most of their time indoors. In some cases, a further complicating factor is that they may live in certain restricted localities within the dwelling more than the healthy persons do. The sources of indoor contaminants that may affect human health could be divided into three general categories which, in turn, could be further subdivided. The general source categories are: (1) infiltration of outdoor air (2) indoor human activities, and (3) building materials and furnishing. Regarding category (2), contaminants emitted by human activities, include many classes of consumer products used for personal care, cleaning, deodorizing, pest management, building maintenance and office work. Furthermore, devices, such as gas stoves, furnaces and fireplaces, commonly present in residents, are known as emitters of air pollutants, such as VOCs, CO and NOx [COSI, 2005]. To assess the population exposure to indoor sources, additional information is needed, such as duration of daily use of a product, duration of contact-time, frequency of use, and percentage of prevalence [COSI, 2005]. Generally, exposure assessment for consumers aims at two groups: - those who use these products and experience the highest exposure and - those who are exposed after application (e.g. children and especially the youngest ones may be relatively high exposed, due to their specific time-activity pattern like crawling on treated surfaces, hand-to-mouth contact, and relatively low body weight). The ability of organic chemicals to cause health effects varies greatly, from those that are highly toxic (e.g. benzene and formaldehyde), to those with no known health effects. As with other pollutants, the extent and nature of the health effects will depend on many factors including level of exposure and length of exposure duration. There are indications that the reaction products of organic pollutants (e.g. terpenes) may have an impact on comfort and health, but the magnitude of these effects and their frequency need to be elucidated (ECA, 2007). In addition, a number of studies in indoor environments suggest that such oxidative reactions may be associated with adverse health effects (Weschler et al., 2006; Wolkoff et al., 2006). The sensory irritation (eyes and airways) and inflammation potential of the ozonolysis products has been studied using a mouse bioassay (Clausen et al., 2001; Rohr et al., 2002; Wilkins et al., 2001; Wolkoff et al., 1999) and a human eye exposure model (Nøjgaard et al., 2005). This report aims at the formulation of an inventory of the necessary scientific basis on the main consumer product categories, needed to make an estimate of the exposure risks for the consumer due to using products. https://esites.vito.be/sites/ephect/
... VOCs can be classified in bulk terms, for example, as "parfum" or "fragrance," for reasons of intellectual property protection, but also labeling practicality, since many hundreds of VOCs may be used in a formulation. Steinemann (2009Steinemann ( , 2015 and Steinemann et al. (2011) report the range of volatile emissions found in consumer products, [13][14][15] which predominantly comprises of terpenoids and alcohols. Headspace speciation of VOCs in consumer products is a useful starting point for assessing possible emissions, but in isolation does not provide sufficient information to assess how much VOC might be released to air from PCPs based on human activity in the real world. ...
... VOCs can be classified in bulk terms, for example, as "parfum" or "fragrance," for reasons of intellectual property protection, but also labeling practicality, since many hundreds of VOCs may be used in a formulation. Steinemann (2009Steinemann ( , 2015 and Steinemann et al. (2011) report the range of volatile emissions found in consumer products, [13][14][15] which predominantly comprises of terpenoids and alcohols. Headspace speciation of VOCs in consumer products is a useful starting point for assessing possible emissions, but in isolation does not provide sufficient information to assess how much VOC might be released to air from PCPs based on human activity in the real world. ...
Article
Full-text available
An increasing fraction of volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions come from the domestic use of solvents, contained within myriad commonplace consumer products. Emission rates are often poorly characterized and depend significantly on individual behavior and specific product formulation and usage. Time‐concentration profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) arising from the use of a representative selection of personal care products (PCPs) during showering are generated, and person‐to‐person variability in emissions calculated. A panel of 18 participants used a standardized set of products, dosages, and application times during showering in a controlled indoor bathroom setting. Proton transfer mass spectrometry was used to measure the in‐room VOC evolution of limonene (representing the sum of monoterpenes), benzyl alcohol, and ethanol. The release of VOCs had reproducible patterns between users, but noticeable variations in absolute peak concentrations, despite identical amounts of material being used. The amounts of VOC emitted to air for one showering activity were as follows: limonene (1.77 mg ± 42%), benzyl alcohol (1.07 mg ± 41%), and ethanol (0.33 mg ± 78%). Real‐world emissions to air were between 1.3 and 11 times lower than bottom‐up estimates based on dynamic headspace measurements of product emissions rates, likely a result of PCPs being washed away before VOC evaporation could occur.
... In 2009, Anne C. Steinemann of the University of Washington published a study of top-selling airfresheners and laundry products [23]. She found that all products tested gave off chemicals regulated as toxic or hazardous under federal laws, including carcinogens with no safe exposure level, but none of these chemicals were listed on any of the product labels or Material Safety Data Sheets. ...
... A plug-in air-freshener contained more than 20 different volatile organic compounds, with more than one-third classified as toxic or hazardous under federal laws. Even air-fresheners called "organic," "green," or with "essential oils" emitted hazardous chemicals, including carcinogens [23]. Sunlight air-freshener is the most common airfreshener in popularly used in Nigeria. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The use of air-freshener as deodorizer in Nigeria has become worrisome. Some people uses it in the office, car as well as in their homes, thereby constantly being exposed to it without consideration of its adverse effect on their health. Aim: This study is aimed at investigating the effect of air-freshener on sperm quality and male sex hormones. Methodology: Twenty Wistar rats were divided into two groups of ten each and kept in different rooms. Rats in group 1 were not exposed to any substance while those in group 2 were exposed to 'sunlight' air-freshener by inhalation for 8 hours daily for 28 days. Throughout the experiment, all animals were fed ad libitum with standard feed and drinking water. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed after an overnight fast under diethyl ether as anesthesia. Blood samples were collected via cardiac puncture. The internal organs were exposed. Testes and cauda epididymis were removed and kept in sterilized watched glass. Sperm quality and sex hormones were determined using standard methods. Original Research Article Airaodion et al.; ARJGO, 3(3): 19-31, 2020; Article no.ARJGO.58343 20 Results: Exposure of animals to 'sunlight' air freshener reduced sperm count, sperm motility and seminal pH, as well as the concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone. However, the decrease in the sperm count was not statistically significant when compared with those in control animals at P<0.05. Sperm motility and abnormality, as well as concentration of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were significantly (P<0.05) increased when animals exposed to air-freshener were compared with those in the control group. Conclusion: The result of this study has revealed that exposure of male rats to air-freshener adversely perturbed sperm quality and sex hormones, thus possesses the propensity to reduce fertility in men. Frequent use of air-freshener by men should be discouraged.
... In 2009, Anne C. Steinemann published a study of top-selling air fresheners and laundry products (Steinemann, 2009). She found that all products tested gave off chemicals regulated as toxic or hazardous under federal laws, including carcinogens with no safe exposure level, but none of these chemicals were listed on any of the product labels or Material Safety Data Sheets. ...
... A plug-in air freshener contained more than 20 different volatile organic compounds, with more than one-third classified as toxic or hazardous under federal laws. Even air fresheners called "organic," "green," or with "essential oils" emitted hazardous chemicals, including carcinogens (Steinemann, 2009). Sunlight air freshener ( Figure 1) is the most common air freshener in popularly used in Nigeria. ...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, the use of 'sunlight' air freshener in Nigeria is on the increase. Some people use air freshener in the office, car as well as in their homes, thereby constantly being exposed to it without consideration of its adverse effect on human health. This study is therefore aimed at assessing the effect of "sunlight" air freshener on oxidative stress biomarkers. Thirty (30) Wistar rats were divided into three groups of ten each and kept in different rooms. Rats in group 1 were not exposed to any substance; those in groups 2 and 3 were exposed to sunlight air freshener for 8 hours daily for 28 days by inhalation. After 28 days exposure, animals in group 3 were allowed to recover for 14 days. Throughout the experiment, all animals were fed ad libitum with standard feed and drinking water. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed after an overnight fast under diethyl ether as anesthesia. Blood samples were collected through cardiac puncture. Oxidative stress biomarkers were determined using standard methods. The result showed that air freshener significantly increased lipid peroxidation but significantly reduced glutathione concentration after 28 days of exposure. Activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) were observed to significantly increase due to air freshener exposure when compared with those in the control group. The effects of air freshener on oxidative stress biomarkers (except glutathione) were reversed when animals exposed to air freshener for 28 days were allowed to recover for 14 days. This study revealed that sunlight air freshener induced oxidative stress, thus possesses the propensity to destroy the immune system. Frequent use of this air freshener should be discouraged.
... A number of spray products contain VOCs in the form of fragrances, propellants, and other active ingredients. Some of the undisclosed constituents of the total volatile organic compounds present in household products have been classified as toxic and hazardous under federal laws of most developed countries (Steinemann, 2009). ...
... This indicates that occupants are often exposed to hazardous and toxic levels of TVOCs whenever the samples are used in the indoor environment. Also, recent investigations have suggested that TVOC concentrations in consumer spray products fall short of the general regulatory requirements as they were found to be far above the recommended limits (Steinemann, 2009). ...
Article
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Emission of volatile organic compounds from the use of household spray products has a negative impact on health and environment. Total volatile organic compound (TVOC) concentration levels emitted from 45 registered consumer spray products in Nigeria were measured using the MultiRAE TVOCs gas monitor. Human exposure to emitted TVOCs through inhalation, ingestion or through the dermal route was evaluated using the ConsExpo spray model. The average TVOCs emission from all the investigated samples was in the range of 1,664 and 560,994.7 µg m⁻³ with an average of 63,632.2 µg m⁻³. Generally for all the samples considered, the average released concentrations, the inhaled doses, the dermal doses, and the average deposition rates values obtained were in the ranges of 1.83E+04 - 1.00E+06 µg m⁻³; 1.47E+03 - 8.01E+04 µg; 3.41E+04 - 4.84E+05 µg; and 1.79E+01 - 1.01E+03 µg s⁻¹, respectively. The results provide information that could be used to significantly improve human exposure and risk assessment to emitted aerosols from spray products.
... Given that the labelling of HCPs, including green product formulations, does not need to disclose individual compounds due to proprietary considerations (Steinemann, 2009), the environmental impacts associated with their use and disposal, especially relative to conventional product formulations, remains largely unknown (Jones et al., 2001). Therefore, the present study aimed to determine (1) if green HCP formulations are less toxic than their respective conventional counterparts to commonly used aquatic test organisms, the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna and estuarine daggerblade grass shrimp (Palaemon pugio), and (2) if green HCPs are less toxic following a biodegradation treatment (grass shrimp) and photodegradation treatment (Daphnia). ...
Article
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Although it is generally assumed that green household consumer products (HCPs) contain individual compounds that are less toxic and/or more degradable than conventional HCPs, little research on this topic has been conducted. In our assessments, larval grass shrimp (Palaemon pugio) were used in a biodegradation study and juvenile freshwater cladocerans, Daphnia magna, were used in a photodegradation study. In each study, organisms were exposed to nondegraded and degraded treatments consisting of one green HCP and two conventional HCPs in six different categories (laundry detergent, dish detergent, mouthwash, insecticide, dishwasher gel, and all‐purpose cleaner). Sensitivity to these products were assessed using 48‐h static acute toxicity tests, and the median lethal concentrations (LC50s) then compared using an LC50 ratio test. For grass shrimp, only one green HCP (insecticide) was less toxic than both conventional HCPs. In one category (laundry detergent), the green HCP was the more toxic than either conventional HCP. Following a biodegradation treatment, none of the green product formulations became less toxic, whereas 44.4% of the conventional HCPs demonstrated decreased toxicity. For daphnids, green HCPs in three categories (dish detergent, insecticide, and all‐purpose cleaner) were less toxic than both conventional products tested. Following a photodegradation treatment, two green product formulations (dish detergent and dishwasher gel) became less toxic (33.3%), whereas 87.5% of the conventional HCPs demonstrated decreased toxicity. The present study demonstrates that green HCPs are not necessarily less toxic and/or more degradable than their conventional counterparts. These results also suggest that the toxicity and degradability of end‐product formulations need to be considered in the overall framework for green product evaluation. Environ Toxicol Chem 2022;00:1–10. © 2022 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of SETAC.
... Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a diverse collection of substances distinguished by their relatively high vapor pressures. Exposure to these substances can cause asthma, headaches, mucosal symptoms (Steinemann, 2008) and, in some situations (e.g., benzene), an elevated risk of cancer (Ott et al., 1978;Lynge et al., 1997). In Europe, benzene is the only VOC that is officially regulated in terms of air quality ( to reduce environmental concerns and emissions (Uren, 1997;Ohlrogge et al., 2000). ...
