Article

Epistemic cooperation scripts in online learning environments: Fostering learning by reducing uncertainty in discourse?

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Abstract

Using online learning environments in higher education offers innovative possibilities to support collaborative learning. However, online learning creates new kinds of problems for participants who have not previously worked with each other. One of these problems is uncertainty which occurs when participants do not know each other. According to the uncertainty reduction theory, low uncertainty level increases the amount of discourse and decreases the amount of information seeking. Therefore, uncertainty may influence online discourse and learning. This study investigates the effects of an epistemic cooperation script with respect to the amount of discourse, information seeking and learning outcomes in collaborative learning as compared to unscripted collaborative learning. The aim was also to explore how and what kind of information learners seek and receive and how learning partners react to such information exchange. The participants were 48 students who were randomly assigned to groups of three in two conditions, one with and one without an epistemic script. The results indicate that the epistemic script increased the amount of discourse and decreased the amount of information seeking activities. Without an epistemic script, however, learners achieved better learning outcomes. The results of two qualitative case-based analyses on information seeking will also be discussed.

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... The deep and surface learning approaches include the cognitive and affective aspects of comprehension and perception regarding the tasks, and the strategic aspect of the learner's practices for accomplishing the tasks (Biggs, 1989, Table 1). Learning approaches largely depend on the personally preferred learning method, but this can be altered by the interactions between the learner, the tasks and learning environments (Mäkitalo et al., 2005). The deep learning approach highly encourages learner's engagement and in-depth understanding in their learning process. ...
... Moreover, diverse and unexpected situations from the task sometimes constitute unwelcomed variables or ramifications, but at the same time they provide a rich learning opportunity. It is conducive to create a learning environment that enhances authenticity in learning by exposing students to various situations and people with whom to communicate (Mäkitalo et al., 2005). ...
Article
Learning approaches are the ways students tackle and address the learning tasks, which are categorized by deep and surface components. The aim of this study is to illuminate the impact of collaboration on students’ learning approaches while executing a geographic task. Students’ learning approaches were compared between students working individually and those working in small groups via discourse analysis. The findings show that working in small groups is effective when utilizing the deep learning approach. Collaboration supports small groups becoming more active while executing tasks and selecting learning strategies and developing positive attitudes toward the task.
... Such discourse activities not only foster better understanding between the discourse partners but Downloaded by [Regina Jucks] at 22:55 11 April 2013 can also be assumed to have a positive impact on learning. In general, discourse activities that serve information seeking and elaboration promote better conceptual understanding (Mäkitalo, Weinberger, Häkkinen, Järvelä, & Fischer, 2005;. Knowledge is gained through interaction and co-construction activities (Asterhan & Schwarz, 2007;Pena-Shaff & Nicholls, 2004). ...
Article
This study investigated how varying the lexical encodings of technical terms in multiple texts influences learners' dyadic processing of scientific-related information. Fifty-seven pairs of college students read journalistic texts on depression. Each partner in a dyad received one text; for half of the dyads the partner's text contained different lexical encodings of the same concepts; for the other half the lexical encodings and texts were identical. They then read a case report on first signs of depression. Communicating via a chat room, each dyad had to write a causal diagnosis and suggest a treatment. Results showed that dyads in the different-encoding condition explicitly elaborated the meaning of technical terms more often, produced more differentiated answers, and acquired more knowledge. It is concluded that deliberately switching different words for the same underlying content, and engaging students in discussion of that content, influences learners' discourse and promotes scientific/conceptual understanding.
... Kuhlthau (1993) argues that uncertainty is an emotion that students should be feeling early in the process as they identify and explore their topics. She, as well as other scholars of information seeking (Mäkitalo et al 2005;Hyldegård 2006Hyldegård , 2009Brumfield 2008;Genuis 2008;Chowdhury and Gibb 2009;Adams 2010), even contend that uncertainty is a necessary motivating force in the early stages of the search process. ...
Article
The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study is to gain a clearer understanding of the lived information-seeking experiences of mature students. Such a study is relevant to researchers seeking detailed examinations of mature students' information search experiences, as well as to reference librarians and information literacy instructors who may wish to refine pedagogy or curriculum in order to help mature students more effectively. This study employed a narrative inquiry design to deeply explore the semester-long information search journeys of two mature students at a regional public university in the state of Oklahoma. Narrative analysis utilizing Carol Kuhlthau's (1991; 1993; 2004; Kuhlthau et al 2008) information search process model uncovered key themes of passion for a topic, time management, the influence of other academic and personal factors on students' search experiences, and willingness to ask formal or informal search mediators for help. These themes have implications for researchers and practitioners seeking to understand and positively transform the information-seeking process of mature students.
... Digital learning environments enable location-and time-independent accessibility as well as interactive, individualized, and adaptive learning. Online environments also provide a digital space for collaborative learning, in which learners can work collectively on authentic learning problems and their solutions (e.g., Mäkitalo et al., 2005). Additionally, social media platforms provide a vast amount of resources for sharing, discussing, and searching for information. ...
Conference Paper
Social platforms provide a vast amount of resources for sharing, discussing, and searching for information. Thereby, learners need to monitor their understanding to metacognitively regulate their learning. Awareness of peers’ metacognitions can affect individual regulation processes and such information may be communicated through language characteristics. Thus, in our experimental study (N = 214), we examined the effects of uncertainty markers in a social media forum setting on perceptions of uncertainty within the group as well as changes in learners’ content-related assumptions, certainty, and learning intention. Results confirmed the influence of uncertainty markers on perceived uncertainty within the group, which in turn affected the learners’ changes in assumptions and learning intention via changes in certainty. Further exploratory analyses showed that the effect of perceived group uncertainty on own certainty was stronger for men than for women. This study confirms the intricate nature of individual and social metacognitive processes in online learning.
... Multiple studies have examined the effectiveness of social scripts and epistemic scripts (e.g., Ertl et al. 2005;Kopp and Mandl 2011;Mäkitalo et al. 2005;Stegmann et al. 2007;Weinberger et al. 2005) for collaboration outcomes and individual domain-general or domainspecific learning gains. In essence, the combination of both, social scripts and epistemic scripts, promotes learning best on a collaborative as well as on an individual level Kopp and Mandl 2011). ...
Article
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This article describes teacher competencies for implementing collaborative learning in the classroom. Research has shown that the effectiveness of collaborative learning largely depends on the quality of student interaction. We therefore focus on what a teacher can do to foster student interaction. First, we present a framework that draws a comprehensive picture of a teacher role we see as germane to fostering student interaction. The framework distinguishes between five teacher competencies that span across all implementation phases of collaborative learning: the ability to plan student interaction, monitor, support, and consolidate this interaction, and finally reflect upon it. Then, we review research on collaborative learning and structure this review along the five teacher competencies presented in the framework. The review targets relevant concepts and pivotal empirical research results about how to foster student interaction. For each competency, we first summarize relevant concepts and empirical results. We then apply the concepts and findings to a classroom situation. These teaching vignettes illustrate the functions of the five teacher competencies in fostering student interaction in collaborative learning. For each vignette, we discuss and highlight specific aspects of the presented teacher role and draw practical implications. Monitoring and supporting in the classroom should be trained in teacher education and facilitated by providing teachers with tools such as a checklist of beneficial student behaviors. These practical implications can inform educational practices and offer new directions for future research regarding promoting collaborative learning.
... In addition to giving support and motivation, peers also receive opportunities to learn from each other. The idea of collaborative learning (Mäkitalo, Weinberger, Häkkinen, Järvelä, & Fisher, 2005) is evident in this programme. Using collaborative learning methods, students study as a group and have shared aims as they work -for example, to clarify social work theories and practices. ...
Article
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... For example, in one study, cognitive supports in the form of computer-generated prompts had a strong negative effect on learning because students receiving the prompts unexpectedly made less use of online discussion boards than students who did not receive the prompts. 27 These findings show that the effectiveness of the latest educational innovations depends on how they are implemented and the pedagogy behind them. It follows that using "old innovations" can be a perfectly valid way to reach one's instructional goals. ...
Article
Faculty are increasingly expected to provide a more student-centered learning experience in their classes, including in large introductory courses. To do this, they may choose from a colorful palette of active learning approaches and tools that have been piloted in a wide variety of settings. Success, however, depends on more than the knowledge of what works and a commitment to implementing it. It requires a deep understanding of the principles of learning that underlie the approach or tool, which in turn requires fluency with the education research literature. While the literature is replete with implications for practice, much of it is written for education researchers rather than for science instructors. This brief commentary aims to help chemists and other faculty efficiently sift through this enormous body of work and glean insights about teaching and learning to improve their practice.
... According to recent studies, social scripting seems to improve learning outcomes . However, mere use of epistemic scripts has not lead to essentially better learning results, while scripting epistemic activities has also lead to better individual learning outcomes in unscripted conditions compared to scripted ones (Mäkitalo, Weinberger, Häkkinen, Fischer, & Järvelä, 2005). However, it should be noted that when scripts are used they may integrate epistemic and social guidance. ...
... It is possible that the directed prompts, which were prescripted and programmed into the KIE, were too limiting or narrow for these learners or did not challenge them enough. It will thus be interesting to see the results of recent research interests in scripting for online discourse (Choi et al., 2005;Jonassen and Remidez, 2005;Makitalo et al., 2005). Also, computers are unable to adjust to learners' unique needs in as subtle and personalized of a manner as a teacher might, making it difficult for a program to sufficiently and consistently identify each learner's zone of proximal development (Ainsworth et al., 1998). ...
... The design approach of scripting acknowledges the social dimension of learning but it is still mainly focused on supporting and stimulating individual learners' content acquisition via structuring of collaboration. Scripts are often designed for a special context and purpose, such as creating trust between the collaborators, as in the study of Mäkitalo, Weinberger, Häkkinen, Järvelä, and Fischer (2005). As Dillenbourg (2002) stated, scripts may disturb natural interaction and problem solving processes and may lead to the introduction of fake collaboration and arbitrary and superficial activity. ...
