Abstract and Figures

Electronic waste, commonly known as e-waste, is comprised of discarded computers, television sets, microwave ovens and other such appliances that are past their useful lives. As managing e-waste becomes a priority, countries are being forced to develop new models for the collection and environmentally sound disposal of this waste. Switzerland is one of the very few countries with over a decade of experience in managing e-waste. India, on the other hand, is only now experiencing the problems that e-waste poses.The paper aims to give the reader insight into the disposal of end-of-life appliances in both countries, including appliance collection and the financing of recycling systems as well as the social and environmental aspects of the current practices.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Available
online
at
www.sciencedirectcom
Envimnmenta]
SCIENCE
DIRECfl
Tmpact
t
-
Assessment
Review
ELSEVIER
Environmenbl
lmpact
Assessmcrn Review
25(2005)
492—504
wwwelseviercom/locale/ciar
A
comparison
of
electronic
waste
recycling
in
Switzerland
and
in
India
Deepali SinhaKhetfiwa1U*,
Philipp
Kraeuchib,
Markus
Schwaninge?
‘A-502,Millennhun
Park
Ah,sti
Niharika,
WS.
Pl,adke
Mang,
Andl,eH,
Mn,nhai400069,
India
und
.Vocietv
Lah,
Empa.
Sntv
Federul
Lahuruturie.s
Jur
3!awnab
Testing
und
Rereamh.
LcrehenfrWvtr
5,
CH-9014
St.
Galle,,.
S;riterland
c1,Utitute
uf3fanagen,en
(JJH,),
U,,her,ifl‘
uf
St.
Galle,,,
Dufu,intn
40a,
4th
Fl,wr
CH-9000
St
Galle,,,
Si,‘iterla,,d
Rcccivcd
17
Mach
2005;
‚cceived
in
rcviscd
form
21
April
2005;
acceptcd
22
April
2005
Available
online
3
June
2005
Abstract
Electronie waste,
commonly known
as
c-waste,
is
compdsed
of
discarded
computers, television
sets,
microwave
ovens
and
other
such
appliances
that
are
past their
useflul
lives.
As
managing
c
waste
becomes
a
pHority,
countries
Ute
being
forced
to
develop
new
models
for
the
collection
and
environmentally
sound disposal
of
this
waste.
Switzerland
is
one
of
the
veiy
few
countfles
with
over
a
decade
of
experience
in
managing
e-wasle.
lndia,
on the
other
band,
is
only
now
experiencing
the
problems that
e-waste poses.
The
paper
aims
to
give
the
reader
insight
mb
the
disposal
of
end-of-life
appliances
in
both
countries, including appliance
colleetion
md
the
financing
of
recycling systems
as
weIl
as
bbc
social
and
environmental
aspects
of
the
curent
pnclices.
©
2005
Elsevier
Inc.
All
iights
resen‘ed.
Kento,dv:
E-wastc;
Recycling;
Hazardous
vasIc
management
Conesponding
author.
E-mail
addresses:
sinha.dccpali@gmail.com
(D.
Sinlm-Kbebriwal),
philipp.kncuchi@empa.ch
(P.
Kmeuchi),
Markus.Schwaningergunisg.ch
(M.
Schwaninger).
01
95-9255/$
-
see
fmnt
matter
©2005
Elsevier
Inc.
All
righbs
rcsened.
doi:
10.
10l6Jj.eiar.2005.04.006
D.
Sbzha-Khetrhwzl
ei
aL
/
Envbvnorrnral
Inipace
A.svevs,,,eni
Reriew
25
(2005)
492
504
493
1.
Introduetion
Electronic
waste recycling
is
gaining
CUrrCnCy
amund
the
world
as
larger
quantities
of
eleetronies
arc
coming
into
the
waste
stream.
Managing
11w
increasing volumes
ofe-waste
etTcctively
and
efficiently—in
cost
and
cnvironmental
impact—is
a
complex
task.
Firstly,
special
logistic
requirements
arc
necessary
for
collecting
the
e-waste.
Sccondly,
c-waste
contains
many
hazardous
substances which
arc
cxtrcmely
dangcrous
to
human
hcalth
and
the
environment,
and
therefore disposal
rcquires
special
treatment
to
prevent
die
leakage
and
dissipation
of
toxics
into
die
environment.
At
the
same
time,
it
is a
rich
source
of
metals
such
as
gold, silver
and
copper,
which can
be
recovered
and
brought
back
into
the
production
cycle. This
panicular
charactcristic
of
e-waste
has
made
e-waste recycling
a
lucmtive
business
in
both
developed
as
weIl
as
developing
countries.
While
same
countries
havc
organised
systems
for
the
collection,
recycling,
disposal
and
monitodng,
other countries
arc
still
tu
find
a
solution
that
ensurcs
jobs
while minimizing
the
negative
environmcntal impacis
of
e-waste
recycling.
This
paper presenis
a
compaHson
ofthe
end
of-life
treatment
of
elcctmnics
in
two
counties,
Switzerland
and
India.
Switzerland
was
chosen because
it
was
die
first
country
Co
implement
an
industry-wide
organised
system
for
the
collcction
and
recycling
of
electronic
waste.
Having
bcen
operational
for
a
decade,
the
Swiss
system provides
the
best
opportunity
to
study
the
evolution
of
an
e-waste managcment
system.
Tndia
was
chosen
as
the
other
countiy
for
smdy
because
it
is
not
only
among
the
fastest
growing
markets
for
the
consumption
of
electronic
appliances,
hut
also
becausc
it
bus
a
large
recycling
industry
and
has
emergcd
as
a
major market
for old
and
junked
Computers
(Agarwal
et
al.,
2003).
Thc
purpose
of
this
paper
is
twofold. The
first
is
to
provide
a
description
of
the
currcnt
e-waste
management
system
in
the nvo
countries.
The
second
is
tu
compare
die two
systems
and
understand
how
and
why
they
differ.
The
comparison
is
being
made
only
of
the
ovemll
national situations
in
each
countiy,
looking
in
each
case
at
only
a
few
interesting
social
and
environmental
aspccts.
Data
and
information
for
both
case
studies
was
collccted
through
personal
interviews
with
leading
expcrts,
senior management
of
appliance
manufacturers
as
weIl
as
high
ranking
govemment
officials
responsible
for
environmental
policy.