Conference Paper
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In the exploitation of solid minerals, people harness them with the intention of boosting their socio – economic activities. The solid minerals like coal, sand, gravel, talc, gypsum, iron ore, lead, zinc, bentonite, barite, gold, and bitumen are exploited unlawfully and cause environmental degradation in the country. In the study area, Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu State where active exploitation of solid minerals take place along Ekulu River. From the above mentioned problems, this study on appraising the unconventional exploitation of construction and solid minerals in Enugu North Local Government, was carried out with the following objectives; to identify the solid minerals in study area and to identify the unconventional exploitation practices in the study area. The descriptive empirical research was adopted in this study. The main reason for the adoption of this method was to obtain detailed and factual information about the various phenomena being studied, permitting their description and comparison as they really are.The entire three hundred and ninety seven (397) questionnaires administered to respondents in the study area were retrieved by the researcher. Data collected from the field work was presented and analysed in this section. A majority of the respondents said it causes erosion with 33.3% (132) while 15.1% (60) confirmed it increases health problems. Solid mineral exploitation practices in Enugu North Local Government Area have contaminated the Ekulu River through exposing unwanted ecological effects due to the uncontrolled disposal or poor management of mine wastes.
... Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a diverse collection of substances distinguished by their relatively high vapor pressures. Exposure to these substances can cause asthma, headaches, mucosal symptoms (Steinemann, 2008) and, in some situations (e.g., benzene), an elevated risk of cancer (Ott et al., 1978;Lynge et al., 1997). In Europe, benzene is the only VOC that is officially regulated in terms of air quality ( to reduce environmental concerns and emissions (Uren, 1997;Ohlrogge et al., 2000). ...
Conference Paper
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In this hostile atmosphere construction project managers must take crucial decisions to carry out the basic administrative tasks of planning, coordinating, leading, and managing to accomplish the predetermined project goals quickly and effectively. This study aims to fill a gap in the body of knowledge by evaluating the effectiveness of using time- and cost-oriented Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (tcFMEA) and Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) to replace the deterministic conception of decision making in the construction industry with the stochastic conception. To achieve this, following objectives considered; to identify risks within a construction project phase by using tcFMEA, to model the construction project phase and its associated risks by using computer software, to simulate the construction project phase and its associated risks by using MCS and to compare the stochastic model with the deterministic model. Construction project of computerized warehouse in Port Harcourt Nigeria was analyzed. The project started in 02.02.2017 and finished in 01.04.2019. It consists of more than 150 main activities, including architectural, civil, mechanical, and electrical works. The findings of the tcFMEA and MCS showed that based on the deterministic finish period of Monday, April 9, 2018, with a span of 281 days, the likelihood of completing the construction project process was 20%. Furthermore, based on a deterministic fixed cost rise of N0, the likelihood of completing the construction project process is 0%. This means that due to the complexity and individual uncertainties involved with construction project operations, the time and expense of the construction project process are likely to rise by 80% and 100%, respectively.
... Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a diverse collection of substances distinguished by their relatively high vapor pressures. Exposure to these substances can cause asthma, headaches, mucosal symptoms (Steinemann, 2008) and, in some situations (e.g., benzene), an elevated risk of cancer (Ott et al., 1978;Lynge et al., 1997). In Europe, benzene is the only VOC that is officially regulated in terms of air quality ( to reduce environmental concerns and emissions (Uren, 1997;Ohlrogge et al., 2000). ...
Conference Paper
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Tertiary Education Trust Fund (TETFund) construction project delivery in Nigeria is the biggest benefactor to its public tertiary education institutions. To measure the Fund‘s delivery performance, an important factor in measuring project performance is timely completion at an agreed price and in specified quality. However, despite the growing concerns on the poor time performances of the Fund‘s construction projects delivery, time overrun still a common problem without effective solution. Hence, the study interrogated the Fund‘s projects delivery in the southeast. The objectives of this analysis aim at establishing the time performance of TETFund construction project delivery in the public tertiary education institutions in Southeast, Nigeria from 2015 to 2021. 119 TETFund construction projects in the 7 public tertiary institutions in Enugu State were sampled using single-stage cluster sampling technique. 140 structured questionnaires were developed and distributed to Consultants, contractors and other key Personnel involved in each TETFund intervention projects. The data was analysed using frequency, percent student‘s t test. The result revealed that the prevalence of time overrun on the Fund‘s project is 72% out of the 119 TETFund sponsored construction projects in Enugu state public tertiary education. Of the total, 28% (33) were completed on schedule, 29% (35) experienced time overruns, 39% (46) were ongoing beyond their project schedule while 4% (5) were abandoned. The mean estimated project cost by consultants was significantly lower than the awarded sums (t = 2.411, p = 0.018). The paper concludes that to improve the Fund‘s projects time performance regarding fixed price and materials price escalation, the materials‘ component of the bill should be extracted and paid to the contractor in advance, for procurement.
... However public awareness regarding this particular product is low. Because the present regulations do not require disclosure of all the ingredients in a consumer product, or of any ingredient in a mixture is called "fragrance" (Anne et al, 2011;Anne, 2009).This may create polluted indoors which in turn may cause health problems that can be either short term or long term for the occupant (Building sand their Impact on the Environment, 2009). ...
Conference Paper
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Since the land is scarce in urban areas, more and more compact buildings are created for residential and commercial purposes. Compact nature of buildings, demand mechanical ventilation systems, for which air conditioners are the main source. This creates enclosed spaces inside the buildings causing restricted fresh air supply. In order to remove the various accumulated odors, air fresheners are used in most of the enclosed indoor spaces. Although air fresheners are provided pleasant odor inside the room, it may contain some chemicals which would disturb the comfort level and health of the occupants. The research presented in this paper was aimed at investigation of dispersion patterns of pollutants due to spraying of air freshener in the enclosed spaces. A case study conducted in a test chamber, includes the measurement of several pollutants such as TVOC, CO, CO 2 and PM 2.5. Dispersion patterns of the pollutants with time and distance was studied in detail. It was found that at some distance points and up to a certain period of time, the concentration of TVOC is much higher than the threshold value. Also the toxicity index is more than one, which reveals that spraying of air freshener can cause some discomfort to the occupants unless proper operational practices are adopted.
... Mild exposure to this compound leads to nausea. Overexposure of this compound may result in headache, dizziness, tiredness and unconsciousness (Steinemann 2009). Similarly, 3,7-dimethyl-6-octen-1-ol is observed in the samples P-1 and P-5 with a peak area percentage of 2.75 and 5.49, respectively, which may cause eye and skin irritation. ...
Preprint
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The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in cosmetics pose a series threat to the environment and their exposure causes a variety of ailments in human beings. The present work analyses systematically the presence of VOCs in samples of cosmetic products available in open market such as, aftershave lotion, face cream, hair dye, lipsticks, perfumes, shampoos and talcum powders by GC–MS. The investigation revealed the prevalence of more than 158 hazardous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) out of 243 organic compounds in 20 samples of the cosmetic products. The detected VOCs fall into six major groups viz. , alcohols, esters, ethers, carboxylic acids and amides. Among all the VOCs detected, diethyl phthalate is found to be present in majority of the samples, which could cause mild eye and skin irritations and affect the central nervous system depending on the dosage. The samples were also found to contain certain fatty acid methyl esters. The study suggests proper instructions on the labels of such products to warn the customers. Further, finding non-toxic alternatives to existing additives has also been emphasized.
... Een mogelijke verklaring kan gevonden worden in het ontbreken van een duidelijk onderscheid in de samenstelling van de reguliere producten en de groen A.I.S.E-label gecertificeerde producten. (Steinemann, 2009;Steinemann et al., 2011).. Dit beperkt de impact van studies die uitgevoerd zijn op basis van etiketten en veiligheidsinformatiebladen. ...
Thesis
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Achtergrond: Detergenten worden vaak gebruikt in huishoudens voor het reinigen van materiaal of textiel. Sinds de opkomst van de mono-dosiswasmiddelen onder de vorm van pods (caps) of wastabletten zijn er gevallen vastgesteld waarbij kinderen ziek zijn geworden na het opeten of kapot knijpen ervan. Uit onderzoek lijken deze pods toxischer te zijn in vergelijking met vloeibare of poedervormige detergenten. In deze masterproef wordt gekeken naar de milieu- en gezondheidsimpact van diverse mono dosiswasmiddelen in de vorm van pods en wastabletten en hoe de consument hiervan op de hoogte wordt gebracht. Methode: Er werden data verzameld van mono-dosiswasmiddelen in de drie grootste Vlaamse supermarktketens (Colruyt, Delhaize en Carrefour). Op basis van de samenstelling zoals vermeld op de verpakking van de wasmiddelen en in de veiligheidsinformatiebladen, is gekeken naar de gevarensymbolen van de individuele bestanddelen. Daarnaast is gekeken naar de manieren waarop producenten communiceren over deze gevareneigenschappen met consumenten. Resultaten: Alle onderzochte wasmiddelen bevatten bestanddelen die gevaarlijk kunnen zijn voor de gezondheid en/of het milieu. Ecologische wasmiddelen lijken beter te scoren op milieutoxiciteit dan reguliere producten, maar bevatten meer bestanddelen met een mogelijk ernstig gezondheidsgevaar. Op vlak van sommige gevarensymbolen scoren producten van huismerken beter en op andere slechter dan de reguliere producten. Het verschil in samenstelling tussen reguliere producten en producten met een Sustainable Cleaning label lijkt echter klein te zijn. Over de gevaren wordt vooral gecommuniceerd via CLP-gevarensymbolen, aangevuld met symbolen van de International Association for Soaps, Detergents and Maintenance Products, en geschreven instructies/waarschuwingen op de verpakking. Conclusie: Ecologische producten lijken beter te scoren op milieu-impact dan de overige productcategorieën. Ze scoren echter slechter voor wat betreft bestanddelen met een ernstig gezondheidsgevaar in vergelijking met reguliere wasmiddelen. Er lijkt geen verschil te zijn tussen reguliere wasmiddelen en wasmiddelen met een Sustainable cleaning label. Om met meer zekerheid uitspraken te kunnen doen over de milieu- en gezondheidsimpact van de wasmiddelen zijn echter specifieke toxiciteitstesten of informatie over de concentraties van de bestanddelen, nodig.
... Moreover, according to the Environmental Working Group (EWG), fragrances are considered to be among the top five allergens and can trigger asthma attacks. Testing by the EWG also revealed that 75% of the fragrances contain phthalates [59]. Meanwhile, near the shopping center II entity (located near several car washing and repair shops and catering companies), the concentration of DEHP was also very high-50 µg/L. ...
Article
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Publisher's Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Abstract: Phthalate acid esters (PAEs) are widely used as raw materials for industries that are well known for their environmental contamination and toxicological effects as "endocrine disruptors". The determining of PAE contamination was based on analysis of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dipropyl phthalate (DPP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in wastewater and sediment samples collected from city sewer systems of Lithuania and Poland, and Denmark for comparison. The potential PAE sources as well as their concentrations in the wastewater were analyzed and discussed. The intention of the study was to determine the level and key sources of pollution by phthalates in some Eastern European countries and to reveal the successful managerial actions to minimize PAEs taken by Denmark. Water and sludge samples were collected in 2019-2020 and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The highest contamination with phthalates in Lithuania can be attributed to DEHP: up to 63% of total PAEs in water samples and up to 94% of total PAEs in sludge samples, which are primarily used as additive compounds to plastics but do not react with them and are gradually released into the environment. However, in water samples in Poland, the highest concentration belonged to DMP-up to 210 µg/L, while the share of DEHP reached 15 µg/L. The concentrations of priority phthalate esters in the water samples reached up to 159 µg/L (DEHP) in Lithuania and up to 1.2 µg/L (DEHP) in Denmark. The biggest DEHP concentrations obtained in the sediment samples were 95 mg/kg in Lithuania and up to 6.6 mg/kg in Denmark. The dominant compounds of PAEs in water samples of Lithuania were DEHP > DEP > DiBP > DBP > DMP. DPP and DCHP concentrations were less than 0.05 µg/L. However, the distribution of PAEs in the water samples from Poland was as follows: DMP > DEHP > DEP > DBP, and DiBP, as well as DPP and DCHP, concentrations were less than 0.05 µg/L. Further studies are recommended for adequate monitoring of phthalates in wastewater and sludge in order to reduce or/and predict phthalates' potential risk to hydrobiots and human health.
... Adapted from the work of Angulo Milhem et al. [18], Fig. 1 shows the occurrence percentages of the 19 main terpenes identified in the liquid composition of 450 household cleaning products. Aggregated data are retrieved from 14 different references published between 2001 and 2015, i.e., [19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32]. Each of these works highlights the significance and recurrence of household cleaning products as indoor sources of terpenes. ...