Article
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Changes in society and working life have led educationists to propose that educational practices should pay special attention to advancing skills for knowledge creation, collaboration, and expert-like working with knowledge supported by modern technology. Classic models of instructional design mainly concentrate on individual content learning and are based on the strict pre-structuring of activities. The pedagogical design of collaborative knowledge construction is more indirect, focusing on establishing the underlying conditions in the learning environment to enhance desired practices. This creates new challenges for pedagogical design. Building on such views, a pedagogical infrastructure framework, including technical, social, epistemological, and cognitive components, is introduced as a conceptual tool to be used in evaluating the implementations of technology-enhanced collaborative knowledge practices in education. Three course examples are described using the introduced framework to demonstrate its applicability for examining pedagogical designs.
... up to the high expectations that educators had for it; beneficial effects on learning have not always been found (Lou, Abrami, & d'Apollonia, 2001). It has become clear that simply placing learners in a group and assigning them a task does not guarantee that they will work together (Hughes & Hewson, 1998), coordinate their activities (Erkens, Prangsma, & Jaspers, 2006), engage in effective collaborative learning processes (Hallet & Cummings, 1997), participate in argumentative discussions (Weinberger, & Fischer, 2006), or lead to positive learning outcomes (Beers, 2005;De Westelinck, Valcke, De Craene, & Kirschner, 2005;Mäkitalo, Weinberger, Häkkinen, Järvelä, & Fischer, 2005;Van Bruggen, Kirschner, & Jochems, 2002;Van Drie, Van Boxtel, Jaspers, & Kanselaar, 2005). ...
Article
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Although collaborative learning, often supported by computer networks (widely called computer-supported collaborative learning, or CSCL) is currently being implemented at all levels of education, it has not always proven to be the wonder-tool that educators envisioned and has often not lived up to the high expectations that educators had for it. In this introduction to the special issue on CSCL, a framework for research on CSCL is presented. This framework is presented in the form of a 3 × 3 × 3 cube, with the dimensions Level of Learning (cognitive, social, and motivational), Unit of Learning (individual, group/team, and community) and Pedagogical Measures (interactive, representational, and guiding). Based on this framework, the different contributions are discussed, and the empty cells—which should form the basis for further theoretical research—become evident.
... For CSCL scripts that are not designed to stimulate transactivity, some studies did not reveal positive effects of CSCL scripts on individual learning as compared to a control condition. For example, a study by Mäkitalo, Weinberger, Häkkinen, Järvelä, and Fischer (2005) used a script that scaffolded the application of a theory in a computer-supported collaborative problem-solving task. More specifically, the script presented learners with a pre-specified structure for their messages to their learning partners. ...
Article
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Scripts for computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) offer socio-cognitive scaffolding for learners to engage in collaborative activities that are considered beneficial for learning. Yet, CSCL scripts are often criticized for hampering naturally emerging collaboration. Research on the effectiveness of CSCL scripts has shown divergent results. This article reports a meta-analysis about the effects of CSCL scripts on domain-specific knowledge and collaboration skills. Results indicate that CSCL scripts as a kind of socio-cognitive scaffolding can enhance learning outcomes substantially. Learning with CSCL scripts leads to a small positive effect on domain-specific knowledge (d = 0.20) and a large positive effect on collaboration skills (d = 0.95) compared to unstructured CSCL. Further analyses reveal that CSCL scripts are particularly effective for domain-specific learning when they prompt transactive activities (i.e., activities in which a learner’s reasoning builds on the contribution of a learning partner) and when they are combined with additional content-specific scaffolding (worked examples, concept maps, etc.). Future research on CSCL scripts should include measures of learners’ internal scripts (i.e., prior collaboration skills) and the transactivity of the actual learning process.
... Investigaciones previas han demostrado que el aprendizaje en grupo, tanto en escenarios tradicionales como computacionales, promueve el uso de diferentes estrategias, el pensamiento crítico y una mayor motivación hacia el aprendizaje (Garrison, Anderson & Archer, 2001; Hsu, 2003; Johnson & Johnson, 1999; Leguizamón & López, 2010). Sin embargo, algunos estudios han mostrado que poner a dos o más estudiantes a desarrollar una tarea en un ambiente computacional, no garantiza un aprendizaje individual efectivo y equitativo (Beers, Boshuizen, Kirschner & Gijselaers, 2007; López, 2010; Mäkitalo, Weinberger, Häkkinen, Järvelä, & Fischer, 2005; Westelinck, Valcke, De Craene & Kirschner, 2005). Al respecto, Inkpen, Booth, Klawe y Upitis (1996) encontraron que en situaciones de aprendizaje en parejas, generalmente uno de los estudiantes ejerce control sobre el ambiente computacional. ...
Article
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This research examines the relationship between self-efficacy, cognitive style and academic achievement of high school students during the interaction with a hypermedia environment to learn geometric transformations in the plane under three contrasting conditions: a) presence or absence of a self-regulatory structure in the software, b) learning individually or in pairs, and c) cognitive style in the dimension of field independence/dependence. Participants were 140 tenth grade students from four class groups of a high school at Soacha, Cundinamarca - Colombia. The research used a 2x2x3 factorial design, with pre-formed groups. A MANCOVA analysis was performed which showed significant effects on self-efficacy and academic achievement due to the presence of a self-regulatory structure and work in pairs.
... Apparently, scripts need to be adapted to the individual needs of the collaborative learners on multiple dimensions. Otherwise scripts may be ignored in the best case, but could be expected to have harmful effects in most cases (Mäkitalo, Weinberger, Häkkinen, Järvelä, & Fischer, 2005). Given modelling and design tools that support the deployment and adaptation of scripts, analysing learners' internal scripts and adapting external scripts accordingly or making scripts adaptive seems to be a feasible approach to this problem. ...
... Another issue to consider is the novel use of Facebook as a learning platform that may cause uncertainty as a result of not being acquainted with the audience (Mäkitalo, Weinberger, Häkkinen, Järvelä, & Fischer, 2005). Group awareness support in a classroom may not result in similarly negative effects. ...
Article
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This study investigates how group awareness support and argumentation scripts influence learning in social networking sites like Facebook, which may be conducive to informal learning, but often lacks argumentative quality. Supporting participants’ group awareness about the visibility of the arguments they construct and about prospective future debate with peers in order to promote argument quality may be particularly suited for learning in Social Networking Sites. Additional argumentation scripts may directly foster argumentative knowledge construction. In a 2 × 2 study (N = 81), we isolated and investigated the effects of group awareness support and argumentation scripts during individual preparation in a Facebook app on domain and argumentative knowledge. Our results reveal that group awareness support of upcoming argumentative processes can be counterproductive for learning in Social Networking Sites. Argumentation scripts in Facebook may remedy possible negative effects of such awareness. Process analysis showed that group awareness support promotes individual argument elaboration but reduces broad analysis of the domain.
... Research on scripted collaborations in CSCL has created a substantial body of fi ndings Fischer, Kollar, Mandl, & Haake, 2007 ;Weinberger, Kollar, Dimitriadis, Makitalo-Siegl, & Fischer, 2009 ;Weinberger et al., 2010 ) . Within this literature, there is an emerging view that some scripting is better than no scripting, but that overuse or over-reliance on scripts can be counterproductive (Dillenbourg, 2002 ;Makitalo, Weinberger, Hakkinen, Jarvela, & Fischer, 2005 ) . Tighter resolution of this argument depends upon what outcomes are valued. ...
Chapter
This chapter reviews research on computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL). Its scope includes learning that takes place face-to-face, remotely, and in blends of face-to-face and remote activity. It considers learning in groups of various sizes (from dyads to learning communities). It considers a range of approaches intended to promote and support collaborative learning, including instructor-led methods, scripted methods and methods that open up space for the autonomous, creative, productive work of the collaborating learners. The chapter builds upon and updates related chapters in previous versions of the handbook. It provides the reader with links to broad-based, landmark reviews and summaries of this area and some of the core texts on the role of technology in computer-supported collaborative learning. The chapter reviews selected research contributions from the last five years, identifying some emerging themes and highlighting important unresolved issues. It provides a conceptual orientation to the nature and potential educational benefits of CSCL. It summarises research results concerning: real-time (synchronous) CSCL, blended designs for CSCL, and CSCL using Web 2.0 technologies. It identifies some key issues in the methodology of CSCL research and also provides an overview of recent research on CSCL design using scripts and design patterns.
... So it could be argued that the usage of implemented scripts may be compulsory rather than free choice. In that case, however, internal and external scripts may collide, especially in advanced learners resulting in overscripting and harmful effects on learning [9,23], e.g. disturbing interactions and processes that otherwise would have taken place. ...
Conference Paper
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Facebook is a social network very popular among University students for purposes of self-presentation. As social networks support the sharing of ideas, can we facilitate collaborative learning in Facebook? We designed a Facebook app that supports scripting of learners’ interaction and the construction of arguments in Facebook. In an empirical study with 128 undergraduate teacher trainees, we investigated how individual preparation and argument structuring influences collaborative learning outcomes. The results show no significant effect of argument structuring and detrimental effects of individual preparation. Learners who were asked to individually construct arguments before joining a discussion in the Facebook app learned significantly less and diverged significantly more from their learning partner in learning outcomes.
... As a negative example, in a true experiment by Mäkitalo, Weinberger, Häkkinen, Järvelä, and Fischer (2004), students in an online collaborative environment received epistemic scripts, that is, computer-generated prompts that in the context of a particular problem reminded them of the related concepts they had learned previously. The treatment increased discourse, but decreased information-seeking activities, resulting in the unscripted condition (control) yielding superior learning outcomes (g ¼ À1.23). ...