The
Indian
case
snidy
is
based
primarily
on
a
pilot
smdy
conducled
by
Empa‘
in
Delhi
in
2003—2004
(Empa,
2004). The
authors assume
that die
pattem
ofe-wasle
handling
in
the
rest
oflndia,
mainly
die
large
urban
ccntres,
is
similar
tu
that
ofNew
Delhi.
2.
E-waste
recycling
in
Swifrcrland
2.?.
ßac‘kgroirnd
Switzerland, with one
of
die
highcst
per
capita
incomes
in
the
world,2
is
also
among
its
most
technologically
advanced
countHes.
The
total
installed
PC
base
in
Switzerland
is
Empa—Swiss
Federal
Labonlories
ror
MaleHal
Tesling and
Research.
2
Eslimated
01W
per
capila
for
2003
was
USS39,800
according
to
World Bank
World DevclopmcnL
Indicaton,
2004.
494
13.
SinI,a-Khetriu‘al
ei
aL
/
E,,vbv,,,,,enial
1npact
Assesyment
Review
25
(2005)
492—504
3.15
million PCs,
which
transiates
into
one
PC
for
almost
eveiy
two
persons
(World
Bank,
2004),
over
99%
of
the
houscholds
have
refrigerators
and
over
96%
have
TVs
(Euromonitor, 2003).
Even
though market
penetration
of
electrical and
electronic goods
is
high,
the
market
for
new
appliances remains
strQng,
with annual
per
capita
spending
on
ICT
products topping
USS3600,
the
highest
in
the
world.
Switzerland
also
mnks among
the
top
countries
in
the
world
regarding
environment
pmtection.
Ranked
7th on
the
2005
Environmental
Sustainability
Index
(Esty
et
al,
2005),
its
score
of
1.39
for
Environmental
Govemance3
ranks
it
seventh
in
the
world.
Environment
concems
as
weil
as
consumer
awareness
regarding
environmental
issues
is
high,
and
in
a
recent smdy
(SAEFL,
2004),
62.6%
of
the
citizens
wanted
the
govemment
to
place
more
emphasis
on
environmental
issues.
The
Swiss
law
on
waste
management
stresses
the
‘polluter
pays
principle‘
and has
encouraged
the
reduction,
reuse
and
recycling
of
waste.
There
arc
several
systems
in
place
for
segregating
and
collection
of
different
kinds
of
waste
such
as
glass,
paper,
plastic
bonles
and
aluminium,
among others,
to
facilitate
better
recycling.
Not
surprisingly,
Switzerland
is
the
first
country
in
the
world
to
have
established
a
formal system
to
manage
e-waste.
Even
though
the
68,000
tonnes
of
e-waste
collected
in
Switzerland
in
2003
represented
only
2.6%
of
the
waste
stream,4
it
corresponds
to
a
linie
over
9
kg/capita5—substantially
more
than the
4
kglcapita
target
set
by the
EU
in
the
WEEE
Directive
(EU,
2004).
The
effective
coliection
of
e-waste
in
Switzerland
is
primarily
due
to
the
efficient
management
of
the
waste stream
by
two
Producer
Responsibility Organisations
(PROs)—SWICO6
and
S.EN.S.7
Along
broad
lines,
SWICO
manages
‘brown
goods‘—electronic
equipment
such
as
computers,
TVs,
radios,
etc.,
whiie
S.EN.S
handles
‘white
goods‘ such
as
washing
machines,
refdgentors,
ovens,
etc.
Both
SWICO
and
S.EN.S have
more
than
a
decade
ofexperience
in
managing
e-waste,
having
started their
e-waste
programs
based
on
the
principle
of
Extended
Producer
Responsibility
(EPR),
weil
before
it
became
iegaily
mandatoiy. Lindhqvist
(2000),
one
of
the
pioneers
of
EPR,
defines
it
as
“an
environmental
protection strategy
to
reach
an
environmental objective
of
a
decreased
total
impact
from
a
produet,
by
making
the
manufacturer
of
the
product responsible
for
the
entire
life
cycle
of
the
product
and
especially
for
the
take
back,
recycling
and
final
disposal
of
the
producf‘.
Legislation
on
e-waste
management
was
introduced
into
Switzerland
only
in
1998,
when
the
Ordinance
on
‘The
Retum,
the
Taking
Back
and
the
Disposal
of
Electrical
and
Elcctronic
Appliances‘
(ORDEA)
(SAEFL,
1998)
came
into
force.
High
environmental
govemance
scores
mean
higher
quality
or
cnvironmcntal regulations,
Innsparency
of
decision making
und
existence
of
scctoral
guidelines
for
environmental
impact
assessment.
See
2005
E,n‘irnnmental
SILSrainabitüy
Indes,
Yale
Ceffier
for
Envimnmcnml
Law
und
Policy
World
Economic
Forum
(hLIp://wwwyale.cdulesif),
and
Center
Jur
Inieniaiional Earih Sdence
Information
Network
(httpillwww.ciesin.
columbia.cdu
for
more
information.
Calculated
on
the
basis
of
2.58
million
lonnes
of
municipal waste
generation.
From
SAEFL
slatistics
00
devclopment
of
municipal
wasle
in
Switzerland,
June
2004.
9.25
kglcapita
based
on
an
estimaled
Swiss
population
of
7,350,000
taken
from
SAEFL
statistics
00
development
of
municipal
wasle
in
Swilzerland,
June
2004.
SWICO—lbe
Swiss
Association
for
Information,
Communication
and
Organisational
Technology.
S.EN.S—Stiflung Entsorgung
Schweiz.
D.
Sinha-Klaqriuut
ei
cii
/
E,,virn,z,,,e,,iul
bnpaei
Aysess,,,ent
Revieii‘
25
q005,)
492—504
495
2.2.
S;vtenz oa‘en‘iew
The
calleetion
und
recycling
of
e-waste
in
Switzerland
is
an
intentionally developed
and organised system.
As
mentioned
before,
the
Swiss
system
is
based an
EPR—both
legally
und
opemtionally.
This
places
both
thc
physical
as
weil
as
the
financial
responsibility
of
an
cnvironmenmlly
sound
disposal
of
end-of-life
elecrronics
with
the
manufacturers
and
importers
of
these
products.
The entire operative
responsibility
is
however
with the
two
PROs—SWICO
and
S.EN.S—who
manage
and
opente
the
system
on
behalfoftheir
member
producers.