Article
Beyond their indoor emission by various sources, another aspect of the presence of VOCs in confined environments involves their indoor fate. Terpenes, because of their ubiquity, source variety and reactivity, are VOCs whose contributions to the indoor air quality may largely exceed primary emissions because of possible secondary processes such uptake and secondary emissions. Limonene is flagged as a species typifying the behavior of terpenes, and a selection of representative indoor materials is proposed. Limonene uptake characterization of selected surfaces is performed under typical indoor conditions using a FLEC-based experimental setup allowing (i) limonene partitioning coefficient determination and (ii) quantification of the reversible nature of this interaction. Interestingly, the materials of interest exhibit highly differentiated affinities for limonene, evidencing the contrast in their surface contributions to terpene loss. Glazing is confirmed as a non-significant sink, while cotton fabric and gypsum board are major contributors to limonene surface loss and exhibit high surface uptake capacities. This work allows a quantitative ranking of the selected materials from minor to major limonene sinks. Reversibility quantification of the uptake process provides key insights into further secondary limonene emissions. The major sink materials are highlighted such as inducing irreversible limonene uptake, thus creating indoor surface pools of reactive organics possibly available for further oxidation processes.
... Ingredients in fragranced consumer products are not required to be specifically and fully disclosed, in any country (Lunny et al. 2017;Steinemann 2015Steinemann , 2009Steinemann et al. 2011). Main components of the regulations are as follows: ...
Article
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Fragrance is used in consumer products around the world. However, fragrance has been associated with adverse effects on indoor and outdoor air quality and human health. Questions arise, such as the following: Why does fragrance in products pose problems? What are sources of emissions and exposures? What are health and societal effects? What are possible solutions? This paper examines the issue of fragranced consumer products and its science and policy dimensions, with a focus on the implications for air quality and human health. Results include new findings and new questions for future research directions.
... Ingredients in fragranced laundry products are not required to be fully disclosed, in any country (Lunny et al. 2017;Steinemann 2009). Thus, relatively little is known about specific chemical emissions and exposures. ...
Article
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Fragranced laundry products emit numerous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including terpenes such as limonene. Fragrance emissions have been associated with adverse health effects such as asthma attacks and breathing difficulties. Further, fragrance terpenes are primary indoor air pollutants that can react with other compounds and contribute to both indoor and outdoor air pollution. This paper examines volatile emissions and exposures from fragranced laundry products, and the implications for air quality and health. The paper synthesizes and analyzes data from studies conducted across the United States (US) and Australia (AU), providing results in three main themes: adverse health effects associated with exposure to fragranced laundry products, volatile emissions from fragranced and fragrance-free laundry products, and reductions in VOC emissions by switching from fragranced to fragrance-free products. Across the US and AU, 12.5% and 6.1% of the general population and 28.9% and 12.1% of asthmatics report health problems (respectively) when exposed to scented laundry products coming from a dryer vent. Among the volatile emissions from products, terpenes were the most prevalent VOCs detected in all fragranced laundry products; however, terpenes were absent in all fragrance-free products. By switching from fragranced to fragrance-free laundry products, dryer vent emissions of limonene can be reduced up to 99.7%. As context for significance, switching from fragranced to fragrance-free laundry detergent could reduce limonene emissions from dryer vents per household by an estimated 1.68 g/year. For the study area of metropolitan Melbourne, this represents a reduction in limonene emissions by an estimated 1.58 tons/year. Results from these analyses point to a promising way to reduce emissions and exposures to volatile compounds, and create potential improvements for air quality and health.
... Further, a "fragrance" in a product is also exempted from full ingredient disclosure, even though a fragrance is typically a complex mixture of dozens of chemicals. Although products regulated as drugs or cosmetics need to list ingredients, the general term "fragrance" may be listed, instead of specific compounds (see Steinemann 2009;Lunny et al. 2017). ...
Article
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The recent pandemic (COVID-19) has seen a sweeping and surging use of products intended to clean and disinfect, such as air sprays, hand sanitizers, and surface cleaners, many of which contain fragrance. However, exposure to fragranced cleaning products has been associated with adverse effects on human health. Products can emit a range of volatile chemicals, including some classified as hazardous, but relatively few ingredients are disclosed to the public. Thus, relatively little is known about the specific emissions from these products. This study investigates the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from “pandemic products” that are being used frequently and extensively in society. In addition, among these emissions, this study identifies potentially hazardous compounds, compares so-called green and regular versions of products, and examines whether ingredients are disclosed to the public. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, 26 commonly used pandemic products, including 13 regular and 13 so-called green versions, were analyzed for their volatile emissions. Product types included hand sanitizers, air disinfectants, multipurpose cleaners, and handwashing soap. All products were fragranced. The analyses found the products collectively emitted 399 VOCs with 127 VOCs classified as potentially hazardous. All products emitted potentially hazardous compounds. Comparing regular products and green products, no significant difference was found in the emissions of the most prevalent compounds. Further, among the 399 compounds emitted, only 4% of all VOCs and 11% of potentially hazardous VOCs were disclosed on any product label or safety data sheet. This study reveals that pandemic products can generate volatile emissions that could pose risks to health, that could be unrecognized, and that could be reduced, such as by using fragrance-free versions of products.
... Chemical disclosure is not required for the fragrances used in many products, which may be composed of mixtures of dozens to hundreds of chemicals. [19][20][21] Volatile organic compound levels in hotels have been reported in a few studies, [22][23][24] but information regarding inhalation exposure of hotel workers is missing. This omission is important since personal measurements typically exceed levels measured using indoor or area sampling; in hotels, this may result due to housekeepers' close and direct contact with cleaning agents. ...
Article
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Hotel housekeepers represent a large, low‐income, predominantly minority, and high‐risk workforce. Little is known about their exposure to chemicals, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study evaluates VOC exposures of housekeepers, sources and factors affecting VOC levels, and provides preliminary estimates of VOC‐related health risks. We utilized indoor and personal sampling at two hotels, assessed ventilation, and characterized the VOC composition of cleaning agents. Personal sampling of hotel staff showed a total target VOC concentration of 57 ± 36 µg/m3 (mean ± standard deviation), about twice that of indoor samples. VOCs of greatest health significance included chloroform and formaldehyde. Several workers had exposure to alkanes that could cause non‐cancer effects. VOC levels were negatively correlated with estimated air change rates. The composition and concentrations of the tested products and air samples helped identify possible emission sources, which included building sources (for formaldehyde), disinfection byproducts in the laundry room, and cleaning products. VOC levels and the derived health risks in this study were at the lower range found in the US buildings. The excess lifetime cancer risk (average of 4.1 × 10‐5) still indicates a need to lower exposure by reducing or removing toxic constituents, especially formaldehyde, or by increasing ventilation rates.
... A fragranced product typically emits dozens of volatile ingredients, including some classified as hazardous air pollutants (Steinemann 2015;Nematollahi et al. 2019). However, no law requires products to disclose all ingredients (Lunny et al. 2017;Steinemann 2009), and fewer than 10% of ingredients are typically listed on labels or safety data sheets (Steinemann 2015;Nematollahi et al. 2019). ...
Article
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Fragranced consumer products, such as air fresheners and cleaning supplies, have been associated with health problems including migraine headaches. This study investigates the prevalence of migraines associated with exposure to fragranced products. Nationally representative population surveys (n = 4435) across four countries—the United States (US), Australia (AU), the United Kingdom (UK), and Sweden (SE)—found that, on average, 12.6% of adults report migraine headaches when exposed to fragranced products (15.7% US, 10.0% AU, 8.4% UK, 16.1% SE). Among those individuals, 43.2% report migraines from air fresheners or deodorizers, 15.0% from the scent of laundry products coming from a dryer vent, 39.9% from being in a room cleaned with scented products, 53.7% from being near someone wearing a fragranced product, and 45.7% from other types of fragranced products. Furthermore, 30.6% of these individuals have lost workdays or lost a job, in the past year, due to fragranced product exposure in the workplace. Findings from this study indicate that migraine headaches can be associated with fragranced consumer products, and that reducing exposure could reduce adverse health and societal effects.
... 5 Historically, aims to regulate indoor VOCs tend to focus on building materials, and with particular attention toward compounds such as formaldehyde, benzene, and toluene. Less thought has been paid to the VOCs emitted from the use of PCPs (personal care products) [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15] and HCPs (household cleaning products) [16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23] which, along with other domestic emissions of VOCs, [24][25][26] are now known to be a substantial contributor to overall VOC emissions. 4 Within this study, PCPs refer to cosmetic and hygiene products available to the public for personal use. ...
Article
Full-text available
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from personal care products (PCPs) can affect indoor air quality, and outdoor air quality when ventilated. In this paper we determine a set of simplified VOC species profiles and emission rates for a range of non‐aerosol PCPs. These have been constructed from individual vapour analysis from 36 products available in the UK, using equilibrium headspace analysis with selected‐ion flow‐tube mass spectrometry (SIFT‐MS). A simplified speciation profile is created based on the observations, comprising four alcohols, two cyclic volatile siloxanes, and monoterpenes (grouped as limonene). Estimates are made for individual unit‐of‐activity VOC emissions for dose‐usage of shampoos, shower gel, conditioner, liquid foundation, and moisturiser. We use these values as inputs to the INdoor air Detailed Chemical Model (INDCM) and compare results against real‐world case‐study experimental data. Activity‐based emissions are then scaled based on plausible usage patterns to estimate the potential scale of annual per‐person emissions for each product type (e.g. 2 g limonene person‐1 yr‐1 from shower gels). Annual emissions from non‐aerosol PCPs for the UK are then calculated (decamethylcyclopentasiloxane 0.25 ktonne yr‐1, and limonene 0.15 ktonne yr‐1) and these compared with the UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory estimates for non‐aerosol cosmetics and toiletries.
... However, ingredients in fragranced consumer products are largely undisclosed (Steinemann 2019b). No law in any country requires that consumer products (other than foods, drugs, and cosmetics) disclose all specific ingredients (Steinemann 2009). Further, the fragrance formulation in any product is exempt from full ingredient disclosure (Steinemann 2015;Lunny et al. 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Emissions from everyday consumer products have been associated with adverse effects on air quality and health. This study investigates volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from 134 common consumer products, both fragranced and fragrance-free, including those with claims of green. Product types include personal care products, air fresheners, cleaning supplies, laundry products, and sunscreens. Using GC/MS headspace analysis, this study found 1538 VOC occurrences (individual ingredients), representing 338 VOC identities (different compounds), emitted from the 134 consumer products. Among the 1538 VOCs, 517 VOCs are classified as potentially hazardous. The most common VOC emitted from the 104 fragranced products was limonene, which was absent in fragrance-free versions. Comparing the green and regular fragranced products, no significant difference was found between the most prevalent potentially hazardous VOCs. Among all volatile ingredients emitted, fewer than 4% were listed on product labels. This study provides extensive findings on volatile emissions from consumer products, which can improve awareness of potential exposures and effects on air quality and health.
... Chemical substances released from AF have been reported to cause brain injury through induction of oxidative stress, which is a strong risk factor in the etiology of various mental health complications including mood disorders and cognitive impairments [9]. Studies have also shown that VOCs found in AF react rapidly with ozoneto produce deleterious oxidant molecules and other related oxidative products [3]. ...
Article
The study evaluated the role of cytochrome C and pro-inflammatory cytokines in memory deficit produced by a commercial solid air freshener (SAF) in male Swiss mice. The animals were culled into 6 groups (n = 7): group 2-6 were exposed to SAF (10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 g) for 28 consecutive days through whole body exposure. Mice in group 1(control) were exposed to fresh air. Memory function was evaluated on day 28 using standard models. Mice brains were then processed for estimation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6, cytochrome C expression and histomorphologic changes. The chemical constituents of SAF were also determined using GC-MS.SAF (100 and 200 mg/kg) produced memory decline and increased brain contents of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (p <0.05) but not interleukin-6 (p > 0.05) relative to control. Increased cytochrome C immunopositive cells, reduced neuronal cells and cytoarchitectural changes were observed in the hippocampus of mice exposed to SAF (200 g). MS GC-profiling showed the presence of 7 major volatile organic constituents in SAF. Increased release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and cytochrome C expression might play a role in SAF-induced memory deficit in mice.
... Characterisation of Ag in (nano)silver personal care products The 8 PCPs used in this study (PCP1-PCP8; Table 1) are commercially available products that, according to their labels, contain Ag as an active antibacterial agent. The Ag content was reported by the manufacturers on 7 of the 8 product labels, but as previous research has revealed discrepancies between the information provided by manufacturers and the actual contents of commercial products, 45 the concentration of Ag in each of these products was also measured. Triplicate 300 mg samples of each product were diluted with 3.7 ml of ultrapure water, and acidified by adding 1 ml of reverse aqua regia (HNO 3 : HCl 3 : 1 ratio) as recommended for improved Ag recovery using US EPA Method 3051A. ...
