Human and organizational factors in computer and information security: Pathways to vulnerabilities
The purpose of this study was to identify and describe how human and organizational factors may be related to technical computer and information security (CIS) vulnerabilities. A qualitative study of CIS experts was performed, which consisted of 2, 5-member focus groups sessions. The participants in the focus groups each produced a causal network analysis of human and organizational factors pathways to types of CIS vulnerabilities. Findings suggested that human and organizational factors play a significant role in the development of CIS vulnerabilities and emphasized the relationship complexities among human and organizational factors. The factors were categorized into 9 areas: external influences, human error, management, organization, performance and resource management, policy issues, technology, and training. Security practitioners and management should be aware of the multifarious roles of human and organizational factors and CIS vulnerabilities and that CIS vulnerabilities are not the sole result of a technological problem or programming mistake. The design and management of CIS systems need an integrative, multi-layered approach to improve CIS performance (suggestions for analysis provided).