This
also
ensures
that there
is
a
clear definition
ofroles
and
a
demarcation
ofresponsibilities.
Fig.
1
shows
a
simplifled
model
ofthe
material
und
financiaL
flows
within
the
Swiss
system.
One
ofthe
pillars
of
the
system
is
seeured
financing
ofthe
collection
und
recycling
by
way
ofthe
Advance
Recycling
Fee
(ARF)
charged
on
all
new appliances.
The
ARF
is
used
to
pay
for
the
collection,
the
transport
and
the
recycling
of
the
disposed
appliances.
The
ARF
can
runge
from
a
minimum CHF (Swiss
franc)
1
an
small
items,
such
as
hair
dryers
and
electdc
shavers,
to
up
to
CIIF
20
for
TVs
or CHF
40
for
refrigerators.
The total
ARF
collected
in
2003
was CHF
71.66
million.
Table
1
shows
a
breakdown
of
the
expenditure under
the
main
heads
of
recycling,
transport
and
collection.
lt
is
seen that
the
largest
portion
ofthe
ARF went
to
the
recyclers,
totalling
CHF
41.41
million
for
the
year
2003.
S.EN.S
paid
CHF
18.01
million,
representing 49%
of
the
ARF
collected
nn
small
and large
household goods, towards
recycling expenses. SWICO
paid
CHF 23.40
million,
representing
67%
cd‘
the
ARF
it
received,
in
recycling
eosts.
Setting
a
recycling
fee
that
is
at
the
same
time casy
to
understand,
transparent
to
administer
und
yet
does
not
cross-subsidise9
product
categories
or
cause
consumer
resentment
is
indeed
a
difficult
task.
The
Swiss
ARF
is
an
intergenentional
contract
benveen appliances
purchased
in
the
past
and
those that
will
be
purchascd
in
the
finure,
akin
to
a
pension system.
The
risk
of
setting
such
an
intergenerational
fee
is
that
it
requires
accurate
estimations
of
how
much
waste
will
be
genemted
und
how
many
new
products
will
be
sold.
\Vhile
the
ARF
model has
so
far
been
successüil,
there
is a
danger
that the
fees
collcctcd an new
appliances
may
not
be
sufficient
to
recycle
the
discarded
appliances.
The othcr
dmwback
of
an
ARF
could
be
that
there
is a
cross
subsidisation
of
products
among
different
catcgories—a
situation
where,
for
example,
PC
buyers
pay
for
the
recycling
of
tape
reeorders.
To
avoid such
discrepancies,
both
SWICO
and
S.EN.S
have
distinct
categories
of
products according
to
the
approximate
cost
of
recycling
them.
Another
key
feature
of
the
system
is
its
comprehensive
scope
and
nationwide
acceptance. SWICO and
S.EN.S
had
500 official
collection
points
(in
2003)
around
Switzerland
in
addition
to
the
thousands
of
retail
locations which
have
to
take
back
old
equipment
free
ofcharge,
irrespective
ofthe
brand
or
year
of
manufacture, thereby making
it
easier
for
consumers
to
dispose
of
their
e-waste
at
appropriate
locations.
SWICO
and
SWICO
Annual
Aclivily
Report
2n03
and
S.EN.S
Annual
Aclivily
Report 2003.
Cmss
subsidising
would occur
if
the
ARF charged an
one
cacgoly
of
pmducts,
rar
example photocopiers.
wem rauch
higher
thun
the
copicn‘
recycling
cost,
und
thc
dirrcrcntial
were
then bc
used
ta
pay
for
Ihe
recycling
ofanother
catcgory
of
pmducts,
for
cxamplc
lVs,
which may
have
recycling
costs
highcr
titan
Ute
ARF
chaigcd.
s.
‘0
0‘
Coniral
Direclion of
Material
Flow
DirecUon
of
Financial
Flow
Fig.
1.
Material
and financial
Aovs
in
Sviss
e-waste.
*
Dlreclion
ofülabgus
and
Inluence
cl
n
1
1
SAEFL
(Swiss
Federal Agenyfor
Environment,
Foresls
and
Lmdscae)
Soclely
&
Non-Governmenlal Organlsalions
D.
Si,zha-KI,etrii,ul
cl
at
/
Enrirnnnienlal
Import
‚Isscssmc,zl
Revkqv
25
O05,)
392—5
04
497
Table
1
SWICO
and
S.EN.S income
und
expcnditure
in
the
year
2003
For
pedod
01.01.03
-311203
S.EN.S
together
paid
almost
CHF
5.6
million, or
approximately
8%
of
the
total
ARF
received
in
2003,
to
the
collection
points
und a
linie
over
CHF
10.5
million
for
tmnsport
of
Hie
waste
collected.
In
all,
the
collection
and
logisties
expense
was
over
CUF
16.1
million,
representing
almost
22.5%
ofthe
ARF
received.
By
having
common
collection
points,
the
PROs
arc
better
ahle
to
manage logistics,
benefit
from
economies
of
scale
and
provide
a
consumer
friendly,
all-inciusive solution
instead
of
a
prohibitively
expensive
brand
specific
one.
One
of‘
the pillars that facilitates
the
smooth
ibnctioning
of
the
system
is
the
multiple
levels
of
independent
controls
which
arc
ahle
to
check
free
riding
and
pilfenge
as
weil
as
to
ensure
that
the
recyclers maintain
quality
and
cnvironmental
standards.
Roth
material
and financial
flows
arc
controlled
at
every
slage,
us
can
be
seen
in
Fig.
i
above.
11w
independent
controls
not only
deter
frec
riders,
but
also give
credibility
to
the
entire
system,
thereby
also
ensuring
Hie
panicipation
of
retailers
and
consumers.
Rigomus
controls
also
prevent
die
illegal
import
und
export
of
e-wastc
to
und
from
Switzerland.
Section
3,
Article
9
ofthe
ORDEA (SAEFL,
1998) lists
Hie
provisions
for
the
export
of
appliances
for
disposal.
lt
specifies
that
an
exporter
needs
to
provide
documentaiy
evidence
that
Hw
final
disposal
of
e-waste
is
done
in
an
environmentally
tolenble
manner
und
Ins
Hie
prior
consent
ofthe
imponing
country.
As
a
sigiialoiy
to
the
Basel
Convention
Ban
Amendment,
Switzerland
does
not
permit
the
export
of
e-waste
to
non-OECD
countries.