Article
The objective of this study was to test the original speciation of silver (Ag) in eight different commercially available personal care products and investigate the chemical transformation of Ag during exposure to two types of synthetic greywater. The antimicrobial activity of the products was examined to determine the relationship between Ag content and speciation with the antibacterial functionality of the products. The Ag content of each product was quantified and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis was used to investigate the initial speciation in the products and the changes occurring upon mixture with greywater. The results showed that the total Ag concentration in the products ranged from 17 to 30 mg kg-1, and was usually below the value reported on the label. Analyses revealed the complexity of Ag speciation in these products and highlighted the importance of characterisation studies to help elucidate the potential risks of nano-Ag in the environment. The antibacterial results confirmed that the antibacterial efficacy of the products depends on the concentration, form and speciation of Ag in the products, but is also significantly affected by product formulation. For instance, many of the products contained additional bactericidal ingredients, making it difficult to determine how much of the bactericidal effect was due directly to the Ag content/species. This paper offers some suggestions for standard methodologies to facilitate cross-comparison of potential risks across different studies and nano-enabled products.
... Further, no law requires full disclosure of all ingredients in a consumer product (other than for foods, drugs, and cosmetics), not even the general term "fragrance." Thus, consumers have limited information about individual fragrance ingredients in a product as well as whether a product even contains a fragrance (Lunny et al. 2017;Steinemann 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
Emissions and exposures from fragranced consumer products, such as air fresheners and cleaning supplies, have been associated with health problems and societal impacts. This study investigates effects of fragranced consumer products on the general population in four countries: United States, Australia, United Kingdom, and Sweden. Nationally representative population surveys (n = 1137; 1098; 1100; 1100) found that, across the four countries, 32.2% of adults (34.7%, 33.0%, 27.8%, 33.1% respectively) report fragrance sensitivity; that is, adverse health effects from fragranced consumer products. For instance, 17.4% report health problems from air fresheners or deodorizers, and 15.7% from being in a room cleaned with scented products. Commonly reported health problems include respiratory difficulties (16.7%), mucosal symptoms (13.2%), migraine headaches (12.6%), skin rashes (9.1%), and asthma attacks (7.0%). For 9.5% of the population, the severity of health effects can be considered disabling. Further, 9.0% of the population have lost workdays or lost a job, in the past year, due to illness from fragranced product exposure in the workplace. Personal estimated costs due to these lost workdays and lost jobs, across the four countries in one year, exceed $146 billion (USD). A majority of people across the countries would prefer that workplaces, health care facilities and professionals, hotels, and airplanes were fragrance-free rather than fragranced. The study highlights a concern for public health and societal well-being, as well as an approach to reduce risks and costs: reduce exposure to fragranced products.
... Further, no law requires full disclosure of all ingredients in a consumer product (other than for foods, drugs, and cosmetics). Thus, consumers have limited information on fragrance ingredients as well as whether a product even contains a fragrance (Lunny et al. 2017;Steinemann 2009). ...
Article
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Asthma is an international concern, with risks linked to air pollutants. Fragranced consumer products, such as air fresheners and cleaning supplies, have been associated with health problems such as asthma attacks and breathing difficulties. This study investigates the health and societal effects of fragranced products on asthmatics in four countries: United States, Australia, United Kingdom, and Sweden. Nationally representative population surveys (n = 1137; 1098; 1100; 1100) found that, across the four countries, 26.0% of adults (n = 1151) are asthmatic, reporting medically diagnosed asthma (15.8%), an asthma-like condition (11.1%), or both. Among these asthmatics, 57.8% report adverse health effects, including asthma attacks (25.0%), respiratory problems (37.7%), and migraine headaches (22.6%), from exposure to fragranced products. In particular, 36.7% of asthmatics report health problems from air fresheners or deodorizers, 18.1% from the scent of laundry products coming from a dryer vent, 32.9% from being in a room cleaned with scented products, 38.7% from being near someone wearing a fragranced product, and 37.5% from other types of fragranced products. For 24.1% of asthmatics, health problems from fragranced products are potentially disabling. Further, 20.6% of asthmatics have lost workdays or lost a job, in the past year, due to fragranced product exposure in the workplace. Fragrance-free environments received widespread support. More than twice as many individuals, both asthmatics as well as non-asthmatics, would prefer that workplaces, health care facilities and professionals, airplanes, and hotels were fragrance-free rather than fragranced. This study provides evidence that asthmatics can be profoundly, adversely, and disproportionately affected by exposure to fragranced consumer products. Moreover, the study points to a relatively straightforward and cost-effective approach to reduce risks; namely, to reduce exposure to fragranced products.
... It is likely that this data gap results from the failure to report specific chemicals on the MSDS due to the low concentrations of the chemicals, lack of information about fragrance mixtures purchased from third parties, or the absence of toxicity data. Formulations are also confidential, and no U.S. regulation requires the disclosure of any ingredient in a fragrance mixture, or of all ingredients in consumer products [43]. This kind of underreporting likely occurs for other functions as well. ...
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Various BIM capability and maturity models have been developed to assist architecture, engineering, construction and facilities management (AEC/FM) organizations in measuring the performance of their BIM utilizations. Due to differences in applicability and focus of these models, they are able to meet the demands of different BIM users. In this study, eight BIM capability and maturity models identified in the literature are compared based on several different criteria. The results show that there is no holistic model that includes process definitions that cover the facility life-cycle and contains measures for assessing all of these AEC/FM processes. A reference model for assessing BIM capability of AEC/FM processes was developed. It was grounded on the meta-model of ISO/IEC 330xx family of standards and developed iteratively via expert reviews and an exploratory case study. It includes AEC/FM processes which were evaluated using the BIM capability levels, their associated BIM attributes, and a four-point rating scale. BIM-CAREM was evaluated by conducting four explanatory case studies. The results showed that BIM-CAREM was capable of identifying BIM capabilities of different AEC/FM processes.
... Fragrant and consumer products can emit some carbonyl species such as acetone and hexanal (Steinemann, 2009) and p-tolualdehyde (Chiang et al., 2010) and these compounds showed I/O ratios above 6 at CN3. Moreover, indoor p-tolualdehyde value was highest (7.7 μgm −3 ) at CN2 with I/O ratio 17. ...
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Air pollution related problems in urban areas of developing countries get bigger quickly. Yangon is the most urbanized and most densely populated city in Myanmar. Information on air quality of Yangon is still lacking. Therefore, we conducted this study for initial assessment of outdoor and indoor air quality of Yangon. Four kinds of diffusive air samplers were used to measure volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone and carbonyl com-pounds, acidic gases and ammonia. As a result of this study, higher alkanes were found dominant among outdoor VOCs. Benzene/toluene ratios ranged from 0.15 to 0.53. Formaldehyde/acetaldehyde ratios varied from 1.5 to 2.4. Maximum outdoor ozone value was 26 μgm−3. A strong negative correlation between outdoor ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations was noted. Compared with previous local studies, outdoor nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide concentrations were found to be on the increasing trend. The indoor/outdoor ratios at some sites revealed that there were indoor sources for α-pinene, d-limonene, p-dichlorobenzene and methyl isobutyl ketone. The ratios of pollutants with outdoor sources mostly ranged between 1 and 2. In conclusions, although it is a preliminary assessment, the findings can provide invaluable information towards comprehensive picture of air quality of Yangon. Outdoor air quality is found contaminated with pollutants most of which are traffic-related indicating that the city is now facing high traffic volume greater than before. Indoor air quality is varied with indoor characteristics of the buildings. Gases with health concern are identified in indoor air. Inadequate ventilation may precipitate poor indoor air quality.
... Air fresheners are products that do not significantly reduce air pollution, but rather add more substances with a "fresh" odour strong enough to mask a bad odour. [14]. ...
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Given the continuous and widespread use of air freshener as a means of masking or elimination of unpleasant smell and its associated health risks that have been reported, this study investigated the effects of exposure to Air freshener on the Blood Electrolytes as well as the Bleeding time. Gel air fresheners, in an enclose cage and eighteen wistar albino rats were used for this study. The rats were divided into six groups of three rats each. Group A served as control that was not exposed to air freshener, groups B, C, D, E and F were exposed for 2, 4, 6,8 and 10 hours respectively. Bleeding time test was carried out as well as the assay for blood electrolyte concentrations: (Na + , K + , HCO 3-, Cl-and Ca 2+) using the Ultra Violet spectrophotometer. The result of the blood electrolyte assays and that of the bleeding time were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance. Results obtained showed that the bleeding time increased significantly (P≤0.05) at 4, 6, 8 and 10 hours of exposure and there was a significant difference in electrolytes concentration of exposed animals compared to the control group. This study therefore suggests a reduction in exposure to air fresheners as its adverse health effect is proportional to the length of exposure.
... Most of the air fresheners contain five basic ingredients: formaldehyde, phthalate, parabens, petroleum distillates, and p-dichlorobenzene that impose serious health hazards like nausea, infertility, neurological dysfunction, leukemia and cancer [13]. Many air fresheners do not even disclose their chemical constituents [12]. Few air fresheners utilize natural herbs and essential oils, but they require an active source like electric power to heat them up for fragrance delivery as in case of plugins [3]. ...
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p> In this work, air freshening spongey 3D nanofibrous membrane of nylon-6 (N6) is fabricated via electrospinning process. Viscous N6 solution dissolved in formic acid/acetic acid solvent system was allowed for electrospinning to obtain 2D membrane. As-fabricated 2D membrane is converted into 3D one by using gas foaming technique. Lemon grass essential oil as a fragrance was incorporated through 2D and 3D porous membrane by evaporating essential oil at 60°C for 5 hours. The morphology of different membranes was examined from FE-SEM images which showed that 3D membrane is far porous than 2D one. The control fragrance release from the 3D spongy membrane was evaluated from the weight loss of oil-loaded membrane for 60 days which showed that the 3D membrane had more oil uptake and the controlled release of oil over the studied time. FT-IR spectra of oil-incorporated 3D membrane at different interval of times indicated the presence of fragrance even after the 60 days. The result showed that as-fabricated sponge 3D membrane may be a potential candidate for the future air freshening materials. Journal of the Institute of Engineering , 2018, 14(1): 14-21</p
... In the European Union, the cosmetics directive requires listing of any of 26 fragrance allergens present above 0.001% in leave-on products and 0.01% in rinse-off products (EC 2009). However, currently no law in Sweden, or in any other country (to best knowledge), requires complete disclosure of all ingredients in fragranced consumer products (Steinemann 2009;Lunny et al. 2017). ...
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Fragranced consumer products—such as cleaning supplies, perfume, and air fresheners—have been associated with indoor air pollutants and adverse human health effects. Through a nationally representative population-based survey, this study investigates sources and risks associated with exposure to fragranced consumer products in Sweden. It examines the frequency and types of fragranced product use, associated health effects, exposure situations, knowledge of product emissions, and preferences for fragrance-free policies and indoor environments. Data were collected in July 2017 using an online survey of adults (n = 1100), representative of age, gender, and region in Sweden. Across the Swedish population, 33.1% report health problems, such as respiratory difficulties (20.0%), migraine headaches (16.1%), and asthma attacks (5.5%), when exposed to fragranced products. Of these reports, 24.2% could be considered potentially disabling. While 98.5% use fragranced products at least once a week, 70.9% were unaware that fragranced products, even ones called green and organic, can emit potentially hazardous air pollutants. Importantly, 6.7% of the population lost workdays or a job, in the past year, due to exposure to fragranced products in the workplace. Also, 18.1% enter and then leave a business as quickly as possible due to air fresheners or a fragranced product. A strong majority of the population would prefer that workplaces, health care facilities and professionals, airplanes, and hotels were fragrance-free rather than fragranced. Results from this study provide new and important evidence that exposure to fragranced consumer products is pervasive in Sweden, that these exposures are associated with adverse health and societal effects, and that reducing exposures such as through fragrance-free policies can provide benefits to air quality and public health.
... Exposure to fragranced consumer products, such as air fresheners, cleaning supplies, laundry detergents, perfumes, household items, and personal care products, has been associated with adverse human health effects (Steinemann 2009). Effects include headaches and migraines (Andress-Rothrock et al. 2010;Silva-Néto et al. 2013), contact dermatitis (Johansen 2003;Rastogi et al. 2007), infant diarrhea and earache (Farrow et al. 2003), reductions in lung and pulmonary function (Dales et al. 2013;Shim and Williams 1986), irritation of the airway mucosa (Elberling et al. 2005), and exacerbation of asthma symptoms (Kumar et al. 1995;Millqvist and Löwhagen 1996;Shim and Williams 1986;Weinberg et al. 2017). ...