... For example, an epistemic script implemented in the CASSIS environment guided learners to engage in a series of problem-solving moves, such as identifying the relevant problem information, applying the relevant concepts to this problem information, and drawing conclusions and proposing interventions. Learners supported with an epistemic script were better able to focus on the core aspects of a problem case, but also pursued additional information and explored multiple perspectives (Mäkitalo, Weinberger, Häkkinen, Järvelä, & Fischer, 2005;Weinberger, 2008;Weinberger et al., 2007). This work suggests that the CASSIS environment can help students develop non-routine problem-solving skills by giving students an opportunity to learn how to analyze large amounts of information, recognize patterns, and determine whether or not a claim is well support by available evidence. ...
... From an applied perspective, one field heavily influenced by the encoding of technical concepts is computer-supported collaborative learning. Virtual discourse plays an important role in knowledge co-construction in these learning environments (Häkkinen and Järvelä 2006;Mäkitalo et al. 2005). When communicating virtually (or face to face), learning partners tend to use recently introduced words; in other words, they adapt linguistically to each other ). ...
Article
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Learning from texts requires reflection on how far one has mastered the material. Learners use such metacognitive processes to decide whether to engage in deeper learning activities or not. This article examines how the lexical surface of specialist concepts influences their mental representation. Lexical encodings that are the concise wordings of a concept (e.g., tension headache or migraine for specific types of headache) provide immediate access to the underlying content. To understand learning contents appropriately, learners have to work on such lexical covers to gain insight into the underlying semantic meaning. It was assumed that a technical term’s origin (either German or classical Latin/Greek) is used systematically as a hint for further elaboration. 41 college students rated the difficulty, familiarity, competence, accessibility, and their knowledge of 17 German-language (GL) terms and their classical language (CL) synonyms. The influence of word frequency was controlled. As expected, results showed that GL terms were perceived to be less difficult than CL terms. Consequently, comprehension of these terms was rated more highly. Analyses of how lexical encoding influenced accuracy of participants’ comprehension judgments showed that participants’ comprehension ratings were less accurate for GL terms. Theoretical and practical implications for learning from written information are discussed.
... Nevertheless, a constrained environment does not ensure beneficial effects of group learning, as some studies fail to show positive effects even under constrained conditions (see e.g. Mäkitalo, Weinberger, Häkkinen, Järvelä, & Fischer, 2005;Slavin et al., 2003;van Bruggen, Kirschner, & Jochems, 2002). Research in this area also suggests that group learning can have negative effects on retention. ...
Article
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This paper focuses on the factors that are likely to play a role in individual learning outcomes from group discussions, and it includes a comparison featuring test-enhanced learning. A between-groups design (N = 98) was used to examine the learning effects of feedback if provided to discussion groups, and to examine whether group discussions benefit learning when compared to test-enhanced learning over time. The results showed that feedback does not seem to have any effect if provided to a discussion group, and that test-enhanced learning leads to better learning than the discussion groups, independent of retention interval. Moreover, we examined whether memory and learning might be influenced by the participants’ need for cognition (NFC). The results showed that those scoring high on NFC remembered more than those who scored low. To conclude, testing trumps discussion groups from a learning perspective, and the discussion groups were also the least beneficial learning context for those scoring low on NFC.
... Some negative effects of scripts that have been found may be less problematic for elementary school students: scripts may conflict with strategies students have developed themselves. In particular, advanced students may already have a fully functional understanding of how to interact and approach a joint problem space (Dillenbourg, 2002;Gijlers and de Jong 2009;Mäkitalo et al. 2005). Here, we are investigating how scripting may or may not be beneficial for elementary school students. ...
Article
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Creating graphical representations can foster knowledge gains on science topics in elementary school students by promoting active integration and translation of new information. Collaborating on joint representations may encourage children to discuss and elaborate their knowledge. To foster productive interactions, children may greatly benefit from additional guidance through collaboration scripts or careful group composition. In this study, we investigate the effects of script support and group composition by social preference on children’s learning processes and outcomes in a collaborative drawing setting within science education. The script foresaw a phase of individual preparation and prompted learners to engage in critical interactions. Group composition was based on children’s preferences for peers to work with. Results show that whereas the drawings of unscripted children depicted the concepts to be learned more adequately, scripted children acquired more domain knowledge during the experience. We discuss how a script can facilitate learning through collaborative drawing by imposing additional challenges on children’s interactions.
... Adaptive e-learning has been studied to investigate students' different learning paths and results showed a relationship between student characteristics and their learning paths (van Seters et al. 2012). Additionally, facilitation of online discussions was found to increase students' participation for successful online learning (Makitalo et al. 2005). ...
Article
The learning era of construction management (CM) has been enriched with the introduction of cyberspace, where the traditional learning process was exchanged with a smart learning environment. Despite the benefits of technical improvements, cyberspace has brought pedagogical challenges in motivating and assessing students. The main problem has become finding and choosing the most effective technology for cyber educators, who are challenged with technological improvements and lack of a comprehensive review and analysis on previous cyberlearning applications. This gap in literature has been the motive to prepare a review on a selection of cyberlearning tools and methods in CM education. The purpose of this paper is to present a comprehensive literature review on the history of computer tools and how the key ways of using technology have been used to promote CM learning in cyberspace. A critical literature review was combined with means and methods of teaching in previous studies to assess a variety of cyberlearning applications such as virtual reality technologies, simulation and gaming and Cyber-Physical Systems. This study is valuable for CM education educators and research to learn about the applications and trends in CM cyberlearning, as well as gaps in the knowledge to fill.
... For example, an epistemic script implemented in the CASSIS environment guided learners to engage in a series of problem-solving moves, such as identifying the relevant problem information, applying the relevant concepts to this problem information, and drawing conclusions and proposing interventions. Learners supported with an epistemic script were better able to focus on the core aspects of a problem case, but also pursued additional information and explored multiple perspectives (Mäkitalo, Weinberger, Häkkinen, Järvelä, & Fischer, 2005;Weinberger, 2008;Weinberger, Stegmann et al., 2007). This work suggests that the CASSIS environment can help students develop non-routine problem-solving skills by giving students an opportunity to learn how to analyze large amounts of information, recognize patterns, and determine whether or not a claim is well support by available evidence. ...
... Therefore, online discussions must be structured in a way that clearly communicates their purpose and student expectations, encourages students to co-construct knowledge, and facilitates meaningful discussion. Past research has specifically identified the establishment of clear communication protocols and requirements for participating as vital for a successful discussion (Brannon & Essex, 2001;Darabi, Liang, Survavanshi, & Yurekli, 2013;Makitalo, Weinberger, Hakkinen, Jarvela, & Fischer, 2005). An increasingly common constraint, however, is class size. ...
Article
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It can be difficult to foster focused and effective communication in online discussions within large classes. Implementing protocols is a strategy that may help students communicate more effectively, facilitate their learning process, and improve the quality of their work within online discussions. In this exploratory research study, a protocol was developed and improved over two iterations in a very large undergraduate video-streaming business course (N1=412; N2=450). The discussion instructions were consolidated and adjusted, and design elements such as a grading rubric, exemplary student samples, and due date reminders were added in the second iteration. There were higher perceptions of social, cognitive, and teaching presences in the second iteration, as well as significantly more group cognition within the discussion measured through a Community of Inquiry coding template. Findings suggest that protocols are a potentially useful strategy to manage online discussions in large classes.
... Hesse 2007;Rummel et al. 2009). For example, a study by Mäkitalo et al. (2005) found that a script which provided step-by-step instruction impeded college students' knowledge acquisition relative to unscripted collaborative learning in an asynchronous online discussion. The authors suggested that students in their study may already have been able to regulate their own online discussions in an effective way and that the script therefore may have forced them to follow a learning process that did not match the one they preferred on their own. ...
Article
Collaboration scripts have repeatedly been implemented in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) to facilitate collaboration processes and individual learning. However, finding the right degree of structure is a subtle design task: scripts that are too rigid may impair self-regulation and hinder learning; scripts that are too flexible may fail to evoke high-level interactions. This study investigated whether making collaboration scripts adaptable would be a way to raise their effectiveness. Three experimental phases were realized: In a first phase (exposure phase), all students solved three problem cases by aid of a collaboration script in an asynchronous, text-based CSCL environment. In a second phase (treatment phase), another three cases were presented that were to be solved by aid of a different theory that was presented to the learners through a summary on a sheet of paper. During this phase, a three-groups between-subject design was realized: (a) an unscripted condition, in which students received no specific guidance how to structure their collaboration, (b) a non-adaptable script condition, in which students’ collaboration was guided by the collaboration script they were trained in before, and (c) an adaptable script condition, in which students were allowed to modify parts of the trained script based on their self-perceived needs. In a third phase (subsequent transfer phase), students received a new case that they were to solve without guidance. N = 87 university students participated. Results showed that during the treatment phase, planning processes were most often performed in the unscripted condition. Yet, the adaptable script substantially increased students’ engagement in metacognitive activities of planning compared to learning with a non-adaptable script, and increased monitoring and reflection activities when compared to learning without script. Mediation analyses showed that the adaptable script facilitated learners’ use of self-regulation skills in the subsequent, unscripted transfer phase through the promotion of co-regulation processes of reflection in the treatment phase. The results reveal that adaptable scripting is a promising means of implementing flexible scripting and promoting self-regulation in CSCL.
... Students who had to abruptly and involuntarily transition to online learning may not have been well equipped to function successfully in their new learning environment. The need to adapt to an unanticipated -and perhaps undesired -way of learning may impact performance outcomes because of a lack of confidence in, certainty about or acceptance of, online learning (Mäkitalo et al., 2005;Tarhini et al., 2017;Sollitto et al., 2018;Bower, 2019). Underdeveloped self-regulation skills may also be a concern, given how important self-regulation skills are for online learning generally (Broadbent and Poon, 2015;Aristovnik et al., 2020) and that online learning potentially requires the application of different types of self-regulation skills compared to face-to-face study (Broadbent, 2017). ...