While
this system
bus
been
ftmctioning
smoothly
for
the
past
decade,
there
is
concem
that
it
might
lcad
to
PRO
und
recycier
monopolies,
disadvantaging
consumers
in
the
long
mn.
However,
waste
management
and
recycling
fields
in
particular
have
always
been
connected
with
Hie
problem
of
monopolies
(Lindqvist, 2000).
To
minimize
concems
both
PROs
and
recyclers maintain transparent
contmct procedures
and
arc
also
inspected
by
regulatoiy
authorities.
3.
E-waste recycling
in
Indin—the
New
Dcliii
case
study
3.1.
Background
lndia,
with
over
1
billion people,
is
Hie
second most populous
counuy
in
Hie
world
(World
Bank,
2004). Although
Hie
penetration
of
India‘s
mn±et
for
consumer
durables
is
SWICO S.EN.S Systcm
total
Income
(in
million
CHE)
Total
ARF income
33.66 38.00
71.66
Expenses
(in
million
CHF)
Recycling
expense
23.40
18.01
41.41
Tmnspon
and
logistics
cxpense
4.54
5.96
10.50
Collection
point expcnscs
1.75
3.86
5,61
Odiei‘
(PR,
Conirolling,
Administmlive,
etc.)
5.24
4.26 9.50
Total
expenses
34.93
29.98
64.91
498
D.
Sinha-Khet,-iiral
et
al.
/
Envin)nmenlal
finpacr Assessmeiit
Reriny
25
(2005)
392—504
substantially
lower
than
that
of
developed countries,
the
size
of
Tndia‘s
market
in
absolute
terms
is
larger
than
that
of
many high-income
countries. Moreover,
hdia
is
one
of
the
fastest growing
economies
of
the
world
and
the
domestic
demand
for
consumer
durables
in
India
has
been
skyrocketing. From
1998 to
2002, there
was
a
53.1%
increase
in
the
sales
ofdomestic
household
appliances,
both
large
and small
(Furomonitor,
2004).
The
growth
in
PC
ownership
per
capita
in
Indla
between
1993
and
2000
was
604% compared
to
a
world
avenge of
181%.
As
a
result,
the
total
PC
base during
this
period
has
grown
from
an
estimated 450,000
PCs
to
4,200,000
PCs
(WITSA, 2002).
Unfortunateiy, economic
growth
and
environmental protection
indicators
arc
at
odds
with
one
another.
Indla ranks
an
abysmal
lOlth
on
the
2005
Environmental Sustainability
Index
(Esty
et al,
2005),
and
for
Environmental
Govemance
gets
only
the
66th
rank,
with
a
score
of
—0.10
(the
higbest being
Iceland
with
1.65
and
the
lowest
Iraq
with
1.52).
Environmental
concems
among
manufacturers
as
weil
as
the
awareness
of
consumers
regarding environmental
issues
arc
not very
high.
While
the
govemment
has
passed
several
environmental protection
Iaws,
their
enforcement
remains questionable. However,
there
is
increasing pressure
on
both
the
govemment
as
welt
as
the
private
sector
from
strong environmental
NGOs.
While
environmental
concems
take
a
buck
seat
amid
more
pressing
problems,
Indians
cultumliy
arc
loathe
to
waste,
and
this
ensures
that
electrical
and electronic
products
oflen
find
second-
and
even
thirdhand
users farther
down
the
income
cham.
Furthermore,
recycling
is
a
market-driven
and
growing industiy
in
India,
albeit
one driven
by
economic
necessity
associated with poverty
(Haque
et
al,
2000).
A
report
by
a
New
Delhi
based
NGO,
Toxics Link,
on
computer
waste,
estimated that
in
Indla
business
and
individual
households
make
approximately
1.38
million
personal
computers obsolete
every year (Agarwal
et al,
2003).
Results
of
the
Empa
fieid
study
(Empa,
2004)
suggest
that
the
computers
coming
into
the
recycling market
in
India
arc
ofa
much
older vintage
than
those
in
Switzerland. This
is
likely
because
the
useflil
life
of
a
computer,
like
most
electrical
and
electronic appliances,
is
much longer
in
India
than
in
Switzerland.
In
addition
to
post-consumer
e-waste,
there
is
also
a
large
quantity
of
e-waste
from
manufacturing
in
the
form
of
defective
printed
wiring
boards,
IC
chips
and
other
components
discarded
in
the
production
process.
This
e-waste
is
being
recycled,
too.
Legally,
electronic
waste
is
included
under
List-A
and
List-B
of
Schedule-3
of
the
Hazardous
Wastes
(Management
and
Handling)
Rules,
1989,
as
amended
in
2000 and
2003
(MoEF, 2003).
However,
this
does
not
stipulate
the
management
and
handling
of
post-consumer
waste
generated within
the
countiy, merely stating
that
any
e-waste
import requires specific
permission
of
the
Ministry
of
Environment
and
Forests. No
such
permission
has
been
given
to
any
authority
or
person
by
the
Ministry
thus
far.
However,
there have
been
unconflrmed
reports
in
the
media about
illegal imports
(MoEF,
2004).
3.2.
System
overview
Unlike
the
sophisticated
collection,
tnnsportation
and
recycling
system
in
Switzerland,
the
Indian
system
has
developed
veiy
organically,
as
a
namral
branching
of
the
scrap
t
t
t
n
j
MoEF
(Mlnßtrv
af Environment
and
Fores)
a
11
cErlCLclNA
Tra&
Assoclalians
Unorganissa
RawMalerlal
ManLcurers
Ltd
Distriulors
constners
F
FH
Hi1
Disposers
&Impones
Retailers
1•
[.jt
_____________
r
4
1
Oovernment
OrganisalbnS
4
Direchon
ofMateflal
FIow
Dlrecuon
ofrinancial
FIow
Directi1
of
Dlatgue
and
Infitience
Fig.
2.
Material
and
financrnl
flows
in
Indian
e-waste.
4‘
4‘
‘0
‘0
500
D.
Sbiha-KhcuiuuI
cl
aL
/
Envimnmcnla?
InpacI
Assex.wnenl
Re,in,‘
25
(2005)
492—504
industry
which
accepts
scmp
from
many sourccs including
oW
ships,
end-of-life vehicies
and
building
wastes.