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Exposure to fragranced consumer products, such as air fresheners and cleaning supplies, is associated with adverse health effects such as asthma attacks, breathing difficulties, and migraine headaches. This study investigated the prevalence and types of health problems associated with exposure to fragranced products among asthmatic Australians. Nationally representative cross-sectional data were obtained in June 2016 with an online survey of adult Australians (n = 1098), of which 28.5% were medically diagnosed with asthma or an asthma-like condition. Nationally, 55.6% of asthmatics, and 23.9% of non-asthmatics, report adverse health effects after exposure to fragranced products. Specifically, 24.0% of asthmatics report an asthma attack. Moreover, 18.2% of asthmatics lost workdays or a job in the past year due to fragranced products in the workplace. Over 20% of asthmatics are unable to access public places and restrooms that use air fresheners. Exposure to fragranced products is associated with health problems, some potentially serious, in an estimated 2.2 million asthmatic adult Australians. Asthmatics were proportionately more affected than non-asthmatics (prevalence odds ratio 3.98; 95% confidence interval 3.01–5.24). Most asthmatics would prefer workplaces, healthcare facilities, and environments that are fragrance-free, which could help reduce adverse effects. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1007/s11869-018-0560-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
... BFragranced consumer products^(or for brevity Bfragranced products^) are chemically formulated products with the addition of a fragrance or scent (Steinemann 2015) and include numerous everyday products such as air fresheners, cleaning supplies, soaps, lotions, hand sanitizers, laundry detergents, baby shampoo, household items, and cosmetics. Fragranced products are pervasive in society, used daily in homes, workplaces, schools, businesses, transportation, and other public and private buildings; and used by individuals, industries, and institutions (Steinemann 2009). ...
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Common in society, fragranced consumer products such as cleaning supplies and air fresheners are a primary source of volatile emissions that contribute to pollutants indoors and to personal exposure. Further, fragranced products have been associated with adverse health effects. This study investigates the sources of emissions, human exposures, and health and societal impacts from fragranced consumer products in the United Kingdom (UK). It examines the prevalence and types of fragranced product use, associated health effects, exposure situations, awareness of product emissions, and preferences for fragrance-free policies and indoor environments. Using a nationally representative population sample (n = 1100), data were collected in June 2016 using an online survey of adults in the UK, comprising England, Wales, Northern Ireland, and Scotland. Across the UK population, 27.8% report health problems, such as migraine headaches (8.4%) and asthma attacks (6.8%), when exposed to fragranced products. Yet 99.3% of the population are exposed to fragranced products at least once a week. When given a choice, more people would prefer that workplaces, health care facilities and professionals, hotels, and airplanes were fragrance-free rather than fragranced. Although fragranced products, even ones called green and organic, can emit potentially hazardous yet undisclosed pollutants, 75.0% of the population were not aware of this, and more than half would stop using their product if they knew it emitted such pollutants. This study provides important evidence that the UK population is regularly exposed to fragranced products, that these exposures are associated with adverse and often serious health effects, and that the public is largely unaware of their potential exposures. While more research is needed, reducing exposure to fragranced products, such as through fragrance-free policies, can provide an immediate step to reduce health risks and improve air quality.
... Fourth, unlike prior studies [15,28], we did not examine the association between hair product brands and mammographic breast density. However, the ingredients for hair products varies over time [31] and disclosure of the exact ingredients is not required [32]. In addition, the current trend in personal care products, including hair products, is to be more organic and natural and many products which in the past contained common EDCs now advertise being "paraben and phthalate free" [31]. ...
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Background: Select hair products contain endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that may affect breast cancer risk. We hypothesize that, if EDCs are related to breast cancer risk, then they may also affect two important breast cancer risk factors: age at menarche and mammographic breast density. Methods: In two urban female cohorts (N = 248): 1) the New York site of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project and 2) the New York City Multiethnic Breast Cancer Project, we measured childhood and adult use of hair oils, lotions, leave-in conditioners, root stimulators, perms/relaxers, and hair dyes using the same validated questionnaire. We used multivariable relative risk regression models to examine the association between childhood hair product use and early age at menarche (defined as <11 years of age) and multivariable linear regression models to examine the association between childhood and adult hair product use and adult mammographic breast density. Results: Early menarche was associated with ever use of childhood hair products (RR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1, 4.8) and hair oil use (RR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2, 5.2); however, additional adjustment for race/ethnicity, attenuated associations (hair products RR 1.8, 95% CI 0.8, 4.1; hair oil use RR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0, 5.5). Breast density was not associated with adult or childhood hair product or hair oil use. Conclusions: If confirmed in larger prospective studies, these data suggest that exposure to EDCs through hair products in early life may affect breast cancer risk by altering timing of menarche, and may operate through a mechanism distinct from breast density.
... Understanding why these products are associated with a range of health problems is a critical topic that requires further research. Fragranced products emit a range of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, some of which are associated with adverse health effects, but virtually none of which need to be disclosed (Steinemann 2009(Steinemann , 2015, thus limiting scientific inquiry and public awareness of potential exposures to problematic compounds. A broader mechanistic framework is needed to understand which ingredients, or combinations of ingredients, could be associated with the adverse health outcomes reported in this study. ...
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Fragranced consumer products, such as cleaning supplies, air fresheners, and personal care products, can emit a range of air pollutants and trigger adverse health effects. This study investigates the prevalence and types of effects of fragranced products on asthmatics in the American population. Using a nationally representative sample (n = 1137), data were collected with an on-line survey of adults in the USA, of which 26.8% responded as being medically diagnosed with asthma or an asthma-like condition. Results indicate that 64.3% of asthmatics report one or more types of adverse health effects from fragranced products, including respiratory problems (43.3%), migraine headaches (28.2%), and asthma attacks (27.9%). Overall, asthmatics were more likely to experience adverse health effects from fragranced products than non-asthmatics (prevalence odds ratio [POR] 5.76; 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.34–7.64). In particular, 41.0% of asthmatics report health problems from air fresheners or deodorizers, 28.9% from scented laundry products coming from a dryer vent, 42.3% from being in a room cleaned with scented products, and 46.2% from being near someone wearing a fragranced product. Of these effects, 62.8% would be considered disabling under the definition of the Americans with Disabilities Act. Yet 99.3% of asthmatics are exposed to fragranced products at least once a week. Also, 36.7% cannot use a public restroom if it has an air freshener or deodorizer, and 39.7% would enter a business but then leave as quickly as possible due to air fresheners or some fragranced product. Further, 35.4% of asthmatics have lost workdays or a job, in the past year, due to fragranced product exposure in the workplace. More than twice as many asthmatics would prefer that workplaces, health care facilities and health care professionals, hotels, and airplanes were fragrance-free rather than fragranced. Results from this study point to relatively simple and cost-effective ways to reduce exposure to air pollutants and health risks for asthmatics by reducing their exposure to fragranced products. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1007/s11869-017-0536-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Chapter
In modern society, people use various kinds of personal care products for quality of life in daily life. Personal care products (PCPs) are widely used by people of all ages. The products such as deodorants, facial moisturizers, or creams are used on a daily basis. Cosmetic products contain a wide range of chemicals to which we exposed every day. Over the past 50 years, the increase in cosmetic use has a direct link with the increase in endocrine disorders such as breast, prostate, and testicular cancers; diabetes; obesity; and reproductive problems. Considerable amounts of PCPs are utilized each day, resulting in large quantities of chemical substances that could potentially reach environmental compartments, particularly water, and also soil and air. After the use of PCPs, a significant amount of these products goes down the drain and enters the “wastewater–sewage plant–receiving water” route. As a result, they may ultimately end up in the aquatic environment. This is not only true for typical rinse-off products such as shampoos, shower gels, and toothpastes but also for leave-on products such as hair care products and makeup. Cosmetics pose the most pressing ecological problems compared to pharmaceuticals because they are used in larger quantities and throughout the course of life and, being intended for external application, are not subjected to metabolic transformation; therefore, they are introduced unaltered into the environment in large amounts during washing, showering, or bathing. Since relatively little is known about the fate and the toxicity of PCPs released into the environment, increasing attention is being placed on their occurrence, persistence, and potential threat to ecosystems and human health.
Article
Introduction: Owing to the rapid development of digital technologies, most people nowadays are working indoors while using no machinery or equipment and being unexposed to volatile industrial chemicals. Yet, people staying inside for too long often complain of poor indoor air quality and microclimate. Our objective was to study air pollutants in a simulation experiment with continuous human occupancy inside unventilated confined spaces. Materials and methods: Up-to-date sensitive analytical techniques, such as photoionization, laser nephelometry, gas-phase chemiluminescence, spectrophotometry, high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLCDAD) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS), were used to determine indoor air pollutants. Results: We compared changes in airborne concentrations of nitrogen oxides, prop-2-enenitrile, acetaldehyde, benzene, but-2-enal, airborne particulate matter (PM2,5 and PM10), methylbenzene, 2-methylbuta-1,3-diene, formaldehyde, prop-2-en-1-al, carbon oxide and dioxide following 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 hours of stay of volunteers in a 15.9 m2 room (4.0 m2 per person; a 2.55 m ceiling height) against background levels. The established human occupancy-related priority pollutants included acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, prop-2-en-1-al, and carbon dioxide. Laboratory testing showed the presence of 83 volatile and semivolatile organic chemicals in the unventilated room, among which aromatic hydrocarbons, esters and aldehydes prevailed. Conclusion: Our findings could be useful for designing ventilation systems in confined spaces and optimizing the workbreak schedule during the working hours.
Chapter
Utilizing renewable assets could be a prerequisite for an economical society. One effectively accessible renewable carbon asset is carbon dioxide (CO2), which has the points of interest of being abundant, nontoxic, and economical. CO2 is additionally alluring as an environmentally friendly chemical reagent and is particularly valuable as a phosgene substitute. Carbon dioxide exists within the environment and is produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, the fermentation of sugars, and the respiration of all living life forms. A dynamic objective in organic synthesis is to require this carbon trapped in a waste product and re-use it to construct valuable chemicals. Later progresses in organometallic chemistry and catalysis gives successful implies for the chemical change of CO2 and its joining into synthetic organic molecules under mild conditions. Such a utilize of carbon dioxide as a renewable one-carbon (C1) building block in organic synthesis might contribute to a more feasible utilize of resources. In this viewpoint, we provide a review of the topical advancement in this field, classifying it in a manner, where each research is briefly summarized one by one using a single reaction scheme.
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Cleaning is performed to increase hygiene, esthetics and material preservation. Despite its benefits, cleaning also poses risks, potentially contributing to nearly 20% of indoor pollution. As indoor air quality has become a major human health concern, “natural-scented” cleaning products, formulated with essential oils, have become market leaders among household products. However, these consumer products have benefitted from skillful marketing strategies based on the ambiguity of the words “green” and “natural”. The characterization of the emission processes studied through 1-m³ chamber experiments under a realistic scenario suggests variable maximum total terpene concentrations from 150 to 300 ppb. The estimated emission rate profiles confirm that the liquid-to-gas transfer of terpenes is driven by (i) the formulation of the product matrix inducing specific chemical affinities, (ii) the liquid content of individual terpenes, and (iii) the intrinsic volatility of terpenes. A unique formaldehyde emission kinetics profile was observed, suggesting the presence of a unique emission source: formaldehyde-releasers. Consequently, the use of essential-oil-based cleaning products might generate a long-term increase in the indoor formaldehyde concentration, and the maximum levels might be sustained for several hours after cleaning. Thus, essential-oil-based cleaners should be seriously considered as versatile and significant sources of fragrance molecules and formaldehyde.
Chapter
Fragrances are associated with respiratory symptoms such as upper airway irritation, breathing problems, and cough in many individuals. Symptoms for the most part are reported as mild, although more severe symptoms may affect between 0.5% and 4% across populations. Fragrance-related respiratory regularly co-occur in individuals with asthma, contact dermatitis, or atopic dermatitis, but there are no indications that the symptoms in the vast majority are caused by immunological hypersensitivity reactions. Instead, psychological factors together with neuronal sensory mechanisms at a peripheral receptor level as well as more central levels of signal processing may influence. So far, no validated methods or objective measurements have been established to verify the symptoms, neither has documentation of effective treatments.