Article
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Students’ learning contexts can influence their learning beliefs and academic performance outcomes; as such, students studying during the COVID-19 outbreak may be at risk of negative impacts on their academic self-efficacy and subject grades compared to other cohorts. They may also have specific beliefs about the impact of COVID-19-related changes on their capacity to perform, with potential consequences for self-efficacy and academic performance. Two weeks after the COVID-19-related transition to online-only learning, 89 first-year psychology students completed a measure of academic self-efficacy and indicated how they thought COVID-19-related changes would impact their capacity to perform in a psychology subject. At the end of the semester, subject grades were obtained from institutional records. Contrary to expectations, neither the self-efficacy beliefs nor the subject grades of the 2020 cohort were significantly different from those of a sample of 2019 first-year psychology students ( n = 85). On average, 2020 students believed that COVID-19-related changes to their learning environment had a negative impact on their capacity to perform well. A mediation analysis indicated that students’ beliefs about the impact of COVID-19 on their capacity did not directly, or indirectly ( via self-efficacy), predict grades. The only significant association in the model was between self-efficacy and grades. Although students reported believing that COVID-19-related changes would negatively impact their capacity to perform, there is little evidence that these beliefs influenced their academic self-efficacy or academic performance or that studying during the COVID-19 outbreak disadvantaged students in comparison with the previous years. A follow-up analysis indicated that self-efficacy was a stronger predictor of grades in the 2020 cohort than in the 2019 cohort. While there may be several unmeasured reasons for cohort differences, one potential interpretation is that, in the context of uncertainty associated with COVID-19, self-efficacy beliefs assumed relatively greater importance in terms of mobilising the resources required to perform well.
... To identify tactics that the teachers used in the events, we drew on communication theories related to uncertainty management and reduction (e.g., Babrow et al., 1998;Brashers, 2001;Mäkitalo et al., 2005) to organize uncertainty management tactics into those that Raise, Maintain, and Reduce uncertainty. Table 3 summarizes tactics noted in the events and their frequency during whole-class discussion that were related to the three stages of uncertainty management. ...
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Science teachers usually view students' uncertainty as a barrier to overcome, a negative experience to be avoided, a deficiency in need of remedy. Building on the theory of deep learning in science as a generative and sensemaking process, the purpose of this design‐based study is to identify tactics for teachers to manage their students' epistemic uncertainty as a pedagogical resource to develop student conceptual understanding during whole‐class discussion. Classroom observations of whole‐class discussion were collected from six teachers' classes ranging from third to eighth grade. A total of 18 whole‐class discussions were collected, transcribed, and analyzed. A storyline talk to manage uncertainty during whole‐class discussion was developed and consisted of three stages: (1) Raise epistemic uncertainty through creating ambiguous conditions; (2) Maintain epistemic uncertainty through preventing immature disclosure and discussing alternative explanations or conflicting ideas; and (3) Reduce epistemic uncertainty through making coherent connections among current uncertainty, prior knowledge, and familiar phenomena. Seven nuanced tactics used by teachers to achieve each stage of uncertainty management were identified. The results suggest that managing uncertainty goes beyond asking questions and problematizing phenomena. When engaging students in storyline‐based whole‐class discussion, teachers should focus on one specific uncertainty and establish a coherent, consistent storyline that raises, maintains, and reduces student uncertainty to horizontally and vertically construct a collective knowledge among students. The horizontal nature occurs within a stage of management, and the vertical nature of a storyline talk is related to moving along from stage to stage. Through the storyline talk focusing on students' epistemic uncertainty, students can truly become agents in the learning process when the lesson is centered on and driven by students' uncertainty.
... In total, the literature search resulted in 52 articles reporting 56 relevant studies. Three studies were excluded after data extraction, as they reported duplicate data from studies that were also included in the sample (Bollen et al. 2015;Mäkitalo et al. 2005;Noroozi et al. 2013a). The total sample includes 49 articles reporting 53 relevant studies involving 5616 participants (M = 102.3, ...
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Scripting computer-supported collaborative learning has been shown to greatly enhance learning, but is often criticized for hindering learners’ agency and thus undermining learners’ motivation. Beyond that, what makes some CSCL scripts particularly effective for learning is still a conundrum. This meta-analysis synthesizes the results of 53 primary studies that experimentally compared the effect of learning with a CSCL script to unguided collaborative learning on at least one of the variables motivation, domain learning, and collaboration skills. Overall, 5616 learners enrolled in K-12, higher education, or professional development participated in the included studies. The results of a random-effects meta-analysis show that learning with CSCL scripts leads to a nonsignificant positive effect on motivation (Hedges’ g = 0.13), a small positive effect (Hedges’ g = 0.24) on domain learning and a medium positive effect (Hedges’ g = 0.72) on collaboration skills. Additionally, the meta-analysis shows how scaffolding single particular collaborative activities and scaffolding a combination of collaborative activities affects the effectiveness of CSCL scripts and that synergistic or differentiated scaffolding is hard to achieve. This meta-analysis offers the first counterevidence against the widespread criticism that CSCL scripts have negative motivational effects. Furthermore, the findings can be taken as evidence for the robustness of the positive effects on domain learning and collaboration skills.
... As such, it highlights the importance of teachers engaging in fairly flexible and adaptive pedagogical enactment using a set of knowledge-building principles as heuristics (see Scardamalia, 2002, for details), with an aim to continually improve classroom designs and practices (Chan, 2011;Hong, Chen, & Chai, 2016). This is in contrast to other constructivist approaches that are defined by structured learning procedures, e.g., inquiry learning cycles (Bell, Urhahne, Schanze, & Ploetzner, 2010;Pedaste et al., 2015), or scripted learning activities (Mäkitalo, Weinberger, Häkkinen, Järvelä, & Fischer, 2005;Stegmann, Wecker, Weinberger, & Fischer, 2012). Therefore, it is also plausible to posit that general constructivist teaching beliefs (CTBs) alone, although necessary, may not be sufficient to help teachers transform typical classrooms into knowledge building environments (KBEs) that highlight deep constructivism. ...
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The creation of effective knowledge-building environments (KBEs) to help learners develop essential skills in a knowledge society has gradually been recognized as an important goal in education (see the review by Chen & Hong, 2016), but the qualities that teachers require to develop KBEs remain to be investigated. Drawing on a review of relevant literature, we hypothesized that constructivist teaching beliefs (CTBs) and technology-integration knowledge (TIK) would prove important determinants of teachers' potential to develop KBEs. The main aim of this study was to test a structural equation model encompassing teachers' CTBs and TIK, and determine whether these variables were reliable predictors of teachers' potential to develop KBEs. A convenience sample of 390 middle-school teachers was selected from northern Taiwan for this survey study. Our results allowed us to construct a path model and indicate that CTBs, which are positively mediated by TIK, facilitate teachers' potential to develop KBEs. The implications for teacher training are discussed.
... The effect of CSCL was negative in cased-based learning. Part of the negative outcomes appear to be due to mixed outcomes in some of the studies; CSCL intervention produced both positive and negative outcomes; it increased the amount of discourse significantly, but marginally decreased information-seeking behaviors and individual learning outcomes (Alonso, Manrique, & Viñes, 2009;Mäkitalo, Weinberger, Häkkinen, Järvelä, & Fischer, 2005). ...
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The goal of this paper is to report on a meta-analysis about the effects of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) in STEM education. The analysis is based on 316 outcomes from 143 studies that examined the effects of CSCL published between 2005 and 2014. Our analysis showed that the overall effect size of STEM CSCL was 0.51, a moderate but notable effect size in educational research. The effect was greatest on process outcomes, followed by knowledge outcomes, and affective outcomes. The sizes of the effects were moderated by types of technology and pedagogy, educational levels of learners, and learning domains. Moderators further interacted so that effects of technology and pedagogy varied depending on the modes of collaboration, learners' educational levels, and domains of learning. The current study demonstrates the overall advantage of CSCL in STEM education and highlights a need to understand how these variables may interact to contribute to overall CSCL effectiveness.
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This paper advances the conceptualization of STEM teacher professional knowledge reflecting the specialized knowledge needed to support English learner (EL) language development during science and mathematics instruction. What distinguishes this model is the integration of conceptual understanding, a key feature of subject matter knowledge, with disciplinary literacy knowledge (DLK). Several models have been proposed to capture the knowledge, skills, and dispositions of effective teachers. However, few studies have empirically investigated the model’s utility in producing effective EL instruction. Two professional development (PD) approaches were tested. One approach explicitly focused on developing subject matter knowledge and the second approach focused on developing pedagogical knowledge without an explicit attention to subject matter knowledge. Both approaches included PD on DLK. Outcome variables included teacher math and science content knowledge and instructional quality. Findings show overall science content knowledge score increased for both PD approaches, but no significant differences in overall math content knowledge score were found. This pattern suggests that for elementary teachers, prolonged PD can improve teacher science knowledge. Significant increases in instructional quality were found only for teachers who received PD with an explicit focus subject matter. PD focused on pedagogical knowledge did not improve overall teaching quality. Implications are discussed.
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This article compares how visual design tools are used during an internship for high schoolers co-researching science journalism through infographics. Drawing on interns’ documentation of design processes, we demonstrate that tools shape both how youth create visual representations and how features of tools enable and constrain youth in positioning themselves in socially valued ways. Thus, affordances of tools can be interpreted according to their cognitive and identity fostering properties. We argue identity affordances of tools are under-theorized and are consequential for learners and learning. Educators should be mindful of, if not make explicit, properties of tools when designing for learning.