With
the
advent
of
the
electronic
age,
und
as
electrical and
electronic
appliances
smrtcd
becoming
obsolete,
the
alrcady
established
scrap
mcmi
industry
absorbcd
this
new
waste stream
to
recover
metals,
which
arc
then
used
as
a
feedstock
to
steel
mills
und
non-ferrous
smelters
und rcfiner&
Industrial
recycling
nenvorks
or
industrial symbiosis
arc
systems
of
many
different
finns
and
other
organisations
and
societal
actors that
coopemte
throu
h
common
wastc material
and
waste
energy
utilisation
(Korhonen
ei
al,
2004).
Thus
in
India,
the
e-waste
management
system
is
a
case
of
successffil
industrial
symbiosis
which
is
self-organised
and
market-drivcn,
as
dcscribed
by
Piene
Desrochers
(2004).
In
contrast
to
Switzerland, where
consumers
pay
a
recycling
fee,
in
India
it
is
the
waste
collectors who
pay
consumers
a
positive price
for
their
obsolete
appliances,
as
can
be
seen
in
Fig.
2.
The
small
collectors
in
mm
seil
their
‘collections‘
to
traders who
aggregate
and
soit different
kinds
of
waste
und
then
seil
it
to
recyclers,
who
reeover
the
metals.
Fieldwork during
an
Empa
pilot
study
in
New
Delhi (Empa, 2004)
indicated
that
the
entire
industiy
is
based
on
a
network existing
among
collectors,
traders
und
recyciers,
euch
adding
value,
und
creuting
jobs,
at
every
point
in
the cham.
As the
volume
of
e-waste
has
grown,
u
noticeable
degree
of
specialisution
bus
emerged,
with
some
waste processors focussing
only
on
e-waste.
Given
the
bw
level
of
initial
investment
requircd
to
start
a
eollection, dismnntling,
sorting or
recoveiy
business,
it
is
attractive
for
small
entrepreneurs
to
join
the
industiy.
This ‘recycling
network‘
is
subsmntiated
by
similur
results
of
fieldwork
by
Baud
et
al
(2001)
on
solid waste
management
in
Chennui, lndia,
which
found
a
series
of
private—private
relationships
among
waste
pickers,
itinennt
buyers, dcalers,
wholesalers
and
recycling
enterprises.
The
main
inccntive
for
the
players
is
financial
profit, not
environmental
or
social
awareness.
Nevertheless,
these
trade
and
recycling
ulliances
provide
employment
to
muny
groups
of
people
(Baud
et
ul.,
2001). E-waste
recycling
hus
become
a
profitable
business,
flourishing
as
an
unorganised
seetor,
mainly
as
backyard
workshops
(Empa,
2004).
Unformnately,
given
the
unorganised
nature
of
the
business,
there
arc
no figures
avuilable
regarding
the scale
of
the
business
or
the
number
of
peopic
it
employs. For
Deihi,
Empa‘s
pilot
study estimutes
die
number
of
unskiiled workers
in
recycling
und
recovering operations
to
be
at
least
10,000
people
(Empa,
2004).
The
biggest
dmwback
of
the
current
Indian
system
is
the
uncontrolled
emission
of
hazardous
toxics
that
arc
going
into
the
air,
wuter
und
soil.
The
health hazurds
from
flimes,
ashes
and
haanful
chemicals
uffect
not
only
the
workers
who
come
into
contact
with
the
e-waste,
but
also
the
environment.
4.
Comparison
of
the
bvo
systems
From
the two
case
studies
above,
it
is
clear
thut
11w
e-waste
management systems
in
the
two
countries
arc
vcry
different. Based
an
observations
of
both
systems,
u
qualitative
comparison
15
done
using
four
cdtcriu:
E-wuste
per
capita
Employment
Potential
D.
Sb,ha-Kherriwut
etat.
/
E,nimn,,,e,ital
!rnpacl
Asse.‘w,;,e,,t
Retk‘w
25
(2005)
492-503
501
Occupational
Hazards
Emissions
of
Toxics
These
critcria
were
chosen
because
they feamre
prominently
in
discussions
related
to
e-waste.
The
criierion
‘E-waste
per
capita‘ was
defined
as
the
annual
accmal
of
e-waste
per
capita.
The
two criteria,
‘Employment
Potential‘
und
‘Emissions
of
Toxics‘,
arc
in
reference
to an
annual
quandty
(e.g.
1
metric
tonne)
of
a
reference
material.
As
reference
material
obsolete
PCs
were
chosen
because
they
represcnt
a
combination
of
the
typical
chamctedstics
of
electronic equipment
such
as
printed wiring
boards,
cubles
und
high
valuc
metallic
connectors
as
weil
as
the
CRT,
which
requires special
recycling
techniques.
The
reference
material
is
not
specifted any
ftirther
as
its
exact
composition
is
not
relevant
for
our
qualitative assessmcnt
(ci‘.
die
article
by
Martin Streicher-Porte
et
al.
in
this
issue).
fle
criterion
‘Occupational Hazards‘ references
to
an
average
workplace
in
c-waste
recycling,
taking
into
aceount
the whole
recycling
cham
including
collectors, traders
und
dismantlers.
The
‘E-waste
per
capita‘
can
be
considered
as
a
result
of
two
determining
factors:
the
market penetration
of
EEE
the
EEE
intensity
per
service
unit,
e.g.
the
unit
“one
hour
of
PC
use“.
A
higher
value
in
either
Cactor
leads
to
a
higber
annual accmal
of
e-waste per
capita
Compared
to
indla,
Switzerland shows
a
higher
valuc
für
both
factors
with
its
more
widespread
use
of
applianccs
(sec
Section
2.1)
und
shoner
product
service
lives,
given the
lower
rate
of
repair
und
reuse.
EEE
intensity
per
service
unit
is
inversely
proportional
to
the
avenge
service
life.
Thus,
Switzerland
has
a
much
highcr
annual
accmal
ofe-waste
per
capita.
In
the
year
2003, more
than
9
kg
of
e-waste per resident
were
mken
buck
in
Switzerland by
die
SWICO
and
S.EN.S
recycling
systems
(SWICO,
2004).
This
is
more
thun
double
the
EU rnrget level
of
4
kg
per
capirn
set
in
die
WEPE
directive
(EU,
2004).