Thesis
Essential oils, as natural fragances, are frequently used in green marketed housecleaning products and air fresheners. Nonetheless, they contain volatile and reactive chemical species. This thesis investigates the emissions of essential-oil-based household products under real consumer use patterns to assess their impacts on indoor air quality. The experimental approach allows an integrated assessment of the estimation of the terpene emissions from 10 selected essential-oil-based household products in experimental chambers at different scales ; from micro-chamber to the 40m3 experimental room. Regarding essential-oil-based cleaning products, contrasted concentration levels are evidenced for terpenes species related to the application process and use purpose of these products. Morover, long-term increase of formaldehyde concentrations are noticed after the application of these products that might be related to secondary sources. Concerning the indoor diffusion of tea tree oil, contrasted concentration levels and kinetics are evidenced depending on the mechanism of diffusion used. Concentrations can exceed by more than one order of magnitude the recommanded Critical Exposure Level (CEL). It is noticed that the relative contribtions of individual terpenes is the gas phase vary all along the diffusion process, for any investigated diffusion device. Finally, essential-oil-based household products have to be seriously envisaged as versatile anfdsignificant sources of VOCs since they might induce indoor concentrations of terpenes exceeding exposure limits established by the European Union and the United States.
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In this paper, the interaction between a designed antimicrobial peptide (AMP) G(IIKK)3I-NH2 (G3) and four typical conventional surfactants (SDS, C16TAB, C12EO23 and C14DMAO) have been studied through surface tension measurement, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The antimicrobial activities of AMP/surfactant mixtures have also been studied with gram-negative E. coli, gram-positive S. aureus, and fungus C. albicans. The cytotoxicity of the AMP/surfactant mixtures has also been assessed with NIH 3T3 and HSF cells. The surface tension data showed that AMP/SDS mixture was much more surface active than SDS alone. CD results showed that G3 conformation changed from random coil, to -sheet, then to α-helix with increasing SDS concentration, showing a range of structural transformation driven by the different interactions with SDS. The antimicrobial activity of G3 to gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria decreased in the presence of SDS due to the strong interaction of electrostatic attraction between peptide and surfactant. The interaction between G3 and C16TAB, C12EO23, C14DMAO were much weaker than SDS. As a result, the surface tension of surfactants with G3 did not change much, neither were the secondary structures of G3. The antimicrobial activities of G3 were little affected in presence of C12EO23, slightly improved by C14DMAO and clearly enhanced by cationic surfactant C16TAB due to its strong cationic and antimicrobial nature, consistent with their surface physical activities as binary mixtures. Although AMP G3 didn’t show activity to fungus, the mixtures of AMP/C16TAB and AMP/C14DMAO could kill C. albicans at high surfactant concentration. The mixtures had rather high cytotoxicity to NIH 3T3 and HSF cells although G3 is nontoxic to cells. Cationic AMPs can be formulated with nonionic, cationic and zwitterionic surfactants during product development, but care must be taken when AMPs are formulated with anionic surfactants, as the strong electrostatic interaction may undermine their antimicrobial activity.
Article
Background: Personal care products (PCPs), known sources of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as phthalates and parabens, are widely used among women of reproductive age. EDCs have been linked to pregnancy complications such as gestational diabetes (GDM), and PCP use could represent a modifiable source of exposure in this sensitive time window. Yet, to our knowledge, no study has directly evaluated the association between pregnancy use of PCP and late pregnancy glucose levels, established risk factors for complications such as GDM. Methods: A total of 233 women from the Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) Study had data available on 1st and/or 2nd trimester PCP use, assessed through self-reported use over the previous 24 h, and blood glucose levels after the glucose loading test (GLT), taken at late 2nd trimester. Associations between each individual PCP and total PCP with glucose levels were evaluated in multivariable adjusted linear regression models. Results: Both positive and negative differences in glucose levels were observed when comparing users vs. non-users of several PCPs including 2nd trimester use of deodorant (adjusted mean difference: 12.2 mg/dL, 95% CI: -0.6, 24.9); bar soap (6.9 mg/dL, 95% CI: -0.9, 14.7 mg/dL); and liquid soap (-13.3, 95% CI: -26.8, 0.1 mg/dL), and 1st trimester use of sunscreen (-14.6 mg/dL, 95% CI: -27.8, -1.5 mg/dL). Total number of PCPs used in the 2nd trimester was also associated with higher glucose levels, with the largest difference of 20 mg/dL when comparing individuals who used eight vs none PCPs (95% CI: 3-37). Conclusions: In a pregnancy cohort of women seeking care at a fertility clinic, we found the use of several PCPs to be positively or negatively associated with glucose levels in the late second trimester, which may reflect increased risk of GDM and subsequent perinatal outcomes. These results strengthen the role of product use as a potentially modifiable source of EDCs that may impact glucose levels.
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Ultraviolet solar radiation is a well-known environmental health risk factor and the use of sun lotions is encouraged to achieve protection mainly from skin cancer. Sun lotions are cosmetic commercial products that combine active and inactive ingredients and many of these are associated with health problems, including allergic reactions and endocrine disorders. This review focuses on their ability to cause endocrine and reproductive impairments, with emphasis laid on the active ingredients (common and less common UV filters). In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated their ability to show oestrogenic/anti-oestrogenic and androgenic/anti-androgenic activity. Many ingredients affect the oestrous cycle, spermatogenesis, sexual behaviour, fertility and other reproductive parameters in experimental animals. Their presence in aquatic environments may reveal a new emerging environmental hazard.
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Abstract Over the past 20 years, a new scientific discipline based on direct measurement of human exposure to environmental pollutants has developed. The fundamental principle of the new science is to "measure where the people are." This has required developing small, lightweight, quiet personal monitors for volatile organic compounds and other pollutants. A second principle has been to measure body burden, particularly exhaled breath, whenever possible to determine the relationship between exposure and dose. Studies employing the new monitors and breath measurements have overturned accepted ideas about the sources of most volatile organic pollutants. The main sources turn out surprisingly often to be small, close to the person, and completely unregulated. These findings should result in major changes in our approach to environmental regulation; however, powerful forces of resistance would need to be overcome.
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EPA's TEAM Study of personal exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOC) in air and drinking water of 650 residents of seven U.S. cities resulted in the identification of a number of possible sources encountered in peoples' normal daily activities and in their homes. A follow-up EPA study of publicaccess buildings implicated other potential sources of exposure. To learn more about these potential sources, 15 building materials and common consumer products were analyzed using a headspace technique to detect organic emissions and to compare relative amounts. About 10–100 organic compounds were detected offgassing from each material. Four mixtures of materials were then chosen for detailed study: paint on sheetrock; carpet and carpet glue; wallpaper and adhesives; cleansers and a spray pesticide. The materials were applied as normally used, allowed to age 1 week (except for the cleansers and pesticides, which were used normally during the monitoring period), and placed in an environmentally controlled chamber. Organic vapors were collected on Tenax-GC over a 4-h period and analyzed by GC-MS techniques. Emission rates and chamber concentrations were calculated for 17 target chemicals chosen for their toxic, carcinogenic or mutagenic properties. Thirteen of the 17 chemicals were emitted by one or more of the materials. Elevated concentrations of chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, n-decane, n-undecane, p-dichlorobenzene, 1,2-dichloroethane and styrene were produced by the four mixtures of materials tested. For some chemicals, these amounts were sufficient to account for a significant fraction of the elevated concentrations observed in previous indoor air studies. We conclude that common materials found in nearly every home and place of business may cause elevated exposures to toxic chemicals.
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Little information currently exists regarding the occurrence of secondary organic aerosol formation in indoor air. Smog chamber studies have demonstrated that high aerosol yields result from the reaction of ozone with terpenes, both of which commonly occur in indoor air. However, smog chambers are typically static systems, whereas indoor environments are dynamic. We conducted a series of experiments to investigate the potential for secondary aerosol in indoor air as a result of the reaction of ozone with d-limonene, a compound commonly used in air fresheners. A dynamic chamber design was used in which a smaller chamber was nested inside a larger one, with air exchange occurring between the two. The inner chamber was used to represent a model indoor environment and was operated at an air exchange rate below 1 exchange/hr, while the outer chamber was operated at a high air exchange rate of approximately 45 exchanges/hr. Limonene was introduced into the inner chamber either by the evaporation of reagent-grade d-limonene or by inserting a lemon-scented, solid air freshener. A series of ozone injections were made into the inner chamber during the course of each experiment, and an optical particle counter was used to measure the particle concentration. Measurable particle formation and growth occurred almost exclusively in the 0.1-0.2 microm and 0.2-0.3 microm size fractions in all of the experiments. Particle formation in the 0.1-0.2 microm size range occurred as soon as ozone was introduced, but the formation of particles in the 0.2-0.3 microm size range did not occur until at least the second ozone injection occurred. The results of this study show a clear potential for significant particle concentrations to be produced in indoor environments as a result of secondary particle formation via the ozone-limonene reaction. Because people spend the majority of their time indoors, secondary particles formed in indoor environments may make a significant contribution to overall particle exposure. This study provides data for assessing the impact of outdoor ozone on indoor particles. This is important to determine the efficacy of the mass-based particulate matter standards in protecting public health because the indoor secondary particles can vary coincidently with the variations of outdoor fine particles in summer.
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Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from one electrical plug-in type of pine-scented air freshener and their reactions with O3 were investigated in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency indoor air research large chamber facility. Ozone was generated from a device marketed as an ozone generator air cleaner. Ozone and oxides of nitrogen concentrations and chamber conditions such as temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and air exchange rate were controlled and/or monitored. VOC emissions and some of the reaction products were identified and quantified. Source emission models were developed to predict the time/concentration profiles of the major VOCs (limonene, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, 3-carene, camphene, benzyl propionate, benzyl alcohol, bornyl acetate, isobornyl acetate, and benzaldehyde) emitted bythe air freshener. Gas-phase reactions of VOCs from the air freshener with O3 were simulated by a photochemical kinetics simulation system using VOC reaction mechanisms and rate constants adopted from the literature. The concentration-time predictions were in good agreement with the data for O3 and VOCs emitted from the air freshener and with some of the primary reaction products. Systematic differences between the predictions and the experimental results were found for some species. Poor understanding of secondary reactions and heterogeneous chemistry in the chamber is the likely cause of these differences. The method has the potential to provide data to predict the impact of O3/VOC interactions on indoor air quality.
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To investigate the association between domestic exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and asthma in young children. A population based case-control study was conducted in Perth, Western Australia in children aged between 6 months and 3 years. Cases (n = 88) were children recruited at Princess Margaret Hospital accident and emergency department and discharged with asthma as the primary diagnosis; 104 controls consisted of children from the same age group without an asthma diagnosis identified through the Health Department of Western Australia. Information regarding the health status of the study children and characteristics of the home was collected using a standardised questionnaire. Exposure to VOCs, average temperature and relative humidity were measured in winter and summer in the living room of each participating household. Cases were exposed to significantly higher VOC levels (microg/m3) than controls (p<0.01). Most of the individual VOCs appeared to be significant risk factors for asthma with the highest odds ratios for benzene followed by ethylbenzene and toluene. For every 10 unit increase in the concentration of toluene and benzene (microg/m3) the risk of having asthma increased by almost two and three times, respectively. Domestic exposure to VOCs at levels below currently accepted recommendations may increase the risk of childhood asthma. Measurement of total VOCs may underestimate the risks associated with individual compounds.
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In response to Curtis (2004), I would like to cite more recent studies by researchers at the Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc. (RIFM) that address the health and environmental effects of fragrances.
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The authors sought to determine whether reported symptoms of mothers and infants were associated significantly with the use of household products that raised indoor levels of total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs). Data collected from 170 homes within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC: a large birth cohort of more than 10,000) had determined which household products were associated with the highest levels of TVOCs. The latter data were collected over a period that approximated 6 mo of pregnancy and the infants' first 6 mo of life. This paper presents (a) the mothers' self-reports of the use of these products in their homes and (b) self-reported medical symptoms of mothers and infants postnatally. Higher TVOC levels were associated with air freshener and aerosol use. Infant diarrhea and earache were statistically significantly associated with air freshener use, and diarrhea and vomiting were significantly associated with aerosol use. Headache experienced by mothers 8 mo after birth was significantly associated with the use of air fresheners and aerosols; maternal depression was significantly associated with the use of air fresheners. The results of the study suggest a link between the use of products that raise indoor levels of TVOCs and an increased risk of certain symptoms among infants and their mothers.