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Online teacher programs are diverse in their models, expressing a variety of learning objectives, pedagogies, technological platforms, and evaluation methods. Promoting and assessing collaborative learning of an online teacher programs is one of the major challenges, in part because collaboration includes complex cognitive and social-emotional dimensions. This chapter focuses on teachers’ academic program in online learning environment and examines the conditions for effective teaching and assessing collaborative problem solving. The chapter provides readers a look at the rationale, implementation, and assessment of collaborative learning in online teacher program and presents the conditions for effective design of collaborative learning for pre- and in-service teachers. Examples from two empirical studies will be provided on how the collaborative learning environment leverages teachers’ constructivist teaching, ongoing feedback, and evaluation to prepare teachers for instruction in technology-rich environments
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The problem of ‘applicability’ of mathematics to modern physical sciences has been labeled as an ‘unreasonably effective’ and unexplainable ‘miracle’ by prominent physicists such as Eugene Wigner and Paul Dirac. Philosophers of science from contending traditions have also contributed to the debates at large. While some have tried to trivialize the problem, others, in particular those with a phenomenological orientation, have attempted to eliminate this riddle, claiming that the two domains are ‘identical’. This paper, while challenging some of these interpretations, proposes a solution from a dialectical materialist position. Drawing on Evald Ilyenkov’s concept of the ‘ideal’ as the objectivized form of human activity in social nature, it is suggested that the two realms are necessarily interconnected as schemata of human activity which aim for a highly quantified conceptualization of reality.
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This study investigated help-seeking activities in a computer-based environment teaching argumentative skills by videos of argumentative dialogues of teachers who discussed controversy issues in the context of a workshop. Learners, all of them students of educational sciences, solved learning tasks on the presented argumentative dialogues and reflected on their response certitude. Forty-three students voluntary took part in the study. Two experimental groups varied according to the type of task they solved. Group 1 got adjunct questions, so-called self-explanation prompts that elicited elaboration of the video content. Group 2 answered multiple-choice tasks that assessed the same knowledge. After each task, participants of both groups (a) had to judge the certainty of their response being correct (i.e., the marking of the multiple-choice task or the written self-explanations) and (b) were offered to use the help function on demand. Results revealed the relevance of learners' response certitude with respect to their help use. Low response certitude about the correctness of a task solution led to higher help use which was positively related to learning outcome. However, learners' response certitude was unrelated to the actual correctness of their task solution. Type of task had no influence on response certitude, help use or learning outcome.
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Technological developments in recent years have radically advanced the design of smart home products. With the help of artificial intelligence, the interaction between user and product has been raised to a new level. While AI has been changing the type of interaction, the relationships between user, product and home have gained importance to provide useful and meaningful outputs for smart home systems. This paper proposes a new approach by focusing on a specific relationship. The aim of the study is to explore the relationship between the user and the home to obtain insight into improving the user experience quality. The research explores specific characteristics such as home-occupancy status, home type and number of members of a household. This study consists of a literature review on the concept of smart home and a field study. The field study was conducted with 48 participants in the Bay Area, San Francisco. Following this, multiple-choice questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were conducted. With the findings of the study, the impact of the user-home relationship on the user experience of smart home products is discussed. We propose that this relationship should be taken into consideration as a new dynamic dimension for developing user experience strategies.
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This study investigated novices' “lived experiences” of navigation within the sport of orienteering from an enactive and phenomenological approach. The objective was to characterize qualitatively elements of task-related situations that were meaningful for orienteers. The results showed that the participants continuously made judgments about the reliability of their estimations about whether they were on “the right route” on the course. When the participants judged that they were only approximately on the right route or were unable to locate themselves, elements of the situation other than map and terrain features became meaningful for them. These results demonstrate that, for novice orienteers, navigation activity must extend beyond navigation as logical, computational way-finding problem to include embodied, social, cultural and situated dimensions.
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In response to discourse on an AIGA listserv, this article argues that the longstanding, arts-based criteria for evaluating design faculty in American colleges and universities suppress the development of a research culture in design. The article summarizes the state of faculty tenure and promotion standards in schools of art and design that favor creative production and commercial freelance over the discovery of new knowledge. Acknowledging that these traditional practices have merit in evaluating faculty contributions, it is suggested that the graduate preparation of most design faculty leaves graduates unprepared to meet the typical research demands applied to faculty in other fields. As such, design often remains on the margins of activities that institutions value most. The article follows with descriptions of an emerging research culture and the challenges it represents for American colleges and universities with respect to design.
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This symposium addresses how argumentation can be leveraged for learning in social media like Facebook (FB) exemplifying social learning. It catalyzes an international discussion forum (Germany, Israel, United States) that seeks to understand argumentative processes beyond isolated technology-based learning environments, what influences them, if and how they can be repurposed for learning. We aim to contribute to the longstanding interest in argumentative learning in the learning sciences and extend knowledge about analyzing and supporting argumentation processes in FB. We examine the conditions under which FB can be harnessed for argumentative learning. We measure declarative knowledge outcomes and explore the development of attitude and civic behavior. Synthesizing across the papers, we will pinpoint the affordances of FB for argumentative learning, comparing processes to standard learning science approaches and exploring new socially embedded learning outcomes. We will frame promising directions for further research work.
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Cette distance qui nous rassemble « Mettre de la distance » n’a pas une connotation particulièrement positive. Elle est plutôt le signe d’une tentative d’éloignement par rapport à un évènement, une personne ou un lieu qui ne nous convient pas. Dans le cadre de la formation « à distance », cette dernière est à l’origine d’un processus particulier de la démarche d’enseignement – apprentissage lors de laquelle il va falloir tenter de réduire la fracture spatiale. Mais cette rupture entre l’enseignant et l’apprenant n’est pas que géographique, elle peut aussi être sociale dans la mesure où les contacts entre les interlocuteurs du processus éducatif sont médiatisés d’une manière telle que toute une série d’informations destinées à leur permettre de mieux se connaître sont absentes, comme le langage non verbal, les contacts directs ou le son de la voix. Cependant, il semble que l’obstacle que représente cet éloignement mutuel soit surmontable, que lesresponsables de formation, les enseignants et les apprenants cherchent ensemble à recréer un sentiment de présence sociale, de communauté et de confiance. Si des difficultés se présentent, elles peuvent constituer autant d’occasions pour surmonter les différences et pour favoriser une compréhension réciproque. Et, lorsque certaines incompréhensions ponctuelles persistent, celles-ci se révèlent parfois utiles à ce qu’un apprentissage se réalise par l’obligation devant laquelle il place chacun de devoir s’expliquer (à soi-même et à l’autre) en vue d’arriver à un accord. C’est ce que nous disent les auteurs (G. Lameul & T. Kuster, M. Ciussi, J. Eneau & S. Simonian, B. Coulibaly, A. Daele, N. Deschryver, C. Papi) qui ont pris leur plume pour proposer ces articles. Ils témoignent que le sens de l’autre perdure y compris dans une relation pédagogique à distance. Ils répètent que les communautés n’ont pas seulement un sens virtuel, mais qu’elles existent réellement. Ils expliquent comment des contacts profonds peuvent se nouer entre des individus qui ne se voient pas. Ils mettent en évidence l’importance de la prise en compte du contexte social, de la réalité culturelle et du vécu individuel pour que l’apprentissage puisse prendre place. L’être humain est ainsi fait que devant une situation défavorable son sens de l’« humanité » arrive malgré tout à prendre le dessus. Et la « distance » qui semblait devoir séparer les acteurs de l’apprentissage se révèle les rassembler… Elle devient l’occasion de contacts sociaux qui se créent et de communautés qui vivent pour pouvoir continuer à se raconter la belle histoire de la marche vers la connaissance. Nous avons le grand plaisir de vous présenter ce numéro thématique « e-290 » intitulé « Communautés d'apprenants en ligne, apprentissage et socialisation » coordonné par Jacques Audran et Stéphane Simonian. Ils nous proposent dans ce qui suit une belle sélection de recherches et d’analyses des pratiques qui se déroulent en ligne, à distance, mais avec des contacts humains bien présents qui pourraient en étonner plus d’un. Si vous faites partie de ceux-là, n’hésitez pas à prolonger votre surprise. Quant aux convaincus, ils trouveront de l’eau pour alimenter le moulin qui permet à la formation à distance de poursuivre sa ronde.
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STEM integrated education has become the guiding principle of science education in many countries and a focus of research efforts. Developmental features of STEM education focus on using technology as a bridge to integrate multiple subjects. The focus on new technologies and practical applications are its major principles, and the aim of STEM education is to train a new generation of multi-skilled professionals capable of integrating knowledge from different fields of study to solve problems effectively. High school science courses based upon technological science models and science investigations have become the major means and methods for STEM education. For the past one hundred years, efforts of elementary education reforms worldwide have been focused on scientific inquiry. The development, utilization, evaluation, and revision of various scientific models and theories play a central role in scientific inquiry. Therefore, model-based inquiry would be crucial in improving the learning of science subjects. This study is based upon results from past MBI pedagogies research carried out by renowned academicians worldwide and incorporated a virtual physics lab developed for this study to create the MBI-VPL pedagogy method. Six main learning modules were designed, namely (1) topic introduction, (2) hands-on experiment, (3) virtual experiment, (4) team work, (5) actual applications, and (6) model adjustments. Results of experimental teaching showed that MBI and MBI-VPL pedagogy were more effective in developing student scientific inquiry skills compared to traditional methods, with significant improvements in the performance of process skills, comprehensive skills, learning attitude, communication skills, and reflection skills. The MBI-VPL pedagogy was able to introduce virtual physics experiment design and analysis, allowing students to gain in-depth practice of process skills, comprehensive skills, and reflection skills of scientific inquiry. Differences were also observed in the development of scientific inquiry skills during the experimental course between students of different genders. Boys performed better in process skills and comprehensive skills, while girls performed better in learning attitude and communications. The degree of student acceptance for the six major learning modules in the MBI-VPL model also showed that students tend to accept the use of process, comprehensive, and reflective skills of the virtual experiment.