Using the
Emp1oynent
Potential
offered
by
the
system
as
one
criterion
to
judge
the
social
impact
01‘
die
system,
it
can
be
seen
that
the
Indian system
genentcs
far
morejobs
than
the
Swiss
System
per
tonne
of
e-waste
processed. Collection, dismantling,
soding
und
segregation
and
even
metal
recovery
arc
done
manually
in
lndia. Therefore,
the
e
waste
recycling
sector,
albeit
infonnal,
employs
many
unskilled
or
semi-skilled
workers.
While
there
arc
no
national
figures
yet
available, estimutes
of
the
Empa pilot
smdy
(2004)
show
that
at
least
10,000
people
arc
involved
in
the
recycling
and
recoveiy
operations
in
Delhi alone.
The
figure
would
be
much higher
if
the
entire
vuluc
cham
of
collectors,
transporters
und
traders
were
ineluded.
Comparatively,
e-waste
management
in
Switzerland
is
highly mechanised,
und
employs
far fewer
people.
For example,
the
S.EN.S
recycling
system,
which
manages
discarded
household
appliances
totalling over
34,000
tonnes
(for
all
of
Switzerland),
engages
470
persons
in
ull-including
colleetion,
transportation,
recycling. administration
und
controiling
(S.EN.S,
2004). The
main
reason
for
this
lurge
difference
in
the
number
of
people
employcd,
is
the
availability
of
cheap
manpower
in
India
us
comparcd
to
die
high
labour
costs
in
Switzerland.
An
502
D.
Si,tha-Kheh-h,&
cl
al.
/
Envirnnnwnial
Impact
A.tvessn,cnt
RcWcw
25
(2005)
492—504
Table
2
Evalualion
resulß
für ihe
comparison
criteHa
CHieHon
Swiizerland
India
Level
Implication
Level
Implication
E-waste per
capib
Wgb Negative
Low
Positive
Employmeni
Potential Low
Negative
High Posilive
Oceupalional
Hazard
Low Positive
Wgb Negative
Emissions
of
Toxics Low Posilive
Kigh
Negative
e-waste recycier
in
lndia eams approximately
CHF
4.1
per
day,‘°
as
compared
to
CHF
15011
in
Switzerland.
However,
when
considered
from
the
perspeetive
of
Qccupational
Hazard,
e-waste
handlcrs
in
India
arc
at
a
much
higher
risk
than
in
Switzerland.
One
reason
for this
is
the
bw
Icvcl
of
awareness
among
workers regarding
the
hazards
ofthe
chemicals
and
process
thcy arc
cxposcd
to
and
the
minimum
protection
and
safety
measures thcy
arc
obliged
to
take.
The
other
reason
is
the lack
of
formal
guidelines
as
weIl as
a
lix
enforcement
of
existing
environmental
Iaws.
Thc
Ernissions
ofravics
into
the
environment
is
another
aspect
to
consider. Due
to
the
manual
processes
used
for
materials
recovery,
the
level
oftoxics
such
as
dioxins
and
acids
rclcased
has
been
found
to
be
much
higher
in
India
than
in
Switzcrland.
Culpable
for
the
high levels
of
these
extemalities
arc
backyard
processing techniques
such
as
open
buming
of
cables,
which
is
conductcd
in
thc
open
without
any
controls or
precautions.
The
material
(bw
in
and
out
of
the
system
is
totally
unmonitored
at
present.
In
contrast,
the
Swiss
system
imposes
high
safety
and
emission standards
and
emphasises
the
impbementation
of
regular
controls
and
monitoring
at
cvcty
stage
of
the
material
and
financial
flow
through
the
system.
Extemal auditors mandated
by
the
PRO‘s
cany
out
at
least
one
annual
audit
at
each
recycler,
and
unless
standards
arc
complied
with,
the
recycier‘s
licence
is
revokcd.
This
monitoring
has
the
effect
that the
e-waste
recyclers
stay
within
the
stdct
Swiss
emission
limits.
Table
2
summarizes
our
evaluation
resuits
for
the
four
criteria
for
Switzerland
and
lndia.
5.
Conelusion
The
growing
quantity
of
e-waste necessitates
ihe
devebopment
of
systems
which
cnn
handle
the
waste
in
such
a
way
that
minimizes negative
social
and
environmental
impacts
while
maximizing
the
positive
impacts.
y
comparing
different
systems,
potential
areas
of
improvemcnt
can
be
identified and
positive aspects
of
other
systems
can
be
adapted
to
improve
the
existing
system.
Avcrage
wage
Rs.
tSolday
calculaied
at
an
cxchangc
rate
of
Rs.
36!CHF.
Empa
(2004) New
Delhi
Pilot Fieid
Study.
Average
minimum
monthiy
wage
of
CKF
3000,
considering
20
working
days
per month.
D.
Sioha-Khctflwof
ei
ci?.
/
Enrimn,nen(u!
1npoer Asse.snwnt
Revkw
23
(2005)
492—504
503
The
most
important
conclusion
from
our
analysis
is
that
there
is
no
onc-and-only
solution
for e-waste recycling
systems.
What
could
be defined
as
an
optimal
solution
dcpends
very
much
on
the
economic
and
cultural
context
in
which the
system
opentes.
The
cost
of
Jabour,
the
stmcture
of
the
economy
including
the
imponant
informal sector,
Um
existing
regulatoty
framework
and
the
possibilities
and
limits
of
law
enforcement
have
to
be
taken
into
account
in
order
to
find
solutions
that
can
improve
the
situation
with
regard
to
environmental
impacts,
occupalional
hazards
and
economic revenue.
In
order
for
a
recycling
system
to
be
sustainable,
it
must
also
have
the
ability
to
adapt
flexibly
to
future
changes
in
the
quantity
and
quality
of
Hie
waste
flows.
Greater flexibiiity might
be
an
advantage
of
systems
that have emerged
from the
market,
albeit
in
the
infontal
sector,
as
opposed
to
systems
that
are
based
on
an
intergenerntional
confract.
As
this
paper gives
only
a
first
qualitative
review
of
the
environmental
and
social
aspects,
there
is a
need
for more
quantitative measures
in
the
area
of
e-waste
recycling.
That
could
pruvide
a
basis
for
modelling
different
interventions
and
for
fine
tuning
their
effects.
As
govemments,
municipalities, manufacturers
and
NGOs discuss
how
to
manage
c
waste,
(Ziere
is
a
clear
need
for
multi-disciplinary
rescarch
in
die
field.
One important
direction
for
ftirther
research would
be
to
quantitatively
estimate and
project
the
flows
of
c-waste
worldwide,
as
weil
as
their
social,
environmental
and
economic
costs.