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Synthetic musk compounds, widely used as fragrances in consumer products, have been detected in human tissue and, surprisingly, in aquatic organisms such as fish and mollusks. Although their persistence and potential to bioaccumulate are of concern, the toxicity and environmental risks of these chemicals are generally regarded as low. Here, however, we show that nitromusks and polycyclic musks inhibit the activity of multidrug efflux transporters responsible for multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) in gills of the marine mussel Mytilus californianus. The IC(subscript)10(/subscript) (concentration that inhibits 10%) values for the different classes of musks were in the range of 0.09-0.39 microM, and IC(subscript)50(/subscript) values were 0.74-2.56 microM. The immediate consequence of inhibition of efflux transporters is that normally excluded xenobiotics will now be able to enter the cell. Remarkably, the inhibitory effects of a brief 2-hr exposure to musks were only partially reversed after a 24- to 48-hr recovery period in clean seawater. This unexpected consequence of synthetic musks--a long-term loss of efflux transport activity--will result in continued accumulation of normally excluded toxicants even after direct exposure to the musk has ended. These findings also point to the need to determine whether other environmental chemicals have similar long-term effects on these transporters. The results are relevant to human health because they raise the possibility that exposure to common xenobiotics and pharmaceuticals could cause similar long-term inhibition of these transporters and lead to increased exposure to normally excluded toxicants.
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Phthalates are multifunctional chemicals used in a variety of applications, including personal care products. The present study explored the relationship between patterns of personal care product use and urinary levels of several phthalate metabolites. Subjects include 406 men who participated in an ongoing semen quality study at the Massachusetts General Hospital Andrology Laboratory between January 2000 and February 2003. A nurse-administered questionnaire was used to determine use of personal care products, including cologne, aftershave, lotions, hair products, and deodorants. Phthalate monoester concentrations were measured in a single spot urine sample by isotope dilution-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Men who used cologne or aftershave within 48 hr before urine collection had higher median levels of monoethyl phthalate (MEP) (265 and 266 ng/mL, respectively) than those who did not use cologne or aftershave (108 and 133 ng/mL, respectively). For each additional type of product used, MEP increased 33% (95% confidence interval, 14-53%). The use of lotion was associated with lower urinary levels of monobutyl phthalate (MBP) (14.9 ng/mL), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) (6.1 ng/mL), and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) (4.4 ng/mL) compared with men who did not use lotion (MBP, 16.8 ng/mL; MBzP, 8.6 ng/mL; MEHP, 7.2 ng/mL). The identification of personal care products as contributors to phthalate body burden is an important step in exposure characterization. Further work in this area is needed to identify other predictors of phthalate exposure.
Book
Hazardous Air Pollutant Handbook: Measurements, Properties, and Fate in Ambient Air provides a comprehensive review of the 188 compounds and compound classes designated as Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, with a specific focus on their potential presence in ambient air. The relevant chemical and physical properties of the compounds are discussed and tabulated, and suitable methods for their measurement in ambient air are identified. A survey of measurements of ambient HAP concentrations is provided for use in historical comparisons and for evaluating the current human health risks from these chemicals. Finally, the book reviews the atmospheric reactions that control the lifetime and fate of the HAPs in ambient air, and summarizes the current knowledge about their transformation products.
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This article reviews side-effects of fragrance materials present in cosmetics with emphasis on clinical aspects: epidemiology, types of adverse reactions, clinical picture, diagnostic procedures, and the sensitizers. Considering the ubiquitous occurrence of fragrance materials, the risk of side-effects is small. In absolute numbers, however, fragrance allergy is common, affecting approximately 1% of the general population. Although a detailed profile of patients sensitized to fragrances needs to be elucidated, common features of contact allergy are: axillary dermatitis, dermatitis of the face (including the eyelids) and neck, well-circumscribed patches in areas of ''dabbing-on'' perfumes (wrists, behind the ears) and (aggravation of) hand eczema. Depending on the degree of sensitivity, the severity of dermatitis may range from mild to severe with dissemination and even erythroderma. Airborne or ''connubial'' contact dermatitis should always be suspected. Other less frequent adverse reactions to fragrances are photocontact dermatitis, immediate contact reactions and pigmentary changes. The fragrance mix, although very useful for the detection of sensitive patients, both causes false positive and false-negative reactions, and detects only 70% of perfume-allergic patients. Therefore, future research should be directed at increasing the sensitivity and the specificity of the mix. Relevance is said to be established in 50-65% of positive reactions, but accurate criteria are needed. Suggestions are made for large-scale investigation of several fragrances on the basis of literature data and frequency of use in cosmetics. The literature on adverse reactions to balsam of Peru (an indicator for fragrance sensitivity), essential oils (which currently appear to be used more in aromatherapy than in perfumery) and on fragrances used as flavours and spices in foods and beverages is not discussed in detail, but pertinent side-effects data are tabulated and relevant literature is provided.
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Most people in modern society are exposed daily to fragrance ingredients from one or more sources. Fragrance ingredients are also one of the most frequent causes of contact allergic reactions. The diagnosis is made by patch testing with a mixture of fragrance ingredients, the fragrance mix. This gives a positive patch-test reaction in about 10% of tested patients with eczema, and the most recent estimates show that 1.7–4.1% of the general population are sensitized to ingredients of the fragrance mix. Fragrance allergy occurs predominantly in women with facial or hand eczema. These women typically have a history of rash to a fine fragrance or scented deodorants. Chemical analysis has revealed that well known allergens from the fragrance mix are present in 15–100% of cosmetic products, including deodorants and fine fragrances, and most often in combinations of three to four allergens in the same products. This means that it is difficult to avoid exposure, as products labelled as ‘fragrance free’ have also been shown to contain fragrance ingredients, either because of the use of fragrance ingredients as preservatives or masking perfumes, or the use of botanicals. About 2500 different fragrance ingredients are currently used in the composition of perfumes and at least 100 of these are known contact allergens. Therefore, it is advisable to supplement standard patch testing with the patient’s own stay-on cosmetic products, as well as the fragrance chemical hydroxyisohexyl-3-cyclohexane carboxaldehyde, which on its own gives responses in 1–3% of tested patients. The focus in recent years on the ingredients of the fragrance mix will probably result in the fragrance industry changing the composition of perfumes, and thus make the current diagnostic test less useful. New diagnostic tests are under development to identify contact allergy to new allergens, reflecting the continuous developments and trends in exposure.
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Cited By (since 1996): 195 , Export Date: 4 February 2013 , Source: Scopus , The following values have no corresponding Zotero field: Author Address: Dept. of Civ. and Environ. Eng., University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1710, United States Author Address: Environ. and Occup. Hlth. Sci. Inst., Univ. Med. and Dent. of New Jersey, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, United States Author Address: Intl. Ctr. Indoor Environ. and Ener., Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark
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Cited By (since 1996): 80 , Export Date: 4 February 2013 , Source: Scopus , The following values have no corresponding Zotero field: Author Address: Atmospheric Sciences Department, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States Author Address: Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1710, United States Author Address: Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, United States Author Address: International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark
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Consumer products can emit significant quantities of terpenes, which can react with ozone (03). Resulting byproducts include compounds with low vapor pressures that contribute to the growth of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). The focus of this study was to evaluate the potential for SOA growth, in the presence of O3, following the use of a lime-scented liquid air freshener, a pine-scented solid air, freshener, a lemon-scented general-purpose cleaner, a wood floor cleaner, and a perfume. Two chamber experiments were performed for each of these five terpene-containing agents, one at an elevated O3 concentration and the other at a lower O3 concentration. Particle number and mass concentrations increased and O 3 concentrations decreased during each experiment. Experiments with terpene-based air fresheners produced the highest increases in particle number and mass concentrations. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that homogeneous reactions between O3 and terpenes from various consumer products can lead to increases in fine particle mass concentrations when these products are used indoors. Particle increases can occur during periods of elevated outdoor O3 concentrations or indoor O3 generation, coupled with elevated terpene releases. Human exposure to fine particles can be reduced by minimizing indoor terpene concentrations or O 3 concentrations.
Article
Polar volatile organic compounds were identified in the headspace of 31 fragrance products such as perfumes, colognes and soaps. About 150 different chemicals were identified in a semiquantitative fashion, using two methods to analyze the headspace: direct injection into a gas chromatograph and collection by an evacuated canister, each followed by GC-MS analysis. The canister method displayed low recoveries for most of the 25 polar chemical standards tested. However, reconstructed ion chromatograms (RICs) from the canister showed good agreement with RICs from the direct injection method except for some high boiling point compounds. Canister samples collected in 15 microenvironments expected to contain the fragrance products tested (potpourri stores, fragrance sections of department stores, etc.) showed relatively low concentrations of most of these polar chemicals compared with certain common nonpolar chemicals. The results presented will be useful for models of personal exposure and indoor air quality.
Article
Simulated exposure studies were conducted on 3 surrogate products with 9 common fragrance materials chosen for volatility, chemical structure, toxicity and volume of use─benzyl acetate, eugenol, hexylcin- namaldehyde, 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta-γ-benzopyran, hydroxycitronellal, ß-ionone, d-limonene, linalool, and methyl dihydrojasmonate─at 0.06% each in an aerosol, 8.89% each in a plug-in, and 2.2% each in a fine fragrance. Aerosol results indicated peak total fragrance air concentration at adult breathing zone (5 ft) of 2165 µg/m 3 at 1 min At child breathing zone (1.5 ft), peak concentration of total fragrance was 1753 µg/m 3 at 6 min. After 2 hrs, concentrations ranged from 105 to 64 µg/m 3 at the adult and child heights, respectively, and the Mean Aerodynamic Diameter (MAD) of airborne particles was 1.5 µm. Plug-in study results showed peak concentration of total fragrance was 1768 µg/m 3 at 1 hr and declined to 137 µg/m 3 after 701 hrs. Fine fragrance study results showed peak concentration in the adult zone of 1030 µg/m 3 at 10 min, 0 ft from a mannequin; 1042 µg/m 3 at 5 min, at 1.5 ft distance; 881 ug/m 3 at 10 min, at 5 ft distance. At the child zone, peak concentration was 711 µg/m 3 at 5 min, 0 ft from the mannequin; 2065 µg/m 3 at 5 min, at 1.5 ft distance; 681 µg/m 3 at 10 min, at 5 ft distance. After 5 hrs, at both zones, concentrations decreased to
Article
Most people in modern society are exposed daily to fragrance ingredients from one or more sources. Fragrance ingredients are also one of the most frequent causes of contact allergic reactions. The diagnosis is made by patch testing with a mixture of fragrance ingredients, the fragrance mix. This gives a positive patch-test reaction in about 10% of tested patients with eczema, and the most recent estimates show that 1.7-4.1% of the general population are sensitized to ingredients of the fragrance mix. Fragrance allergy occurs predominantly in women with facial or hand eczema. These women typically have a history of rash to a fine fragrance or scented deodorants. Chemical analysis has revealed that well known allergens from the fragrance mix are present in 15-100% of cosmetic products, including deodorants and fine fragrances, and most often in combinations of three to four allergens in the same products. This means that it is difficult to avoid exposure, as products labelled as 'fragrance free' have also been shown to contain fragrance ingredients, either because of the use of fragrance ingredients as preservatives or masking perfumes, or the use of botanicals. About 2500 different fragrance ingredients are currently used in the composition of perfumes and at least 100 of these are known contact allergens. Therefore, it is advisable to supplement standard patch testing with the patient's own stay-on cosmetic products, as well as the fragrance chemical hydroxyisohexyl-3-cyclohexane carboxaldehyde, which on its own gives responses in 1-3% of tested patients. The focus in recent years on the ingredients of the fragrance mix will probably result in the fragrance industry changing the composition of perfumes, and thus make the current diagnostic test less useful. New diagnostic tests are under development to identify contact allergy to new allergens, reflecting the continuous developments and trends in exposure.
Article
Concentrations of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) exceeding 1 mg/m3 have been implicated in the Sick Building Syndrome. Very few measurements of TVOC have been made in homes and buildings in the United States. However, stored gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) data on 12-hour average values of individual VOCs from 750 homes and 10 buildings were available from EPA's Total Exposure Assessment Methodology (TEAM) Studies (1981-88). An initial study to determine the feasibility of obtaining a TVOC value from stored GC/MS data showed that TVOC estimates could be obtained with adequate precision. Therefore TVOC values were calculated for about 2700 personal, indoor, and outdoor air samples collected in the TEAM Studies. More than half of the personal and indoor air samples had TVOC levels exceeding 1 mg/m3, compared to only about 10% of the outdoor air samples. However, these calculated values may not be directly comparable with values determined using different sampling and analytical techniques. Nonetheless, since all samples were collected on Tenax cartridges, which (like all sorbents) adsorb only a portion of the organic chemicals in the air, these values are likely to be underestimates of the total volatile organic loading.