Chapter
In this chapter, we will present a review of theoretical and empirical analyses of Web-based collaboration processes used during a scripted university course. The results refer to a design-based study that involved first-year teacher-education students (N = 30) studying pedagogy over a period of three months. The intervention involved structuring the subjects’ collaborative actions with three different pedagogical scripts. According to the findings, the scripts guided students’ activities by helping them find resources for knowledge construction and work together through a series of steps. However, there were variations among groups in terms of quality of collaboration, and the students mostly cumulatively shared or constructed knowledge from similar perspectives. On the basis of the challenges raised in the SCORE and related studies, future prospects are outlined for the design of flexible pedagogical scripts.
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The authors propose a new approach to discourse analysis which is based on meta data from social networking behavior of learners who are submerged in a socially constructivist e-learning environment. It is shown that traditional data modeling techniques can be combined with social network analysis - an approach that promises to yield new insights into the largely uncharted domain of network-based discourse analysis. The chapter is treated as a non-technical introduction and is illustrated with real examples, visual representations, and empirical findings. Within the setting of a constructivist statistics course, the chapter provides an illustration of what network-based discourse analysis is about (mainly from a methodological point of view), how it is implemented in practice, and why it is relevant for researchers and educators.
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The general idea of this thesis is to propose a modeling of adaptable information system to any type of cooperation project meeting actors of separate territories, plural cultures and different structural and cyclical contingencies. The decisiveness will be to set up a real “code of communication” around a cooperation project appropriable by all the actors by integrating their specificities and those of their environments. More widely, this thesis is a permanent research framework with capitalization which has to bring to improve “the art of project” notably in terms of information and knowledge flow valuation and that may translate: “think global and act local”. The last two decades were characterized by the emergence of an environment the complexity of which increases in an exponential way in view of the information flow magma to be used. The impact on companies and more generally on organizations fundamentally changed their management and in particular in the “entire process project”. Beyond the concepts of globalization, internationalization, transition, number of organizations is going to try to create some value in the implementation of “cooperation project”. These projects present very particular typologies where the information and knowledge are as well raw materials as finished products in their realization. In this optics, the notion of “the environment project” becomes more and more strong as far as its complexity see increasing by a contingency of factors and actors who do not only arise from “the environment of nearness” of the project but also the “environment of territorial connection” which so redefines the “geospace stakes” of the project. Through this reading of the environment of the project, which codes of communication common we can share to allow of the implementation of “architecture project” in search for efficiency and which has to bring an effect “fast-breeder generator” to the project that is to produce more wealth than consummate resources. To bring an answer to this problem, it is above all to bring to the foreground an abstract model of “informational proactivity management” around the notion of project which can decline in various elements which allow positioning exactly the project in its environment by taking into account "glocality” of its factors and actors. This research is centered on the informative genesis of the constituents of a “proactive management” through returns of experiments and results of construction of an “informative abstract model project” stemming from my research works begun in 1993.
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Healthcare organizations employ simulation-based team training (SBTT) to improve skill, communication and coordination in a broad range of critical care contexts. Quantitative approaches, such as team performance measurements, are predominantly used to measure SBTTs effectiveness. However, a practical evaluation method that examines how this approach supports cognition and teamwork is missing. We have applied Distributed Cognition for Teamwork (DiCoT), a method for analysing cognition and collaboration aspects of work settings, with the purpose of assessing the methodology's usefulness for evaluating SBTTs. In a case study, we observed and analysed four Emergo Train System® simulation exercises where medical professionals trained emergency response routines. The study suggests that DiCoT is an applicable and learnable tool for determining key distributed cognition attributes of SBTTs that are of importance for the simulation validity of training environments. Moreover, we discuss and exemplify how DiCoT supports design of SBTTs with a focus on transfer and validity characteristics. Practitioner Summary: In this study, we have evaluated a method to assess simulation-based team training environments from a cognitive ergonomics perspective. Using a case study, we analysed Distributed Cognition for Teamwork (DiCoT) by applying it to the Emergo Train System®. We conclude that DiCoT is useful for SBTT evaluation and simulator (re)design.
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The pedagogical integration of computing is interesting in educational contexts based on the contributions of Seymour Papert and Wing’s concept of computational thinking. Integrating arts in education can lead to the design of activities using Scratch combined with devices. The main goal is to evaluate the integration of computational thinking in art education making use of technological resources, sensor cards and minicomputers, with a student-centred pedagogical approach. This research assesses the results of a control group of 35 students and an experimental group of 109 students in four different schools, using Mann-Whitney’s U-test for independent samples assessing ‘Active Learning’, ‘computational concepts’ and ‘fun’ scales. Applying data triangulation, and consistent with design-based research, the results of interviews and focus groups reinforced the results obtained in the aforementioned test, providing validity to the study. There are advantages regarding student interest, motivation and commitment related to programming technologies in art and education, particularly pedagogical sessions with music. Handling devices, sensors and Raspberry Pi provides participating students with a factor of commitment and enthusiasm, with significant improvements. Working with coding and devices brings an additional advantage in the development of computational thinking and digital competence. The results show an increase in creativity and artistic competence related to the ability to create music from the activities and technological resources described in the technological intervention.
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This article regards artifacts as sociotechnical arrangements. Likewise, it views the concept of agency—traditionally defined as a human capacity for having needs and preferences and for seeing possible actions—as not independent of sociotechnical arrangements, but rather emerging from and potentially transforming those arrangements. In other words, the design of an artifact is actually the design of a sociotechnical arrangement, from which emerges new agency. We support this view with our fieldwork in the areas of open data, integrated learning, and local currency.
Chapter
This chapter explores a sociolinguistic approach to computer-mediated communication (CMC), by examining how higher education teachers use digital media to manage interpersonal interaction in their online courses, form impressions, shape and maintain relationships with their students. Previous studies have often focused on the differences between online and offline interactions, though contemporary research is moving towards the view that CMC should be studied as an embedded linguistic form in everyday life.The study of language in these contexts is typically based on text-based forms of CMC, (often referred to as computer-mediated discourse analysis). Within this, focus in the chapter is on the devising and implementation of pragmatic linguistics of online interactions; at a high level this refers to meaning-making, shared belief systems and intercultural differences; at a specific level this includes issues such as turn-taking and the sequential analysis and organisation of virtual ‘interlocution’.
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This chapter provides a retrospective review of the utility and effectiveness of case study analyses to engage and support students in online collaborative learning within teacher education coursework. Specifically, the interrelationship among factors related to the instructor, the student, the tasks, and the on-line learning environments are examined resulting in suggestions for designing, implementing, and researching case study learning activities that foster and enhance collaboration in online teacher education course work.
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In this chapter a theory of motivation and emotion developed from an attributional perspective is presented. Before undertaking this central task, it might be beneficial to review the progression of the book. In Chapter 1 it was suggested that causal attributions have been prevalent throughout history and in disparate cultures. Studies reviewed in Chapter 2 revealed a large number of causal ascriptions within motivational domains, and different ascriptions in disparate domains. Yet some attributions, particularly ability and effort in the achievement area, dominate causal thinking. To compare and contrast causes such as ability and effort, their common denominators or shared properties were identified. Three causal dimensions, examined in Chapter 3, are locus, stability, and controllability, with intentionality and globality as other possible causal properties. As documented in Chapter 4, the perceived stability of a cause influences the subjective probability of success following a previous success or failure; causes perceived as enduring increase the certainty that the prior outcome will be repeated in the future. And all the causal dimensions, as well as the outcome of an activity and specific causes, influence the emotions experienced after attainment or nonattainment of a goal. The affects linked to causal dimensions include pride (with locus), hopelessness and resignation (with stability), and anger, gratitude, guilt, pity, and shame (with controllability).
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The ideas presented in this article are especially challenged by critical questions raised by the recent research approaches to collaborative learning in computer-supported settings. The question arises whether participants in computer-supported collaboration are able to successfully work on a common task and achieve a type of interaction that leads them to educationally relevant higher-level discussion and learning. This article will first discuss the central concepts and recent research trends in the area of collaborative learning. Further, the sometimes contradictory findings of research on Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) are presented. The aim of CSCL is to integrate research on collaborative learning with the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). In the context of research on CSCL, it is also essential to consider the recent methodological challenges this work poses for studying collaborative learning in computer-supported settings. Finally, the pedagogical and contextual prerequisites and constraints for the formation of collaborative groups around mutual interests, skills and needs are described and suggestions are made on the basis of the recent research.
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Novice physics students were constrained to carry out qualitative and hierarchically structured problem analyses that were designed to mimic those used by experts. Each problem analysis required that novices consider questions concerning principles, concepts, and procedures. The effects of structuring novices' problem analyses in this way were assessed in three areas: (a) judgments of solution similarity, (b) reasoning about solution similarity, and (c) problem solving. Experiment 1 provides evidence that performing qualitative and hierarchically structured problem analyses leads novices to make more expertlike judgments of solution similarity. As shown in Experiment 2, this shift is due to an increased focus by novices upon the deep structure of problems. The results of Experiment 3 indicate that qualitative and hierarchically structured problem analyses can improve novices' ability to solve problems. We discuss the pedagogical implications of these findings.
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This study examined the effects of question prompts and peer interactions in scaffolding undergraduate students’ problem-solving processes in an ill-structured task in problem representation, developing solutions, making justifications, and monitoring and evaluating. A quasi-experimental study, supplemented by multiple-case studies, was conducted to investigate both the outcomes and the processes of student problem-solving performance. The quantitative outcomes revealed that question prompts had significantly positive effects on student problem-solving performance but peer interactions did not show significant effects. The qualitative findings, however, did indicate some positive effects of peer interactions in facilitating cognitive thinking and metacognitive skills. The study suggests that the peer interaction process itself must be guided and monitored with various strategies, including question prompts, in order to maximize its benefits.