From
a
business perspective,
it
would
be
interesting
to
study
the
potential
and
the
dynamics
of
the
e-waste
recycling
market.
From
a
policy
perspective,
flurther
research
into
the
applicability,
effectiveness
and
cfficicncy
of
various
instruments
for
managing
e-waste
is
needed.
Acknowledgements
This
paper
is
based
on
a
University
of
St.
Gallen
master
thesis
supervised
by
Prof.
Markus Schwaninger.
The
authors
would
like
to
thank
the
two
anonymous
reviewers
for
their
helpflul
comments.
Referen
CCS
Aganval
R,
Ranjan
R,
Sarkar
1‘.
Scmpping
die
hi-Icch
myth:
compuler
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in
lndia. Ncw Dclhi: Toxies
Link;
2003.
Baud
1,
Omfakos
5.
Hordjik
M,
Post
3.
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of
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2001;l8(l):3
12.
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2004;12:
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110.
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vith
developing
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tmnsition countries.
St
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Esty,
Daniel
C,
Levy
Marc,
Srcbotnjak
Tanja, dc
Shcrbinin
Alexander.
2005
Environmcntal
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national
envimnmciibl
slewardship.
New
Haven:
Yale
Ccnlcr
for
Envimnmenial
Law
and
rolicy;
2005.
EU.
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electrical
and
clectronic
equipmenl; 2003.
lutp:/feurnpa.eu.inUcomnt‘environmentiwaste/wcee_index.
htm.
504
D.
Sh,ha-Khefriuyil
ci
uL
/
Envirnomc,tzaI
Import
Avess,,ie,t
Reriew
25
(2005)
492—504
Euromonitor.
Electronics
and
appiiances
forecast
2003;
2003.
Euromonitor.
World
market
for
domestic
elecirical
appliances:
Fcbmaiy
2004;
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A.
Mujtaba
1,
BeIl
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for
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Manag 2000;20:625—31.
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von
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F,
Stnchan
1‘,
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und
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ecoiogy;
an
emerging
reseasth
agent
Bus
Strat
Unviron
2004;I3:289—305.
Lindhqvist
T.
Extcnded
pmduccr
responsibiiity
in
cicaner
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Lund,
Sweden:
fle
International Institute
for
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Enviranmental
Economics,
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(Ministty
of
Envimnment
und
Forest,
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of
lndia).
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wasles
(management
and
handling)
amendment
mIes,
2003.
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into
fette
23
Mey,
2003,
http;I/envfor.nie.in/Iegisihsmiso593e.pdf.
MaUl‘
(Minisuy
of
Environment
and
Forest
Gest.
of
lndia);
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daled 23.08.04.
S.UN.S.
Annual
Activity
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2003;
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http://www.sensch.
SWlCO.
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http:Hswico.ch.
WITSA
(World
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Technology
and
Services Alliance).
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SAEFL.
Ordinance
on
die
retum,
take-back
anti
disposal
of
eleclhcal
md
electmnic
equipmenL
Adopled
on
14
ianua,y
1998.
Entiy
into
force
1
July
1998,
hltp://wsnv.umwelt-schweizchiimpcriaim&contenuabfalL‘
vreg..e.pdf.
SAEFL.
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2004.
hup://ww.ewaste.clilcase_study.switzcrland/
fmmeworklcultumLaspects/.
Deepall
Slnha-Khetriwal
hat
a
Masters
in
International
Management
from
the
University
of
St.
Gallen.
As
an
intern
at
die
Technology
and
Society
Lab,
she has
workcd
with
the
seco
e-waste
initiative
and
has
also
whtten
a
thesis an
die
e-waste
management
systems
in
Swttzerland
und
lndia.
51w is
curently
based
in
Mumbai,
lndia,
whem
she
continues
to
work
in
die area
of
c-waste management.
Philipp
Kracuehl
has
been
with
die
Swiss
Federal
Laboratories
for
Materials Testing
und
Research Empa
since
2002.
He
is
working
in
the
field
of
Enviranmentul
Infonnatics
within
the
unit Information
Systems
and
Modelling.
His
background
lies
in
Enviranmental
Sciences
and
Information Technnlogy.
He
was
working
for
several
years
at
die
Swiss
Agency
for
the
Environment,
Foresß
anti
Landscape SAEFL
anti
as
an
lT
consultant.
He
holds
a
master‘s
degree
in
Environmental
Sciences
from
die
Swiss
Federal
Institute
of
Technology
ETH.
Markus
Schwaninger
is
professor
of
management
at
11w
University
of
St.
Gallen,
Switzerland. Hit
researeh
is
focused
on
Organizational
Cyberneties
and
System Dynamics,
applied
to
studies
of
eomplex
socio-lechnical
systems.
His
researeh projecis
to
date
have
been related
io
organisational intelligence,
the
design,
transformation
anti
leaming
of
organisations,
anti
to
systemic issues
of
sustainability.
Schwaninger
lt authnr
of
more
than
150
publications
in
six
languages,
including “Intelligente Organisationen“
(Duncker
and
Humblot
1999),
“Organizational
Transformation
and
Leaming“
(Wiley, 1996;
with
Espejo and
Schuhmann).
He
has
Iectured
widely
and
is
involved
in
sevem!
international,
transdisciplinaiy
research
and
consulting
projects,
... gold in PCs), the toxicity of the given material, its market value and technology developed for recycling (Zeng et al. 2017). Thus, there is no single solution when deciding if and how to recycle WEEE because all these factors will vary on a case-to-case basis (Sinha-Khetriwal et al. 2005). While the waste management tends to be country-specific, there are general trends that outline developed countries to the detriment of developing countries. ...
... Schluep (2014) cites that "collection, manual dismantling, open burning to recover metals, and open dumping of residual fractions are normal practice in most developing and in transition countries." This also creates two different realities, a contrasting example is that of Switzerland and India: in the former, the consumers pay a recycling fee (for collection, treatment, etc.), whereas in the latter, the collectors in many cases pay the consumers for their obsolete appliances (Sinha-Khetriwal et al. 2005). The line that splits developed and developing economies, however, is not well defined when concerning e-waste. ...