Article
Products containing scent are a part of daily life. The majority of cosmetics, toiletries, household and laundry products contain fragrance. In addition, there is exposure to fragrance from products that are used to scent the air, such as air fresheners and fragranced candles. In spite of this widespread use and exposure, there is little information available on the materials used in fragrance. Fragrance formulas are considered trade secrets and components that make up the fragrance portion of the product are not revealed on labels. Fragrance is increasingly cited as a trigger in health conditions such as asthma, allergies and migraine headaches. In addition, some fragrance materials have been found to accumulate in adipose tissue and are present in breast milk. Other materials are suspected of being hormone disruptors. The implications are not fully known, as there has been little evaluation of systemic effects. There are environmental concerns as well, as fragrances are volatile compounds, which add to both indoor and outdoor air pollution. Synthetic musk compounds are persistent in the environment and contaminate waterways and aquatic wildlife. At present there is little governmental regulation of fragrance. The fragrance industry has in place a system of self-regulation. However, the present system has failed to address many of the emerging concerns. Industry needs to responsibly address concerns and ensure that scented products are safe for users, those inadvertently exposed and the environment. It is essential that an industry that is, and wishes to continue to be, self-regulated should identify and address concerns in a forthright and responsible manner. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
This study investigated the formation of secondary pollutants resulting from household product use in the presence of ozone. Experiments were conducted in a 50-m3 chamber simulating a residential room. The chamber was operated at conditions relevant to US residences in polluted areas during warm-weather seasons: an air exchange rate of 1.0 h−1 and an inlet ozone concentration of approximately 120 ppb, when included. Three products were used in separate experiments. An orange oil-based degreaser and a pine oil-based general-purpose cleaner were used for surface cleaning applications. A plug-in scented-oil air freshener (AFR) was operated for several days. Cleaning products were applied realistically with quantities scaled to simulate residential use rates. Concentrations of organic gases and secondary organic aerosol from the terpene-containing consumer products were measured with and without ozone introduction. In the absence of reactive chemicals, the chamber ozone level was approximately 60 ppb. Ozone was substantially consumed following cleaning product use, mainly by homogeneous reaction. For the AFR, ozone consumption was weaker and heterogeneous reaction with sorbed AFR-constituent VOCs was of similar magnitude to homogeneous reaction with continuously emitted constituents. Formaldehyde generation resulted from product use with ozone present, increasing indoor levels by the order of 10 ppb. Cleaning product use in the presence of ozone generated substantial fine particle concentrations (more than 100 μg m−3) in some experiments. Ozone consumption and elevated hydroxyl radical concentrations persisted for 10–12 h following brief cleaning events, indicating that secondary pollutant production can persist for extended periods.
Article
Building occupants, including cleaning personnel, are exposed to a wide variety of airborne chemicals when cleaning agents and air fresheners are used in buildings. Certain of these chemicals are listed by the state of California as toxic air contaminants (TACs) and a subset of these are regulated by the US federal government as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). California's Proposition 65 list of species recognized as carcinogens or reproductive toxicants also includes constituents of certain cleaning products and air fresheners. In addition, many cleaning agents and air fresheners contain chemicals that can react with other air contaminants to yield potentially harmful secondary products. For example, terpenes can react rapidly with ozone in indoor air generating many secondary pollutants, including TACs such as formaldehyde. Furthermore, ozone–terpene reactions produce the hydroxyl radical, which reacts rapidly with organics, leading to the formation of other potentially toxic air pollutants. Indoor reactive chemistry involving the nitrate radical and cleaning-product constituents is also of concern, since it produces organic nitrates as well as some of the same oxidation products generated by ozone and hydroxyl radicals.
Article
A total of 1159 common household products were analysed for 31 volatile organic compounds as potential sources of indoor air pollution. The products were distributed among 65 product categories within 8 category classes: automotive products (14.4% of the products); household cleaners/polishes (9.6%); paint-related products (39.9%); fabric and leather treatments (7.9%); cleaners for electronic equipment (6.0%); oils, greases and lubricants (9.6%); adhesive-related products (6.6%); and miscellaneous products (6.1%). The study was conducted in two parts. In the first part, or the original study, the products were reanalysed for methylene chloride and five other chlorocarbons using purge-and-trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and a data base containing the analytical results was developed. Because full mass spectra were taken, the original set of GC/MS data also contained information regarding other volatile chemicals in the products. However, this additional data was not reported at that time. In the second part of the study, the GC/MS data were reanalysed to determine the presence and concentrations of an additional 25 volatile chemicals. The 31 chemicals included in both parts of this study were: carbon tetrachloride; methylene chloride; tetrachloroethylene; 1,1,1-trichloroethane; trichlorethylene; 1,1,2-tricholorotrifluoroethane; acetone; benzene; 2-butanone; chlorobenzene; chloroform; cyclohexane; 1,2-dichloroethane; 1,4-dioxane; ethylbenzene; n-hexane; d-limonene; methylcyclohexane; methylcyclopentane; methyl isobutyl ketone; n-nonane; n-octane; α-pinene; propylene oxide; styrene; 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane; tetrahydrofuran; toluene; m-mxylene; o-xylene; and p-xylene. Of the 31 chemicals, toluene, the xylenes and methylene chloride were found to occur most frequently—in over 40% of the products tested. Chemicals that were typically found in relatively high concentrations in the samples (i.e. greater than 20% w/w) included acetone, 2-butanone, hexane, methylene chloride, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane and the xylenes. Chlorobenzene, d-limonene, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, n-nonane and styrene were not found in any of the products at or above the 0.1% level. In all, 935 of the products contained one or more of the target solvents at levels greater than 0.1%. The resulting data base contains information regarding the 1159 products, such as origin, cost, container type, lot number, etc., as well as quantitative information for each of the 31 chemicals. The frequency of occurrence and average concentrations for the target chemicals are summarized for each of the product classes.
Article
Environmental Protection Agency TEAM (Total Exposure Assessment Measurement) Studies have measured exposures of about 800 persons to 25 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and exposures of about 300 persons to 32 pesticides. These persons were selected to represent more than 1 million residents of industrial manufacturing cities such as Bayonne and Elizabeth, New Jersey, and Los Angeles, California; cities with light industry, such as Greensboro, North Carolina, and Baltimore, Maryland; rural areas such as Devils Lake, North Dakota; and cities with high pesticide use such as Jacksonville, Florida, as well as low-to-moderate pesticide use such as Springfield, Massachusetts. The TEAM data provide an opportunity to estimate the risks from airborne exposure to a number of suspected carcinogens for a substantial number of persons residing in a wide variety of urban, suburban, and rural areas. Because all of the TEAM Studies measured outdoor concentrations near the homes of the participants, it is possible to apportion the risks between outdoor and indoor sources. Upper-bound lifetime risks of cancer are calculated for both indoor and outdoor sources of 12 VOCs and about 23 pesticides measured in the TEAM Studies. These risk calculations are supplemented by calculations based on other studies for some additional pollutants, including radon and environmental tobacco smoke. The relationship of these upper-bound risk estimates to "best-guess" values is discussed. Sharper estimates of risk based on identifying population subgroups exposed to major sources are also discussed. Important gaps in our knowledge of exposure measurements are identified, e.g., particulates (including polyaromatic hydrocarbons); 1,3-butadiene, asbestos, chromium, cadmium, arsenic, vinyl chloride, methylene chloride, and most polar organics.
Article
Many patients complain that some odors worsen their asthma. Perfume and cologne are two of the most frequently mentioned offenders. Four patients with a history of worsening of asthma on exposure to cologne underwent challenge with a cologne, and their pulmonary function was tested before, during, and after the exposure. Forced expiratory volume in one second declined 18 to 58 percent below the baseline period during the 10-minute exposure and gradually increased in the next 20 minutes. Saline placebo pretreatment did not affect the response to subsequent challenge. Single-blind pretreatment with metaproterenol and atropine prevented decline in one-second forced expiratory volume in three of four patients and blunted the response in the other. Cromolyn sodium prevented decline in one of four, and occlusion of nostrils prevented decline in one of three. A survey of 60 asthmatic patients revealed a history of respiratory symptoms in 57 on exposure to one or more common odors. Odors are an important cause of worsening of asthma.
Article
Perfume- and cologne-scented advertisement strips are widely used. There are, however, very few data on the adverse effects of perfume inhalation in asthmatic subjects. This study was undertaken to determine whether perfume inhalation from magazine scent strips could exacerbate asthma. Twenty-nine asthmatic adults and 13 normal subjects were included in the study. Histories were obtained and physical examinations performed. Asthma severity was determined by clinical criteria of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). Skin prick tests with common inhalant allergens and with the perfume under investigation were also performed. Four bronchial inhalation challenges were performed on each subject using commercial perfume scented strips, filter paper impregnated with perfume identical to that of the commercial strips, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and normal saline, respectively. Symptoms and signs were recorded before and after challenges. Pulmonary function studies were performed before and at 10, 20, and 30 minutes after challenges. Inhalational challenges using perfume produced significant declines in FEV1 in asthmatic patients when compared with control subjects. No significant change in FEV1 was noted after saline (placebo) challenge in asthmatic patients. The percent decline in FEV1 was significantly greater after challenge in severely asthmatic patients as compared with those with mild asthma. Chest tightness and wheezing occurred in 20.7% of asthmatic patients after perfume challenges. Asthmatic exacerbations after perfume challenge occurred in 36%, 17%, and 8% of patients with severe, moderate, and mild asthma, respectively. Patients with atopic asthma had greater decreases in FEV1 after perfume challenge when compared with patients with nonallergic asthma. Perfume-scented strips in magazines can cause exacerbations of symptoms and airway obstruction in asthmatic patients. Severe and atopic asthma increases risk of adverse respiratory reactions to perfumes.
Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the indoor environment has received substantial research attention in the past several years, with the goal of better understanding the impact of such exposures on human health and well-being. Many VOCs can arise from consumer products used within the indoor environment. The VOCs emitted from five representative consumer products were collected onto Tenax-GC and subjected to thermal desorption and analysis by gas chromatography, in combination with low-resolution mass spectrometry (MS), high-resolution MS, and matrix-isolation Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for structural characterization. An emphasis was placed on the polar organic compounds often used to provide fragrance in these products. The structures of a number of these compounds were confirmed, and an electronic literature search was carried out on them to determine any known toxic properties. The search revealed that many of the VOCs possess toxic properties when studied at acute, relatively high-level exposures. In addition, toxic effects were reported for a few of the chemicals, such as benzaldehyde, alpha-terpineol, benzyl acetate, and ethanol, at relatively low dose levels of 9-14 mg/kg. In general, the data were unclear as to the effect of chronic, low-level exposures. The widespread use of such chemicals suggests that the health effects of chronic exposures need to be determined. Validated analytical methods for the quantitative characterization of polar organic compounds at low concentrations will be required to make such work possible.
Article
All four TEAM Studies operated on the basis concepts of probability sampling and direct measurement of exposure. These concepts made possible the discovery that, for nearly all of the 50 or so targeted pollutants, personal exposures exceeded outdoor levels by large margins. The conclusion, corroborated in part by other studies around the world, is that the major sources of exposure are personal activities and consumer products. This result is at odds with most existing environmental legislation, which generally does not deal with products or with indoor air in homes, in favor of regulating "major" stationary and mobile sources. These sources, however, provide only between 2-25% of personal exposure to most of the two dozen or so toxic and carcinogenic VOCs and pesticides included in the TEAM Studies. Several official publications have accepted this point, finding that funding priorities are skewed, with lower-risk problems receiving more funding than higher-risk problems such as indoor air pollution. However, just as exposures are due to small nearby sources, control of exposures can often be instituted by small individual actions. Among these are stopping smoking, reducing or eliminating the use of moth balls and bathroom deodorizers containing p-dichlorobenzene, reducing or eliminating the use of dry-cleaned clothes or airing them out for a day, and maintaining dust-free homes.
Article
In the present study, we have investigated 42 cosmetic products based on natural ingredients for content of 11 fragrance substances: geraniol, hydroxycitronellal, eugenol, isoeugenol, cinnamic aldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, alpha-amylcinnamic aldehyde, citral, coumarin, dihydrocoumarin and alpha-hexylcinnamic aldehyde. The study revealed that the 91% (20/22) of the natural ingredients based perfumes contained 0.027%-7.706% of 1 to 7 of the target fragrances. Between 1 and 5 of the chemically defined synthetic constituents of fragrance mix were found in 82% (18/22) of the perfumes. 35% (7/20) of the other cosmetic products (shampoos, creams, tonics, etc) were found to contain 0.0003-0.0820% of 1 to 3 of the target fragrances. Relatively high concentrations of hydroxycitronellal, coumarin, cinnamic alcohol and alpha-amyl cinnamic aldehyde were found in some of the investigated products. The detection of hydroxycitronellal and alpha-hexylcinnamic aldehyde in some of the products demonstrates that artificial fragrances, i.e., compounds not yet regarded as natural substances, may be present in products claimed to be based on natural ingredients.