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Computer-mediated world-wide networks have enabled a shift from contiguous learning groups to asynchronous distributed learning groups utilizing computer-supported collaborative learning environments. Although these environments can support communication and collaboration, both research and field observations are not always positive about their working. This article focuses on factors which may cause this discrepancy, centering on two pitfalls that appear to impede achieving the desired results, namely taking for granted that participants will socially interact simply because the environment makes it possible and neglecting the social (psychological) dimension of the desired social interaction. It examines the social interactions which determine how groups develop, how sound social spaces characterized by group cohesion, trust, respect and belonging are established, and how a sense of community of learning is established. It concludes with an evaluation of educational techniques proposed by instructors and educators, as well as the findings of educational researchers and guidelines for avoiding the pitfalls.
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Engaging in reflective activities in interaction, such as explaining, justifying and evaluating problem solutions, has been shown to be potentially productive for learning. Here we address the problem of how these activities may be promoted in the context of computer-mediated communication with respect to a modelling task in physics. We present the design principles of two different communication interfaces. The first allows free text to be exchanged, and the second structures the interaction by providing a restricted set of communicative acts. Comparative analyses of interaction corpora produced with the two communication interfaces are then described. The analyses show that use of the second structured interface in performing the problem-solving task is feasible for students, and that it promotes a task-focussed and reflective interaction. In conclusion we discuss the different resources provided by different media and the relative degrees of effort that their use requires.
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Free collaboration does not systematically produce learning. One way to enhance the effectiveness of collaborative learning is to structure interactions by engaging students in well-defined scripts. A collaboration script is a set of instructions prescribing how students should form groups, how they should interact and collaborate and how they should solve the problem. In computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL), the script is reified in the interface of the learning environment. This contribution dismantles the concept of script. Syntactically, a script is sequence of phases and each phase can be described by five attributes. The grammatical combination of these elements may however produce any kind of pedagogical method, even those that have nothing to do with the idea of collaborative learning. On the one hand, the definition of scripts constitutes a promising convergence between educational engineering and socio-cultural approaches but, on the other hand, it drifts away from the genuine notion of collaborative learning. Will the fun and the richness of group interactions survive to this quest for effectiveness? The answer depends on the semantics of collaborative scripts: what is the design rationale, what is the core mechanism in the script through which the script designer expects to foster productive interactions and learning?
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Collaborative learning in computer-supported learning environments typically means that learners work on tasks together, discussing their individual perspectives via text-based media or videoconferencing, and consequently acquire knowledge. Collaborative learning, however, is often sub-optimal with respect to how learners work on the concepts that are supposed to be learned and how learners interact with each other. One possibility to improve collaborative learning environments is to conceptualize epistemic scripts, which specify how learners work on a given task, and social scripts, which structure how learners interact with each other. In this contribution, two studies will be reported that investigated the effects of epistemic and social scripts in a text-based computer-supported learning environment and in a videoconferencing learning environment in order to foster the individual acquisition of knowledge. In each study the factors ‘epistemic script’ and ‘social script’ have been independently varied in a 2×2-factorial design. 182 university students of Educational Science participated in these two studies. Results of both studies show that social scripts can be substantially beneficial with respect to the individual acquisition of knowledge, whereas epistemic scripts apparently do not to lead to the expected effects.
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Proposes a theory of motivation and emotion in which causal ascriptions play a key role. Evidence is presented indicating that in achievement-related contexts there are a few dominant causal perceptions, and it is suggested that the perceived causes of success and failure share the 3 common properties of locus, stability, and controllability, with intentionality and globality as other possible causal structures. The perceived stability of causes influences changes in expectancy of success; all 3 dimensions of causality affect a variety of common emotional experiences, including anger, gratitude, guilt, hopelessness, pity, pride, and shame. Expectancy and affect, in turn, are presumed to guide motivated behavior. The theory therefore relates the structure of thinking to the dynamics of feeling and action. Analysis of a created motivational episode involving achievement strivings is offered, and numerous empirical observations are examined from this theoretical position. The strength of the empirical evidence and the capability of this theory to address prevalent human emotions are stressed, and examples of research on parole decisions, smoking cessation, and helping behavior are presented to illustrate the generalizability of the theory beyond the achievement-related theoretical focus. (3½ p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Moving beyond the general question of effectiveness of small group learning, this conceptual review proposes conditions under which the use of small groups in classrooms can be productive. Included in the review is recent research that manipulates various features of cooperative learning as well as studies of the relationship of interaction in small groups to outcomes. The analysis develops propositions concerning the kinds of discourse that are productive of different types of learning as well as propositions concerning how desirable kinds of interaction may be fostered. Whereas limited exchange of information and explanation are adequate for routine learning in collaborative seatwork, more open exchange and elaborated discussion are necessary for conceptual learning with group tasks and ill-structured problems. Moreover, task instructions, student preparation, and the nature of the teacher role that are eminently suitable for supporting interaction in more routine learning tasks may result in unduly constraining the discussion in less structured tasks where the objective is conceptual learning. The research reviewed also suggests that it is necessary to treat problems of status within small groups engaged in group tasks with ill-structured problems. With a focus on task and interaction, the analysis attempts to move away from the debates about intrinsic and extrinsic rewards and goal and resource interdependence that have characterized research in cooperative learning.
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The aim of this paper is to describe the methodological solutions made in the studies that are part of the SHAPE research project. The SHAPE project investigates the quality and nature of virtual interaction in a higher education context. The study aims to find out variables that mediate the process of collaboration, particularly the emerging processes of sharing and constructing perspectives in virtual interaction. For conducting these studies we have developed various methods and models of analysis in order to gain better understanding of the process of collaboration in virtual interaction. In this paper, we will make a review of some of the SHAPE analysis methods used in the series of our studies.
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The aim of this study is to examine the quality of asynchronous interaction in web-based conferencing among pre-service teachers. Because all successful communication presumes perspective-taking skills and reciprocal understanding among the participants, we study whether the students are able to reach in reciprocal interaction and thus create educationally relevant high-level web-based discussion. The research project has its foundation in socio-constructivist learning theories, one of the most important principles of which is the idea of apprenticeship in thinking. To create a learning project in web-based conferencing we developed pedagogical practices, which enhance higher-level networked communication and make use of theoretical and expert knowledge. The study combines the power of asynchronous conferencing with peer and mentor collaboration to electronically apprentice student learning. The subjects of the study are pre-service teachers in the United States (N ?=?40) and Finland (N ?=?30) who use an asynchronous web-based tool called Conferencing on the Web (COW) to collaborate in creating joint case-based descriptions in different areas of teaching and learning. The results point out different levels of web-based discussion. Three kinds were found: higher-level discussion, progressive discussion and lower-level discussion. More specific analysis of the quality of each discussion level focused on perspective taking in communication. The results support our hypothesis that higher-level perspective taking was related to higher-level discussion.
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In this study I investigated how collaborative interactions influence problem-solving outcomes. Conversations of twelve 6th-grade triads were analyzed utilizing quantitative and qualitative methods. Neither prior achievement of group members nor the generation of correct ideas for solution could account for between-triad differences in problem-solving outcomes. Instead, both characteristics of proposals and partner responsiveness were important correlates of the uptake and documentation of correct ideas by the group. Less successful groups ignored or rejected correct proposals, whereas more successful groups discussed or accepted them. Conversations in less successful groups were relatively incoherent as measured by the extent that proposals for solutions in these groups were connected with preceding discussions. Performance differences observed in triads extended to subsequent problem-solving sessions during which all students solved the same kinds of problems independently. These findings suggest that the quality of interaction had implications for teaming. Case study descriptions illustrate the interweaving of social and cognitive factors involved in establishing a joint problem-solving space. A dual-space model of what collaboration requires of participants is described to clarify how the content of the problem and the relational context are interdependent aspects of the collaborative situation. How participants manage these interacting spaces is critical to the outcome of their work and helps account for variability in collaborative outcomes. Directions for future research that may help teachers, students, and designers of educational environments learn to see and foster productive interactional practices are proposed. The properties of groups of minds in interaction with each other, or the properties of the interaction between individual minds and artifacts in the world, are frequently at the heart of intelligent human performance (Hutchins, 1993, p. 62).
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This paper examines research on social presence theory and the implications for analyzing interaction, communication, collaborative learning, and the social context of computer-mediated communication (CMC). Two studies that examined whether social presence is largely an attribute of the communication medium or users' perception of the medium are discussed. It can be concluded from the results that even though CMC is considered to be a medium that is low in social context cues, it can be perceived as interactive, active, interesting, and stimulating by conference participants. However, it is the kind of interactions that take place between the participants, and the sense of community that is created during the conference, that will impact participants' perceptions of CMC as a "social" medium. Therefore, the impetus falls upon the moderators of computer conferences to create a sense of online community in order to promote interaction and collaborative learning.
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This paper offers a synthesis of research on cooperative learning in small groups. The main challenge for teachers who utilize cooperative learning is to stimulate the type of interaction desired according to their teaching objective. A generalization regarding student interactions is that if students are not taught differently, they will tend to operate at the most concrete level. Student participation in a task group that is structured to foster resource- or goal-interdependence appears to increase student motivation and performance. The effectiveness of the group structure depends on the task's complexity and uncertainty and on the extent to which the instructions attempt to micromanage the interaction process. Information is also offered on ensuring equity in interaction, managing the interaction, and unsettled issues, such as special curricula and assessment. Successful implementation of cooperative learning also requires staff development and principals who demonstrate effective managerial skills and instructional leadership. (LMI)
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45 undergraduates split into groups participated in 30 non-cooperative independent single-trial resource dilemmas. On each trial, Ss in each group privately requested several points from a common pool. Individual requests were granted if the total group request was equal to or smaller than the pool size. The pool size on each trial was sampled from a uniform distribution that was common knowledge. Asymmetry in payoff was induced by assigning to each group member a different points-to-money exchange rate. As the uncertainty about the pool size increased, Ss (1) overestimated the pool size, (2) increased their requests, and (3) expected others to increase their requests. Individual requests and expectations regarding others' requests were inversely related to the exchange rates, reflecting attempts to equate payoffs across group members. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This chapter describes the concept of cooperative learning strategies. By interacting with one another, students can improve their acquisition of academic knowledge and skills. Such interaction among students, based on equal partnership in the learning experience as opposed to a fixed teacher/learner or tutor/tutee role, has been termed cooperative learning. This type of learning appears to foster two potent activities: active processing of the information and cross modeling/imitation. The chapter discusses a research program that was designed to remedy drawbacks of prior cooperative learning studies by systematically analyzing the effects of learning strategies and individual differences on the acquisition of scientific knowledge and learning skills in the context of a dyadic learning situation. Student dyads were chosen as the unit of analysis because larger groups make it more difficult to delineate processing and interaction parameters and they may promote the formation of coalitions, thus encouraging competition rather than cooperation. The cooperative learning strategy used in the present research was originally developed as an individual text learning strategy. This strategy was modified for use in a dyadic learning situation. In general, the strategy requires each pair member to read approximately 500 words of a 2,500-word passage. One pair member then serves as recaller and attempts to orally summarize from emory what has been learned. The other member of the pair serves as the listener/facilitator and attempts to correct errors in the recall and to further facilitate the organization and storage of the material. The partners alternate roles of recaller and listener/facilitator.