Chapter
Electrical and electronic equipment waste (WEEE) is a major world problem due to its exponential growth, its potential to damage the environment and human health, and precious/rare materials in their composition lost if incorrectly treated. Therefore, WEEE recycling has the potential to add significant value both economically and environmentally. This chapter brings specific shifts on the WEEE management panorama over the last decade and evaluates the WEEE management in developed and developing countries. The main observed novelty is a new transboundary trend of high-value WEEE components from developing to developed countries, which has been observed in several countries and suggests a new privately organized model in developing countries to profit from these valuable components. Other findings allow to conclude that (i) global quantities of WEEE continue to increase, (ii) the global transboundary WEEE movement has remained stagnant regarding source-destination countries, (iii) developing countries still lack effective WEEE management systems, (iv) there is little information about the material flow and management systems for several countries, especially for developing nations. The international WEEE trade and constant WEEE management updates worldwide are clear indicators that there is a great opportunity within this waste stream to apply the circular economy model, redefining waste as resource.
... Previous researches also discuss the structural type of this institution which is mainly divided into two, either it is governmental based in Asian countries like China, Japan, and Taiwan (Lee and Na 2010; Yu et al. 2014) or designated organizational based called PRO (Producer Responsibility Organization) in European countries (Ivert et al. 2015;Sander et al. 2007; Sinha- Khetriwal et al. 2005). This structural difference determines the institution's responsibility and autonomy in the system (OECD 2016). ...
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The dilemmatic condition between economic benefits, environmental drawbacks, and social dependency aspects of electronic waste (e-waste) rapid growth requires immediate attention and right policy structurization from the Indonesian government. Currently, regulations in Indonesia regarding the management of e-waste have only covered the collection procedures for the Municipal Environmental Service (DLH) and the recycling procedure for the third-party recycler. Meanwhile, the regulation regarding the various financial and material responsibilities between actors is still in the form of advisory. This paper provides a conceptual model that structures the current e-waste management system and the proposed funding scheme policy. Later, the model understanding of the current actors' relationship, factors dynamics, and the feasible policy is validated and evaluated by three stakeholders in the system. From these findings, policymakers could use such alternative schemes to improve the nation's waste management.
... There are concerns about the continuously increasing amounts of e-waste, along with the complex nature of these products and the problems related to their proper processing [5]. Even though e-waste has been producing a large number of problems, it's indeed a large source of useful metals like copper, gold and silver which can be recovered from production [6]. The recovery of these metals may to some degree reduce the overall global demand for new metals supply. ...
Chapter
E‐waste is a rapidly growing subject that has gained the attention in past few years. It is not only harmful in terms of environmental aspects but also in terms of health as well. Along with these negative impacts, a positive impact is the remarkable amount of valuable metals that can be recovered from it. International organisations, which are the concerned authorities of e‐waste, have made many rules and regulations for the collection, recycle, disposal, etc., but these efforts are still not implemented to their full potential. Although several types of research have been carried out on different aspects of e‐waste, still execution is not up to the mark and the outcome is not satisfactory. This chapter deliberates on the overview of the several issues of e‐waste management. The global status of e‐waste, industrial practices of e‐waste, recycling of e‐waste is also reviewed in this chapter. It thereafter examines the future and benchmarking of e‐waste management. Another striking issue is that the steps taken toward the control and regulation of management are not sufficient and is not receiving many contributions.
... In addition to this, about 1050 tonnes per year of computer waste comes from retailers' and manufacturers. This is important to note that in spite of global agreements, e-waste from developed nations is imported to developing nations like India [5]. Sixty-five cities in India generate more than 60% of the total e-waste generated in India. ...
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India is a developing country and is having world’s second largest population after china. The present growth rate of 4.7 percent of GDP and achieved growth of 8 percent during eleventh five year plan from 2007 to 2012. As per this growth rate needs and lifestyle of Indian people changes continuously. Due to a huge revolution in technology there is advancement in every sector. The electronic and communication market is also booming in India. Electronic waste or E-waste is relatively a novel addition to the ever-growing hazardous waste stream. The manufacturing of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) is one of the emerging global activities. The main factors identified to be responsible for the increased consumption and productions of electrical and electronic equipment are rapid economic growth, coupled with urbanization and industrialization. Developing countries are facing enormous challenges related to the generation and management of E-waste which are either internally generated or imported illegally; The Indian Information Technology (IT) sector is one of the major contributors to the global economy. At the same time, it is responsible for the generation of the bulk of E-waste or Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) in India. Although the global E-waste problem has been able to attract attention across the world, not much emphasis has been given to the E-waste engendered in developing countries. Developing countries like India, today, is burdened with the colossal problem of E-waste which is either locally generated or internationally imported, causing serious menace to human health and environment. The hazardous components in electrical and electronic equipment are a major concern during the waste management phase. In the context of India, recycling of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment is not undertaken to an adequate degree. However, the existing management practices related to E-waste in India are reasonably poor and have the potential to risk both human health and the environment. Moreover, the policy level initiatives are not being implemented in an appropriate way. The austere problem of E-waste along with its policy level implications is looked upon in the paper. During the course of the study it has been found that there is an urgent need to address the issues related to E-waste in India in order to avoid its detrimental future consequences on environment as well as health of human population. The purpose of the review was to improve understanding of electronic waste (e-waste) and the effect on health and the environment on a global scale. The review involved examining data and policies of governmental,
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This special issue is based on the international symposium Business and Industrial Ecology held alongside the 2003 Business Strategy and the Environment Conference in Leicester, UK. The main message is that the dominant natural science and engineering aspects of industrial ecology (IE) need to be linked to management and policy studies. IE has rapidly evolved into a new field with the concept of an ‘industrial ecosystem’ that uses the metaphor of sustainable ecosystems to provide innovative routes to change present unsustainable industrial systems. The editorial article identifies three themes as organizing categories in linking IE to management and policy studies. First, the systems and network philosophy of IE can be coupled with inter-organizational management studies to complement the more traditional intra-organizational environmental management. Second, management and policy studies complement descriptive IE studies of physical flows of matter and energy to produce prescriptive suggestions for how industrial systems can be moved through human action toward the vision of IE. Third, the metaphor is a source of inspiration and creativity in the transformation of management and strategic visions towards a new sustainability culture. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.
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Previously published as an Appendix to the World development report. Incl. users guide, list of acronyms, bibl., index. The Little data book is a pocket edition of WDI
World market for domestic elecirical appliances
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Euromonitor. World market for domestic elecirical appliances: Fcbmaiy 2004; 2004.
Quality of life and alliances in solid waste management
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