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This paper provides a theoretical perspective for dealing with the initial entry stage of interpersonal interaction. The seven axioms and 21 theorems presented suggest a set of research priorities for studying the development of interpersonal relationships. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the problems to be considered if the theory is to be extended beyond the initial stages of interaction.
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Engaging in reflective activities in interaction, such as explaining, justifying and evaluating problem solutions, has been shown to be potentially productive for learning. This paper addresses the problem of how these activities may be promoted in the context of computer-mediated communication during a modelling task in physics. The design principles of two different communication interfaces are presented. The first allows free text to be exchanged, and the second structures the interaction by providing a restricted set of communicative possibilities. Comparative analyses of interaction corpora produced with the two communication interfaces are then described. The analyses show that use of the second structured interface in performing the problem-solving task is feasible for students, and that it promotes a task-focussed and reflective interaction. In conclusion the different resources provided by different media and the relative degrees of effort that their use requires are discussed.
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It can be assumed that academic learning is an active, generative and effortful process, that is — a mindful activity. Cooperative student teams are expected to increase participants' mindful engagement in learning and thus to improve its outcomes. Although this is sometimes the case, there are social-psychological effects that debilitate team performance. Two illustrations from recent studies are provided. It is argued that the study of team work cannot be limited to intrapersonal cognitions and to simple interactional processes. Teams are social systems in which cognitive, motivational and behavioral processes become increasingly interdependent and these processes need to be studied. Such interdependencies give rise to negative effects some of which are discussed in this article: the “free rider”, the “sucker”, the “status differential”, and the “ganging up” effects. The article concludes with a few speculations about possible mechanisms to overcome such effects when complex and exploratory tasks are given to student teams.
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This chapter discusses the kinds of peer interaction that influence learning in small groups and describes the characteristics of students, groups and tasks that predict different patterns of peer interaction. Based on previous empirical research, critical features of peer interaction include the level of elaboration of help given and received, and the appropriateness of responses to requests for help. Predictors of peer interaction in small groups include student ability, gender, and personality, and group composition on ability and gender. Hypotheses about important, but neglected, aspects of peer interaction that may predict learning are discussed.
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Organisations increasingly use multidisciplinary teams to construct solutions for complex problems. Research has shown that multidisciplinary teams do not guarantee good problem solutions. Common ground is seen as vital to team performance. In this paper an ICT-tool to support complex problem solving is studied. A framework for knowledge construction inspired the design of computer support for knowledge construction. The basic support principle consisted of making individual perspectives explicit, which serves as a basis for negotiating common ground. This principle was embedded in a collaborative learning environment in three ways, which differed from each other in the extent to which users were coerced to adhere to the embedded support principles. Coercion, as expected, was correlated with negotiation of common ground; the more coercion, the more participants would negotiate the meaning of contributions to the ICT-tool, and the more common ground they would have. Self-report data suggested that Intermediate coercion resulted in the least common ground. This may have been caused by some disruption of group processes.
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This research evaluates the effects of a scaffolded explanation-based approach to collaborative discussion on students' understanding of photosynthesis. This approach consists of instruction and prompts encouraging students to engage in the processes of explaining and justifying one's personal knowledge and comparing it to scientific knowledge. Forty-eight 4th- and 5th-grade students, identified as having high or average "intentional" approaches to learning. were divided into 3 groups (high, average control [AC], and average intervention [AI]). Students worked both collaboratively and individually on 2 reasoning tasks (problem-explanation and concept maps) in the domain of photosynthesis. The results of the concept-mapping tasks indicated that the students in the Al group developed a more accurate scientific and functional understanding of photosynthesis than the AC group who did not receive the intervention. This study also confirmed the prediction that the AI group would more closely resemble the high intentional learning group by constructing explanations that were conceptually more advanced as well as retaining and acquiring more subject matter knowledge than those of the AC group. The scaffolded explanation-based intervention did not have a significant effect on the structure of students' explanations. This research supports the importance of the nature of students' discussion (i.e., explanation) to advance their beliefs about scientific phenomena and emphasizes the usefulness of explanation and concept-mapping techniques as evaluative measures of student knowledge during collaborative problem solving.
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The promotion of virtual learning groups by instructional means is gaining importance with the spread of telematic learning. In virtual learning groups, students discuss certain learning materials or cooperate in problem solving by means of computer-mediated communication. Due to the specific features of electronic communication, supportive means appear to be necessary for such learning situations. The investigation focuses on testing two different forms of dialogue structuring in virtual learning groups, in which students discuss a given subject matter together and clarify problems in understanding by means of synchronous computer-mediated communication. Forty-five students from various disciplines at the University of Tübingen, except students of physics, participated in the investigation. An experiment was conducted involving three-person groups in a telematic setting with two different kinds of dialogue structuring: implicit structuring induced group discussion on the subject matter by working on key questions in a preceding learning phase, whilst explicit structuring provided additional rules for discussion. These rules prompted group members to argue and aimed at directing them to equal participation. Compared to a control group, both implicit and explicit structuring showed greater orientation on the subject matter and showed less off-task talk. Moreover, explicit structuring led to more coherence in subject matter discussion with regard to the completion of topics. However, post-test performance showed no significant difference in knowledge over that of the control group. The results of the investigation show that dialogue structuring can be an adequate pedagogical approach for virtual learning groups.
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The Institute of Medicine Report, Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities, affirms in its first finding: "Racial and ethnic disparities in health care exist and, because they are associated with worse outcomes in many cases, are unacceptable." The mechanisms that generate racial and ethnic disparities in medical care operate at the levels of the health care system and the clinical encounter. Research demonstrates the role of health care system factors, including differences in insurance coverage and other determinants of healthcare access, in producing disparities. Research also shows, however, that even when insurance status and other measures of access are controlled for by statistical methods, racial and ethnic disparities persist. These disparities remain when researchers try by various methods to control for patients' clinical characteristics. Disparities are especially well documented through comparisons between white patients and African Americans and Latinos, but they are believed to affect other minority groups. As a result, many members of minority racial and ethnic groups receive less or inferior care. The purpose of this Article is to explore how one factor we regard to be key-provider and patient uncertainty about clinical decisions--contributes to disparities arising from the doctor-patient encounter.
The effects of question prompts and peer interactions in scaffolding studentsÕ problem-solving processes on an ill-structured task. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Social presence theory and implications for interaction and collaborative learning in computer conferences
  • X Ge
  • S M Land
Ge, X., & Land, S. M. (2002). The effects of question prompts and peer interactions in scaffolding studentsÕ problem-solving processes on an ill-structured task. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA. Gunawardena, D. N. (1995). Social presence theory and implications for interaction and collaborative learning in computer conferences. International Journal of Educational Telecommunications, 1(2/3), 147–166.
ATTRIBUTION THEORY: 3. >How do the parents and pupils explain success and failure in scientific 4. >subjects? 5. >Asian parents and children have more favorable attribution patterns as far as 6
  • case Information
  • Which Can Be Explained With
  • The
>CASE INFORMATION, WHICH CAN BE EXPLAINED WITH THE 2. ATTRIBUTION THEORY: 3. >How do the parents and pupils explain success and failure in scientific 4. >subjects? 5. >Asian parents and children have more favorable attribution patterns as far as 6. >the dimension of stability is concerned.
HER? 19. >He is attributed. The others are searching for a reason for good achievements
  • Does The Concerned Person Attribute Himself / Her
  • self Or Does Another Person Attribute Him
>-DOES THE CONCERNED PERSON ATTRIBUTE HIMSELF/HER 18. >SELF OR DOES ANOTHER PERSON ATTRIBUTE HIM/HER? 19. >He is attributed. The others are searching for a reason for good achievements. 20. exactly! There has been a study on that...
He says he isnÕt talented and talent is an internal cause
  • Yes
Yes, you can. He says he isnÕt talented and talent is an internal cause.
VARIABLE? 15. >stable, it was mentioned in the text 16. what do you mean by that? where was it mentioned?
  • Is The Cause For The Attribution
  • Stable
  • Or
>-IS THE CAUSE FOR THE ATTRIBUTION STABLE OR VARIABLE? 15. >stable, it was mentioned in the text 16. what do you mean by that? where was it mentioned?
Socio-emotional level of grounding in a web-based conference of small group context
  • K Mäkitalo
  • J Pöysä
  • P Häkkinen
Mäkitalo, K., Pöysä, J., & Häkkinen, P. (2003, June). Socio-emotional level of grounding in a web-based conference of small group context. Poster session presented at the International Conference on Computer Support for Collaborative Learning -CSCL 2003, Bergen, Norway.
Structuring dyadic interaction through scripted cooperation
  • A M O'donnell
O'Donnell, A. M. (1999). Structuring dyadic interaction through scripted cooperation. In A.
When smart